History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in the

HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 1
HISTORY OF SOYBEANS AND SOYFOODS
IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM
AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015):
EXTENSIVELY ANNOTATED
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SOURCEBOOK
Compiled
by
William Shurtleff & Akiko Aoyagi
2015
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 2
Copyright (c) 2015 by William Shurtleff & Akiko Aoyagi
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic,
or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information and retrieval systems - except for use in reviews,
without written permission from the publisher.
Published by:
Soyinfo Center
P.O. Box 234
Lafayette, CA 94549-0234 USA
Phone: 925-283-2991
Fax: 925-283-9091
www.soyinfocenter.com
ISBN 9781928914792 (Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg without hyphens)
ISBN 978-1-928914-79-2 (Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg with hyphens)
Printed 12 Aug. 2015
Price: Available on the Web free of charge
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History of soybeans in Netherlands
History of soybeans in The Netherlands
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History of soybeans in Belgium
History of soybeans in Luxembourg
History of Alpro NV
History of the Dutch East India Co. (VOC)
History of Manna Natuurvoeding B.V.
History of Vandemoortele NV
Bibliography of soybeans in Netherlands
Bibliography of soybeans in The Netherlands
Bibliography of soybeans in Holland
Bibliography of soybeans in Belgium
Bibliography of soybeans in Luxembourg
Chronology of soybeans in Netherlands
Chronology of soybeans in The Netherlands
Chronology of soybeans in Holland
Chronology of soybeans in Belgium
Chronology of soybeans in Luxembourg
Timeline of soybeans in Netherlands
Timeline of soybeans in The Netherlands
Timeline of soybeans in Holland
Timeline of soybeans in Belgium
Timeline of soybeans in Luxembourg
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 3
Contents
Page
Dedication and Acknowledgments.................................................................................................................................. 4
Introduction and Brief Chronology, by William Shurtleff .......................................................................................... 5
About This Book ............................................................................................................................................................. 8
Abbreviations Used in This Book .................................................................................................................................. 9
How to Make the Best Use of This Digital Book - Search It! .................................................................................... 10
Full-Page Graphics ................................................................................................................................................ 12-16
History of Soy in The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg: 2283 References in Chronological Order ........ 17
Contains 168 Photographs and Illustrations
Subject/Geographical Index by Record Numbers ................................................................................................... 898
Last Page of Index ....................................................................................................................................................... 981
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 4
DEDICATION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Japanese translation and maps: Akiko Aoyagi Shurtleff.
This book is dedicated to the soyfoods pioneers in The
Netherlands and Belgium.
Part of the enjoyment of writing a book lies in meeting
people from around the world who share a common interest,
and in learning from them what is often the knowledge
or skills acquired during a lifetime of devoted research or
practice. We wish to give deepest thanks...
Of the many libraries and librarians who have been of great
help to our research over the years, several stand out:
University of California at Berkeley: John Creaser, Lois
Farrell, Norma Kobzina, Ingrid Radkey.
Northern Regional Library Facility (NRLF), Richmond,
California: Martha Lucero, Jutta Wiemhoff, Scott Miller,
Virginia Moon, Kay Loughman.
Stanford University: Molly Molloy, who has been of special
help on Slavic-language documents.
National Agricultural Library: Susan Chapman, Kay Derr,
Carol Ditzler, John Forbes, Winnifred Gelenter, Henry
Gilbert, Kim Hicks, Ellen Knollman, Patricia Krug,
Sarah Lee, Veronica Lefebvre, Julie Mangin, Ellen Mann,
Josephine McDowell, Wayne Olson, Mike Thompson,
Tanner Wray.
Library of Congress: Ronald Jackson, Ronald Roache.
Lane Medical Library at Stanford University.
Contra Costa County Central Library and Lafayette Library:
Carole Barksdale, Kristen Wick, Barbara Furgason, Sherry
Cartmill, Linda Barbero.
Harvard University’s Five Botanical Libraries (especially
Arnold Arboretum Library): Jill Gelmers Thomas.
French translation: Martine Liguori of Lafayette, California,
for ongoing, generous, and outstanding help since the
early 1980s. And Elise Kruidenier, Dutch translation: Sjon
Welters. German translation Philip Isenberg,
Loma Linda University, Del E. Webb Memorial Library
(Seventh-day Adventist): Janice Little, Trish Chapman.
We would also like to thank our co-workers and friends at
Soyinfo Center who, since 1984, have played a major role in
collecting the documents, building the library, and producing
the SoyaScan database from which this book is printed:
Irene Yen, Tony Jenkins, Sarah Chang, Laurie Wilmore,
Alice Whealey, Simon Beaven, Elinor McCoy, Patricia
McKelvey, Claire Wickens, Ron Perry, Walter Lin, Dana
Scott, Jeremy Longinotti, John Edelen, Alex Lerman, Lydia
Lam, Gretchen Muller, Joyce Mao, Luna Oxenberg, Joelle
Bouchard, Justine Lam, Joey Shurtleff, Justin Hildebrandt,
Michelle Chun, Olga Kochan, Loren Clive, Marina Li,
Rowyn McDonald, Casey Brodsky, Hannah Woodman,
Elizabeth Hawkins, Molly Howland, Jacqueline Tao, Lynn
Hsu, Brooke Vittimberga, Tanya Kochan.
Special thanks to Tom and Linda Wolfe of Berwyn Park,
Maryland. And to Lorenz K. Schaller of Ojai, California.
 For outstanding help on this book about The Netherlands,
Belgium and Luxembourg we thank: Sjon Welters and
Philippe Vandemoortele. Jim Becker, Jr. & Sr., Steve
Buchheim, Mark Calebert, Danilo Callewaert, Daniel
Chajuss, Sidney J. Cole, Chr. Daems, Don DeBona, Bernd
Drosihn, Eric Fehblerg, Bruno Fischer, Pierre Gevaert,
Peter Golbitz, H.T. Huang, Ted Hymowitz, Dana Jacobi,
Thomas Karas, Aveline Kushi, Takuji “Tak” Kimura, Ko
Swan Djien, Craig Landy, Richard Leviton, Boudewijnn
Lindner, Michael Makowski, Anthony Marrese, Mark J.
Messina, Masa Miyashita, Tomas Nelissen, Ted Nordquist,
Ludo Peeters, Noboru, Sakaguchi, Leonard Schutte, Francois
de Selliers, Pauline Six-Chan, James Skiff, Roger Stevens,
Irene Stuttman, Torben Svejgard, Aiko Tanaka, Seth Tibbott,
Ike Van Gessel, Jan van de Marel, Casey Van Rysdam, Dan
Van Steenhuyse, Magda Versaille, Linda Weigel, Marianne
Westra, Yap Bwee Hwa Flora, Ronald Yates.
 Finally our deepest thanks to Tony Cooper of San Ramon,
California, who has kept our computers up and running since
Sept. 1983. Without Tony, this series of books on the Web
would not have been possible.
This book, no doubt and alas, has its share of errors. These,
of course, are solely the responsibility of William Shurtleff.
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 5
INTRODUCTION
Brief chronology/timeline of soy in the Netherlands,
Belgium and Luxembourg
These three nations are often grouped together as the
Benelux countries – after their economic union established
in 1944. The Netherlands and Belgium are sometimes
grouped together as the “low countries” because of their low
elevation above (or below) sea level.
During the 1600s the Dutch Republic rose to naval and
economic prominence in Europe. Starting in 1641, the Dutch
were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan; the
Dutch merchants convinced the Japanese that they were
interested only in trade, not in making religious converts.
For centuries this special relationship worked very well to
mutual advantage, and it is still prized by both Japan and the
Netherlands.
A very different type of relationship arose between the
Dutch East Indies (today’s Indonesia) and the Netherlands,
which was a colonial master from the early 1600s until
about 1945 (when Indonesia declared independence) or Dec.
1950 (when the Dutch granted independence after a bloody
5-year war).
The Indonesian population, which has increased
steadily in the Netherlands, has played the leading role in
introducing soyfoods to that country’s cuisine.
1647 Oct. 16 – Japanese soy sauce is now being exported
from Nagasaki, Japan, by merchants of the Dutch East
India Company (Vereenigde Ost-Indische Compagnie;
VOC). In the earliest known handwritten letter it is called
Soije, based on the Japanese word shoyu, meaning soy
sauce. The words “soy,” “soya” and “soja,” and the term
“soy sauce” came into English from the Japanese word
shoyu via the Dutch. Thus, the name of the soybean was
derived from the name of the sauce made from it.
Other early letters from Dutch merchants that mention
soy sauce are dated 30 June 1651 (sooje), 3 July 1652 (soij),
22 Oct. 1652 (Soije), 27 Oct. 1652 (Zoije), 18 July 1654
(soijo), 3 Aug. 1655 (Soija), 8 March 1656 (soieje), etc.
1652 Aug. 14 – Jacob Keijser, in a letter to the director of
commerce at Deshima, a man-made island in Nagasaki
Harbor, Japan, orders 4 kegs of miso (misio), as well as 8090 kegs of good sake.
This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen that
mentions miso. Other early letters from Dutch merchants
that mention miso are dated 18 July 1654 (miso), 3 Aug.
1655 (Miso), 3 Aug. 1657 (missouw), 30 July 1658 (missoe),
etc.
1679 – John Locke, the famous philosopher, first mentions
soy sauce in English in his journal. This shoyu (the Japanese
word for soy sauce) was probably exported from Deshima, in
Nagasaki harbor, by Dutch merchants. The context suggests
that shoyu was widely available in London in 1679.
1712 – Englebert Kaempfer, a German who lived in Japan
during 1691 and 1692 as a physician for the Dutch East
India Company at Deshima (a man-made island in Nagasaki
harbor), is the first European to give detailed descriptions of
how miso and shoyu are made from soybeans in Japan – in
his landmark Latin-language book Amoenitatum Exoticarum
Politico-Physico-Medicarum [Exotic Novelties, Political,
Physical, Medical, Vol. 5, p. 834-35]. He is also the first
Westerner who mentions koji (which he calls koos), but he
does not understand what it is, how it functions, or how it is
made.
1724 June 2 – A small ad in ‘s Gravenhaegsd Courant (The
Hague) shows that soy sauce is now in The Netherlands.
1737 – In Europe, soybeans are first cultivated at Clifford’s
Garden (Hortus Cliffortianus) in Hartecamp, The
Netherlands, as described that year by Carolus Linnaeus in
Latin.
1737 – Records from Deshima, in Nagasaki Harbor in Japan,
show that 35 kegs of shoyu were officially shipped this year
to The Netherlands via Batavia (today’s Jakarta, Indonesia).
1747 – Herbarium Amboinense [The Flora of Amboina],
by the Dutchman Georgius Everhardus Rumphius, Vol. 5,
contains a description in Latin of the soybean (see p. 38889). Amboina is a part of the Dutch East Indies (today’s
Indonesia). Looking at Rumphius’ life, he probably saw
soybeans by 1670 and definitely by 1696. This is the earliest
document seen concerning soybean cultivation in today’s
Indonesia. However it seems very likely that soybeans
were cultivated in Indonesia long before they were seen by
Rumphius. In fact, the Serat Sri Tanjung is said to contain a
story from the 12th or 13th century, set in East Java, in which
soybeans are mentioned.
1750 Dec. – Soy first arrives in North America (in what will
soon become the United States) in the form of soy sauce,
bearing the name “India Soy,” imported into the port of
New York from London by Rochell & Sharp, shopkeepers
on Wall Street (New York Gazette Revived... 1750 Dec. 17,
p. 3). This soy sauce was probably Japanese shoyu, sold to
Dutch merchants at Deshima. The Dutch then shipped it to
Amsterdam, where it was sold to other merchants who took it
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 6
to wherever they traded.
1856 – In the Netherlands, Siebold & Comp. in Leyden
publishes the first seed catalog in the Western world which
offers soybeans for sale (p. 18). The catalog is written
entirely in French. Philipp Franz von Siebold, a German
physician, botanist and traveler, lived in Japan from 1823 to
1829 – mainly at Deshima.
1879 April – Soybeans first appear in Belgium, sent by
Messrs. Vilmorin and Andrieux, the seed company in Paris.
Actually, as mentioned in this article, soybeans have been in
Belgium several times before this date, but we do not know
exactly when. Attempts were made to cultivate the seeds,
but they did not reach full maturity (Bulletin de la Societe
d’Horticulture et de Viticulture, p. 65-71).
1890 Jan. 30 – G.C. Koehler & Co. is now making and
selling Sojabrood [Soya Bread] in Amsterdam. This is
the earliest known commercial soy product made in the
Netherlands.
1890 – Greshoff, in the Netherlands, is the first to state that
nodules on the roots of soybeans create free nitrogen and
assimilate it. He does not, however, discuss nitrogen-fixing
bacteria, which are essential to this process.
1895 and 1896 – Two articles by the Dutchman H.C. Prinsen
Geerligs (who lives in Java) usher in the era of scientific
research on tempeh by European microbiologists and food
scientists. The 1896 article (which is a German translation of
his 1895 Dutch-language article) is the first to spell the word
“tempeh” (with an “h” on the end). It is also the first to give
the name of the tempeh mold as Rhizopus Oryzae.
But other early Western authors, especially the Dutch, use
the spelling témpé (Gericke and Rorda 1875; Heyne 1913) or
tèmpé (Vorderman 1902; Stahel 1946).
1897 – Soybeans are first cultivated and come to full
maturity in Belgium, as stated in an article which contains
a translation from an article by M. Henri Fortune, the wellknown French agriculturist (Stephen H. Angell. Consular
Reports [USA], p. 551-52.
1900 – The Dutchman Dr. P.A. Boorsma, who lives in Java
and did original laboratory tests, publishes the first detailed
description (in Dutch) of the traditional Indonesian process
for making Tempe kedeleh (soybean tempeh).
His excellent 13-page review of the literature on
soybeans and soyfoods, cites 12 key sources and gives
details on Japanese soyfoods (shoyu, tofu, yuba, miso, natto)
and other Indonesian soyfoods (soy sauce, regular and firm
tofu, and taucho or miso).
Boorsma is also the first to mention fermented black
soybeans in Dutch. In the Dutch East Indies (today’s
Indonesia), they are called Tao-dji. However they gradually
disappear from Indonesia.
1905 – Suriname (Formerly Surinam and Dutch Guiana):
Soybeans are first cultivated (Kaltenbach & Legros 1936, p.
187T-89T).
1908 – The first trial shipment of soybeans from Asia
to Europe is made in 1908 by Mitsui (a Japanese
conglomerate), being sent from Dairen to Liverpool. This
is the beginning of a new industry in England, Germany,
Denmark and Holland. The major portion of the beans
destined for Europe is for the mills at Liverpool and Hull,
England; but a small amount goes to those at Copenhagen,
Denmark, and Rotterdam and Amsterdam, Holland.
In 1908, the year the import boom starts, the Netherlands
imports 7,290 tonnes of soybeans (Li and Grandvoinnet
1912). Imports for 1911 to 1913 are 26,300, 42,900, and
27,400 tonnes, while the tonnage crushed those 3 years is
l4,400, 26,500, and 13,600 tonnes (USTC 1920), which is
about fourth in Europe. Imports continued in 1914 (19,600
tonnes) and 1915 (16,500 tonnes), then stopped during World
War I.
1908 – Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC, formerly
Zaire, 1971-1991, and Belgian Congo, 1908-1960).
Soybeans are first cultivated (Engelbeen 1948).
1913 – Indonesia: The Netherland Indies [Dutch-East
Indies] is importing 2.0 million bushels a year of soybeans
(Burtis 1950, p. 68). Note: 36.75 bushels = 1 metric ton.
1931 – Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies, by J.J. Ochse is
published. Contains excellent information about soybeans
and soyfoods in today’s Indonesia.
1934 – Vandemoortele N.V. (Izegem, Belgium), owned by
Adhemar Vandemoortele, starts to import soybeans from
Manchuria and crush them to make soy oil and soybean
meal. Although the company was founded at Izegem in 1899,
this is the first oil it has made for food use. Before this, the
company crushed mainly linseed for industrial use.
1946 April – ENTI (Eerste Nederlandse Tempe Industrie)
starts to make the earliest known tempeh in Holland (or in
Europe). It is located near Zevenhuizen.
1950 – After the Netherlands granted Indonesia
independence in Dec. 1950, some 200,000 Indonesians
emigrated to the Netherlands, creating a large new market
for tempeh, tofu, and other traditional Indonesian soyfoods.
Research on tempeh was also stimulated.
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 7
1950 – Soybean imports to the Netherlands increase rapidly
after World War II. By 1946 the country is importing 11,000
tonnes of soybeans; the figure rises to 53,000 tonnes in 1950
then to 220,000 tonnes in 1959, topping the prewar high of
130,000 tonnes in 1940. In 1959 the Netherlands is Europe’s
second largest soybean importer after Germany.
1958 – Vanka-Kawat makes the earliest known tofu in the
Netherlands. They are located in Rijswijk.
1958 Jan. – Earliest known record of soybeans in
Luxembourg.
1959 – Soyfoods are first made commercially in Belgium
by Pierre Gevaert, founder of Lima Foods at Sint-MartensLatem. His first two food products are Barley Miso and
Tamari (actually shoyu).
1964 – Heuschen B.V. (later renamed Heuschen-Schrouff
B.V.) starts making tofu at Geulle (Limburg), Netherlands.
By the 1980s, they were the largest tofu maker in Europe.
1960-1982 – Soybean imports to the Netherlands continue to
increase spectacularly during this period. Between 1960 and
1980, they rise from 330,000 to 3,500,000 tonnes (number
2 in Europe), while soybean exports reach 300,000 tonnes
in 1980 (number 1 in Europe). Soy oil imports grow only
slightly from 32,000 to 40,000 tonnes, while soy oil exports
jump from 17,000 to 340,000 tonnes (number 2 in Europe).
Soybean meal imports rise from 100,000 to 1,150,000 tonnes
(number 3 in Europe).
This rather small country of only 13.9 million people in
1980 consume a total of 241,000 tonnes of soy oil, or 17.3
kg per capita per year, the highest figure for any European
country. The country’s soybean crushing capacity, 3.0
million tonnes, is third in Europe after that of West Germany
and France. Also by the 1970s the Netherlands is the world’s
sixth largest margarine producing country and has the fourth
highest per capita margarine consumption in Europe, after
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.
1975 – Stichting Natuurvoeding Amsterdam. (Renamed
Manna Natuurvoeding B.V. in 1982), a large natural foods
distributor in Amsterdam, introduces its first commercial soy
product, Manna Tamari (Sojasaus; actually shoyu), made by
Muso in Japan and imported by Manna.
Manna was also the first to introduce miso, tofu, tempeh
and koji to the larger public, and was the leading promoter
of soyfoods as part of a more natural and economic meatless
diet. Manna also made tofu, tofu spreads, and tempeh.
Sjon Welters, who started to work with Manna in Sept.
1975, did lifelong pioneering work with soyfoods, including
giving classes on home-scale preparation of miso, tofu,
tempeh, shoyu, tamari, koji, and natto at the East West
Center, which also did much to teach others about soyfoods.
Jakso, a macrobiotic community of 12 adults and 7
children on 30 ha of land (headed by Tomas Nelissen, who
studied foods in Japan for 7 years) had a soyfoods plant on
the land; in late 1982 they made about 315 kg of tempeh and
250 kg of tofu a week. Other small macrobiotic tofu shops
included Witte Wonder and De Morgenstond.
1976 – Tofu is first made commercially in Belgium by
Etablissements Takanami (Takanami Tofu Shop) in Brussels.
1977 – Soymilk is first made commercially in Belgium by
Jonathan of Ekeren (near Antwerp). It is labeled Sojatrank,
Filtrat von Soja, Soyafiltrate, Sojadrank, Filtraat van Soja,
and Filtrat de Soya (in Dutch, French, German, and English).
1978 Oct. 29 – The World Conference on Vegetable Proteins
opens in Amsterdam, sponsored by the American Soybean
Association. The Proceedings are published in March 1979.
1979 – NV Vandemoortele’s Protein Division (of Izegem,
Belgium) issues “Soyamel: A New Source of Protein” – a 9
page booklet.
1980 May 27 – Alpro NV is established as a division of
Vandemoortele with a soymilk factory at Izegem, Belgium.
It was Philippe Vandemoortele’s idea to start Alpro; he was
the grandson of Adhemar Vandemoortele. Then in Jan. 1980
they start to make GranoVita Soja Drink for DE-VAU-GE of
Germany. Philippe Vandemoortele, takes the lead in making
soymilk and related products and soon becomes one of the
leading makers of soymilk and related products throughout
Europe. It has two brands: The Provamel line is sold in
health food stores throughout Europe, whereas the Alpro line
is sold in supermarkets.
1984 Sept. 27-28 – The First European Soyfoods Workshop
is held in Amsterdam, sponsored by the American Soybean
Association. The Proceedings were published.
1989 Jan. – Alpro N.V. in Izegem, Belgium, launches
Alpro Soya Dessert in aseptic cups in 3 flavors (Caramel,
Chocolate, and Vanilla).
1989 – Alpro’s new and enlarged soymilk manufacturing
plant at Wevelgem, Belgium, begins operation.
1995 Nov. – Alpro starts to make and sell Provamel soy
yogurt.
1996 April 22 – Alpro of Belgium acquires Sojinal (Affiliate
of Coopérative Agricole de Colmar) of Issenheim, France.
Sojinal, which started selling soyfoods in 1990. Sojinal
has only one plant; their products are marketed by the
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 8
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Cooperative.
1997 Oct. – Kikkoman Foods Europe B.V. begins operations
and starts shipments at its plant in Hoogezand-Sappemeer,
the Netherlands. This production facility manufactures
Kikkoman sauces for the entire European market.
2009 June 15 – Vandemoortele N.V., Belgium’s largest
privately-held food company, sells its Alpro Division to Dean
Foods for approximately 325 million Euros. Alpro’s CEO is
Bernard Deryckere. The deal is expected to be completed in
the third quarter.
2011 – The four largest ports in Europe by cargo tonnage
(in million tons) are: 1. Rotterdam, Netherlands (435). 2.
Antwerp, Belgium (187). 3. Hamburg, Germany (132). 4.
Amsterdam, Netherlands (93). Soybeans are a major item
imported through all of these ports.
This is the most comprehensive book ever published
about the history of soy sprouts. It has been compiled, one
record at a time over a period of 35 years, in an attempt
to document the history of this ancient and interesting
food. It is also the single most current and useful source of
information on this subject.
This is one of more than 100 books compiled by William
Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi, and published by the Soyinfo
Center. It is based on historical principles, listing all known
documents and commercial products in chronological order.
It features detailed information on:
•
66 different document types, both published and
unpublished.
•
1798 published documents - extensively annotated
bibliography. Every known publication on the subject in
every language.
•
•
357 unpublished archival documents.
•
224 original Soyinfo Center interviews and overviews
never before published, except perhaps in our books.
267 commercial soy products.
Thus, it is a powerful tool for understanding the development
of this subject from its earliest beginnings to the present.
Each bibliographic record in this book contains (in
addition to the typical author, date, title, volume and pages
information) the author’s address, number of references
cited, original title of all non-English language publications
together with an English translation of the title, month and
issue of publication, and the first author’s first name (if
given). For most books, we state if it is illustrated, whether
or not it has an index, and the height in centimeters.
All of the graphics (labels, ads, leaflets, etc) displayed in this
book are on file, organized by subject, chronologically, in the
Soyinfo Center’s Graphics Collection.
For commercial soy products (CSP), each record includes
(if possible) the product name, date of introduction,
manufacturer’s name, address and phone number, and (in
many cases) ingredients, weight, packaging and price,
storage requirements, nutritional composition, and a
description of the label. Sources of additional information on
each product (such as advertisements, articles, patents, etc.)
are also given.
A complete subject/geographical index is also included.
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 9
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS BOOK
A&M = Agricultural and Mechanical
Agric. = Agricultural or Agriculture
Agric. Exp. Station = Agricultural Experiment Station
ARS = Agricultural Research Service
ASA = American Soybean Association
Assoc. = Association, Associate
Asst. = Assistant
Aug. = August
Ave. = Avenue
Blvd. = Boulevard
bu = bushel(s)
ca. = about (circa)
cc = cubic centimeter(s)
Chap. = Chapter
cm = centimeter(s)
Co. = company
Corp. = Corporation
Dec. = December
Dep. or Dept. = Department
Depts. = Departments
Div. = Division
Dr. = Drive
E. = East
ed. = edition or editor
e.g. = for example
Exp. = Experiment
Feb. = February
fl oz = fluid ounce(s)
ft = foot or feet
gm = gram(s)
ha = hectare(s)
i.e. = in other words
Inc. = Incorporated
incl. = including
Illust. = Illustrated or Illustration(s)
Inst. = Institute
J. = Journal
J. of the American Oil Chemists’ Soc. = Journal of the
American Oil Chemists’ Society
Jan. = January
kg = kilogram(s)
km = kilometer(s)
Lab. = Laboratory
Labs. = Laboratories
lb = pound(s)
Ltd. = Limited
mcg = microgram(s)
mg = milligram(s)
ml = milliliter(s)
mm = millimeter(s)
N. = North
No. = number or North
Nov. = November
Oct. = October
oz = ounce(s)
p. = page(s)
photo(s) = photograph(s)
P.O. Box = Post Office Box
Prof. = Professor
psi = pounds per square inch
R&D = Research and Development
Rd. = Road
Rev. = Revised
RPM = revolutions per minute
S. = South
SANA = Soyfoods Association of North America
Sept. = September
St. = Street
tonnes = metric tons
trans. = translator(s)
Univ. = University
USB = United Soybean Board
USDA = United States Department of Agriculture
Vol. = volume
V.P. = Vice President
vs. = versus
W. = West
°C = degrees Celsius (Centigrade)
°F = degrees Fahrenheit
> = greater than, more than
< = less than
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 10
HOW TO MAKE THE BEST USE OF THIS DIGITAL BOOK - THREE KEYS
1. Read the Introduction and Chronology/Timeline
located near the beginning of the book; it contains
highlights and a summary of the book.
2. Search the book. The KEY to using this digital book,
which is in PDF format, is to SEARCH IT using Adobe
Acrobat Reader: For those few who do not have it, Google:
Acrobat Reader - then select the free download for your
type of computer.
Click on the link to this book and wait for the book
to load completely and the hourglass by the cursor to
disappear (4-6 minutes).
Type [Ctrl+F] to “Find.” A white search box will appear
near the top right of your screen.
Type in your search term, such as Alpro or East Indies.
You will be told how many times this term appears, then
the first one will be highlighted.
To go to the next occurrence, click the down arrow, etc.
3. Use the indexes, located at the end of the book. Suppose
you are looking for all records about tofu. These can appear
in the text under a variety of different names: bean curd,
tahu, doufu, to-fu, etc. Yet all of these will appear (by record
number) under the word “Tofu” in the index. See “How to
Use the Index,” below. Also:
Chronological Order: The publications and products in this
book are listed with the earliest first and the most recent last.
Within each year, references are sorted alphabetically by
author. If you are interested in only current information, start
reading at the back, just before the indexes.
A Reference Book: Like an encyclopedia or any other
reference book, this work is meant to be searched first - to
find exactly the information you are looking for - and then to
be read.
How to Use the Index: A subject and country index is
located at the back of this book. It will help you to go
directly to the specific information that interests you. Browse
through it briefly to familiarize yourself with its contents and
format.
Each record in the book has been assigned a sequential
number, starting with 1 for the first/earliest reference. It
is this number, not the page number, to which the indexes
refer. A publication will typically be listed in each index in
more than one place, and major documents may have 30-40
subject index entries. Thus a publication about the nutritional
value of tofu and soymilk in India would be indexed under
at least four headings in the subject and country index:
Nutrition, Tofu, Soymilk, and Asia, South: India.
Note the extensive use of cross references to help you:
e.g. “Bean curd. See Tofu.”
Countries and States/Provinces: Every record contains
a country keyword. Most USA and Canadian records also
contain a state or province keyword, indexed at “U.S. States”
or “Canadian Provinces and Territories” respectively. All
countries are indexed under their region or continent. Thus
for Egypt, look under Africa: Egypt, and not under Egypt.
For Brazil, see the entry at Latin America, South America:
Brazil. For India, see Asia, South: India. For Australia see
Oceania: Australia.
Most Important Documents: Look in the Index under
“Important Documents -.”
Organizations: Many of the larger, more innovative, or
pioneering soy-related companies appear in the subject
index – companies like ADM / Archer Daniels Midland Co.,
AGP, Cargill, DuPont, Kikkoman, Monsanto, Tofutti, etc.
Worldwide, we index many major soybean crushers, tofu
makers, soymilk and soymilk equipment manufacturers,
soyfoods companies with various products, Seventh-day
Adventist food companies, soy protein makers (including
pioneers), soy sauce manufacturers, soy ice cream, tempeh,
soynut, soy flour companies, etc.
Other key organizations include Society for
Acclimatization (from 1855 in France), American Soybean
Association, National Oilseed/Soybean Processors
Association, Research & Development Centers (Peoria,
Cornell), Meals for Millions Foundation, and International
Soybean Programs (INTSOY, AVRDC, IITA, International
Inst. of Agriculture, and United Nations). Pioneer soy protein
companies include Borden, Drackett, Glidden, Griffith Labs.,
Gunther, Laucks, Protein Technologies International, and
Rich Products.
Soyfoods: Look under the most common name: Tofu, Miso,
Soymilk, Soy Ice Cream, Soy Cheese, Soy Yogurt, Soy
Flour, Green Vegetable Soybeans, or Whole Dry Soybeans.
But note: Soy Proteins: Isolates, Soy Proteins: Textured
Products, etc.
Industrial (Non-Food) Uses of Soybeans: Look under
“Industrial Uses ...” for more than 17 subject headings.
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 11
Pioneers - Individuals: Laszlo Berczeller, Henry Ford,
Friedrich Haberlandt, Artemy A. Horvath, Englebert
Kaempfer, Mildred Lager, William J. Morse, etc. SoyRelated Movements: Soyfoods Movement, Vegetarianism,
Health and Dietary Reform Movements (esp. 1830-1930s),
Health Foods Movement (1920s-1960s), Animal Welfare/
Rights. These are indexed under the person’s last name or
movement name.
Nutrition: All subjects related to soybean nutrition (protein
quality, minerals, antinutritional factors, etc.) are indexed
under Nutrition, in one of more than 70 subcategories.
Soybean Production: All subjects related to growing,
marketing, and trading soybeans are indexed under Soybean
Production, e.g., Soybean Production: Nitrogen Fixation,
or Soybean Production: Plant Protection, or Soybean
Production: Variety Development.
Other Special Index Headings: Browsing through the
subject index will show you many more interesting subject
headings, such as Industry and Market Statistics, Information
(incl. computers, databases, libraries), Standards,
Bibliographies (works containing more than 50 references),
and History (soy-related).
Commercial Soy Products (CSP): See “About This Book.”
soybeans or soyfoods.
Documents Owned by Soyinfo Center: Lack of an *
(asterisk) at the end of a reference indicates that the Soyinfo
Center Library owns all or part of that document. We own
roughly three fourths of the documents listed. Photocopies of
hard-to-find documents or those without copyright protection
can be ordered for a fee. Please contact us for details.
Document Types: The SoyaScan database contains 135+
different types of documents, both published (books,
journal articles, patents, annual reports, theses, catalogs,
news releases, videos, etc.) and unpublished (interviews,
unpublished manuscripts, letters, summaries, etc.).
Customized Database Searches: This book was printed
from SoyaScan, a large computerized database produced
by the Soyinfo Center. Customized/personalized reports
are “The Perfect Book,” containing exactly the information
you need on any subject you can define, and they are now
just a phone call away. For example: Current statistics on
tofu and soymilk production and sales in England, France,
and Germany. Or soybean varietal development and genetic
research in Third World countries before 1970. Or details on
all tofu cheesecakes and dressings ever made. You name it,
we’ve got it. For fast results, call us now!
BIBLIO: The software program used to produce this book
and the SoyaScan database, and to computerize the Soyinfo
Center Library is named BIBLIO. Based on Advanced
Revelation, it was developed by Soyinfo Center, Tony
Cooper and John Ladd.
SoyaScan Notes: This is a term we have created exclusively
for use with this database. A SoyaScan Notes Interview
contains all the important material in short interviews
conducted and transcribed by William Shurtleff. This
material has not been published in any other source. Longer
interviews are designated as such, and listed as unpublished
manuscripts. A transcript of each can be ordered from
Soyinfo Center Library. A SoyaScan Notes Summary is a
summary by William Shurtleff of existing information on
one subject.
History of Soybeans and Soyfoods: Many of our digital
books have a corresponding chapter in our forthcoming
scholarly work titled History of Soybeans and Soyfoods
(4 volumes). Manuscript chapters from that book are now
available, free of charge, on our website, www.soyinfocenter.
com and many finished chapters are available free of charge
in PDF format on our website and on Google Books.
“Note:” When this term is used in a record’s summary, it
indicates that the information which follows it has been
added by the producer of this database.
About the Soyinfo Center: An overview of our
publications, computerized databases, services, and history is
given on our website.
Asterisks at End of Individual References:
1. An asterisk (*) at the end of a record means that
Soyinfo Center does not own that document. Lack of an
asterisk means that Soyinfo Center owns all or part of the
document.
2. An asterisk after eng (eng*) means that Soyinfo Center
has done a partial or complete translation into English of that
document.
3. An asterisk in a listing of the number of references
[23* ref] means that most of these references are not about
Soyinfo Center
P.O. Box 234,
Lafayette, CA 94549 USA
Phone: 925-283-2991
Fax: 925-283-9091
www.soyinfocenter.com
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 12
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 13
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 14
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 15
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 16
Copyright © 2015 by Soyinfo Center
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 17
HISTORY OF SOYBEANS AND SOYFOODS
IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG
(1647-2015)
1. Vliet, Jeremias van. 1637. [Re: Request for provisions].
Letter to Nicolaes Coeckenbacker, head of Dutch office at
Firando [Hirado Island, near Nagasaki, Kyushu, southern
Japan], June 11. p. 555-65 See p. 565. Handwritten, with
signature. [Dut]
• Summary: This request includes: 10 pots of sugarloaf, 50
candlesticks dismantled into parts, 50 lacquered plates with
legs and gilded flowers, 10 Kegs Murasaki to hawk among
the Moors (10 Balien Moersackjen om onder de Mooren te
venten).
Note 1. Murasaki (literally “purple”) is an ancient
Japanese poetic synonym for soy sauce.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 1125,
overgekomen brieven en papieren (11-6-1637) 555vo-565vo.
The letter is a contemporary hand-written copy, written in a
letter-book for the administration on Deshima.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 1125 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 1125].
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (July 2015) that uses the word “Moersackjen”
[murasaki] to refer to soy sauce.
Note 3. Assuming that “Moersackjen” refers to soy
sauce, this is the earliest document seen (July 2015)
concerning soybeans/soya in connection with (but not yet in)
the Netherlands or the Dutch East Indies.
Note 4. The Dutch word for “murasaki” also appears
in at least two other letters written requesting provisions
during the late 1630s, but in each case “murasaki” seems
to be a solid, ordered in units of pieces or bales (such as
indigo), as follows: (1) 1638 May 5. NFJ 277, p. 319.
Letter from the prince of Tonkin to the president of the
VOC settlement at Firando. “8 pieces of murasaki or violet
(8 stucx mourasacquij ofte violeth). (2) 1638 July 15. NFJ
277, p. 472. Letter from Henrick Nachtegael in Siam to
the honourable mister president Nicolaes Couckenbacker
at Firando. “Twenty bales of murasaki to sell and use as a
present (Twintich baelen moersacquij om te vercoopen ende
te verschencken).
Note 5. Assuming that “Moersackjen” refers to soy
sauce: This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2012)
concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in Siam. This
document contains the earliest date seen for soybean
products in Siam (1637); soybeans as such have not yet been
reported. Address: In India at the office in Siam (India op het
comptoir Siam).
2. In’t Comptoir Nagasaekij [In the office of Nagasaki].
1647. Letter to Taiwan / Formosa, Oct. 16. Unpaginated.
Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: Shipped and loaded in the sailing ship
(fluijtschip) the Zwarte Beer [literally “black bear”] sailing
from this place with a Bill of Lading of the chiefs [of this
office] to Taiwan (Taijoan) in consignment send to the
honorable Pieter Antonisz, Maritime (Overwater), President
of the Island of Formosa (Eijlants Formosa).
The list of provisions sent includes: “12 pots of hard
bread costs together with the pots–f 30:--:--. 10 kegs (balien
/ taru) of sake (sackij) of 15 maas a piece–f 15:--:--. 10 kegs
(balien) of Soy [sauce] at 27 condrijn a piece–f 2:-7:--.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 847, Journal
(16-10-1647).
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 847. Boekhoudkundig journaal
[National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The
Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the Dutch
Factory in Japan (NFJ); access number 1.04.21; record
number 847. Journal of bookkeeping].
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (May 2014)
concerning soy and Taiwan.
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Aug. 2015) that clearly mentions shoyu or soy sauce,
which it calls Soije.
Note 3. A maas and a condrijn are old units of Asiatic
currency of account used in China and Japan. The VOC
glossary says: 1 maas = 7 or 8 stuivers, but in Siam 1 maas =
9 stuiver. A condrijn is smaller than a maas. The symbol “f”
stands for guilder, the basic Dutch monetary unit. “f 2:07:8”
is read “two guilders, 7 stuivers and 6 pennigen.” One
gulden (singular of guilder) = 20 stuivers. One stuiver = 12
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 18
pennigen.
Note 4. In 1624 the Dutch established their first
trading post on Formosa. They had their colonial capital
at Tayoan City (source of the modern name “Taiwan,” and
site of present day Anping). This is the earliest document
seen (March 2014) that mentions Formosa or Taiwan in
connection with soy.
Note 5. This is the earliest document seen (Oct. 2014)
concerning involvement by the Dutch or the Dutch East
India Co. (VOC) with soyfoods (soy sauce) or soybeans.
Note 6. This is the earliest document seen (April 2012)
concerning soy sauce in international trade (imports or
exports). In this case exported from Japan to today’s Taiwan.
Note 7. This factory (trading post) on Deshima Island
in Japan was owned by the Honorable Dutch East India
Company (VOC). Deshima was a small island in Nagasaki
harbor, on Japan’s southernmost main island of Kyushu.
In 1600 the Dutch first made contact with Japan when
the Dutch ship De Liefde drifted ashore in Usuki Bay in
northeastern Kyushu. Many of the original 110 crewmembers
had died and only 6 of those remaining could walk ashore
unassisted. Two of the survivors went on to earn important
places in Japanese history: William Adams and Jan Joosten.
In 1616 European ships were limited to the two ports of
Nagasaki and Hirado (an island off the northwest coast of
Kyushu, just northwest of Nagasaki).
In 1633 the Tokugawa shogunate (upset at Portuguese
Christian missionaries intent on making converts and
instigating revolts) adopted a policy of national isolation
which continued for 221 years until 1854.
In 1639 the Portuguese were expelled. This left only
the Dutch among the Europeans still trading with Japan
and their representatives were moved in 1641 from Hirado
to the tiny artificial island of Deshima / Dejima built by
the shogunate in Nagasaki harbor, where they were kept as
virtual prisoners. During this time Japan maintained contact
with only two other nations: China and Korea. Chinese
merchants were also allowed to trade at Nagasaki, but under
strict controls.
By 1639 the Japanese had so successfully closed their
doors to the outside world that subsequently Japan all but
dropped out of the consciousness of Europeans. The only
important exception was the annual Dutch vessel from
the East Indies to the Dutch trading post on the island of
Deshima in Nagasaki harbor.
During the 1600s and 1700s, the Dutch expanded their
network of trading posts throughout Asia, they continued to
order provisions from Japan via their tiny but very important
trading post at Deshima. Address: Deshima, Nagasaki, Japan.
Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: This request for silver includes: 10 bales of
flour, 4 bales of buckwheat, 6 kegs of sake (sackje), 8 kegs
of soy [sauce] (balien [taru] sooje), 24 little hams, 4 jars of
hard bread,... 8 kegs of pickled vegetables (kônomoro [kô-nomono]), 4 books of paper, 6 kegs of soy [sauce] (moersackien
[murasaki]; a poetic synonym for soy sauce), 12 boxes of
marmalade.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 284,
ontvangen brieven (30-6-1651). On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 284 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 284].
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the word “sooje” to refer to soy
sauce.
Note 2. About the recipient: In Pieter van Dam’s
Beschryvinghe van de Oostindische Compagnie, by F.W.
Stapel is an entry for Pieter Sterthenius. He was Council
of Justice in Batavia and thereafter in 1651 for one year
president of the Dutch merchant settlement in Japan. From
1655 to 1658 he was director of Bengal. In 1658 he went
back home to the Netherlands as commander of the return
fleet. This letter is a contemporary handwritten copy, in a
letter-book for the administration on Deshima. It was sent
on the ship Coninck van Polen. Address: Supreme merchant
and head of the settlement at Siam (Oppercoopman en
opperhooft des comptoirs Siam).
3. Craijers, E. Hendrick; Westerwolt, Volckerus; Momme,
Hendrick. 1651. [Re: Request for silver]. Letter to Pieter
Sterthenius, president of the Deshima factory [Nagasaki,
Kyushu, southern Japan], June 30. p. 48-52. See p. 52.
4. Creijers, Henrick; Westerwolt, Volckerus; Rijck, Jan
van. 1652. [Re: Request for Japanese silver to keep the
commerce going]. Letter to Adriaen van der Burch, director
of commerce at the Deshima factory [Nagasaki, Kyushu,
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 19
Siam.
southern Japan], July 3. p. 73-77. See p. 77. Handwritten,
with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: This request for silver and provisions includes:
Two stones to grind wheat, 20 bales of wheat,... 3 bales of
buckwheat, 10 kegs of sake (balien sackij), 8 kegs of soy
[sauce] (balien soij), 2 pots sugarloaf, 6 kegs of pickled
vegetables (kônomoro [kô-no-mono]), 12 sonwats vissen
(sonquat = Japanese New Year), 20 boxes of marmalade, 6
bales umeboshi (omebus; salted or pickled plums).
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 285,
ontvangen brieven (3-7-1652) 73-77. On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 285 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 285].
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the word “soij” to refer to soy
sauce. The pronunciation of this
word is remarkably similar to
that of “soy.”
Note 2. Henrick Creijers =
Hendrick Craijers.
Note 3. This is the earliest
document seen (May 2010)
that clearly mentions soybean
products (soy sauce) in Siam.
This document contains the
earliest clear date seen for
soybean products in Siam
(1652); soybeans as such have
not yet been reported. Address:
5. Keijser, Jacob; Grevenraet, Joannes; Brummel, Luder;
Baron, Henrick. 1652. [Re: Request for provisions for
the settlement]. Letter to Adriaen van der Burch, director
of commerce at the Deshima factory [Nagasaki, Kyushu,
southern Japan], Aug. 14. p. 93-100. See p. 98-99.
Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: This request includes: 80 to 90 kegs of good
sake (balijen goede sackij). 50 piculs of wheat meal. 150
bales of white rice for the settlement and the ships. 70 bales
of little beans (boontjens) for the settlement and the ships.
40 bales of peanuts (cadjangh) for the settlement and the
ships. 10 bales of barley for the settlement and the ships.
16 pots of round rusk. 4 pots with sugarloaf. 25 piculs
of smoked hams. 2 kegs of mustard seed. 4 kegs of miso
(misio). preserved with pickled vegetables (connemonne
[kô-no-mono]). 15 kegs soy [sauce] (soije) and 16 pieces of
dried katsuo (caetchio [katsuobushi]). 2 pots with various
Japanese candied fruits to treat native leaders. As much rice
as they need before they are back in Japan, because wheat is
expensive in Tonkin.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA. NFJ 285,
ontvangen brieven (14-8-1652) 93-100. On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 285 [National Archives. Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 284].
Note 1. Henrick Creijers = Hendrick Craijers. Note 2. 1
picul is about 125 pounds, the amount a man can carry with a
yoke.
Note 3. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (March 2009) that mentions miso, which it calls
“misio.”
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (May 2010)
concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in Tonkin [in
today’s Vietnam]. This document contains the earliest date
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 20
seen for soybean products in Tonkin [in today’s Vietnam]
(1952); soybeans as such have not yet been reported.
Address: Written on the ship Taiwan moored on the river of
Tonkin [in today’s north Vietnam] before the bar.
6. In’t Comptoir Nagasaekij [In the office of Nagasaki].
1652. Letter to Taiwan / Formosa, Oct. 22. Unpaginated.
Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: Shipped and loaded in the sailing ship
(fluijtschip) the Trouw [literally “faithful / true”] sailing from
this place with a Bill of Lading of the skipper Christiaen
de Groeve and the second merchant Mijndert Messteecker
to Tayoan (Taoijan) in consignment send to the honorable
Nicoales Verburgh [Island of Formosa].
The list of provisions sent includes: “12 kegs (balien) of
sake (sackij) of 17 maas a piece–f 17:--:--. 8 kegs (balien)
of Soy [sauce] (Soije) at 27 maas a piece–f 13:-6:--. 6 kegs
umeboshi (mebos [salt pickled plums]) of 96 condrijn a
piece–f 5:-7:-6.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 851, Journal
(22-10-1652).
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 851. Boekhoudkundig journaal
[National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The
Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the Dutch
Factory in Japan (NFJ); access number 1.04.21; record
number 851. Journal of bookkeeping]. Address: Deshima,
Nagasaki, Japan.
7. In’t Comptoir Nagasaekij [In the office of Nagasaki].
1652. Letter to Tonkin [today’s Hanoi, Vietnam], Oct. 27.
Unpaginated. Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: See below. Shipped and loaded in the yacht
(jacht) Taijouan [Tayoan / Taiwan] sailing from this place
with a Bill of Lading of the skipper Hendrick Volckmans
and the second merchant Abraham Stuijlingh directly to
Tonkin (Tonckijn) in consignment send to the merchant Jacob
Keijser head of the Company’s trade.
The list of provisions sent includes: “25 smoked hams
of 8 maas a piece–f 20:--:--. 6 bales mustard seed of 15 maas
a piece–f -9:--:--. 4 kegs of pickled vegetables (kô-no-mono,
Connemon) of 12½ maas a piece–f -5:--:--. 50 little kegs
(kleene balijtjens) of Soy [sauce] (Zoije) of 2 maas a piece–f
10:--6:--. 2 kegs of sardines (Serdeijn) of 8 maas a keg–f -1:6:--. 16 pots of round Dutch rusk costs total–f 70:-2:-4. 80
catties (1 cattij = 625 gm) candied fruit in 6 pots costs–f 16:9:--. 4 pots of sugarloaf costs f 19:-6:-8.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 851, Journal
(27-10-1652).
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 851. Boekhoudkundig journaal
[National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The
Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the Dutch
Factory in Japan (NFJ); access number 1.04.21; record
number 851. Journal of bookkeeping].
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 21
seen (April 2012) that uses the term “Zoije” to refer to soy
sauce. Address: Deshima, Nagasaki, Japan.
8. Caesar, Cornelius. 1654. [Re: Order for provisions]. Letter
to Honourable Hapart at the Deshima factory [Nagasaki,
Kyushu, southern Japan], July 18. p. 46-56. See p. 53.
Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: This order for provisions includes: 25 smoked
hams, 4 kegs of miso (4 balies miso), 4 kegs of soy [sauce]
(4 ditos soijo), 6 large kegs of the very finest pickled
vegetables (connemon van de alderbeste), 25 bales of white
stamped rice.
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (March 2009) that uses the word “miso” to refer to
miso.
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the word “soijo” to refer to soy
sauce.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (March 2014)
concerning [probably] soybean products (miso, soy sauce)
in Formosa (Taiwan). This document probably contains the
earliest date seen for soybean products in Taiwan (1654);
soybeans as such had not yet been reported by that date.
The word “probably” is used, assuming that the miso and
soy sauce ordered actually arrive in Formosa / Taiwan; this
seems very likely judging from subsequent orders.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 286,
ontvangen brieven (16-7-1654). On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 286 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 286].
Note: About the sender: In Pieter van Dam’s
Beschryvinghe van de Oostindische Compagnie, by F.W.
Stapel is an entry for Cornelius Ceasar. In 1609 he was
born in Goes, a commune in Zeeland province, southwest
Netherlands. By 1635 he was already a merchant in the VOC
service. In 1636 and 1637 he was a merchant in Quinam
[Cochin China]. Then he was a merchant in Taiwan and in
Japan. In 1641 he became supreme merchant. From 16461651 he was back in Holland. In 1651 he became Council
of Justice in Batavia. From 1653 to 1656 he was Governor
of Formosa. In 1657 he died in Batavia. This letter is a
contemporary handwritten copy, in a letter-book for the
administration on Deshima. Address: Governor of Taiwan
and the Council of Formosa.
9. Coijett, Fredrick; Schedel, Fredrick; Dammans, R.;
Alphen, Pieter van; Pedel, Thomas. 1655. [Re: List of
provisions ordered]. Letter to Honourable Leonard Winnix
on Deshima (Nagasaki, Japan), Aug. 3. p. 1-13. See p. 8.
Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: In this letter (p. 8) is an order for provisions:
12 Japanese hams. 25 bales of white stamped rice. 6 kegs of
good pickled vegetables (connemon [kô-no-mono]). 4 kegs
of miso (Balijen Miso). 4 kegs of soy [sauce] (Soija). 4 bales
of buckwheat. 8 Japanese room-mats (camermatten). 5 to 6
ordinary tea kettles.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 287,
ontvangen brieven (3-8-1655) 1-13. On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 287 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 287].
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(April 2012) that uses the word “Soija” to refer to soy sauce.
This soon becomes by far the most widely used spelling of
“soy sauce” in Dutch; of the 11 letters that mention soy sauce
(and that we have seen) written in the 21 years between Aug.
1657 and Nov. 1678, all but one ask for “Soija.” “Soije” was
a distant second. Address: Fort Zeeland (Casteel Zeelandia)
on Taiwan.
10. Sterthemius, Pieter. 1656. [Re: Order for provisions].
Letter to E. Joan Boucheljon, head of the Deshima factory
[Nagasaki, Kyushu, southern Japan], March 8. Unpaginated.
Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: Order for: 8 little kegs of good soy [sauce]
(8 balietges goede soeija), 2 kegs of pickled vegetables
(connemonne [kô-no-mono]), 2 kegs of good sake (sackje),...
2 sake kettles (sackie ketels).
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 355,
ontvangen brieven (8-3-1656). On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 355 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ);
access number 1.04.21; record number 355. The pages are
not numbered]. This letter is written in a letter-book for the
administration on Deshima.
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the word soeije to refer to soy
sauce or shoyu.
Note 2. This trading post was established by the
Portuguese in 1537, by the English at Hooghly in 1651, and
by the Dutch at Chinsura in 1656; the towns were united as
Hooghly-Chinsura in 1865.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (Nov.
2010) concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in India.
This document contains the earliest date seen for soybean
products in India (1656); soybeans as such have not yet been
reported.
Note 4. About the sender: From 1655 to 1658, Pieter
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 22
Sterthemius was director of the VOC’s Bengal settlement.
On 17 December 1659 he went back home to the
Netherlands as a commander of nine ships.
About the recipient: In Pieter van Dam’s Beschryvinghe
van de Oostindische Compagnie, by F.W. Stapel the entry
for E. Joan Boucheljon appears under Jan Boucheljon. In
1641 he left Holland and sailed as an assistant writer to
Asia. He worked mostly in Japan, where he was head of the
VOC settlement on Deshima. Three times (in 1655, 1657,
and 1659) he was a member of the Council of Justice in
Batavia. In Holland, he was known as someone with a good
reputation. On 24 Jan. 1661 he returned home to Holland
as commander of two ships: the Kalf and the Venenburg.
Address: Director of the Bengal Settlement [on the Hooghly
{Hooghly-Cinsura} in today’s West Bengal, northeastern
India, on the Hugli River].
11. Indijck, Hendricq; Kettingh, Pieter; Stouthart, Adrien.
1657. [Re: Order for provisions]. Letter to the Deshima
factory [Nagasaki, Kyushu, southern Japan], July 8. p. 5-9
See p. 9. Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: “For the provision of this settlement
[Cambodia] we request... 20 kegs sake (sackie), with
drinking utensils / accessories, a little soy [sauce] (wat soija),
and vegetable pickles (connemonne [kô-no-mono]) to treat
the Japanese and other merchants from time to time.”
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 288,
ontvangen brieven (8-7-1657) 41. On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 288 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 288].
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2012)
concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in Cambodia;
soybeans as such have not yet been reported.
Note 2. About the sender: In Pieter van Dam’s
Beschryvinghe van de Oostindische Compagnie, by F.W.
Stapel is an entry for Hendricq Indijck. He was supreme
merchant in Cambodia and after that he became, three times,
head of the trading post in Japan. In Cambodia he was
succeeded by Pieter Kettingh. This letter is a contemporary
handwritten copy, in a letter-book for the administration on
Deshima. The letter was received on 10 Aug. 1657 by the
yacht (jacht) Erasmus. Address: Head (Opperhofd), Dutch
factory in Cambodia.
12. Coijett, Fredrick; Schedel, Fredrick; Dammans,
Reijnier; Pedel, Thomas; Valentijn, Jacobus. 1657. [Re:
List of provisions ordered]. Letter to [illegible] on Deshima
(Nagasaki, Japan), Aug. 3. p. 1-5. See p. 4. Handwritten,
with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: In this letter (p. 8) is an order for provisions:
With the return ships, you must send for the use of this
settlement and otherwise the following: 10 to 12,000 bales
of new rice. 500 bales of wheat. 800 pairs of cotton dress
coats for the for the slaves of the factory based on the model
/ pattern sent with the skipper of the Domburgh / Domburg;
they must be more suitable than the last ones. 150 piculs
[1 picul = about 125 lb] of good Japanese tobacco, to fill
all cargo space available. 20 bales of white stamped rice.
8 hams. 6 kegs of pickled vegetables (connemonne [kôno-mono]). 6 kegs of good sake (sackie). 3 kegs of miso
(missouw). 3 kegs of soy [sauce] (soija). 2 pairs of scales [for
weighing] with their accessories.
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(March 2009) that uses the word “missouw” to refer to miso.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 288,
ontvangen brieven (8-7-1657) 1-5. On microfilm. Received
19 July 1657. Sent with the ship Domburgh / Domburg.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 288 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 288]. Address: Fort Zeeland
(Casteel Zeelandia) on Taiwan.
13. Coijet, Fredrik; Oetgens, Johan; Pedel, Thomas; van
Iperen, Thomas; Harthouwer, D. 1658. Lijst met handelswaar
[Re: List of commodities ordered]. Letter to Joan Boucklejou
on Deshima (Nagasaki, Japan), July 30. p. 25-33. See p. 28.
Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: In this letter (p. 28) is an order for provisions:
“20 bags of white stamped rice. 6 kegs of pickled vegetables
(6: balien connemonne [kô-no-mono]). 3 kegs of miso
(missoe). 3 kegs of soy sauce (soija). 3 kegs of umeboshi
(mebos [salt pickled plums]). 6 kegs of sake (sackij). 12
pieces of smoked ham.” Also information about copper
weights. On p. 33 are the names of the writers.
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (March 2009) that uses the word “missoe” to refer to
miso.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Dec. 2006)
concerning umeboshi salt plums.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 289,
ontvangen brieven (30-7-1658) 28. On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 289 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 289].
Note 1. Herman Ketting adds (12 Oct. 2006): This
is probably a list of goods for Coijet’s table, because he
requested the same sort and amount of provisions on 7 Aug.
1659. The letter is a contemporary handwritten copy dated
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 23
30 July 1658. The letter is copied in a letter book for the
administration on Deshima. The reference to soy is in a list
of goods ordered by Frederick Coijet on Taiwan from Japan.
Address: Governor of Formosa, Fort Zeelandia (Casteel
Zeelandia) on Formosa [in today’s Taiwan].
14. Coijet, Fredrik; Oetgens, Johan; Pedel, Thomas; van
Iperen, Thomas; Harthouwer, David. 1659. Des provisen
voor de Tafel van den Gouverneur [Re: Order of provisions
for the governor’s table]. Letter to Wagenaar, head of the
trading station, Nagasaki (opperhooft en den Raadt des
Nagasakkisen Comptoir) [Deshima, in Kyushu, southern
Japan] and the councillors of this place, Aug. 7. p. 40-41. See
p. 41. Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: In the postscript of this letter (p. 41) is an
“order for provisions for the Governor’s table. Will Your
Excellency please send us: 6 kegs of pickled vegetables (6:
balien connemonne [kô-no-mono]). 3 little kegs (balitjes)
of the best soy sauce (soija). 2 kegs of miso (missoe). 1 keg
of umeboshi (mebos [salt pickled plums]). 6 kegs of good
sardines (sardeijn), mostly little ones. 20 pieces of smoked
ham. 6 pieces songuats fishes. 50 sets of three finest dishes
or plates of a certain size (drielingen). 30 sets of four finest
dishes or plates of a certain size (quarten [kwarten]). 100
fine flat dishes (pieringen). 50 fine flat dishes (pieringen) of
the smallest.” At the end of the postscript are the names of
the writers.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 290,
ontvangen brieven (7-8-1659) 41. On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 290 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 290]. Address: Governor of
Formosa, Fort Zeelandia (Casteel Zeelandia) on Formosa [in
today’s Taiwan].
15. Rijck, Jan van. 1660. [Re: Order of provisions for private
use]. Letter to Joan Boucheljon, president and head of the
trade and other business, Nagasaki [Deshima, in Kyushu,
southern Japan], June 29. Unpaginated. Handwritten, with
signature. [Dut]
• Summary: The provisions ordered include: 200 catties
(1 catty = 625 gm or 1.3 lb) uncut tobacco, 50 catties
cuttle-fish (Zeekath), 200 pieces Cantjo (Cantio), 3 kegs of
pickled vegetables (connemon [kô-no-mono]), 3 kegs soy
[sauce] (soije), 20 kegs of sake (sackie), 30 bales of wheat,
6 Japanese coats with double linings, 6 smoked hams, 6
smoked songuadts / songuat fishes, 4 copper candle holders.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 291,
ontvangen brieven (29-6-1660). On microfilm.
About the recipient: E. Joan Boucheljon is mentioned
as Jan Boucheljon in Pieter van Dam’s Beschryvinghe van
de Oostindische Compagnie, by F.W. Stapel. In 1641 he
left Holland and sailed as an assistant writer to Asia. He
worked mostly in Japan, where he was head of the settlement
in 1660. Three times (in 1655, 1657, and 1659) he was a
member of the Council of Justice in Batavia. In Holland he
was known as someone with a good reputation. On 24 Jan
1661 he returned home to Holland as a commander of two
ships: the Kalf and the Venenburg.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 291 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 291]. Address: Siam.
16. Verdonck, -. 1664. [Re: Order for provisions]. Letter to
the Deshima factory [Nagasaki, Kyushu, southern Japan],
Aug. Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: Order for some small kegs of soy [sauce].
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); inventaris nummer
295 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The
Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the Dutch
Factory in Japan (NFJ); record number 295]. Address: Head
(Opperhofd), Dutch factory in Tonking [Tonkin, in today’s
northern Vietnam].
17. Speelman, Cornelis; Lange, Pieter de; Huijberts, Pieter;
Carpentier, Roelant de. 1665. [Re: Request for copper and
provisions]. Letter to E. Jacob Gruijse, supreme merchant
and head of the Council (oppercoopman end opperhooft en
aen den Raet) at the Deshima factory [Nagasaki, Kyushu,
southern Japan], Feb. 28. Unpaginated. Handwritten, with
signature. [Dut]
• Summary: This request includes: 2,500 chests of copper.
60 kegs of Japanese camphor. No tea because we do not
like it and it is very foul. 1,500 pieces of porcelain after
the specifications of last year, but the bowls were much
too coarse; they must be snow-white. 6 to 8 kegs of soy
[sauce] (balities Soija) and 2 to 3 kegs pickled vegetables
(connemonne [kô-no-mono]). As many walking canes
(rottangs) as last year if they are beautiful.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 295,
ontvangen brieven (28-2-1665). On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 295 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ);
access number 1.04.21; record number 295]. Address: In
the Company’s castle Geldria at Pulicat / Palghat (Casteel
Geldria tot Paliacatta) (in today’s Tamil Nadu, Coromandel
Coast, southeastern India).
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 24
18. Nieuhof, Johan. 1665. Illustrations de l’Ambassade de la
Compagnie orientale des Provinces Unies vers l’Empereur
de la Chine ou du Grand Cam de Tartarie, faite par les Srs.
Pierre de Goyer et Jacob de Keyser [Illustrations of the
Embassy of the Oriental Company of the United Provinces
to the Emperor of China or the Great Khan of Tartary, made
by Messrs. Pierre de Goyer and Jacob de Kaiser]. Leyde
(Leyden): J. De Meurs. 424 p. [Fre]
• Summary: This book is a French-language translation
(written in Middle French, {1300-1600}) of an earlier book
that was originally written in Dutch. It is a collection of
many illustrations, most of them accompanied by descriptive
text. It has been scanned by Gallica BNF, the French
National Library. The link is: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/
btv1b23000596. Jacob de Meurs did the engraving. Jean
Nieuhoff was author of the text. On page 222 the word
Taufoe [tofu] appears, in a short entry: Un maas de Taufoe.
The entry is part of a list of foods for his table made by
Henry Baron. The word maas is a unit of measure, somewhat
like a “pound” in English.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (March. 2015)
concerning soybeans in connection with (but not yet in)
France. It is also the earliest known reference to tofu or to
soyfoods in French.
Note 2. This early document was discovered by Hervé
Berbille of Bordeaux, France, and sent to Soyinfo Center.
19. Maetsuyker, Joan. 1668. [Re: Request for a decision
concerning private merchandise]. Letter to Heren XVII (“17
Lords,” leaders of the Dutch East India Company, VOC),
Netherlands, Dec. 19. [Dut]
• Summary: The Governor-General and the Council in
Batavia requested a decision from the “Heren XVII” about
private merchandise from Japan imported into Batavia.
Mostly this private merchandise consists of saké (sacky),
murasaki [soy sauce], (moersacky), pickled vegetables
(connemonne [kô-no-mono]), etc. This merchandise is
imported in little quantities, but with great frequency. The
Governor-General and the Council in Batavia advises the
Heren XVII to permit this private merchandise, because
small quantities were imported... so there is no disadvantage
to the VOC. They are goods sent by people in Japan to their
friends in Batavia.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: W. Ph. Coolhaas,
Generale Missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan
Heren XVII, RGP grote serie deel 3 (‘s-Gravenhage 1968)
663. The pages with the quotation is folio 274v-275v.
Note 1. This is the earliest letter seen that mentions
“murasaki” written to the Heren XVII or to the Netherlands.
Note 2. If moersacky refers to soy sauce, this is the 2nd
earliest document seen (April 2012) concerning soybean
products (soy sauce) in Indonesia; soybeans as such have
not yet been reported. Address: Governor-General in Batavia
[today’s Jakarta, Indonesia].
20. Pavilioen, Anthonio; Caulier, Jaques; Carpentier, Roelant
d’; Broeck, Pieter van den; Duijcker, Hendrick; Outhoorn,
Hendrick van; Sonhuis, Johan B.; Huijsman, Johannes. 1669.
[Re: Order for provisions]. Letter to Governor-General Joan
Maetsuyker [Maasuijcker] and the Councillors of the [Dutch
East] Indies [Heren Raden van Indië] in Batavia [Dutch East
Indies], Feb. 1. p. 424-35. See p. 433r. Handwritten, with
signatures. [Dut]
• Summary: This order for provisions includes: “30 kegs
sake (sakkij), 12 kegs of soy [sauce] (balije soija), 12 kegs of
miso (missoe).”
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 1270, OBP
(1-2-1669) 424r-435vo. On microfilm. This letter is part
of the correspondence in the series Overgekomen Brieven
en Papieren (OBP)–letters and papers sent from Batavia
and other factories to the headquarters of the VOC in the
Netherlands. This is an important and voluminous part of the
VOC archive.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.02; inventaris nummer 1270, 424r t/m 435va. [National
Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.
nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in
Japan (NFJ); access number 1.04.02; record number 1270].
About the sender: In Pieter van Dam’s Beschryvinghe
van de Oostindische Compagnie, by F.W. Stapel is an
entry for Anthonio Paviljoen. From 1659 to 1665 he was
commander of Jaffanapatnam in Ceylon. From 1665 to 1676
he was governor (head) of the VOC’s settlements on the
Coromandel Coast, along the east coast of southern India.
From 1668 he was extraordinary councillor and from 1676 to
1678 ordinary councillor of the Council of the Indies (Heren
Raden van Indië). In 1678 he was fired by the Heren XVII.
Nagapatnam (Now {2007} usually spelled
Nagapattinam, formerly Negapatnam, Nagappattinam),
which was one of these settlements on the Coromandel
Coast, in today’s southeast Tamil Nadu, 160 miles (275 km)
south of Madras. It was occupied by the Dutch from 1660 to
1781.
About the recipient: In 1635 Joan Maetsuyker was
appointed pensionary (pensionaris) to the Council of Justice
of Batavia, in 1646 councillor of the Council of the Indies,
from 1646 to 1650 governor of Ceylon and from 1653 to
1678 governor-general.
Note 3. Paliacatta (also spelled Paliacatte; today’s
Pulicat), long the chief Dutch settlement and headquarters
of the VOC factories on the Coromandel Coast, was a
Dutch post from 1610. Pulicat was a small walled town on
the coast. At its center was the Dutch Fort Geldria, with its
permanent garrison of soldiers, and its cannon and armory
to protect the various Company trading posts along the
Coromandel Coast. Inside the fortress was the governor’s
two-story residence, magnificent and solidly constructed.
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 25
Pulicat became British in 1825. It is located in today’s Tamil
Nadu, at the south end of Pulicat Lake.
This letter has been collated into Casteel Geldria (Fort
Geldria) in Palliacatta on 1 Nov. 1670 by Joannes Huijsman,
the secretary. Address: Fort Geldria, Palliacatta / Paliacatta
[in today’s southern India].
21. Veliers, Joan; Tierens, Jacob; Indijck, Dirck; Schellinger,
Gerrit; Noortman, Pieter. 1669. [Re: Arrival of Honorable
Dutch East India Company ships in Bengal]. Letter to
Governor-General Joan Maetsuijcker [Maetsuyker] and
Council in Batavia [Dutch East Indies], Feb. 11. p. 1697r to
1704vo. See p. 1698r. Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: Mentions the arrival of Hon. Dutch East India
Company (VOC) ships in Hooghly, Bengal. The cargo
contains large quantities of gold, bar-copper and tin, plus
15 pairs of porcelain bottles (flessen), 6 pairs of water pots,
6 pairs of Jacquans, 12 kegs of sake (sackij), 8 kegs of soy
[sauce] (balien Soija), 4 pairs of lacquered leather canisters
(Cannassers, made of basket wicker), 50 pairs of lacquered
inkpots, 2 kegs of mum (a kind of beer brewed in Brunswick,
Germany), 1 little elephant 147 cm (4.8 feet) high.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 1273,
OBP (11-2-1669) 1967r-1704vo. On microfilm. The letter is
written in a letter-book for the administration of the ‘Heren
XVII’ (the directors of the VOC in the Netherlands). The
letter is in a manifest (list of cargo) of the ships Rammekens,
Buiksloot, Zwarte Leeuw, Zwaan and Tulp. Special
attention: This letter is written to give the governor-general
information about the cargo received in Bengal from Japan.
The ships transported their cargo from Japan via the Strait
of Malacca (between the southern Malay Peninsula and the
island of Sumatra) to Bengal.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
inventaris nummer 1273 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem
Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The
Archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC); record
number 1274].
Note 1. This trading post was established by the
Portuguese in 1537, by the English at Hooghly in 1651, and
by the Dutch at Chinsura in 1656; the towns were united as
Hooghly-Chinsura in 1865.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (July 2006)
concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in Bengal (a former
part of British India, as of Oct. 2010 divided between India
and Bangladesh. Hooghly is now in West Bengal, India).
This document contains the earliest date seen for soybean
products in Bengal (Feb. 1669); soybeans as such have not
yet been reported.
Note 3. About the recipient: In 1635 Joan Maetsuijcker
(usually spelled Maetsuyker) was appointed pensionary
(pensionaris) to the Council of Justice at Batavia, and in
1646 councillor of the Council of the Indies (Heren Raden
van Indië). From 1646 to 1650 he was governor of Ceylon
and from 1653 to 1678 he was governor-general. Address:
Director, Hooghly [Hooghly-Cinsura in today’s West Bengal,
northeastern India, on the Hugli River].
22. Pavilioen, Anthonio; Meersche, Jacob van der;
Welsingh, Isaac; Exbusier, Jacob; Buijtendijck, Reijnier van;
Hervendoncq, Joris. 1670. [Re: Order for goods from Batavia
for use by the Honorable Dutch East India Company in
Nagapatnam]. Letter to Governor-General Joan Maatsuijcker
[Maetsuyker] and the Councillors of the Indies [Heren Raden
van Indië] in Batavia [Dutch East Indies], Feb. 13. p. 550r to
574r. See p. 572r. Handwritten, with signatures. [Dut]
• Summary: On p. 572r (the recto {front} of folio {page}
572) we read: “Our order for commodities and other items
for the use of the Honorable Company. Gold from Japan and
from other places with which Coromandel has commerce
each year. A list of merchandise: 8 little pints (pintjes) of fine
oil of cloves, cinnamon, mace, etc. 12 leggers (a legger is
a large keg of 400 liters capacity) of Spanish wine. 20 kegs
of Mum. 2 kegs of good Dutch butter. 20 leggers of winevinegar. 9 aums (an aum is a keg of 153.6 liters capacity) of
good olive oil. 30 kegs of sake (Zakkij) from Japan. 12 kegs
of soy [sauce] (baliën Soija) from Japan. 6 kegs of miso
(missoe) from Japan.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 1274, BBP
(13-7-1670) 550r-574r. On microfilm.
This letter has been collated into Casteel Geldria (Fort
Geldria, the headquarters of the VOC factories on the
Coromandel Coast) in Palliacatta on 1 Nov. 1670 by Joannes
Huijsman, the secretary. The letter is part of a thick bundle
of correspondence in the series Overgekomen Brieven en
Papieren (Letters and papers sent from Batavia and other
factories to the headquarters of the VOC in the Netherlands).
This long letter is about management and commerce.
The first three folios discuss ships that have arrived. Two
folios deal with a political question in the area around
Masulipatnam. Folios 552 to 562 discuss merchandise
supplied from several districts to Nagapatnam by ship and
from the interior, and commerce problems in some districts.
Folio 563 is about the weight of the coin used in Pulicat.
Folio 565 is about timber. Etc.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
toegangsnummer 1.04.02: inventaris nummer 1274, folios
550-574 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof
20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of
the Dutch East India Company (VOC); inventory number
1.04.02: record number 1274, folios / pages 550-574].
Note: This is the earliest document seen (May 2010)
that clearly mentions soybean products (soy sauce and miso)
in Indonesia; soybeans as such have not yet been reported.
Address: Fortified town of Nagapatnam [in today’s southern
India].
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 26
23. [List of goods to be provided from the various Dutch
factories in Asia]. 1671. Colombo. Dec. 20. Unpublished
manuscript. [Dut]
• Summary: An order from Japan for the year 1672 for the
table of the Governor. Includes 12 kegs of soy [sauce].
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
inventaris nummer 13511 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem
Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The
Archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC); record
number 13511]. On microfilm.
Note 1. Colombo, a seaport in the Sinhalese kingdom,
was settled by Arabs in the 8th century CE, occupied in
1517 by the Portuguese, captured in 1656 by the Dutch, then
taken over in 1796 by the English, who first called the island
Ceylon.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Nov.
2010) concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in Ceylon;
soybeans as such have not yet been reported. Address:
Colombo [in today’s Sri Lanka].
24. Maetsuyker, Joan. 1674. [Re: List of ships ready
to sail for the Netherlands]. Letter to Heren XVII (“17
Lords,” leaders of the Dutch East India Company, VOC),
Netherlands, Nov. 18. [Dut]
• Summary: The ship named “Sticht Uijtrecht” will sail for
the chamber of Amsterdam. Private merchandise of Willem
van Achterveld, sergeant: Includes: 2 crates [with bottles]
Spanish wine and mum. 1 crate of brandy. 1 little barrel of
soy [sauce] (1 vaatie met sooij)...
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 1297, OBP
(18-11-1674) f.142r.
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(April 2012) that uses the word “sooij” to refer to soy sauce.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de VOC; toegangsnummer 1.04.02; inventaris nummer
1297 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20,
The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of
the VOC; access number 1.04.02; record number 1297].
Address: Governor-General in Batavia [today’s Jakarta,
Indonesia].
25. Governor General and Council of the Indies (Indië).
1675. Generale missive [General missive]. Letter to Heren
XVII [directors of the VOC] in the Netherlands, autumn. 3 p.
Handwritten. [Dut]
• Summary: “Specification of the goods which several
persons take along with them on the ships for the respective
chambers of Amsterdam, Zealand, Delft, Rotterdam and
Enkhuizen. Homeward shipped on request and permitted
by the Governor General and the Council of the Indies with
written decree to take along with them the following goods.”
“The ship Ternate for the chamber of Amsterdam.” Note
1. For some ships, lists of private goods are mentioned. But
soy [sauce] is mentioned only in the list of private goods
for Joan Putmans, the merchant on the ship ternate. On
folio / page 225 we read: “2 chests (kelders) with Japanese
porcelain pots in one of them and candy or candied fruit
in the other. 1 chest (kelder) with Japanese Soy [sauce]
(Japanse Soija), 25 pots with atchian / atchiar [maybe atjar
pickles] and diverse candied fruit, 1 picul tea [1 picul =
about 125 lb], 20 catties bird nests in a little basket of cane /
canister” [1 catty = 625 gm].”
Note 2. The goods owned by Joan Putmans are being
shipped as “private trade freight” (Japanese: waki nimotsu)
rather than as “official trade freight” (motokata / compania
nimotsu). It is not known how much soy sauce he was
shipping or in what type of containers it was packaged.
Dutch research Herman Ketting, PhD thinks there is a good
chance that Putmans used the soy for himself or gave it to
friends and relatives in the Netherlands.
Note 3. About the sender: The Governor and the Council
of the Indies send a General Letter for the Heren XVII with
every homeward bound fleet. This letter is a contemporary
handwritten copy. The letter is written in a letter-book for the
administration of the Heren XVII, who are the administrators
of the Dutch East India Co. (VOC).
Note 3. Herman Ketting, who found this letter, writes
(16 July 2007): “So far as I can see now, the cargo lists in
the General Missive are the only lists of the VOC, which
mentioned the soy [sauce] shipped yearly to the Netherlands.
They were made for the Heren XVII and the administration
of the VOC-chambers. So I think the soy loaded in the
ships bound for the Netherlands, actually arrived in the
Netherlands.”
Note 4. If this soy sauce did actually arrive in the
Netherlands, this would be the earliest document seen (July
2007) showing soy sauce in the Netherlands, or in Europe.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 1307,
Generale Missiven (najaar 1675) 224r.-226r.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
toegangsnummer 1.04.21; inventaris nummer 1307 [National
Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.
nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in
Japan (NFJ); access number 1.04.21; record number 1307].
Address: Batavia [today’s Jakarta, Indonesia].
26. Hase, François de; Fentsel, Herman Pit, Jan. 1676.
[Re: Order for provisions]. Letter to Joan Camphuijs, chief
merchant and director (oppercoopman en opperhooft) and to
the Council of the Company of Merchants in Japan [Deshima
factory, Nagasaki, Kyushu, southern Japan], March 17.
Unpaginated. Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: We request Your Excellency to send with the
return ships via the Straits of Malacca... lacquered ware.
Also: “50 usual hams. 6 kegs of miacose sake sackie. 4 kegs
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 27
of soy sauce (Soija). 3 kegs of pickled vegetables (connemon
[kô-no-mono]). 2 kegs mineranskij (ameneranskij?). 2 kegs
of umeboshi (mebos [salt pickled plums]). Note: This means
that the soy sauce was also sent via Malacca to Bengal.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 307,
ontvangen brieven (17-3-1676). On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 307 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 307].
Note: This trading post was established by the
Portuguese in 1537, by the English at Hooghly in 1651, and
by the Dutch at Chinsura in 1656; the towns were united
as Hooghly-Chinsura in 1865. Address: Director, Hooghly
[Hooghly-Cinsura in today’s West Bengal, northeastern
India, on the Hugli River] (Houglij in Bengalen).
27. Hoorn, J. van. 1676. [Re: Order for provisions]. Letter
to the Deshima factory [Nagasaki, Kyushu, southern Japan],
June 30. Unpaginated Handwritten, with signature. [Dut]
• Summary: “General request for merchandise and
necessities, which are required from Japan this year for
several settlements in Asia as for the fatherland (vaderlandt
/ patria).
For Batavia: 100 kegs of several provisions such
as: 40 kegs sake (sackij), 20 kegs soy [sauce] (Soija), 15
kegs pickled vegetables (connemon [konmono]), 10 kegs
salted, pickled plums (meboos [umeboshi]), 10 kegs miso
(missauw).
For Ceylon (Chijlon): 48 kegs of provisions as follows:
20 kegs of good sake, 12 kegs soy [sauce] (Soija), 8 kegs
pickled vegetables, 4 kegs salted, pickled plums [umeboshi],
4 kegs ameneranskij.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (June
2010) concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in Ceylon;
soybeans as such have not yet been reported.
For Coromandel (Choromandel): As many kegs of
Japanese provisions as is specified hereafter for Bengal.
For Bengal: 17 kegs of provisions as: 6 kegs sake,
4 kegs soy [sauce], 3 kegs pickled vegetables, 2 kegs
Ammeneranskij, 2 kegs salted, pickled plums [umeboshi].
For Malacca: Provisions: 2 kegs each of Soy (Soija),
pickled vegetables, miso (missouw), salted, pickled plums
[umeboshi], and ameneranskij.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (May
2010) concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in today’s
Malaysia. This document contains the earliest date seen for
soybean products in Malaysia (June 1676); soybeans as such
have not yet been reported.
For Surat (Zuratta): 9 kegs of provisions such as sake,
pickled vegetables, and soy [sauce] (Soija).
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 307,
ontvangen brieven (30-6-1676). On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 355 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ);
access number 1.04.21; record number 355. The pages are
not numbered]. This letter is written in a letter-book for the
administration on Deshima.
Note 3. It seems that soy [sauce] is always mentioned
in lists of provisions for the table of VOC governors or
directors, and their guests; this was written in one letter (see
Coijet 1659, Aug. 7).
Note 4. This is a special letter. Part of it contains
information from a letter written in the Netherlands by
the directors in Holland (Heren XVII). The rest of the
information comes from settlements in Asia and was
collected and written in Batavia, then sent to Japan. Address:
Batavia castle (Batavia in’t Kasteel) [today’s Jakarta,
Indonesia].
28. Breving, Abert; Haas, Dirk de; Schim, Isaac; Bank, C.
1678. [Re: Unable to comply with order for provisions].
Letter to Rijcklof van Goens, Governor-General and the
Council of the [Dutch East] Indies in Batavia [today’s
Jakarta, Indonesia], Nov. 4. Unpaginated. Handwritten, with
signature. [Dut]
• Summary: There was a request from governor-general
Rijckloff van Goens in Batavia to transport Sake (Sakki) and
Soy [sauce] (Soija) in waterproof vats, so that the liquids will
be well preserved. Albert Brevinck in Japan answers: “That
is impossible because we are lacking good vats (vaten). For
this reason we request that you send vats of first rate quality
to Japan. This year we will send the sake for Batavia and
Ceylon in good double-walled kegs (balien) to help preserve
the sake.”
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 309,
verzonden brieven (4-11-1678). On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 309 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ);
access number 1.04.21; record number 309. The pages are
not numbered]. This letter is written in a letter-book for the
administration on Deshima.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); inventaris nummer
309 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The
Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the Dutch
Factory in Japan (NFJ); record number 309].
Note: About the sender: In Pieter van Dam’s
Beschryvinghe van de Oostindische Compagnie, by F.W.
Stapel is an entry for Albert Breving under Albert Brevinck.
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 28
In 1671 he was already head of the settlement in Japan, but
after that he was transferred to Tonkin. From 1677 to 1679
he was again head of the settlement in Japan. In 1681 he was
Council of Justice and he refused a request to once again
become head of the settlement in Japan.
About the recipient: Rijckloff van Goens lived 16191682. In 1631 he began his VOC service. In 1655 he was
back at home in the Netherlands. In 1656 he was appointed
to extraordinary Council of the [Dutch East] Indies, In
1660 he became governor of Ceylon. From 1675 to 1678
he was director-general in Batavia, and after that until 1681
he was governor-general. He died in Nov. 1682 at home in
the Netherlands. Source: Bewind en belied bij de VOC...
1672-1702, by Femme S. Gaastra (Zutphen 1989). Address:
Nagasaki [Japan].
29. Goens, R. van; Speelman, Cornelius; Both, Balthasar;
Hurrt, Anth.; Blom, Dirk; Outhoorn, W. van; Camphuijs,
Joan. 1680. [Re: Sending sake and soy sauce in casks and
pots]. Letter to the Deshima factory [Nagasaki, Kyushu,
southern Japan], June 30. Unpaginated. Handwritten, with
signature. [Dut]
• Summary: Van Goens etc. request that the sake (sakij) and
soy [sauce] (soije) be poured into well-made casks before
shipping. They advise for sake and soy [sauce] as well as
for pickled vegetables (konnemon [kô-no-mono]), umeboshi
(mebos, [salt pickled plums]), etc. to send them in pots
(potten). Every pot must be placed in a keg and the space
between the pot and the keg must be filled up with straw, so
there is no danger of the pots breaking in the kegs.
Van Goens etc. will send pots made in the Netherlands
for the shipping of the sake and soy. At Coromandel [on
the coast of southeast India] the merchants are annoyed at
the bad quality of the sake in the kegs; this is caused by the
native wood of which the kegs are made.
Another summary (by Cynthia Viallé): “Batavia informs
Deshima that it is sending Dutch tubs to hold the sake and
soy [sauce]. The tubs should be cleaned first and prepared to
contain the sake and soy.”
An appendix to this letter: For Batavia: Four aums
of Soy [sauce] in aums and half aums [Note: 1 aum is a
measure of capacity (a barrel) of about 177 liters]. Twenty
pots put in kegs with pickled vegetables (konnemon) and
miso (missou). Twelve pots of umeboshi as before with
fruits. If possible we want them as good as the Japanese send
to their friends who live in Batavia, because those are better
than the fruits they usually send to us.
For Coromandel: 6 quarter kegs of miso (missouw). 10
kegs of Soy [sauce] (Zoija). 10 kegs of pickled vegetables.
12 double kegs of saké (Zackij). 10 kegs of omenaranski
[meaning unclear], 4 kegs of umeboshi.
For Ceylon [today’s Sri Lanka]: 15 single kegs of Soy
[sauce]. 6 double kegs of saké (sackij). 12 kegs of pickled
vegetables. 20 kegs of umeboshi. 12 kegs omenaranski
[meaning unclear], 6 kegs of miso (missouw).
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 311,
ontvangen brieven (30-6-1680). On microfilm. The first page
of this letter is torn off.
About the sender: Rijckloff van Goens lived 1619-1682.
In 1631 he began his service (as a boy) in the VOC (Dutch
East India Company). In 1655 he returned home to the
Netherlands. In 1656 he was appointed to the extraordinary
Council of India (the Dutch East Indies). From 1660 he
was governor of Ceylon. From 1675-1678 he was directorgeneral in Batavia, and after that until 1681 he was governorgeneral. He died in Nov. 1682 at home in the Netherlands.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); inventaris nummer
311 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The
Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the Dutch
Factory in Japan (NFJ); record number 311]. Address: In the
castle (kasteel) Batavia [today’s Jakarta, Indonesia].
30. [Manifest (cargo-list) of goods imported to Batavia in
1681 by two Chinese junks]. 1681. Colombo. p. 860r-61r.
See p. 860r. Feb. 7 and 28. Unpublished manuscript. [Dut]
• Summary: Two Chinese trading junks had arrived from
Japan in 1681. On Feb. 7, the junk of captain Quanjock
arrived with: 22 straw Calmus (Sweet flag) roots... 1 wicker
basket (canasser) of medicine and one of tea, 681 kegs
and pots containing pickled vegetables (connemon [kô-nomono]), soy [sauce] (soij) and miso (missoij).
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(March 2009) that uses the word “missoij” to refer to miso.
On Feb. 28 the junk of captain Lunsincqua arrived
with: 40 little bureaus. 5 double kegs and 6 single kegs
of camphor. 200 kegs and pots containing chestnuts
(carthanjen), soy [sauce] (Zoija), and pickled vegetables
(connemon [kô-no-mono]).
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 1354,
OBP (7 and 28-2-1681) 860r-861r. On microfilm. This letter
is part of the correspondence in the series Overgekomen
Brieven en Papieren (OBP)–letters and papers sent from
Batavia and other factories to the headquarters of the VOC in
the Netherlands. This is an important and voluminous part of
the VOC archive.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
inventaris nummer 1354, folio 860 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC);
record number 1354, folio / page 860]. On microfilm.
Address: Colombo [in today’s Sri Lanka].
31. Schinne, Isaac van; Cansius, Hendrik; Jonge, Constantin
Ranst de; Buijtenhem, Hendrik van; Sweers, Balthasar;
Dijck, Pieter van. 1681. [Re: Sending provisions]. Letter to
the Governor-General and the Council in Batavia [today’s
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 29
Jakarta, Indonesia], Oct. 31. Handwritten, with signature.
[Dut]
• Summary: The Deshima factory is sending 1,000 pairs
of cotton stockings, all the porcelain, also the soy [sauce]
(Soija), saké (Sackij), miso (Misou), pickled vegetables
(Konnemon [Kô-no-mono]), and umeboshi (Mebos [salt
pickled plums]), all of the best quality we can get, just as you
ordered.
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(March 2009) that uses the word “Misou” to refer to miso.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 312 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 312]. Address: Deshima
factory, Nagasaki [Japan].
32. Saito, Akio. 1699. [Chronology of soybeans in Japan,
1600 to 1699, the early Tokugawa/Edo period] (Document
part). In: Akio Saito. 1985. Daizu Geppo (Soybean Monthly
News). Jan. p. 14-16. [Jap; eng+]
• Summary: 1600–Komakabe?, the name of a type of
tofu, appears in the Diary of Oyudono no Kami (Oyudono
Kami no Nikki). The very firm tofu called kata-dofu that is
presently sold in Kochi prefecture (on the southern part of
the island of Shikoku) originated from Komakabe.
1601–Daté Masamune (DAH-tay Mah-sah-MU-nay;
lived 1567-1636) of Sendai establishes the Goenso-gura and
starts making miso. This is the first time that an organized
method has ever been used to make miso in Japan. The
purpose of this is to make miso for the army and to store salt.
According to some theories, the date was 1645 rather than
1601.
1603–In Nippo Jisho, a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary,
tofu (called “taufu”) is mentioned. It says that tofu is a food
that is made from powdered / ground beans and that looks
like freshly made cheese.
1605–Tokugawa Ieyasu commands the monks at
Daifukuji temple to make Hamana Natto. Note 1. This is the
earliest document seen (Nov. 2011) that mentions “Hamana
Natto” (or “Hamanatto,” regardless of capitalization).
This document contains the earliest date seen for
Hamanatto–1605! Note 2. This is the earliest document
seen (Nov. 2011) stating that Hamanatto [fermented black
soybeans] were made at Daifukuji temple in Hamamatsu.
1616–Tanaka Genba of Kamiusa no Kuni is advised to
make tamari shoyu as a side business by Sanagi Kyurouemon
of Settsu. The latter runs a sake factory and has a wholesale
seafood products shop in Edo. This is the beginning of
Choshi Shoyu and Higeta Shoyu.
1619–At about this time shoyu in quantity is brought
from the Kyoto-Osaka area (Kansai) to Edo by Taru Kaisen
and Hishigaki Kaisen. Note 1. A “Kaisen” is a ship that has
a carrying capacity of at least 200 koku (= 9,520 gallons or
36,000 liters). That shoyu is regarded as the best quality and
it soon takes over the entire Edo shoyu market.
1624-1644–Konpura Nakama (The union of merchants
who go to Dejima / Deshima, an island in Nagasaki Bay)
starts to export shoyu through the Dutch East India Company
(Higashi Indo Gaisha) to Europe and Southeast Asia. It is
said that in Europe this shoyu even reached the dining table
of Louis XIV. Note 2. This document contains the earliest
date seen for soybean products (shoyu) in Europe and
Southeast Asia (probably Indonesia, 1644); soybeans as such
had not yet been reported by that date. [Question: What is the
source of these two dates?]
1626–Sendai Han (daimyo domain) starts to monopolize
the selling of salt for the first time in the history of Japan.
Because of this, all other Hans start to do likewise.
Makabeya Ichibei of Kokubunji-cho in Sendai starts to
sell Sendai Miso. He continues to sell his miso to the Han
government for several generations.
1642–Because of famines in various provinces (kuni),
the people were advised to eat coarse grains (zakkoku) and
banned from eating rice. The sale of tofu, udon (wheat
noodles), soba (buckwheat noodles), and manju (steamed
glutinous rice cakes with a sweet azuki-jam filling) were also
prohibited.
1645–The Ako Han starts a salt farm. Hatcho miso
starts to be made in Mikawa, Okazaki. Hamaguchi Gihei of
Hiromura in Kishu goes to Choshi and starts making shoyu.
This is the beginning of Yamasa Shoyu.
1649 Feb.–The Tokugawa government (bakufu) passes
a law to control the lives of farmers. Called Kanno Jorei
(Keian no Ofuregaki), it states that farmers must plant
soybeans and azuki beans between their rice fields and farms.
Azé-mame (soybeans grown on the raised footpaths between
rice fields) may have started from this forceful edict.
1652 May–Various farmers in Waksa, Kohama-han,
Enshiki-gun? protest the heavy soybean tax increase. The
farmland tax is often paid with soybeans. The leaders of the
protest are killed.
1657 Jan. 18-19–A large fire (called Sodefuri Kaji)
burned Edo (today’s Tokyo). Laborers came from throughout
Japan to reconstruct the city. To feed them, many sellers of
pre-cooked, ready-to-eat food sprung up in Edo.
1666–Maruo Magouemon? Chotoku? of Hanshu Tatsuno
makes Usukuchi Shoyu (light-colored soy sauce). After this,
Tatsuno Shoyu’s main product becomes Usukuchi Shoyu.
1681–The government bans the withholding or
monopolizing of crops (such as rice, barley, or soybeans)
following a year with a bad harvest.
1695–Dr. Hitomi Hitsudai, a Japanese physician, age
74, writes the Honcho Skokkan and talks about the good and
bad points of daily foods from his medical viewpoint. The
12 volume book is written entirely in Chinese. He praises the
therapeutic virtues of soybeans, miso, natto, tofu, and shoyu.
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 30
A translation into Japanese was later made by Shimada Isao.
1695–At about this time, tofu is sold by vendors sitting
by the road. We do not know for sure when tofu was first
sold by walking street vendors, but it is guessed that this
may have taken place in about 1837-1853 when the book
Morisada Manko was written by Kitagawa Morisada.
1696–There is famine throughout Japan. In eastern
Japan, especially in Tsugaru Han, half of the population dies
of starvation.
1696–One of the greatest scholars of agriculture
during the Edo period, Miyazaki Yasusada (1623-1697),
write Nôgyo Zensho (Encyclopedia of Agriculture). In it he
described the many different colors, sizes, and shapes of
soybeans cultivated at that time.
1697–Koikuchi shoyu, similar to the type made today,
starts to be made from tamari shoyu in Choshi.
1698–After a big fire in Edo, sellers of Dengaku
(skewered grilled tofu with a sweet miso topping) start to
appear. Address: Norin Suisansho, Tokei Johobu, Norin
Tokeika Kacho Hosa.
33. Useful transactions [in philosophy, and other sorts of
learning], for the months of May, June, July, August and
September, 1709... Translated into English from the Dutch.
Part 3. 1709. London: Printed for Bernard Lintott. 80 p.
• Summary: The Introduction states (p. 53): “In many parts
of Lapland, Fish is their Subsistence, which they dress with
great perfection of Shrimps, Oysters, Anchovy and Ketchup.
The Body is serv’d to the Master, and the dried heads are
Food for the Cattle.”
34. Hermann, Paul (Paulo Hermanno). 1717. Musaeum
Zeylanicum, sive catalogus plantarum, in Zeylana sponte
nascentium,... [The museum of Ceylon, or a catalog of
plants native to Ceylon]. Lugduni Batavorum (Leiden,
Netherlands): Printed by Isaacum Severinum. 71 p. See p.
22. 8vo. 20 cm. Reprinted in 1977 by Boerhaave Press, P.O.
Box 1051, Leiden (Holland). [Lat]
• Summary: “Bumum. Buncæ. Phaseoli villosi species. Bu
notat capillos teneres feu villos. Datur & alia species lævis
fine villis.”
The author’s name on the title page is written Paulo
Hermanno. His title is given as “In Academia Lugdono–
Batava quondam Medicinæ & Botanices Professore”
[Professor of Medicine and Botany at Leiden, the
Netherlands]. A German born in Saxony in 1646, Hermann
was the first serious botanist in Sri Lanka.
Piper and Morse (1923, p. 27-29) note: “History prior
to Linnaeus ‘Species Plantarum,’ 1753... Paul Hermann
(1726), collected plants in Ceylon, which were very briefly
described under the native names in a book called ‘Musæum
Zeylanicum’ published in 1717. One of these plants was
called ‘Bumum’ or ‘Buncæ’ and is very briefly described as
a species of bean with villose hairs [villose or villous means
‘having soft long hairs’]. Hermann’s original specimens
are still preserved. One of them numbered 280, is also
represented by a beautiful and accurate drawing. This plant is
probably Hermann’s ‘Buncæ.’ At any rate, it is the soybean.
The name ‘Bume’ is at the present time used in Ceylon for
the mung bean, so that it is probable that Hermann’s name
‘Bumum’ refers to the same plant and that he erroneously
associated it with ‘Buncae’ which is the soybean.” In his
Species Plantarum, published in 1753,
“Under Dolichos soja, Linnæus cites first “Fl. Zeyl.
534.” This reference is to the Flora Zeylanica of Linnæus,
published in 1747, and based primarily on Hermann’s
notes and specimens. The description there is only slightly
different from that in the Species Plantarum... From this
description it is evident that Linnæus had primarily in mind
the plant cultivated in Ceylon and collected by Hermann,
whose specimen still exists and is the soybean.”
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Nov.
2010) concerning soybeans in Ceylon, or the cultivation of
soybeans in Ceylon. This document contains the earliest date
seen for soybeans in Ceylon, or the cultivation of soybeans
in Ceylon (1717). The source of these soybeans is unknown.
They may have been introduced by Dutch traders as early
as the mid-1600s at the time of the Dutch occupation (from
1658 to 1796), when cultural practices were introduced from
the Dutch East Indies (today’s Indonesia).
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Nov. 2010)
concerning soybeans in South Asia, or the cultivation of
soybeans in South Asia. This document contains the earliest
date seen for soybeans in South Asia, or the cultivation of
soybeans in South Asia (1717). The source of these soybeans
is unknown (see above).
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (June 2010)
concerning soybeans in connection with (but not yet in) the
Netherlands. Paul Hermann (lived 1646-1695) was a Dutch
botanist and explorer of German birth, who travelled in
Africa, India and Ceylon. Prof. of Botany at Leiden 1680-95.
Address: Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
35. Thedens, Johannes. 1724. Diary. In: Paul van der Velse
and Rudolf Bachofner, eds. 1992. The Deshima Diaries
Marginalia, 1700-1740. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute.
xxiii + 595 p. See p. 287 (#196).
• Summary: 1724 April 29–This entry describes the return
trip, largely by ship, from Edo to Nagasaki. Departing from
Itami, they passed Nishinomiya and arrived at Hyôgo, where
they went ashore and visited a little temple named Sjacote,
which means “ladle.” After they had dined, the village elder
“showed us his sake distillery and his soy press which had
a large capacity.” Address: Opperhoofd (Chief of the Dutch
factory), Deshima, Nagasaki, Japan.
36. ‘s Gravenhaegse Courant (The Hague). 1724. Filip Pick
[Filip Pick (Ad)]. June 2. p. 1. [Dut]
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 31
• Summary: The goods for sale include old porcelain, soy
sauce (Oude Porceleynen, Soja).
Note 1. This brief ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “soja” using
advanced search between 1700 and 1750.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that contains the word soja.
Note 3. Between 1724 and 1899, about 1,600 records in
this database contain the word soja.
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (July 2015)
concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in The Netherlands.
This document contains the earliest date seen for soybean
products in The Netherlands (June 1724); soybeans as such
have not yet been reported.
Note 5. There is much circumstantial evidence that
small quantities of soy sauce had been imported to The
Netherlands by Dutch merchants many decades before this
time–perhaps as early as the 1670s. Address: Netherlands.
37. Amsterdamse Courant (Amsterdam). 1724. Filip Pick
[Filip Pick (Ad)]. June 6. p. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale include old porcelain, soy
sauce (Oude Porcelynen, Soja).
Note: This brief ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “soja”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1750. Address:
Amsterdam, Netherlands.
38. ‘s Gravenhaegse Courant (The Hague). 1725.
Advertentie [Advertisements]. Sept. 17. p. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale by Vincent Posthumus
include porcelain, lacquered goods, Soya and,...
(Porceleynen, Verlaktgoed, Soya en Aetfia).
Note 1. This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soya” using advanced search between 1618
and 1730.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that contains the word soya.
Note 3. Between 1879 and 1899, about 2,600 records in
this database contain the word soya. Address: Netherlands.
39. ‘s Gravenhaegse Courant (The Hague). 1726.
Advertentie [Advertisements]. March 11. p. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale by David Raker include
some little bottles of soy sauce (eenige Flesjens soya).
Note: This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soya” using advanced search between 1618
and 1730. Address: Netherlands.
40. ‘s Gravenhaegse Courant (The Hague). 1726.
Advertentie [Advertisements]. March 22. p. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale by David Raker include
some little bottles of soy sauce [eenige Flesjens Soya].
Note: This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soya” using advanced search between 1618
and 1730. Address: Netherlands.
41. ‘s Gravenhaegse Courant (The Hague). 1726.
Advertentie [Advertisements]. July 8. p. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale from Simon van Male,
broker at Amsterdam, include some extra Japanese soy sauce
and... (extra Japanse Soya and...).
Note: This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soya” using advanced search between 1618
and 1730. Address: Netherlands.
42. ‘s Gravenhaegse Courant (The Hague). 1726.
Advertentie [Advertisements]. July 19. p. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale include extra Japanese soy
sauce (extra Japanse Soya).
A similar ad appeared in the Amsterdamse Courant of 11
July 1726, p. 2.
Note: This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soya” using advanced search between 1618
and 1730. Address: Netherlands.
43. Hermann, Paul. 1726. Musaeum Zeylanicum, sive
catalogus plantarum, in Zeylana sponte nascentium,... Editio
secunda [The museum of Ceylon, or a catalog of plants
native to Ceylon. 2nd ed.]. Lugduni Batavorum (Leiden,
Netherlands): Printed by D. Vander Vecht. 71 p. See p. 22.
First edition was 1717. [Lat]
• Summary: “Bumum. Buncæ. Phaseoli villosi species. Bu
notat capillos teneres feu villos. Datur & alia-species lævis
fine villis.”
The author’s name on the title page is written Paulo
Hermanno. His title is given as “In Academia Lugdono–
Batava quondam Medicinae & Botanices Professore”
[Professor of Medicine and Botany at Leiden, the
Netherlands]. For details see the 1717 edition of this book.
Address: Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
44. Kaempfer, Engelbert. 1727. The history of Japan, giving
an account of the ancient and present state and government
of that empire;... Its metals, minerals, trees, plants, animals,
birds and fishes;... Together with a description of the
Kingdom of Siam 1690-1692. (translated by J.G. Scheuchzer
from the original edition of April 1727. 2 vols.). London:
Printed for the translator. See vol. I, book I, chapter IX, p.
121-22. [1 ref. Eng]
• Summary: In Chapter IX, “Of the fertility of the country as
to plants,” the section titled Gokokf [Goku-fu] (“five grains,”
p. 121-22) states: “The chief produce of the Fields, which
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 32
contributes most to the sustenance of Life, is by the Japanese
comprehended under the name of Gokokf, that is, the five
Fruits of the Fields. ‘Tis by their good or bad growth they
estimate the value of the Ground, the fruitfulness of the Year,
and the wealth of the Possessor. They make up the chief
dishes at their meals, and make good the want there is of
Flesh-meat, which Custom and Religion forbid them to eat.”
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Dec. 2014) that mentions the Goku-fu or “five grains”
and includes the soybean among them.
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (July 2014) that uses the term “Flesh-meat” to refer to
meat.
The five grains (Gokokf) are: (1) Kome or Rice (from
which “they brew a sort of strong fat Beer, call’d Sacki...”).
(2) Oomugi or Barley. “They feed their Cattle and Horses
with it: Some dress their Victuals with the Flower [Flour],
and make Cakes of it.” (3) Koomuggi or Wheat. (4) Daidsu
or Daidbeans. (5) “Adsuki [azuki] or Sodsu [shôzu, shôdzu =
small + bean] that is Sobeans” [azuki].
Concerning soybeans: “4. Daidsu, that is, Daidbeans,
is a certain sort of Beans, about the bigness of Turkish
Pease, growing after the manner of Lupins. They are next
to the Rice in use and esteem. Of the Meal of these Beans is
made what they call Midsu, a mealy Pap, which they dress
their Victuals withal, as we do with Butter. What they call
Soeju, is also made of it, which is a sort of an Embamma, as
they call it, which they eat at meals to get a good Stomach
[appetite]. This Soeju is exported by the Dutch, and brought
even into Holland. I have describ’d their way of making it
in my Amoenitates Exoticae. p. 839. where the Plant it self
bearing these Beans is figur’d and describ’d.”
Note 3. Midsu clearly refers to miso, and Soeju to
shoyu. This is the earliest English-language document seen
(March 2009) that mentions miso, or miso in connection
with Japan. It is also the earliest English-language document
seen (March 2009) that compares miso with butter. Midsu
has almost the same pronunciation (phonetics), and the same
etymology and meaning as the today’s word “miso.” Since
spelling did not become fixed until the 18th century, this
could be considered the earliest occurrence of “miso” in an
English-language document.
Note 4. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the word Soeju to refer to soy
sauce. It is clearly Kaempfer’s spelling of the Japanese word
shoyu.
The author continues (p. 121-22): “5. Adsuki or Sodsu,
that is Sobeans. They grow likewise after the manner of
Lupins, and are black, not unlike Lentils, or the Indian
Cajan. The flower [flour] is bak’d with sugar into Mansje
[Manju] and other Cakes.”
Note 5. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (July 2014) that clearly mentions azuki beans. It is also
the earliest English-language document seen (July 2014)
that uses the word “Adsuki” or the word “Sodsu” to refer to
azuki beans. Cooked and mashed or ground dry into flour,
asuki are mixed with sugar to make an or “sweetened azuki
bean paste.” This is used as a filling for the popular steamed
Japanese sweet bun named manju. Azuki beans, though
usually red, also occasionally have black or white seedcoats.
“Besides the several sorts of Gokokf just mentioned,
the following Plants are comprehended under the same
name: Awa, Indian Corn, (Panicum Indicum Tabern), Kibi,
or Milium vulgare nostras, Millet: Fije, or Panicum vulgare
juba minore semine nigricante: And in general all sorts of
Corn and Mami [Mamé = beans], that is pease and pulse.”
In the Introduction to this book, the translator explains
that it was first published in English, after Dr. Kæmpfer’s
death in 1716, thanks to Sir Hans Sloane, who purchased all
of Kæmpfer’s plates, drawings, and manuscript memoirs as
they were about “to be disposed of.” Sloane added them to
his library, which the translator believes is “the completest of
its kind in Europe,” with an extensive collection of Books of
Physik, Natural History and Travels.” “This History of Japan
was by the Author divided into five Books.”
Note 6. Kaempfer lived 1651-1716. John Gaspar
Scheuchzer lived 1702-1729. His first translation was this
one, in 1727. The title page states that the original was
“Written in High-Dutch by Engelberus Kaempfer, M.D.,
Physician to the Dutch Embassy to the Emperor’s Court;
and translated from his Original Manuscript, never before
printed, by J.G. Scheuchzer, F.R.S. and a member of the
College of Physicians, London. With the Life of the Author,
and an Introduction. Illustrated with many copper plates.”
Note 7. In 1986 a 3 volume edition was published in
Glasgow, Scotland by James Maclehose and Sons. This book
contains no mention of soybeans in Siam (Thailand).
Note 8. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Nov. 2007) that mentions Lupins (or “lupin” or
“lupine” or “lupines”).
Note 9. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (June 2008) that mentions lentils; it compares them with
adsuki [azuki] beans. Address: M.D., Physician to the Dutch
Embassy to the Emperor’s Court [in Japan].
45. Bradley, Richard. 1728. The country housewife and
lady’s director, in the management of a house, and the
delights and profits of a farm. Containing instructions for
managing the brew-house, and malt liquors in the cellar;
the making of wines of all sorts... and the best method of
making ketchup, and many other curious and durable sauces.
The whole distributed in their proper months, from the
beginning to the end of the year... 3rd ed. London: Printed
for Woodman and Lyon... xi + 187 p. See p. 140. 8vo.
• Summary: The section titled “September” begins (p. 14043): “As this Month produces great numbers of Mushrooms
in the Fields, it is now chiefly that we ought to provide
ourselves with them for making of Ketchup, and Mushroom
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 33
Gravey: And it is also a proper season for pickling them...
the best Mushrooms have their Gills of a Flesh Colour,
even while the Mushrooms are in button; and as they tend
to spread in their Head, or to open their Cap, the Gills turn
redder... These large-flap Mushrooms are still good for
stewing or broiling, so long as they have no Worms in them,
and the Gills are then in the best state for making Ketchup,
or Mushroom-Gravey; altho’ the red Gills will do, but the
smaller Buttons are what most People covet for Pickling.
“In gathering Mushrooms, we are sure to meet with
some of all sizes; the very small for pickling, the large
Buttons for stewing or making Mushroom-Loaves, and
Mushroom-Gravey, and the large Flaps for broiling or
making of Ragous [Ragouts], or stewing and Ketchup:...”
“The cleaning of mushrooms... the Gills must be saved
by themselves for making either Ketchup, or MushroomGravey;...
“The following Receipts for making of MushroomKetchup, and Mushroom-Gravey, I had from a Gentleman
named Garneau, whom I met at Brussels, and by Experience
find them to be very good.”
“To make Mushroom Ketchup: Take the Gills of large
Mushrooms, such as are spread quite open, put them into a
Skellet [Skillet] of Bell-Metal, or a Vessel of Earthen-Ware
glazed, and set them over a gentle Fire till they begin to
change into Water; and then frequently stirring them till there
is as much Liquor come out of them as can be expected,
pressing them often with a Spoon against the side of the
Vessel; then strain off the Liquor, and put to every Quart of
it about eighty Cloves, if they are fresh and good, or half as
many more, if they are dry, or have been kept a long time,
and about a Drachm of Mace: add to this about a Pint of
strong red Port Wine that has not been adulterated, and boil
them all together till you judge that every Quart has lost
about a fourth Part or half a Pint; then pass it thro’ a Sieve,
and let it stand to cool, and when it is quite cold, bottle it up
in dry Bottles of Pints or Half-Pints, and cork them close,
for it is the surest way to keep these kind of Liquors in such
small quantities as may be used quickly, when they come
to be exposed to the Air, for fear of growing mouldy: but
I have had a Bottle of this sort of Ketchup, that has been
open’d and set by for above a Year, that has not received the
least Damage;... A little of it is very rich in any Sauce, and
especially when Gravey is wanting: Therefore it may be of
service to Travellers, who too frequently meet with good
Fish, and other Meats, in Britain, as well as in several other
parts of Europe, that are spoiled in the dressing; but it must
be consider’d, that there is no Salt in this, so that whenever it
is used, Salt, Anchovies, or other such like relishing things,
may be used with it, if they are agreeable to the Palate, and
so likewise with the Mushroom Gravey in the following
Receipt.”
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (March 2012) which mentions the word “Ketchup”
(or the words “Catsup” or “Catchup”) preceded by a noun
used as an adjective (Mushroom), or that mentions the
term “Mushroom-Ketchup” (regardless of the spelling of
“ketchup,” hyphenation or capitalization). This is very
significant, because British cooks are now trying to make a
less-expensive alternative to the expensive ketjap (soy sauce)
imported from Asia–probably by the Dutch East India Co.
from Japan or southern China.
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (March 2012) which mentions the word “Drachm” (or
“Drachms”). The modern spelling of this word is “dram.”
The apothecary symbol resembles the number “3.” In the
avoirdupois system the drachm / dram, as a unit of weight, is
1/16 ounce or 1.771 grams. Address: Prof. of Botany in the
Univ. of Cambridge, and F.R.S.
46. Three great historical stages in the transformation
of ketjap into ketchup (Early event). 1728. Compiled by
William Shurtleff of Soyinfo Center.
• Summary: The two words sets of “ketjap” and “ketchup,
catsup, catchup” and their corresponding seasonings have
histories that are intertwined and difficult to separate.
So far as we can tell, the Indonesian word “ketjap”
meant, and still means, “Indonesian-style soy sauce.” It was
a fermented food based on soybeans. The etymology of the
word probably traces its origin to southern China, where it
can refer to various kinds of sauces.
The transformation from “ketjap” to “ketchup” began in
about 1728. Before this time, both products were fermented
soybean condiments from Asia. Since the mid-1600s, soy
sauce had been imported from Asia to Europe. Initially,
Japanese shoyu (soy sauce) was imported from the port of
Nagasaki in Japan to the Netherlands by the Dutch East
India Co. The Dutch, who purchased shoyu eventually
standardized the name as “Soy.” In 1750 this “Soy” was first
imported into the United States.
Neither the Dutch nor the European and American
consumers of “Soy” had any idea of how this sauce was
made in Japan, but they knew it was expensive and tasty.
So they began to see if they could make it in Europe–using
European ingredients. Their initial experiments focused on
using vinegar seasoned with mushrooms or walnuts. They
were unaware of soybeans at the time and had no access to
them, So the first big change was the European ketchup was
made without soybeans. The second big change was that
European ketchup not a fermented product–although it was
aged. The third big change was that the European products
were lower-cost imitations, trying to match the flavor and
aroma, color and consistency of a more expensive imported
product, by trial and error. The fourth big change was the
change in name; shoyu (from Japan) was called “Soy”
and “ketjap” (probably from Java) was called “ketchup,”
“catsup,” “catchup, etc.
One interesting hint of the basic similarity of Soy
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 34
and ketchup was the way they were list in advertisements
(usually retail ads) in Europe and the United States. Even
though 20-50 items might appear in the ad, Soy and ketchup
would almost always be listed together, one below the other
in the list.
Over the period of about 250 years Soy remained
basically the same product, whereas “ketchup” evolved
in major ways. The early ketchups were rarely associated
with the tomato, yet today the word “ketchup” is generally
understood to mean “tomato ketchup.”
47. ‘s Gravenhaegse Courant (The Hague). 1729.
Advertentie [Advertisements]. March 18. p. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale include some bottles of soy
sauce (eenige Flessen soya).
Note: This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soya” using advanced search between 1618
and 1730. Address: Netherlands.
48. Amsterdamse Courant (Amsterdam). 1729. Advertentie
[Advertisements]. March 24. p. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale include some bottles of soy
sauce (eenige Flessen soya).
Note: This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soya” using advanced search between 1618
and 1730. Address: Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Company (VOC) first imported soy sauce from Japan to the
Netherlands. Ketting writes (20 June 2007): The citation
gives the following information: On 13 October 1737 a
ship named Enckhuizen (which we know was in Asia at
that time) was in Nagasaki loaded with 75 double barrels
of Soy [sauce] marked with a “Z.” The 75 Barrels were
shipped from Nagasaki to Batavia, the VOC’s headquarters.
Of this total, 35 barrels were bound for mainland Holland
[Netherlands].
This was surely not the first shipment of soy [sauce] to
Holland, because I have sent you some information about the
ship Westerwik which lay off the Cape of Good Hope [South
Africa] with some tainted soy the same year. In the meantime
I have found a letter sent to Holland which informed the
Herren XVII that soy is being sent to Holland in June
1737. If you like, I will send you this information [from the
General Missives] in the usual format.
52. Burman, Johannes (Burmanni, Joannis). 1737. Thesauras
Zeylanicus, exhibens plantas in insula Zeylana nascentes
[Treasury of Ceylon, showing the plants native to Ceylon].
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Janssonio-Waesbergios. 8 + 235 +
[15] 33 p. See p. 190. Portrait of author. Illust. (110 plates).
29 cm. [2 ref. Lat]
49. Leydse Courant (Leiden, Netherlands). 1729. Advertentie
[Advertisements]. April 8. p. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The goods for sale include some crocks of soy
sauce (eenige Flessen soya).
Note: This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soya” using advanced search between 1618
and 1730. Address: Netherlands.
50. Kaempfer, Engelbert. 1729. De beschryving van Japan:
Behelsende een verhaal van den ouden en tegenwoordigen
staat en regeering van dat ryk... [The history of Japan]. In
‘s Gravenhage; En t’ Amsterdam: P. Gosse en J. Neaulme:
Balthasar Lakeman. vi + 50 + 500 p. Illust. (engravings,
XLV double leaves of plates). 36 cm. [Dut]*
• Summary: “Published in English [1727], French [1729],
and Dutch [1729] about a half-century before its appearance
in German”–Hunt botanical cat., p. 44.
Bancroft owned Y 6 238 The Bancroft Library copy
defective; lacks many plates.
51. Ship Enckhuizen in Nagasaki loaded with soy [sauce].
1737. *
• Summary: Herman Ketting is working with William
Shurtleff, trying to find when the Dutch East India
• Summary: It is not clear whether or not this work mentions
the soybean. Page 190 states: “Phaseolus erectus, caule &
folio rigidis, flore pallide luteo, siliqua crassa & ampla.
Boerh. Ind. in Octavo pag. 152. qui semine est variegato, &
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 35
idem semine albo...”
This book was published the same year as Linnaeus’
first Latin naming of soy in Hortus Cliffortiana (1737). Piper
and Morse (1923) make no mention of this work except
in their bibliography. A full-page illustration (frontispiece,
engraving) facing the title page shows “Joannes Burmannus,
Med. Doct.” wearing a wig. Address: Medical doctor and
botany professor in Horto Medico, Amsterdam.
53. Linnaeus, Carolus. 1737. Hortus Cliffortianus: Plantas
exhibens quas in hortis tam vivis quam siccis, Hartecampi in
Hollandia, coluit... [The Clifford Garden. Exhibiting plants,
both live and dry, which a most noble and generous man,
George Clifford, doctor of both laws, raised in his gardens
at Hartecamp, Holland]. In: J. Cramer and K.K. Swann, eds.
1737. Historiae Naturalis Classica. Vol. 63, Reprint 1968.
New York: Stechert-Hafner Service Agency. See p. 499. [3
ref. Lat]
• Summary: See next page. “3. Phaseolus caule recto
anguloso hispido.
“Phaseolus erectus, caule & folio rigidis, flore pallide
luteo, siliqua crassa & ampla. Boerh. ind. 152.
“Phaseolus ortocaulis [orthocaulis in 1763 ed.], Mungo
persarum, Turcarum Masc, hispanorum Max. Hern. mex.
887. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 28.
“Crescit in Virginia, unde e seminibus delatis prodiit.”
The description of the soybean is based on plants
cultivated in the garden of George Clifford at Hartecamp, the
Netherlands. Original specimens, which still exist, show that
this plant was a soybean.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (July 2015)
concerning soybeans in the Netherlands, or the cultivation
of soybeans in the Netherlands. This document contains
the earliest date seen for soybeans in the Netherlands, or
the cultivation of soybeans in the Netherlands (1737). The
source of these soybeans is unknown, but they may have
been brought from Japan or the Dutch East Indies by ships
importing soy sauce to the Netherlands.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (July 2015)
concerning soybeans in Europe, or the cultivation of
soybeans in Europe. This document contains the earliest date
seen for soybeans in Europe, or the cultivation of soybeans
in Europe (1737). The source of these soybeans is unknown.
Thus, the soybean probably reached Europe at a relatively
late date.
Note 3. This is also the earliest document seen (July
2105) concerning soya in connection with (but not yet in)
Sweden, since Linnaeus was a Swede and was visiting the
Netherlands from his home in Sweden.
Note the interesting statement on the last line of quoted
text that this soybean was grown in Virginia! If so, it would
be the earliest document seen (Sept. 2011) that mentions
soybeans, or the cultivation of soybeans in Virginia, and in
the United States. The source of this concept could not have
been the book titled The Carolinian florist of Governor John
Drayton of South Carolina 1766-1822, since Linnaeus’ book
was published before 1766.
In The Soybean (1923, p. 30), Piper and Morse
comment on the above as follows: “This description differs
somewhat from that of [Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum in]
1753, particularly in that the seed was supposedly from
Virginia. This is doubtless an error, and it will be observed
that Linnaeus makes no mention of Virginia in his later
description.”
Note 4. George Clifford lived 1685-1760. For a
description of his life and work, and of the circumstances
under which Linnaeus wrote this book, see W. Blunt’s The
Compleat Naturalist: A Life of Linnaeus (1971).
Also discusses the peanut (Arachis, p. 353). Address:
Amsterdam, Netherlands.
54. Ship Westerwijk lying off the Cape of Good Hope with a
cargo of tainted soy [sauce]. 1738. *
• Summary: Herman Ketting is working with William
Shurtleff, trying to find when the Dutch East India
Company (VOC) first imported soy sauce from Japan to the
Netherlands. Ketting writes (4 June 2007): Most important
is perhaps the record about the Ship Westerwijk (1738) lying
off the Cape of Good Hope [South Africa] with a cargo of
tainted soy [sauce]. This record has a distinctive inventory
number (VOC 9149) and therefore is probably more
extensive than the other records. So it may contain some
references to soy being imported to Asia from Holland.
55. Governors General and the Council of the Indies (Indië).
ed. 1739. Generale missiven [General missives]. In: Willem
P. Coolhaas and Jurrien van Goor, comp. 2004. Generale
Missiven van Gouveneurs-General en Raden aan Heren
XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie: Deel X: 17371743. ‘s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff. Book X. 1159 p. (Letters to
the Heren XVII of the Dutch East India Company). [Dut]
• Summary: On page 253 (31 Jan. 1739) “zoya” is
mentioned twice and “Japans soja” once: “Ship Enkhuyzen /
Enkhuisen / Enckhuizen. Soy [sauce] (Zoya) for Hoorn and
Enkhuizen f139:12:-8.”
“Ship Schellack. 4 chests (kelders) of Soy sauce for
Delft and Rotterdam f139:12:-8.”
“With the fleet of 1739 in total, 36 chests (kelders) of
Japanese Soy (Japanse soja) f 1231:--:--.
Note 1. Enthuizen, Hoorn, Delft, and Rotterdam were
harbor towns and early “chambers” (kamers) of the Dutch
East India Co. (VOC), from which overseas trade with the
East Indies was conducted. The other two early chambers
were Amsterdam and Zeeland.
Note 2. The symbol “f” stands for guilder, the basic
Dutch monetary unit. “f 2:07:8” is read “two guilders, 7
stuivers and 6 pennigen.” One gulden (singular of guilder) =
20 stuivers. One stuiver = 12 pennigen.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 36
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 37
Note 3. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (April 2012) in which the word Zoya is used to refer to
soy sauce.
Note 4. The General Missives are letters written by the
Governors General and the Council of the Dutch East Indies
(Indië) and sent to the Heren XVII [the directors of the
VOC] in the Netherlands. Items in the General Missives are
the demand for men and materials for Indies, the number and
quality of ships in the Indies, questions about management
and information concerning the cargo sent with the fleet to
the Netherlands. Address: Batavia, Netherlands.
56. Valckenier, A. 1739. [Re: Merchandise loaded from
Batavia, Dutch East Indies]. Letter to Heren XVII (“17
Lords,” leaders of the Dutch East India Company, VOC),
Netherlands, Jan. 31. p. 2000-01 [Dut]
• Summary: Loaded merchandise is listed according to their
place of origin. For example merchandise from Coromandel.
Batavia’s collection: 11,500 pounds of tin from Malacca.
f. 3942:-4:-. 30,500 pounds of copper, Japanese, by staffs,
f. 13,944:12:-. 36 crates with bottles of Japanese soy sauce
(Zoija Japance) f. 1231:16:-8. 45,000 pounds of spiaulter
(an alloy / mixture of lead and tin) f. 150,606:-6:-8. 4,209
pounds of black ebony f. 90:-3:-.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 2422, OBP
(21 Jan. 1739) 2001vo.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de VOC; toegangsnummer 1.04.02; inventaris nummer
2422 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20,
The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the
VOC; access number 1.04.02; record number 2422].
Note 1. The symbol “f.” stands for guilder, the basic
Dutch monetary unit. “f 2:07:8” is read “two guilders, 7
stuivers and 6 pennigen.” One gulden (singular of guilder) =
20 stuivers. One stuiver = 12 pennigen.
Note 2. A. Valckenier was Governor General in Batavia
from 1737 to 1741.
Note 3. An alloy of lead and tin is commonly called
either old pewter, tin pewter, or solder. Address: GovernorGeneral, and the Councils of the Indies, in Batavia [today’s
Jakarta, Indonesia].
57. De vergadering van het Haags Besogene [Meeting
of the Haags Besogene]. 1740. The Hague, Netherlands.
Unpaginated. [Dut]
• Summary: The meeting of the Haags Besogene starts
20 Oct. 1740. The committee works on the 24th four-year
(quadrennial) account of the Dutch East India Co (VOC).
Monday, 24 Oct. 1740, in the morning. Proceeding with
the reading and control of the delivery books to be sold and
delivered goods and merchandise, from 1 June 1737 until 15
May 1738, item from 16 May 1738 until 15 May 1739, and
finally from 16 May 1739 until 31 May 1740.
Monday, 24 Oct. 1740, after midday. Started with the
reading and control of the accounts and merchandise, which
on 17 May 1736 were stockpiled in the warehouse of this
chamber [Amsterdam] and four years ago were received
from the [Dutch East] Indies (Indië [Batavia]). Items that
since 31 May 1736 were delivered from the stock according
to the journal of bookkeeping and the ledger and the part
of the stock lying unsold in the Company’s warehouses:...
Japanese Soy [sauce] (Japanse Soija); received as before–30
kelders. Note 1. A kelder is a chest; in this case it contains
bottles of soy sauce.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 4472,
Haags Besogene (20 t/m 24-10-1740).
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
toegangsnummer 1.04.21; inventaris nummer 4472. Notulen
van het Haags Besogene [National Archives, Prins Wilhem
Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The
Archives of the Dutch East India Co. (NFJ); access number
1.04.21; record number 4472. Notes of the Haags besogene].
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (June 2007)
showing soy sauce in the Netherlands. This document
contains the earliest date seen for soy in the Netherlands (31
May 1736).
Note 3: The Haags Besogne prepared the meetings of the
Heren XVII [the 17 directors who made the most important
decisions]. To prepare those meetings, the Haags Besogne
had to deal with the letters received from Batavia and the
chambers in Holland and Zealand. The Haags Besogne also
controlled the different bookkeeping journals, and they
saw every letter, report or bookkeeping document in the
administration of the VOC; they made many abridgements
of or notes about them. On the basis of the findings, the
Haags Besogne gave advice to the Heren XVII. After that.
the Heren XVII made their decisions. So we can found in the
archive of the Haags Besogne some information from books
or sources which are lost. There is only one problem: there
is no index to or register on the notes of the Haags Besogne.
So a researcher must be familiar with the notes of the Haags
Besogne. Address: The Hague, Netherlands.
58. Royen, Adrian van. 1740. Florae Leydensis Prodromus,
exhibens plantas quae in Horto Academico Lugduno-Batavo
aluntur [Preliminary work on flora of Leiden / Leyden,
showing the plants which are grown in the Leiden Academic
Garden...]. Lugduni Batavorum (Leiden), Netherlands:
Printed by Samuelem Luchtmans. 538 p. For soybean, See p.
367. For Arachis (peanut) see p. 390. [4 ref. Lat]
• Summary: Concerning the soybean, under “Phaseolus” we
read: “1. Phaseolus caule recto anguloso hispido. Linn. h.
Cliff. 499.”
Note 1. This is exactly the same description of the
soybean as in Hortus Cliffortianus (Linnaeus 1737, p. 499).
Linnaeus assisted the author in parts of this work.
Note 2. Leiden or Leyden (pronounced LAI-den) is a
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 38
city South Holland province in the southwest Netherlands,
whose ancient Latin name was Lugdunum Batavorum. The
University of Leiden was founded there in 1575.
Note 3. Also mentions the peanut (Arachis, p. 390),
Vicia faba (p. 366) and four Lupinus species. Address: M.D.,
Leiden, Netherlands.
59. Amsterdamse Courant (Amsterdam). 1744. Nederlanden
[Netherlands (Ad)]. Aug. 11. p. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: Amsterdam. Aug. 10. Landing a cargo from a
ship from Batavia which contains 9 chests of Japanese soy
sauce (9 kelders Japanse Soja).
Note: This brief ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “soja”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1750. Address:
Amsterdam, Netherlands.
60. Brouwer, David. 1744. Diary. In: Leonard Blussé,
Cynthia Viallé, et al, eds. 2004. The Deshima Diaries
Marginalia, 1740-1800. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute.
xl + 898 p. See p. 50, 63 (#180).
• Summary: 1744 Oct. 7–”The compradoors asked whether
I wanted to buy the regular provisions. I replied that I
was willing to buy provisions at the prices they charged
others. They replied that the sake they supplied us was
especially brewed for the Company and that the barrels of
soy [sauce] given to us are bigger than the regular ones.
I ordered provisions amounting to 1,903 taels or f3,806.”
Address: Opperhoofd (Chief of the Dutch factory), Deshima,
Nagasaki, Japan.
61. Notulen van het Haags Besogene [Notes of meeting
of the Haags Besogene]. 1744. The Hague, Netherlands.
Unpaginated. Oct. 19-22. [Dut]
• Summary: Monday 19 Oct. 1744. The committee starts
to work on the 25th four-year (quadrennial) account [of
the Dutch East India Co (VOC)] and has agreed to come
together for that purpose during the morning from 9 until 12
and after midday from 3:30 until 5:30 p.m...
Thursday 22 Oct. 1744. Started with the reading and
control of the account of goods and merchandise which
on 31 May 1740 were stockpiled in the warehouse of this
chamber [Amsterdam] and which 4 years ago were received
from the Indies (Indië [Batavia]). Items that according to the
journal of bookkeeping and the ledger have been delivered
from the stock since that time and the part of the stock from
15 May 1744 has lain unsold in the Company’s warehouses.
The findings are stated below:
“... Japanese Soy [sauce] (Japanse Soija): from the
years 1738 and 1739 were stockpiled–30 kelders. Added to
this, received from the Indies (Indië) during the past four
years–61 kelders.
Total in stock as of 15 May 1744–91 kelders. Note 1. A
kelder is a chest; in this case it contains bottles of soy sauce.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 4472,
Haags Besogene (19 t/m 22-10-1744).
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
toegangsnummer 1.04.21; inventaris nummer 4472. Notulen
van het Haags Besogene [National Archives, Prins Wilhem
Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The
Archives of the Dutch East India Co. (NFJ); access number
1.04.21; record number 4472. Notes of the Haags besogene].
Note 2. A careful examination (by a Dutch PhD
researcher at the Hague) of the records VOC shipments
arriving in Holland from Batavia finds no evidence that soy
sauce was delivered to intermediaries for the Dutch or other
markets. For goods such as pepper, sugar, coffee and tea,
the Haags Besogne always noted how much was delivered.
But for soy sauce they did not. Therefore the soy sauce was
probably consumed by VOC directors and their servants.
Note 3. Soy was delivered by VOC ships and stored in
VOC warehouses. The inspectors of the warehouses never
mentioned that this soy had been delivered to a private
merchant. Our reached his conclusion after comparing
the note about soy and, for example, a note about pepper.
Address: The Hague, Netherlands.
62. [Re: Journal of the first bookkeeper in Amsterdam. Items
purchased from the VOC]. 1745. Amsterdam, Netherlands. p.
222 [Dut]
• Summary: In Amsterdam, 31 March 1745. The following
persons purchased Soy [sauce] worth a total of f. 1456:-9:(aan Soija guldens).
Entry No. 250: About 70 crates with bottles (fleskelders)
sold and delivered at several prices as before folio 189.
Entry No. 321: Sacharias Tielman, according to the
delivery book fo. 189, 20 crates with bottles, f430:-9:-.
Entry No. 103 [in ledger]: Nicolaas Fremjin, 20 crates
with bottles, f421:-8:-.
Entry No. 311: Jan Leonard Apol, 10 crates with bottles,
f207:-4:-.
Entry No. 78: Blote and Knibbe, 10 crates with bottles,
f202:-4:-.
Entry No. 367: Jacob Gudmanson, 10 crates with
bottles, f194:-4:-.
Total: 70 crates with bottles, f1456:-9:-.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 7145,
journaal van de opperboekhouder (31 maart 1745) 222.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de VOC; toegangsnummer 1.04.02; inventaris nummer
7154 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20,
The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the
VOC; access number 1.04.02; record number 7154.].
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Jan. 2012)
that gives a price for soy sauce; that price is in Dutch
guilders. We are not told the volume of each bottle or how
many bottles per crate.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 39
Note 2. The symbols “f” and “f.” stand for guilder, the
basic Dutch monetary unit. “f2:07:8” is read “two guilders, 7
stuivers and 6 pennigen.” One gulden (singular of guilder) =
20 stuivers. One stuiver = 12 pennigen.
Note 3. Items records above are not all that a person
or persons purchased. For example, Blote and Knibbe
bought, in addition to soy [sauce], cloves, coffee, tea, brown
pepper, cinnamon, borax, gum resin, and gum olibanum [for
incense].
Note 4. The journal of the first bookkeeper is arranged
by product type, whereas the ledger of the first bookkeeper is
arranged by the surname of the buyer. Address: Amsterdam.
63. Linnaeus, Carolus. 1747. Flora Zeylanica; sistens plantas
indicas Zeylonæ insulæ; quae olim 1670-1677, lectae fuere
a Paulo Hermanno, Prof. Bot. Leydensi [A flora of Ceylon:
Setting forth Indian plants of the island of Ceylon, collected
by Paul Hermann, Professor of Botany at Leiden, in 167077]. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Sumtu & Literis Laurentii Salvii.
19 + [9] + 240 + [20] + 14 p. See p. 222 (Plant number 534,
Dolichos). [2 ref. Lat]
• Summary: This book is based primarily on plant specimens
collected in Ceylon by Paul Hermann from 1670-1677, and
accompanying notes written by Hermann. The description of
the soybean, under Diadelphia, is as follows:
“534. DOLICHOS caule erecto flexuoso, racemis
axillaribus erectis, leguminibus pendulis hispidis
subdispermis
“Phaseolus erectus, siliquis lupini, fructu pisi majoris
candido, Kæmpf. amoen. 837. t. 838.
“Soja officinarum. Dal. pharm. 238.
“Obs. Habitat in zeylona culta.”
Here Linnaeus cites Kaempfer’s Amoenitatum
Exoticarum (1712, p. 837 with an illustration [in
Kaempfer’s book of a soybean plant] on p. 838), and Dale’s
Pharmacalogiae (1705, p. 238). The very important last
line, based on Hermann’s collection, reads: “Observations.
Cultivated in Ceylon.”
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2008)
that uses the word “Soja” in connection with the soybean.
This “Soja” was apparently transcribed incorrectly from
Dale’s term “Soia.” Dale wrote “Soia offic.”
Note 2. In this work, Linnaeus does not give the soybean
a binomial scientific name. Address: Uppsala, Sweden.
64. Rumphius, Georgius Everhardus. 1747. Herbarium
Amboinense. Vol. 5 [The flora of Amboina. Vol. 5].
Amstelaedami (Amsterdam). See p. 388-89. Illustration, pl.
140. [Lat; Dut]
• Summary: See next page. Liber IX. cap. XXXI [Book 9,
Chap. 31]. The left-hand column, titled “Cadelium. Cadelie.”
is written in Latin. The right-hand column titled “De
Cadelie-Plant” is written in Dutch. This is a Phaseolus niger,
in growth and shape similar to the Katjang Kitsjil, although a
smaller bush, about a foot high, with most branches located
up high, a little tipping down. The lower stem is round, the
top rough. The leaves are ordered three-by-three, on long
branches, thinner and smaller than the average Katjang, and
almost similar to the Lagondi, but somewhat peaky, with
yellow flowers like the little Katjang.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (July 2014)
that refers to the soybean as Cadelim, Cadelie, or De
Cadelie-Plant.
The fruit are short pods, more than a finger length long
and half a finger wide, rough on the outside and flat, hanging
together in groups. Inside are 2-3 little beans, looking like
lentils, maybe a little longer but bigger, and very black. The
multiple roots are long, thin and fibrous with some swellings
or warts [root nodules] here and there.
Names: Latin: Phaseolus niger, & Cadelium. Malay,
Javanese, and Balinese: Kadelee. Flemish (Belgice): Zwarte
Boontjes. Chinese (Sinice): Authau [au-tau?].
Occurrence: On Amboina [or Ambon, an island of the
Moluccas in today’s Indonesia] they are rare, but they are
more abundant on Java, Bali, and other Malaysian islands.
Cultivation: If scarce, they were pushed into the soil, but
the Javanese and Balinese, who have large fields of them,
sow them since the birds do not eat the bitter seeds. The
ripe bushes are pulled out completely, the leaves rubbed off
(since not a lot of leaves are left on the ripe bushes), bound
8-10 together and hung up. When people want to eat them,
they are put in warm water (bush and all), the pods open up
and the beans are taken out. Or the dried beans are taken out
of the pod and cooked into something special.
When they are sown on plowed land, the rows are
covered using a broom of the stiff leaves of the Goemoetoe
tree or Sagueers / Sagueri tree. To keep the birds from eating
the ripe seeds, the young white leaves of the aforementioned
tree are cut into thin strips, attached to long ropes and hung
over the Katjang field. The wind moving the strips scare
away the birds or a boy is assigned to do so.
Utilization: These little beans were cooked and eaten
like other beans, although they are not widely consumed that
way because they are harder and bitter. Most were sold to the
Chinese, who use them to make flour, which is in turn made
into low-quality noodles (Lara in Latin, Laxa in Dutch),
called Tautsjiam. These are long, flat strips, resembling
vermicelli, which they cut out of rolled-out dough, then dry
in the sun and bind together into bundles. These noodles are
cooked with meat or poultry, and thinly cut cabbage, which
creates a special (although in our nation considered to look
disgusting) and delicious tasting food, easy to digest, and
allowed to be served to all sick people. But the real noodles
of this type (Lara, Laxa) are made from rice- and wheat flour,
which are thick round strips like vermicelli. The noodles
from the little beans are very thin and small flat strips since
the flour of the Kadelee makes a flexible but tough dough,
which can be rolled out very thinly since of all beans the
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 42
Kadelee have the toughest substance.
The beans are first roasted a little over a fire until the
black skin opens or puffs up, then they are pounded steadily
in a mortar (Dutch: Rystbloek) until the hulls come off;
then one can run and grind the dehulled beans into a sticky
substance. From this flour the Chinese also make another
food called Tahu (tofu), because the dough, which is about
as thick as one’s thumb, and spread out on a table, they cut
squares or marbles, which they then cook in bacon fat with
spices and coriander, just like our cooks make certain balls
from flour, sliced bacon, and spices.
A superb, large illustration (pl. 140) shows a soybean
plant with leaves, pods, and roots (but no nodules). In the
lower left-hand corner is a close-up illustration of one
soybean pod attached to a stem, and two soybean seeds.
Rumphius did not draw this himself. Since he was now blind,
a scribe drew it following his description (see below).
In summary: Rumphius reported soybeans (Cadelium,
Malay name = kadelee) in Amboina in 1747. He also
reported many food uses (tofu, roasted soy flour made
into noodles, green vegetable soybeans, black whole dry
soybeans) and use as green manure. However he did not
mention soy sauce (kecap / ketchup), which by 1747 had
been exported to Europe as “ketchup” for about a century by
the Dutch East India Co. and Dutch traders.
Brief biography of Rumphius: Georg Eberhard Rumpf
(lived 1627-1702; Latinized name Georgius Everhardus
Rumphius) was a German-born naturalist. In late 1652 he
enlisted as a midshipman in the Dutch East India Co. In
Dec. he left Texel island in Holland and in June 1653 he
arrived at Batavia, the chief Dutch city on Java in the Dutch
East Indies. On 8 Nov. 1653 he was sent by the company to
Amboina (now Ambon Island in the Maluku Archipelago
[Spice Islands, Moluccas], in eastern Indonesia). In Feb.
1662 he was given a salary and permission to work as a
naturalist on Amboina. By 1663 he had been at work for
some time on his first book, a flora (Amboinsch Kruidboek,
Herbarium Amboinensis). Most of his writing on this book
is thought to have been done between 1653 and 1670. In late
1690 the manuscript for the first six of twelve books were
ready to be sent to Batavia. In mid-1692 the text was sent
on to the Netherlands with the ship Waterland. But on Sept.
12 this ship was sunk by the French and all the text was lost.
Fortunately a copy had been retained. But by the spring of
1670 Rumphius had gone blind through overuse of his eyes.
So he was given scribes and artists by the company to be his
hands and eyes. In 1673, aided by his wife, he commenced
to translate the Latin text of his work into Dutch. On 17
Feb. 1674, his wife and youngest daughter were killed in
a violent earthquake that devastated Amboina. In 1687 a
huge fire destroyed his library, many of his manuscripts,
and his illustrations to the book. Although 60 years old,
blind, and feeble, Rumphius was undaunted. He started
all over describing to scribes and artists the multitude of
plants he had written of and illustrated. He, of course, never
saw these new illustrations. On 8 Feb. 1696 the remaining
manuscript chapters were sent on the ship Sir Janslandt to
the Netherlands. When, in 1696, the Herbarium Amboinensis
finally arrived in the Netherlands, the directors of the
Dutch East India Co. “decided that it contained so much
sensitive [valuable] information that it would be better not
to publish” the work, which was later edited by J. Burmann.
The magnificently illustrated work was finally published in
six folio parts in Amsterdam between 1741 and 1750–more
than 39 years after Rumphius’s death (compiled from many
sources). Vol. 5 of 6, which mentions the soybean was
published in 1747, after Kaempfer, Hermann, and Linnaeus
had published their description of the soybean.
Rumphius gave a good description of the soybean plant,
called it Cadelium, mentioned that the native Amboinese
name was kadelee (now spelled kedele), said that it grew
most abundantly in Java, Bali, and other Malayan islands,
and included a remarkably good illustration of the plant.
Only the position of the pods is incorrect. (Piper & Morse
1923; Hymowitz 1981).
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (July 2014)
concerning soybeans in today’s Indonesia, or the cultivation
of soybeans in Indonesia. This is the earliest written
botanical description of the soybean, though the fourth
earliest one to be published. He wrote this 20 years before
Englebert Kaempfer went to Japan.
Note 3. To determine the earliest date seen for soybeans
in Indonesia, we must look at Rumphius’s life. From the
above we can say that he had probably seen soybeans
in Amboina by 1670, and definitely by 1696. These are
also probably the earliest dates seen for the cultivation of
soybeans in Indonesia. The source of these soybeans is
unknown. However, it seems very likely that soybeans were
cultivated in today’s Indonesia long before they were seen or
reported by Rumphius.
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (July 2014)
concerning soybeans in Southeast Asia, or the cultivation
of soybeans in Southeast Asia. This document contains the
earliest date seen for soybeans in Southeast Asia, or the
cultivation of soybeans in Southeast Asia (1747).
Note 5. This is the earliest Latin-language or Dutchlanguage or document seen (April 2013) that mentions tofu,
which it calls Tahu.
Note 6. This is the earliest document seen (April 2014)
stating that green soybean plants can be plowed under as
green manure to enrich the soil.
Note 7. This is the earliest document seen (July 2014)
stating that a type of vermicelli or noodles is made with
soybeans.
Note 8. This book also contains early references to
Dolichos sinensis (p. 375; the yard-long bean or asparagus
bean) and to Phaseolus niger (p. 388).
Note 9. This is the earliest document seen (July 2014)
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 43
describing work with soyfoods or soybeans outside China;
yet people must have been working with soyfoods in many
countries outside China centuries earlier. Address: Amboina,
Dutch East Indies.
65. Notulen van het Haags Besogene [Notes of meeting
of the Haags Besogene]. 1748. The Hague, Netherlands.
Unpaginated. Oct. 25. [Dut]
• Summary: Started with the reading and control of the
account of goods and merchandise, which on 15 May
1744 are stockpiled in the warehouses of this chamber
[Amsterdam] and which have been received during the
last four years from the Indies (Indië [Batavia]). Items that
according to the journal of bookkeeping and the ledger have
been delivered from the stock since 31 May 1748 and that
part of the stock lying unsold in the Company’s warehouses.
“... Soy [sauce] (Soija): According to the list closed on
15 May 1744 were stockpiled–91 kelders. And received from
the Indies (Indien) during the past four years–72 kelders.”
Total: 163 kelders. Note 1. A kelder is a chest; in this
case it contains bottles of soy sauce.
“From that is delivered during this time: 106 chests
(kelders).
“On account of the filling of half empty bottles (flessen)
and broken bottles: 4 chests (kelders).
“For the benefit of inns and yachts used: 2 chests
(kelders). Total: 163 chests (kelders) [So the books balance].
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 4474,
Haags Besogene (25-10-1748).
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
toegangsnummer 1.04.21; inventaris nummer 4474. Notulen
van het Haags Besogene [National Archives, Prins Wilhem
Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The
Archives of the Dutch East India Co. (NFJ); access number
1.04.21; record number 4474. Notes of the Haags besogene].
Address: The Hague, Netherlands.
66. Amsterdamse Courant (Amsterdam). 1749. Nederlanden
[Netherlands (Ad)]. Oct. 9. p. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: Amsterdam. Oct. 8. Landing a cargo from a
ship from Batavia which contains 10 chests of soy sauce (10
Kelders Soja).
Note: This brief ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “soja”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1750. Address:
Amsterdam, Netherlands.
67. Amsterdam: Avec Privilege de Nos Seigneurs, les Etats
de Holland et de West-Frise. 1750. Pais Bas (Pays Bas):
D’Amsterdam l4e 5. Octobre [The Netherlands: Amsterdam,
Oct. 5]. 80:Oct. 6. [Fre]
• Summary: This periodical has no page numbers. However
on the 4th page of this issue, in the right column is a
description of articles from the East Indies (des IndesOrientales), from Batavia, which arrived at Texel on the 26th
of last month. These include 591,964 units of brown pepper,
257 units of ginger conserves, 4 kegs of Arak, 26 cases of
soy [sauce] from Japan (Caves Soya du Japon), and 44 silk
robes from Japan (Robbes de Soye du Japon).
Note: This is the earliest French-language document
seen (Sept. 2014) in which the word Soya (or soya) is used
in connection with soybeans or soy sauce. However the
document was not published in France.
68. Homoed, Hendrik van. 1750. Diary. In: Leonard Blussé,
Cynthia Viallé, et al, eds. 2004. The Deshima Diaries
Marginalia, 1740-1800. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute.
xl + 898 p. See p. 126, 134, 138 (#156-57).
• Summary: In the section titled “Arrival of the Haarlem
and the Zuiderburg,” at 1750 Oct. 17–”On behalf of his
master and the incoming governor, Kawachi-no-kami, the
secretary, gave me a present consisting of sixty barrels of
sake, sixty barrels of soy and two presentation trays heaped
with fresh fish. I expressed my gratitude most humbly...”
Address: Opperhoofd (Chief of the Dutch factory), Deshima,
Nagasaki, Japan.
69. Rochell & Sharp. 1750. Classified ad: Just imported by
the last ships from London,... New-York Gazette Revived in
the Weekly Post-Boy (New York City). Dec. 17. p. 3.
• Summary: See next page. “... and to be sold cheap by
Rochell & Sharp, at Mr. Seabring’s, Baker, in Wall Street,
Superfine & middling Broad Cloths, Bearskins,... Pickles,
Durham Mustard,... pickled Mushrooms in Quart Bottles,
Sallad Oil in do. [ditto = same] pickled Onions in Quart do.
Pint do. of Indian Soy [sauce], Bottles of Weston’s superfine
Scotch Snuff...”
This ad also appeared in this newspaper on 24 Dec.
1750, p. 3 and 7 Jan. 1751, p. 4.
Note 1. This is the 2nd earliest document seen (April
2014) concerning soybean products (soy sauce) in the British
colonies of North America (now the United States), or in
New York. This document contains the 2nd earliest date
seen for soybean products in the British colonies of North
America or in New York (Dec. 1750); soybeans as such have
not yet been reported. At least 66 different ads for soy sauce
appeared in New York City newspapers before 1800!
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term “Indian Soy” to refer to
soy sauce; it was probably imported from the Indies, the East
Indies, or India. To date, 103 documents in the SoyaScan
database contain the term “Indian Soy” (regardless of
capitalization) but only the earliest ones have been given the
keyword for “India.” The term “Indian Soy” was the earliest
name given to soy sauce imported to the British colonies
of North America. But what does it mean? Where was it
made? It was probably typical Japanese-style soy sauce
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 44
(shoyu), made in Japan and exported from there by the Dutch
East India Company (VOC), probably via Batavia (today’s
Jakarta), to Amsterdam–where it was purchased at auction by
merchants who brought it by sailing ship to North America.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (July 2006)
that mentions Durham Mustard, a famous product made
in the city of Durham, in northern England. “In 1720
Mrs. Clements discovered a method for extracting the full
flavour from mustard seed by grinding the seed in a mill and
subjecting to similar processes used in the making of flour
from wheat” (Durham city website).
Kaempfer’s Amoenitatum Exoticarum and small changes
in the positions of several words. The author’s name on the
title page is now written Samuelis Dalei, M.L. Also near
the bottom of the title page is written “Ex scriptis Hermanni
Boerhaave locupletata. Indice Gallico, Germanico, Belgico,
aucta.”
A full-page illustration (engraving) shows a oval portrait
of Samuel Dale, M.L. Address: M.D.
70. Dale, Samuel. 1751. Pharmacologia, seu manuductio
ad materiam medicam:... [Pharmacology, or eating as a
supplement to the materia medica:... 5th ed]. Lugduni
Batavorum [Leiden]: Impensis Gerardi Potuliet. See p. 238.
26 cm. [117* ref. Lat]
• Summary: See next page. The information on soy sauce
appears in the section on medicinal plants under the heading
“I. De Phaseolo... A. 3. Soia, Offic. [probably officinarum]
Phaseolus Japonicus, ex quo Japonensium Soia, qui intinctus
species est, conficitur, Herm. Species Phaseoli parvi, albi,
è Japonia allata, è qua conficiunt condimentum Ketchup
dictum, duum generum, liquidum nimirum & solidum.
“Phaseolus erectus siliquis Lupini, fructu pisi majoris
candido, Kemph. Amoen. Exot. 837.
Hujus notitiam debemus Botanico erudito D. Paulo
Hermanno defuncto, qui eam doctissimo nuper amico nostro
D. Gulielmo Sherrard [Sherard], LL.D. communicavit, sub
titulo suprascripto, unde nos habuimus.
This entry is the same as that in the original 1705
edition except for the addition of a middle paragraph from
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 45
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 46
71. Homoed, Hendrik van. 1752. Diary. In: Leonard Blussé,
Cynthia Viallé, et al, eds. 2004. The Deshima Diaries
Marginalia, 1740-1800. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute.
xl + 898 p. See p. 154, 163-64 (#117-18).
• Summary: 1752 April 28–”I was amazed by what they told
me because they know that they cannot keep it a secret from
me if the junk is from Batavia [Jakarta]. As soon as they
had left, I asked about the Japanese who had told the story
of it being a junk from Batavia. The first slave brought him.
I asked him where the junk was from and he replied from
Jacatra [Jakarta] and that it carried only miso beans [i.e.,
soybeans used to make miso]... The Japanese coolie told me
that there was no truth to his story about the junk.”
1752 May 1–”Several apprentices clarified the story
about the junk. The Chinese farmers have been mistaken
for female slaves. They wear a different type of clothes. I
asked Jûemon why the junk was being unloaded because
I could not imagine that the government would accept a
cargo of miso and other beans as tradable goods. Japan
produces enough miso beans itself. He replied that the cargo
will be sold out of compassion for the Chinese farmers.”
Address: Opperhoofd (Chief of the Dutch factory), Deshima,
Nagasaki, Japan.
72. Notulen van het Haags Besogene [Notes of meeting
of the Haags Besogene]. 1752. The Hague, Netherlands.
Unpaginated. Oct. 19. [Dut]
• Summary: On the first page of notes of the meeting
concerning the stock in the warehouses we read:
“Thursday, 19 Oct. 1752: Started with the reading and
control of the account of goods and merchandise, which on
31 May [1752] were stockpiled in the warehouses of this
chamber [Amsterdam] and which have been received during
the last four years from the Indies (Indië [Batavia]). Items
that according to the journal of bookkeeping and the ledger
have been delivered from the stock since 31 May 1752
and that part of the stock lying unsold in the Company’s
warehouses.
“... Japanese Soy [sauce] (Japanse Soija): According to
the list closed on 31 May 1748 were stockpiled–51 kelders.
And received from the Indies (Indien) during the past four
years–51 kelders.”
Total: 102 kelders. Note 1. A kelder is a chest; in this
case it contains bottles of soy sauce.
“From that is delivered during this time: 39 chests
(kelders).
“According to the list closed on 31 May 1752, in stock:
45 chests (kelders).
“Provided for consumption in inns and yachts: 3 chests
(kelders).
“In disuse, broken and empty: 15 chests (kelders). Total:
102 chests (kelders) [So the books balance].
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 4475,
Haags Besogene (19-10-1752).
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
toegangsnummer 1.04.21; inventaris nummer 4475. Notulen
van het Haags Besogene [National Archives, Prins Wilhem
Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The
Archives of the Dutch East India Co. (NFJ); access number
1.04.21; record number 4475. Notes of the Haags besogene].
Address: The Hague, Netherlands.
73. Breues, John. 1754. The fortune hunters: shewing, (from
experience) 1. How people may improve their fortunes, and
raise themselves in London, by different and quite opposite
ways... London: Printed for the author; and sold by J.
Robinson,... xii + 164 p. 8vo.
• Summary: The recipe “To make clear Gravy, and a Ragoo
[Ragout] Breast of Veal” states (p. 90-91). “Take three
pounds of gravy-beef, four ounces of lean bacon, a small
piece of lemon peel, one middle siz’d onion... Take a large
breast of veal, roast it half done very brown, then take it
from the fire, cut off the two ends and brisket, cut them in
handsome pieces, put them amoungst your gravy in a stewpan, then put in two anchovies, two cloves, a bit of lemon
peel, fix black pepper corns, all ties in a bit of rag, stew them
amoungst your gravy and veal, to which you are to add two
spoonfuls of India soy, which being covered very close, let
them stew one hour over a slow fire; then put them in the
mid-piece of veal...”
Note: This is the earliest document seen (April 2012)
that uses the term “India Soy” to refer to soy sauce. It was
probably imported from India on British or Dutch ships;
it may well have been made in Japan, but could have
been made in China. In the Early American Newspapers
(EAN) online database (produced by Readex, a division of
NewsBank), there are (March 2006) at least 1,300 issues
/ records that contain the term “India Soy” or “India-Soy”
from Nov. 1770 to Nov. 1844. Only a representative sample
of these records has been entered into this database. And only
the earliest ones have been given the keyword for “India.”
Address: Late of Perth [probably Scotland], Merchant.
74. Society of Gentlemen. 1754. A new and complete
dictionary of arts and sciences; comprehending all the
branches of useful knowledge, with accurate descriptions...
Vol. 2 of 4. London: Printed for W. Owen. 1084 p. See p.
985.
• Summary: The entry for “Drug” states (p. 985): “a general
term for goods of the druggist and grocery kinds, especially
for those used in medicine and dying [dyeing]. The principal
drugs in medicine make the greatest part of the wholesale
trade in the druggist and spicery ways. Some are produced
in France, England &c. but the greatest part is brought from
the Levant, and the East Indies. The chief drugs imported
into this kingdom, are from the East-Indies, being as follows,
alum, china-root, camphor, rhubarb, musk, vermillion, soy of
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 47
Japan, ketchup,...”
Note: This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term “soy of Japan” to refer
to soy sauce made in Japan.
“Ketchup” may well have referred to soy sauce made
in the Dutch East Indies (today’s Indonesia). Address:
[England].
75. Notulen van het Haags Besogene [Notes of meeting
of the Haags Besogene]. 1756. The Hague, Netherlands.
Unpaginated. Oct. 20. [Dut]
• Summary: On the first page of notes of the meeting
concerning the stock in the warehouses we read:
“Wednesday, 20 Oct. 1756. Started with the reading
and control of the account of goods and merchandise, which
on 31 May 1756 were stockpiled in the warehouses of this
chamber [Amsterdam] and which have been received during
the last four years from the Indies (Indien [Batavia]). Items
that according to the journal of bookkeeping and the ledger
have been delivered from the stock since 31 May 1756
and that part of the stock lying unsold in the Company’s
warehouses.
“... Japanese Soy [sauce] (Japanese Soija): According
to the list closed on 31 May 1752 there were stockpiled–45
kelders. And received from the Indies (Indien) during the
past four years–60 kelders.”
Total: 105 kelders. Note 1. A kelder is a chest; in this
case it contains bottles of soy sauce.
“From that is delivered during this time: 93 chests
(kelders).
“Provided for consumption in inns and yachts: 2 chests
(kelders).
“In disuse, broken and empty: 10 chests (kelders). Total:
105 chests (kelders) [So the books balance].
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, VOC 4477,
Haags Besogene (20-10-1756).
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC);
toegangsnummer 1.04.21; inventaris nummer 4477. Notulen
van het Haags Besogene [National Archives, Prins Wilhem
Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The
Archives of the Dutch East India Co. (NFJ); access number
1.04.21; record number 4477. Notes of the Haags besogene].
Address: The Hague, Netherlands.
76. Journal de Commerce (Brussels). 1759. D’Amsterdam.
Arrivée & chargement des vaisseaux des Indes Orientales
[From Amsterdam: Arrival and loading of vessels from the
East Indies]. 5:198-202. Sept. See p. 199. [Fre]
• Summary: Lists the cargo on six vessels, including (p.
199): “26 Futailles Soya de Japan” [26 kegs of soy (sauce)
from Japan].
Note: The various reference to the word Soye concern
silk, not soy sauce.
77. Middelburgsche Courant (Middelburg, Netherlands).
1762. Nederlanden [The Netherlands]. Sept. 2. p. 8, col. 2.
[Dut]
• Summary: Among the goods are 8 chests of Japanese soy
sauce (8 Kelders Japanse Soija).
Note 1. This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “soija” using
advanced search between 1618 and 1799.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that mentions soija.
Note 3. Between 1762 and 1899, about 2,200 records in
this database contain the word soija.
78. Linnaeus, Carolus. 1763. Species plantarum. 2nd ed. Vol.
II. [Species of plants. 2nd ed. Vol. II.]. Stockholm, Sweden.
p. 785-1684 + 64 pages of indexes. See p. 1018 (Phaseolus
max, no. 11) and p. 1023 (Dolichos Soja, no. 24). [3 ref. Lat]
• Summary: In chapter titled “Diadelphia Decandria” under
“Phaseolus” we read (p. 1018): “11. Phaseolus max. Caule
erecto anguloso hispido leguminibus pendulis hirtis. Hort.
cliff. 499. Roy. lugdb. 367. Fl. zeyl. 280. Gron. orient. 217.
Phaseolus orthocaulis, Mungo persarum. Herm. mex. 887.
Fructus niger, coriandro similis. Bauh. pin. 413 [Bauhin,
Caspar. 1623. Pinax Theatri Botanici...]. Caedelium. Rumph.
amb. 5. p. 388. t. 140. Habitat in India.” Annual. The entry
just above this (p. 1018) is for Phaseolus radiatus, but azuki
is not mentioned.
In the same chapter under “Dolichos” we read (p. 1023).
24. Dolichos Soja. Caule erecto flexuoso, racemis axillaribus
erectis, leguminibus pendulis hispidis subdispermis. Fl. zeyl.
534. Mat. med. 363. Phaseolus erectus, siliquis lupini, fructu
pisi majoris candido. Kaempf. amoen. 837 t. 838. Habitat in
India.”
To expand the abbreviated citations Linnaeus uses above
under Dolichos Soja: Flora Zeylanicum p. 534, Materia
Medica p. 363, and Amoenitatum Exoticarum, p. 837.
In the same chapter under Arachis (p. 1040-41)
discusses the Arachis hypogæa, the peanut. “Hort. cliff. 353”
[Hortus Cliffortianus = Clifford’s Garden, Amsterdam 1738
{dated ‘1737’}]. “Hort. ups. 228, 390” [Hortus Upsaliensis
= The Uppsala Garden, Stockholm 1748]. Address: Uppsala,
Sweden.
79. Diderot, Denis. 1765. Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire
raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers: Soui, ou soi
[Encyclopedia, or rational / systematic dictionary of the
sciences, arts, and trades/crafts: Soy]. Paris: Briasson. See
vol. 15, p. 403. Published from 1751-1765 in 17 volumes or
fascicles. [Fre]
• Summary: “Soui, or soi, singular masculine (Cuisine) is a
type of sauce that the Japanese prepare, and which is very
much sought after by the peoples of Asia, and by the Dutch,
who import it from Japan. It is a type of extract or of liquid
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 48
which goes well with all types of meats, and above all with
partridge and ham. Then one adds to it mushroom sauce, lots
of salt, pepper, ginger, and other spices which give it a very
strong flavor, and which help to prevent the resulting sauce
(liqueur) from spoiling. It will keep for many years in bottles
that are well corked, and a small quantity of this liquid mixed
with ordinary sauces, enhances them and gives them a very
agreeable flavor. The Chinese also make soy (souï), but that
of the Japanese is regarded as superior. It is said that the
reason for this is that the meats are much more succulent in
Japan than in China.”
The text in French reads: “SOUI, ou SOI, s.m. (Cuisin.)
c’est une espece de sauce que les Japonnois préparent, &
qui est très recherchée par les peuples de l’Asie, & par les
Hollandois qui en apportent de ce pays; c’est une espece
d’extrait ou de suc qui se tire de toute sorte de viandes,
& sur-tout des perdrix & du jambon. On y joint du suc de
champignons, beaucoup de sel, de poivre, de gingembre, &
d’autres épiceries qui lui donnent un goût très fort, & qui
contribuent à empêcher que cette liqueur ne se corrompe.
Elle se garde pendant un grand nombre d’annés dans des
bouteilles bien bouchées, & une petite quantité de cette
liqueur mêlée avec les sucs ordinaires, les releve, & leur
donne un goût très-agréable. Les Chinois font aussi du
souï, mais on regarde celui du Japon comme supérieur; ce
qui vient, dit-on, de ce que les viandes sont beancoup [sic,
beaucoup] plus succulentes au Japon qu’à la Chine.”
Note 1. Diderot, the French encyclopedist, lived 17131784.
Note 2. This is the 2nd earliest French-language
document seen (Jan. 2010) that refers to soybeans or
soyfoods.
Note 3. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the words le Soui or le soi to
refer to soy sauce. The text seems to imply that soy sauce
had been introduced to France by this time, however we
cannot be sure of this. If that were the case, this would be
the earliest document seen (Aug. 2014) concerning soybean
products (soy sauce) in France; soybeans as such have not
yet been reported.
Note 4. This is the earliest Western-language document
seen (Aug. 2014) that recommends adding seasonings (such
as mushroom sauce, salt, pepper, ginger, or other spices)
soy sauce to enhance its flavor. This idea may have been a
French innovation.
Note 5. The earliest publication seen that cites this early
document (Diderot 1765) was by Shigeru Otsuka, in his
book A Journey into the World of Shoyu (1987, p. 75). But 14
years earlier, in his chapter titled “All About Shoyu” in The
Kikkoman Way of Fine Eating (1973, p. 10), when discussing
how Europeans got to know about shoyu, he wrote: “It was
the great misfortune of the Portuguese that they did not know
it. The Dutch traders that followed them, however, did notice
shoyu, and began to export it to Europe. It was about 100
years later that Louis XIV of France began to prize shoyu as
a secret ingredient in the luxurious court fare of the time.”
Note that Louis XIV reigned from 1643 to 1715, more than
50 years before Diderot wrote this passage. We know of no
document which states that Louis XIV ever used shoyu. And
when we asked Mr. Otsuka for his source concerning Louis
XIV’s use of shoyu, he was unable to give any source. Dr.
Yokotsuka of Kikkoman (1983) thinks the original source
was Dr. Obata. Address: France.
80. Kastens, Herman Christiaan. 1767. Diary. In: Leonard
Blussé, Cynthia Viallé, et al, eds. 2004. The Deshima Diaries
Marginalia, 1740-1800. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute.
xl + 898 p. See p. 311-12 (#73, 77).
• Summary: In the section titled “Diary kept by Deputy
Christ during the absence of Kastens,” at 1767 April 9–”A
small wangkang without its top mast, which had stranded off
the island of Koshiki on 25 January, arrived in the roadstead.
It had departed from the Chinese harbor of Zoesio on
November 17 last year. It was destined for Lionton. Its cargo
consisted merely of 56,200 ganting miso beans [soybeans
used to make miso] and 9,000 catties of oil.”
Note: A ganting / gantung is a measure of weight. It is
not clear what kind of oil this is.
1767 May 6–”Today the wangkang which arrived here
on 9 April got a top mast. It sold part of its cargo of miso
beans to cover its expenses.” Address: Opperhoofd (Chief of
the Dutch factory), Deshima, Nagasaki, Japan.
81. Stork, William. 1769. A description of East-Florida, with
a journal, kept by John Bartram of Philadelphia, botanist
to His Majesty for the Floridas; upon a journey from St.
Augustine up the River St. John’s, as far as the lakes. With
explanatory botanical notes... The third edition, much
enlarged and improved. London: Sold by W. Nicoll; and T.
Jeffries. [4], viii, 40, [2], xii, 35, [1] p. Illust. maps. 30 cm.
[2 ref]
• Summary: This book is divided into two parts, each of
which is paginated separately. At the beginning of the 2nd
part is “The introduction to the journal” of John Bartram.
When talking about the importance of new plants and
naturalists to the American colonies he states (p. ii): “I
cannot touch upon this subject without mentioning Mr.
John Ellis, Fellow of the Royal Society, and agent for WestFlorida... It is to this very ingenious gentleman that I am
indebted for the following catalogue of plants that may
be useful in America, in which, to avoid confusion in the
botanical names, Mr. Ellis hath given both the generical and
the specifick or trivial names of the plants, with the page
referred to in the celebrated Dr. Linnaeus’s 2nd edition of his
Species of Plants...”
There follows (p. iii on) a 4-column table in which
numerous plants are listed under the following column
headings: (1) The “Latin names”–genus and species. (2) “2d
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 49
Ed. Lin. Sp.”–The page on which this plant is mentioned
in the 2nd ed. of Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum. (3). English
names. (4) Observations.
On p. v we read: “Dolichos soja Linn. Lin. Sp. 1023. A
kind of kidbean called Daidsu. Used for making Soye* or
Indian Ketchup. See Kaempfer, Amoenitatis, 837.
“* The method of preparing East-India Soye or India
Ketchup. Take a certain measure, for instance a gallon, of
that sort of kidney-beans, called Daidsu by the Japonese, and
Caravances by the Europeans; let them be boiled till they
are soft; also a gallon of bruised wheat or barley, (but wheat
makes the blackest Soye) and a gallon of common salt. Let
the boiled caravances be mixed with the bruised wheat, and
be kept covered close a day and a night in a warm place, that
it may ferment. Then put the mixture of the caravances and
wheat, together with the gallon of salt, into an earthen vessel,
with two gallons and a half of common water, and cover it
up very close. The next day stir it about well with a battering
machine or mill (Rutabulum) for several days, twice or thrice
a day, in order to blend it more thoroughly together. This
work must be continued for two or three months, then strain
off and press out the liquor, and keep it for use in wooden
vessels; the older it is the clearer it will be, and of so much
more value. After it is pressed out, you may pour on the
remaining mass more water, then stir it about violently, and
in some days after you may press out more Soye.”
Note 1. This is the earliest American document seen
(Dec. 2005) that uses the term “Dolichos soja” or the word
“Daidsu” or “kidbean” to refer to the soybean.
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the word “Soye” to refer to soy
sauce, or the term “East-India Soye” or the term “India
Ketchup” to refer to soy sauce from the East Indies, probably
the Dutch East Indies (today’s Indonesia). The ideas that
soy sauce is a type of ketchup, and that this soy sauce comes
from the Indies (India) are extremely interesting in trying to
understand the origin of the word “ketchup” (regardless of
spelling) and the early relationship between soy [sauce] and
ketchup.
Note 3. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term “bruised wheat or
barley” in connection with the process for making soy sauce.
This term and this descriptive recipe would be repeated
in more than 20 publications–even though the recipe will
not work, since it contains no koji, and many must have
wondered just how they are supposed to make “bruised
wheat or barley.”
Note 4. John Ellis (ca. 1705-1776), an Irish naturalist
living in London, was active in studying the plants of the
American colonies and in introducing new plants to them.
He was also a commercial agent, representing a number
of American colonies in London. In 1769 Ellis was the
commercial agent for West Florida in London. Notice that his
is a list of plants “that may be useful in America.” He does
not say they are already growing in America.
Note 5. Ellis does not mention koji (grains or beans
covered with a white mycelium of Aspergillus mold), and
does not understand its importance in making soy sauce.
Kaempfer, from whom Ellis got his instructions for preparing
soy sauce, did not mention koji either in connection with soy
sauce. However Kaempfer did mention koos (by which he
probably meant koji), in the previous paragraph of his 1712
classic, in which he described how to make miso.
Note 6. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (March 2006) that uses the word “Caravances” (using
this or any related spelling) to refer to soybeans.
Note 7. Also included in Ellis’s catalog are: Safflower,
Sesamum Orientale [sesame seeds], locust tree or St. John’s
Bread (Ceratonia Siliqua), true opium poppy, tallow tree of
China, true rhubarb, sago palm-tree, true bamboo cane, East
India mango-tree, paper mulberry tree, arnotto [anatto], etc.
Note 8. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Aug. 2007) that uses the word “Sesamum” or the
term Sesamum Orientale to refer to sesame seeds, or that
gives their scientific name; it says (p. iii): “Latin name:
Sesamum Orientale. 2d Ed. L. Sp. [2nd edition of Linnaeus’
Species plantarum]: p. 883. English names: Oyly grain.
Observations: Propagated in the Levant [countries of the
eastern Mediterranean] for oyl, which does not soon grow
rancid by keeping.”
Note 9. William Stork, a German botanist and member
of the Royal Society (London), had this treatise published
in London as a promotion of Florida as an attractive place
for settlers by describing the climate, soil, flora, and fauna.
He emphasized its agricultural potential for cultivating rice,
cotton, silk, sugar, and other profitable crops. According
to Prof. Ted Hymowitz (March 2006), Stork lived in St.
Augustine, Florida, in 1765, and then went to England.
Address: [England].
82. Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph. 1781. Icones plantarum
rariorum [Illustrations of very rare plants]. Vindobonae
[Vienna]: C.F. Wappler. See vol. 1, p. 146. Color illust., plate
145. Also published in London, Leiden, and Strasbourg. [3
ref. Lat]
• Summary: In the section on Diadelphia, under Decandria,
we find: “145 Dolichos soja, caule suberecto, flexuoso,
hirsuto; racemis axillaribus, brevissimis, vel floribus
aggregatis, erectis; leguminibus hirsutis; pendulis. Linn
syst. Jacq. coll. vol. I. Phaseolus erectus, siliquis lupini,
etc. Kæmpf. amoen. Caulis florentis pars summa. Legumen.
Semen.”
A rough translation of this is: “Dolichos Soja, stem
suberect, winding, hairy; clusters green, axillary, short, or
an aggregation of the flowers, erect; legumes hirsute (hairy);
pendulums. Linn syst. Jacq. coll. vol. I. kidney failure, lupine
pods, etc. Kæmpf. amoen. the top part of flowering stem.
Legume. Seed.”
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 50
84. ‘s Hertogenbossche Courant (Amsterdam). 1783.
Nederlanden [The Netherlands]. July 15. p. 2, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: Among the goods to be sold in Amsterdam,
on ships returning from the East Indies, are 8 chests of soy
sauce (8 Kelders Soija).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “soija” using
advanced search between 1618 and 1799.
A superb color illustration (Plate 145) shows the
soybean plant, with details of one pod and one seed.
[Question: Where was this soybean plant growing?]
Note: This is the earliest document seen (June 2015)
concerning soya in connection with (but not yet in) Austria.
The author’s name on the title page is given as Nicolao
Josepho Jacquin. He lived 1727-1817. At the bottom of the
title page of volume I is written “From the year 1781 to
1786.” Address: Prof. of Botany, Vienna, Austria.
83. Radermacher, Jacob Cornelius Matthieu de. 1781.
Bydraagen tot de beschryving van Japan [Contributions
to a description of Japan]. Batavia: Compagnies Boekdrukkery p. 203-246. 23 cm. Series: Verhandelingen van het
Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen;
v.3, no. 5. [Dut]*
• Summary: Description of Japanese coins, manufacture of
soy sauce and sake, and a list of Japanese words by Isaac
Titsing.
Note 1. J.C.M. de Rademacher lived 1741-1783.
Note 2. Batavia is today’s Jakarta, Indonesia. It was the
de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies,
85. Bryant, Charles. 1785. Carl Bryant’s Verzeichniss
der zur Nahrung dienenden so wohl einheimischen als
auslandischen Pflanzen. 2 v. [Flora diaetetica: Or history of
esculent plants, both domestic and foreign. 2 vols.]. Leipzig:
Bey Weidemanns Erben und Reich. See Vol. I, Part I (Erster
Theil), p. 478-80. 21 cm. [Ger]
• Summary: This is largely a German translation of
Engelbert Kaempfer’s book Amoenitatum Exoticarum,
written in Japan in 1690-92, and published in 1712.
The section titled “Dolichos Soja. Indian Kidney Bean.
Linn. Spec. plant. 1023.–Sojabohne” (p. 478-80) discusses
the soybean (also called “Daidsu”) and various soy products,
including miso, koji (Koos), and soy sauce (Der Sooju).
Note 1. This is the earliest German-language document
seen (March 2009) that mentions miso, which it calls
“Miso.” The actual text reads: “... aber macht man Suppen
und eine Art Butter daraus, welche Miso heisst,...”
Note 2. This is the earliest German-language document
seen (April 2012) that mentions soy sauce, which it calls
“Sooju” or “Soy.” The actual text reads: “Dieser lezten
Bereitung legt man den Namen Sooju oder Soy bei.” “Der
Sooju wird folgender Gestalt zubereitet;...”
The chapter on legumes (p. 474-75) also discusses:
(1) Arrachis Hypogaea. American ground nut. (2) Cicer
arietinum. The chich pea, or Garavances. French: Pois
Chiche. (3) Dolichos Soja. East Indian kidney beans.
Sojabohne.
Note 3. The term “East Indian” probably refers to the
Dutch East Indies–today’s Indonesia.
(4) Ervum Lens. Lentil. (5) Lotus edulis. (6) Lotus
tetragonolobus. Square podded crimson pea. Spargelerbsen.
Vierecktiger Schotenklee. (7) Lupinus albus. (8) Phaseolus
vulgaris. Common kidney bean. French: Faseole. Haricot
commun blanc. (9) Pisum sativum. (10) Pisum Americanum.
(11) Pisum maritimum. 12. Vicia Faba. Common garden
bean
Note 3. Charles Bryant died 1799. Address: Norwich.
86. Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph. 1786. Collectanea ad
botanicam, chemiam, et historiam naturalem spectantia. 4
vols. [Collected observations on Austrian botany, chemistry,
and natural history. 4 vols. plus a supplement of color
pictures and index]. Vindobonae [Vienna]: Ex Officina
Wappleriana. Vol. 1, 386 p. See vol. 1, p. 46-47. [Lat]
• Summary: Nicolai Josephi Jacquin lived 1727-1818. The
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 51
text, entirely in Latin, states: “LXXVII. Dolichos soja. Linn
syst. pag. 659. [Linnaeus. 1784. “Systema vegetabilium,
secundum classes ordines genera species cum characteribus
et differentiis. 14th ed.]
“Phaseolus erectus, siliquis lupini, fructu pisi majoris
candido. Kæmpf. amoen. pag. 837. tab. 838 [Kaempfer.
1712. “Amoenitatum exoticarum politico-physicomedicarum, fasculi v.”].
“Planta annua, in caldario vel etiam sub dio, caule debili,
tereti, magis minusve, parum ramoso, & dense hirsuto,
scandit ad humanam altitudinem; floretque Majo & Junio,
fructum perficiens Augusto. Folia sunt ternata & petiolata;
foliolis ovatis, obtusis, integerrimis, villosis, venosis. Stipulæ
vix ullæ. Racemi pauciflori, axillares, erecti, brevissimi,
vel nulli, dum tunc flores breviter pedunculati plures alis
foliorum aggregatim infident. Flores parvi, inodori. Calyx
hirsutissimus corollam ad duas tertias, quandoque ferme
ad totam longitudinem, æquat; semiquadrifidus; laciniis
lanceolato–acuminatis, erectis & æqualibus; dorsali
semibifido & latiori. Vexillum violaceo–purpureum vel
pallide violaceum, supra unguem saturate violaceum,
erectum, subrotundum, emarginatum, expansum, callis
plane nullis præditum. Alæ concolores vel albidæ, oblongæ,
obtusæ, erectæ, vexillo paulo breviores. Carina albida cum
apice violaceo, obtusa, lunato–oblonga, compressula, alis
paulo brevior. Stamina diadelpha. Legumina pauca, pendula,
oblonga, compressa, obtusa cum brevissimo acumine,
versus basin attenuata, ferruginea, aspero–villosa, ad semina
torosula, interne alba & loculamentis obfoletis amplissimis
& dumtaxat superficialibus pro singulis seminibus notata.
Semina duo vel tria, ovato–rotundata, parum compressa,
badra.”
Were soybeans grown in Vienna? Beckmann (1798. p.
345) says: “Jacquin says expressly that they throve well at
Vienna [Austria] in the open air.”
Stafleu and Cowan (1976-88) note that Nicolai
Josephi Jacquin was born on 16 Feb. 1727 at Leiden,
Netherlands, and died on 26 Oct. 1817 at Vienna, Austria.
He graduated from a highly reputed Jesuit Gymnasium in
Antwerp, Belgium. In 1768 he was appointed to the chair
of chemistry and botany in the Medical Faculty at the
University of Vienna. He occupied this chair (mainly as a
botanist) until 1796, and in 1809 he was appointed rector
of the university. “As a botanist Jacquin was the most
important of the younger contemporaries of Linnaeus. He
was the first German-language writer to utilize to any large
extent Linnaeus’ system of binary nomenclature, and was
the foremost in his time with respect to the number of new
species described precisely and in a consistent way. His
descriptions are still valid today... His monumental floral
works, containing colored illustrations by him and by other
artists using his models, are among the most beautiful of
their kind.” Address: Prof. of Botany, Vienna, Austria.
87. Alting, Willem Arnold. 1790. [Re: Request for
provisions]. Letter to Hendrik Casper Romberg (Chief)
and Petrus Theodorus Chasse, Deshima factory [Nagasaki,
Kyushu, southern Japan], June 23. Handwritten, with
signature. [Dut]
• Summary: In the future, we request that your honourable
sirs do not send the demand for fruits that we normally claim
from Japan, except for Soy [sauce] (Soija) and Saké (Sackij).
[i.e., please continue to send soy and sake].
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 410,
ontvangen brieven (23-6-1790). No page or folio numbers.
Contemporary hand-written letter in a letter-book for the
administration on Deshima.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 410 [National Archives. Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ);
access number 1.04.21; record number 285]. Address:
Governor-General, and the Council, Batavia [today’s Jakarta,
Indonesia].
88. Governor-General and the Council. 1790. [Re:
Provisions]. Letter to the Deshima factory [Nagasaki,
Kyushu, southern Japan], June 23. Handwritten, with
signature. [Dut]
• Summary: Batavia informs Deshima that in the future
no preserved fruits [such as umeboshi] need to be sent to
Batavia, only the soy [sauce] and sake requested. The tubs
should be cleaned first and prepared to contain the sake and
soy.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); inventaris nummer
410 [National Archives, Prins Wilhem Alexanderhof 20,
The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.nl. The Archives of the
Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); record number 410]. Address:
Batavia [today’s Jakarta, Indonesia].
89. Romberg, Hendrik Casper. 1790. Diary. In: Leonard
Blussé, Cynthia Viallé, et al, eds. 2004. The Deshima Diaries
Marginalia, 1740-1800. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute.
xl + 898 p. See p. 628-29 (#122, 127).
• Summary: In the section titled “The arrival of the
Zuiderberg,” at 1790 Sept. 1–”The five men went aboard...
I ordered sake and soy for the Company.” Address:
Opperhoofd (Chief of the Dutch factory), Deshima,
Nagasaki, Japan.
90. Hemmij, Gijsbert. 1793. Diary. In: Leonard Blussé,
Cynthia Viallé, et al, eds. 2004. The Deshima Diaries
Marginalia, 1740-1800. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute.
xl + 898 p. See p. 667 (#30).
• Summary: 1793 April 3–”On behalf of the first retainer
of the Lord of Tsushima, Sukezaemon presented me with
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 52
some dried fish and a barrel of soy [sauce]. I dutifully
reciprocated.” Address: Opperhoofd (Chief of the Dutch
factory), Deshima, Nagasaki, Japan.
91. Monthly Review (The). Series 2. 1794. Thunberg’s
travels. 13:121-32. Feb. See p. 127. [Eng]
• Summary: “’The Dutch and the Chinese are the only
nations that are suffered to trade to Japan. The Dutch now
send hither annually two ships only, which are fitted out
at Batavia in the month of June, and return at the latter
end of the year. The principal articles carried from hence
are Japan copper, raw camphor, and lacquered woodwork;
porcelain, silks, rice, Sakki, and soy [sauce], make a very
inconsiderable part of the private trade.’”
with barley or wheat...” p. 121 of Thunberg.
94. Thunberg, Charles Peter. 1795. Travels in Europe,
Africa, and Asia, made between the years 1770 and 1779.
In four volumes. Vol. IV. Containing travels in the empire
of Japan, and in the islands of Java and Ceylon, together
with the voyage home. 3rd ed. London: Printed for F. and C.
Rivington. xix + 310 p. See p. 37-38, 88, 107, 121-22, 177.
Index. 21 cm. [Eng]
92. Thunberg, Charles-Pierre. 1794. Voyage en Afrique et
en Asie, principalment au Japon, pendant les années 17701779. Traduis de Suédois [Voyage to Africa and to Asia,
especially to Japan, during the years 1770-1779. Translated
from Swedish]. Paris: Chez Fuchs, Librarie. xii + 532 p. 20
cm. [Fre]
• Summary: Chapter 10, written by Thunberg in Sept. 1775,
discusses Japan, Nagasaki (Nangasaki), and the Dutch
trade to Batavia [today’s Jakarta]. On page 298-99: The
goods which they buy in Nagasaki consist mainly of rice,
porcelains, umbrellas, silk kimonos, lacquer works, soy
[sauce] (soja ou souï), copper, and large earthenware pots.
Soy [sauce], which is exported in little kegs, is a liquid
or the quintessence of different aromatic ingredients which
is good for stimulating the appetite, and is added in small
quantities to sauces.
The last sentence in the original French: “Le soja que
l’on exporte en petits barils, est une liqueur ou quintessence
de différens ingrédiens aromatiques propre à exciter
l’appétit, en en ajoutant une petite quantité aux sauces.”
Note 1. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the word souï to refer to soy
sauce.
Note 2. Carl Peter Thunberg lived 1743-1828. Address:
Chevalier de l’Ordre de Wasa, Professeur de botanique à
l’Université d’Upsal [Sweden].
93. British Critic: A New Review. 1795. Thunberg’s Travels.
Vol. IV. 6:473-81. Nov. See p. 478. [Eng]
• Summary: This magazine is publishing long excerpts
from Thunberg’s Travels. Before each is a short introduction
(p. 478): “Though soy-sauce is very commonly used in
this country, its composition is but little known. It is a
considerable article of commerce in Japan, and we here find
it thus described.
“’Soy-sauce, which is every where and every day used
throughout the whole empire, I might almost say in every
dish, and which begins even to be made use of in Europe, is
prepared from Soy Beans (Dolichos Soja) and salt, mixed
• Summary: In the chapter on Japanese foods, we read (p.
37-38): “Rice, which is here exceedingly white and welltasted, supplies, with the Japanese, the place of bread; they
eat it boiled with every kind of provisions. Miso soup,
boiled with fish and onions, is eaten by the common people,
frequently three times a day, or at each of their customary
meals. Misos are not unlike lentils, and are small beans,
gathered from the Dolichos soja.” Note 1. The latter
sentence, which is incorrect, led many subsequent early
writers to believe that the seeds of the soy bean were called
miso, or that miso was a type of small bean. Rather, miso is a
paste made from soy beans.
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 53
In the chapter on Japanese agriculture, we read (p. 88):
“Of Beans, Peas, and Lentils, many sorts are cultivated, both
the larger (Phaseoli) and the smaller (Dolichos). Of Daidsu
Beans (Dolichos Soja) the meal is used for dressing victuals,
and the expressed juice for making Soy; as is likewise the
whole Bean for the soup called Miso, which is a daily dish
with the common people. Atsuki [Azuki] Beans likewise
(Phaseolus radiatus) are ground to meal, of which small
cakes are made with sugar.”
Note 2. This is the 2nd earliest English-language
document seen (July 2014) that clearly mentions azuki
beans, which it calls Atsuki Beans. It is also the earliest
English-language document seen (July 2014) that uses the
word Atsuki to refer to azuki beans.
Note 3. It is not clear what Thunberg means by “meal”
when he says “the meal is used for dressing victuals.”
In the chapter on Commerce, after discussing the tea
trade, Thunberg writes (p. 107): “The Tea Trade is confined
entirely to the inland consumption, the quantity exported
amounting to little or nothing. The traffic in Soy [sauce], on
the other hand is more considerable; and as the tea produced
in this country is reckoned inferior to that of China, so the
soy is much better than that which is brewed in China. For
this reason, soy is not only exported to Batavia [today’s
Jakarta], in the wooden barrels in which it is made, but
likewise sold from thence to Europe and to every part of the
East Indies. In some places in Japan too the soy is reckoned
still better than in others; but, in order to preserve the very
best sort, and prevent its undergoing a fermentation, in
consequence of the heat of the climate, and thus being totally
spoiled, the Dutch at the Factory [at Desima / Dezima /
Dejima] boil it up in iron kettles, and afterwards draw it
off into bottles, which are then well corked and sealed [by
applying bitumen / coal tar to the stopper]. This mode of
treatment renders it stronger and preserves it better, and
makes it serviceable for all kinds of sauce. The Silk trade is
indeed in a very flourishing state in the empire...”
In the chapter titled “Residence at Dezima [1776],
Previous to my Return Home,” the author writes (p. 12122): “Soy-sauce, which is every where and every day used
throughout the whole empire, I might almost say in every
dish, and which begins even to be made use of in Europe, is
prepared from Soy Beans (Dolichos Soja) and salt, mixed
with barley or wheat. For this purpose, they cultivate this
species of bean in several places, although it grows in great
plenty wild. Scarcely any kind of legumen [legume] is
more copiously used than this. The seeds are served up in
soups, once or twice a day all the year round, to people of
distinction or otherwise, to the poor and to the rich. Soy is
prepared in the following manner: The beans are boiled till
they become rather soft; afterwards an equal quantity of
pounded barley or wheat is added. These ingredients being
mixed together, are set in a warm place, and covered up
for four and twenty hours, that they may ferment. An equal
quantity of salt is then added to the mixture, and twice and
a half as much water is poured upon it. After it has been
mixed in this manner in an earthen vessel, it must stand well
covered two or three whole months together, during which
period it is necessary however at first for it to be stirred
about several times in the day for several days together. The
liquor is then pressed and strained off, and kept in wooden
vessels. Some provinces furnish better soy than others;
but exclusively of this, it grows better and clearer through
age. Its colour is invariably brown, and its chief excellence
consists in the agreeable salt taste which it possesses.”
While in Colombo, Ceylon, in 1777 the author stated
that “the Dolichos pruriens grew here tolerably common,
with its hairy pods, the hairs of which attaching themselves
to the hands, occasion much itching, which is allayed by oil,
or decoction of rice, and are celebrated as a Vermifuge.”
Note 4. This plant appears in the index as “Dolichos
Soja.”
Note 5. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (March 2009) that contains the term “Miso soup.”
Note 6. On the title page, the author’s name is given
as Carl Peter Thunberg, rather than Karl Peter. Of the four
volumes, only vol. IV bears a date, which is 1795. The
translator’s name is not given, not even in the “Translator’s
preface” nor in any record on WorldCat / OCLC online
bibliographic database. The original text was written in 1776.
Yule & Burnell (1886, p. 651, and 1903, p. 859) state: “1776.
An elaborate account of the preparation of Soy is given in
Thunberg’s Travels, E.T., [vol.] iv. 121-122;”
Note 7. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Oct. 2014) that contains the word “Soy Beans” (or
“Soy-Beans”) (p. 121-22).
Note 8. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2012) that contains the term “Soy-sauce”
(or “soy-sauce”). The Oxford English Dictionary says
(incorrectly): “1818 Todd (transl. Thunberg), Soy-sauce is
prepared from soy-beans (dolichos soja) and salt, mixed with
barley or wheat.”
Note 9. Lewis and Murakami (1923, p. 223) state: “The
third English edition of Charles Peter Thunberg’s Travels
(London 1796) contains an English-Japanese vocabulary
of approximately 1,500 words; this was probably the first
English-Japanese vocabulary ever published. It seems to
have been unknown to our author [Ranald MacDonald]
and his scholars.” Address: Prof. of Botany, Univ. of Upsal
[Uppsala], Sweden.
95. Thunberg, Karl Peter. 1796. Voyages de C.P. Thunberg,
au Japon. Tome second [Voyages of C.P. Thunberg to Japan.
Vol. 2]. Paris: Benoit Dandre. iv + 544 p. See p. 3, 4, 145,
266-68. [Fre]
• Summary: An early traveler to East Asia who mentioned
soyfoods was the Swedish doctor and prof. of botany at the
Univ. of Uppsala, Carl P. Thunberg. In Chapter 20 titled
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 54
“Japanese Foods” he states (p. 267-68): “Three times a day,
with each meal, the people eat miso soup prepared with fish
and leeks. These miso [he apparently thought miso was the
name of a legume; see Thunberg 1796 in English] closely
resemble lentils. They are the small dolic beans of Japan
(ce sont de petites fèves de dolic du Japon).*” (Footnote: *
“Dolichos soja. Lam. Diction. [Lamarck 1790. Dictionary]
No. 28).”
“Miso or soy sauce (Le miso ou la sauce de soya)
constitute the principal food of the Japanese. People of all
levels, great or small, rich or poor, eat them several times a
day year-round. Here is how they are prepared. The beans
are cooked until they are just soft, then they are mixed with
an equal quantity of barley or wheat, and the mixture is
allowed to ferment for 24 hours in a warm place. Now an
equal quantity of salt and 2½ times the amount of water. The
mixture is put in an earthen pot, which is well closed and left
for 2½ months; it is stirred during the initial days. After the
necessary time the liquid is pressed out and stored in wooden
kegs. The inhabitants of certain provinces make better ‘soya’
than those in others. Moreover, the longer it ages, the tastier
and clearer it becomes. It is always brown and its principal
flavor is a pleasant saltiness. The Japanese also eat fish,
boiled or fried in oil” (p. 267-68).
“The tea of Japan is inferior to that of China. However,
Japanese ‘soya’ [soy sauce] is preferable to that of the
Chinese. It is shipped in numerous vats to Batavia [today’s
Jakarta, Indonesia], India, and Europe. The Dutch have
found a way of protecting it from the effects of heat and
of preserving the fermentation. They boil it in an iron pot,
funnel it into bottles, and seal the mouths with pitch. This
liquid retains all its ‘force’ and can be mixed with all other
sauces.” Note 1. All this took place long before Appert’s
invention of canning in 1809 and Pasteur’s invention of
pasteurization in 1862. In fact pasteurization had been
practiced in Japan for 200 to 300 years before this time.
In Chapter 23, “The State of Agriculture in Japan,” the
author notes (p. 291): The Japanese plant a great deal of
rapeseed, and the seed furnishes an excellent oil for lamps.
In Japanese, the plant is named na tanne and the oil na tanne
abra or na tanne no abra (sic, natane abura). “Soy flour
(La farine des fèves de daidsou (Footnote: Dolichos soïa)) is
used in various dishes.
Note 2. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (Nov. 2012) that mentions roasted soy flour, which it
calls La farine des fèves de daidsou.
Note 3. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (Sept. 2014) that uses the term fèves de dolic or the term
fèves de dolic du Japon or the word daidsou or the term fèves
de daidsou or the term Dolichos soya to refer to soybeans.
The liquid that is pressed out is used to make soy sauce
(du soya). The roots are put in a soup named miso, which the
people use daily for nourishment. Small cakes are also made
with the flour of azuki beans (la farine de haricots d’atsouki
(Footnote: Phaseolus radiatus)) mixed with sugar.”
Note 4. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (Jan. 2005) that mentions azuki beans, which it calls
haricots d’atsouki.
Pages 314-15 state: “Their soy sauce (sauce de soya),
which has been introduced by many Europe countries, is
made with soybeans (se fait avec des fèves-soya (Footnote:
Dolichos soya)), barley or wheat, and salt. Although these
beans come spontaneously and abundantly in many places,
the consumption which they make of this flour causes them
to take particular care with the plant’s cultivation.”
Note 5. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term sauce de soya to refer to
soy sauce.
Note 6. This is the 2nd earliest French-language
document seen (Aug. 2014), published in France, in which
the word soya (or Soya) is used in connection with soybeans
or soy sauce. Address: France.
96. Hemmij, Gijsbert. 1797. Diary. In: Leonard Blussé,
Cynthia Viallé, et al, eds. 2004. The Deshima Diaries
Marginalia, 1740-1800. Tokyo: Japan-Netherlands Institute.
xl + 898 p. See p. 707 (#27).
• Summary: 1797 May 12–”I summond the rapporteurs
and handed them three kinds of Dutch cakes and three kinds
of confitures in newly made boxes for the governor. They
returned in the afternoon and assured me that the governor
had been very pleased and he was sending me a reciprocal
present of two flasks of medicinal sake, a couple of boxes
of flour and laxa, and a barrel of miso fish” [fish pickled in
miso]. Address: Opperhoofd (Chief of the Dutch factory),
Deshima, Nagasaki, Japan.
97. Stavorinus, Johan Splinter. 1798. Voyages to the EastIndies. Translated from the original Dutch by Samuel Hull
Wilcocke. 3 vols. London: Printed for G.G. and J. Robinson.
vi + 534 p. See vol. 1, p. 360. [Eng]
• Summary: In Chapter 29, as part of a discussion of Dutch
trade with Japan, the translator adds the following footnotes
not found in the original text (see p. v-vi): Two Dutch ships
go yearly to Japan. They also export “a trifling amount in soy
[sauce], china, lacquered ware, and large silk nightgowns.
The private trade of the Dutch officers and ships’ crews to
Japan, is also very considerable, as well as profitable; they
carry out, camphor, china-root, saffron, Venice treacle,
Spanish liquorice, ratans, spectacles, looking glasses,
watches, manufactured glass, and unicorns’ horns (the horn
of the menodon monoceros), and receive in return, soy, silks,
silk nightgowns, china, lacquered ware, fans, and fine rice”
(p. 360).
There are also extensive notes by the translator
about the Dutch forts and trading posts / factories in Asia
including those on the coast of Coromandel, Negapatnam
[Nagapatnam, the head settlement], Sadraspatnam
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 55
[Zadraspatam, Sadrangapatnam], Pulicat, Sadras, Palicol
[Palikol, Katira], Bemelipatnam, Geldria, Surat; In Japan:
Decima [Deshima], Nangasakki [Nangasaki, Nangasacqui,
Nangasacky, Nangasackij, Nagasaki]. Address: Rear Admiral
in the service of the States General.
98. Oprechte Haarlemse Courant (Haarlem, Netherlands).
1807. Advertentie [Advertisement]. Feb. 14. p. 1, col. 2.
[Dut]
• Summary: Among the goods to be sold is some soy sauce
in bottles and crocks (een partij Soija in Flessen en Potten).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “soija” using
advanced search between 1618 and 1810.
99. Pinkerton, John. 1811. A general collection of the
best and most interesting voyages and travels in all parts
of the world: Many of which are now first translated into
English. Digested on a new plan. Vol. 7. London: Printed for
Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. 820 p. See p. 269.
• Summary: Each book of this 17-volume work is composed
of unnumbered chapters, each describing a different voyage.
One of these (p. 231-270) is “The embassy of Peter de Goyer
and Jacob de Keyzer from the Dutch East India Company to
the Emperor of China in 1655. By John Nieuhoff, Steward to
the Ambassadors. Translated from the Dutch.”
The Introduction begins: “Although China was
discovered over land by Marco Polo the Venetian, towards
the end of the thirteenth century, yet it was very little known
to Europeans, till the Portugueze [Portuguese] arrived there
by sea towards the end of the fifteenth, and the Romish
[Catholic] missioners found admittance into the empire. In
1517, they established a trade at Quan-tong [Guangdong],
commonly called Kanton [Canton]: afterwards they settled
a factory also at Ning Po [Ningbo], called by them Liampo,
on the eastern part of China, and drove a considerable trade
along the coast, between those two famous ports, till their
unsufferable [insufferable] pride and insolence brought
on their destruction every where but at Ma-kau, or Makao
[Macau], an island in the mouth of the river of Kanton
[Pearl River], which they still hold, though under great
restrictions.”
On p. 269 we read that the daily allowance of food
by the two ambassadors (de Goyer and Keyzer) included
“six tael of mison” (possibly miso). Note: A tael is a unit of
weight equal to 1/10 of a catty, or about 50 gm.
“Their secretaries daily allowance was, one katti [catty,
a measure of weight] of fresh meat, five measures of tea, one
katti of meal, one measure of taufoe [tofu],... four measures
of oil, four tael of mison [miso?], one katti of herbs, and one
cup of arrac” [arrack, a strong distilled alcoholic beverage
mainly in South- and Southeast Asia].
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2013) that uses the word “taufoe” to refer to tofu.
Note 2. Kaempfer’s History of Japan–first published in
English in 1727–also appears in this book. The text is almost
identical to the 1727 text. The section about soybeans and
soyfoods is in Chapter 6, pages 697-98.
Note 3. Pinkerton lived 1758-1826. Address:
Cartographer and Author [Born and raised in Scotland;
Moved to London in 1771, then to Paris in 1818].
100. Davies, Benjamin. 1813. A new system of modern
geography: or, A general description of the most remarkable
countries throughout the world;... 3rd ed. Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: Published by Johnson and Warner,... xxiv +
25-447 p. See p. 183.
• Summary: In the chapter on Japan (p. 178-84), the section
titled “Vegetable and animal productions” states (p. 183):
“The ginger, the soy-bean, black pepper, sugar, cotton, and
indigo, though perhaps natives of the more southern regions
of Asia, are cultivated here with great success, and in vast
abundance.”
Note: One interesting section (p. vii-xii) is titled “The
common names of ancient geography, explained by the
synonymous modern names, and arranged in alphabetical
order.” For example: “Albion, now England... Batavia,
now Holland... Belgium, now Flanders... Lusitania, now
Portugal... Lutetia, now Paris... Memphis, now Cairo, the
capital of Egypt... Scandinavia, now Denmark, Norway and
Sweden... Thracia, now Romania... Vindebona, now Vienna,
capital of Austria.”
Note 2. “Vindobona (from Gaulish windo- ‘white’
and bona ‘base/bottom’) was a Celtic settlement and later
a Roman military camp on the site of the modern city of
Vienna in Austria.
“Around 15 BC, the kingdom of Noricum was included
in the Roman Empire. Henceforth, the Danube marked the
border of the empire, and the Romans built fortifications and
settlements on the banks of the Danube, including Vindobona
with an estimated population of 15,000-20,000” (Source:
Wikipedia, at Vindobona, Aug. 2014). Address: [United
States].
101. Milburn, William. 1813. Oriental commerce; containing
a geographical description of the principal places in the East
Indies, China, and Japan, with their produce, manufactures,
and trade... Vol. II. London: Black, Parry & Co. See p. 51920.
• Summary: The subtitle continues “... including the coasting
or country trade from port to port; also the rise and progress
of the trade of the various European nations with the Eastern
world, particularly that of the East India Company, from
the discovery of the passage round the Cape of Good Hope
to the present period; with an account of the company’s
establishments, revenues, debts, assets, &c at home and
abroad. Deduced from authentic documents, and founded
upon practical experience obtained in the course of seven
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 56
voyages to India and China.”
“Soy [sauce]: Is prepared in China and Japan, from a
particular species of bean, in the following manner:–the
beans are boiled till they become rather soft, to which an
equal quantity of wheat or barley is added, and set in a warm
place to ferment; the same quantity of salt is then put to the
mixture, and three parts as much water added to it. After
being properly mixed, it is left to stand, well covered, for
two or three months; it is then pressed, and strained off, and
kept in wooden vessels. Some places produce better soy
[sauce] than others, but exclusively of that, it grows better
and clearer through age; its colour is invariably brown. Japan
soy is esteemed superior to the Chinese, and is an article of
trade from thence to Batavia [Jakarta]. The Dutch, in order to
preserve the best sort, and prevent its fermenting, boil it up,
and afterwards draw it off into bottles, which are then well
corked and sealed.
“Soy should be chosen of a good flavour, not too salt
or too sweet, of a good thick consistence, of a dark brown
colour and clear; when shaken in a glass, it should leave a
coat on the surface, of a bright yellowish brown colour; if it
does not, it is an inferior kind, and should be rejected.”
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (May 2012)
which states that soy can be shaken in a glass to determine
its quality. It is also the first which states that good-quality
soy, “when shaken in a glass,” “should leave a coat on the
surface, of a bright yellowish brown colour...”
“The following are the quantities imported and sold
at the East India sales, in the years 1804 to 1808 inclusive,
together with sale amount and average price per gallon” [see
table below]:
1804: None.
1805: 443 gallons worth £317 (March Sale) and 1125
gallons worth £642 (September Sale), for a total of 1568
gallons worth £959 (average 12 shillings 5 pence per gallon).
1806: 807 gallons worth £477 (September Sale);
(average 11 shillings 10 pence per gallon).
1807: None.
1808: 2148 gallons worth £2022 (September Sale);
(average 18 shillings 10 pence per gallon).
252 gallons of soy are allowed to a ton. Note 2. Total
sold during the 5 years: 4523 gallons worth £3458. Address:
Of the Honourable East India Company’s Service.
102. Serat Centini [The Centini manuscript]. 1815. In: Codex
Orientalis 1814 of the Leiden University Library. Vol. 1. See
p. 295. [Mal]
• Summary: See next page. “Serat” means manuscript or
work or tale. “Centini” (also spelled “Centhini”) refers to a
character in the book. From a letter dated 16 Nov. 1984 from
Dr. S.O. Robson, expert in Javanese languages at the State
University of Leiden in the Netherlands: The Serat Centini
is a classic work of modern Javanese literature, written in
verse. It tells of the adventures of “students” wandering
in the Javanese countryside in search of truth, and in the
course of this story, information (often very detailed) is
given on many different subjects–not just religion but also
various aspects of Javanese culture and life. Hence the term
“encyclopedic” is applied to this work.
On one page the word “tempeh” appears.”
The word for “tempeh” can be seen in detail.
The Serat Centini as we now have it was probably
written around A.D. 1815 on the orders of Sunan Sugih, then
Crown Prince and later Pakubuwana V of Surakarta. The
main author was probably Rangga Sutrasna, although he was
probably assisted by others; there are various traditions on
this point. The work as a whole, however, is quite possibly
based on much older sources. The story is set in the reign of
Sultan Agung (1613-1645), and the descriptions purport to
be of that time.
Codex Orientalis of the Leiden University Library bears
the date 1846; it originated from Surakarta and consists of
five volumes. The text was published in the Verhandelingen
van het Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap voor Kunsten
en Wetenschappen (Batavia, 1912-15), and a summary
of contents was published by Th. Pigeaud (VBG LXXII,
2, Bandung 1933). For further information, see his short
introduction.
The passage quoted here is from Canto 31, stanzas 211213, on page 82 of volume I-II of the printed version referred
to above. It occurs in a description of the prosperous village
Wanamarta, in the context of a reception and meal given
for Jayèngwèsti. This involves all sorts of food. The line
mentioning témpé reads: “onions (or garlic) and uncooked
témpé.”
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2011),
worldwide, that mentions tempeh.
Note 2. This document was first cited for its early
reference to tempeh in The Book of Tempeh, 2nd ed., by
Shurtleff and Aoyagi (1985, p. 145, 169).
103. Tuckey, James Hingston. 1815. Maritime geography
and statistics: or, A description of the ocean and its coasts,
maritime commerce, navigation, &c. &c. &c. Vol. III.
London: Printed for Black, Parry, and Co. Booksellers to the
Hon. East-India Company. vii + 567 p. Index.
• Summary: “The exports from Japan by the Dutch
Company are copper in bats and camphire, each ship’s
cargo consisting of 675O pickle [piculs] of the former, and
364 boxes* of camphire, of 125 lbs. each; all of which are
purchased on the Company’s account only.
“The articles permitted to be purchased by the
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 57
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 58
individuals of the crew are tea, soy [sauce], porcelain, silk
and rice.” Address: A commander in the Royal Navy.
104. Raffles, Thomas Stamford. 1817. The history of Java.
2 vols. London: Black, Parbury & Allen. Vol. 1, xlviii +
479 p. Vol. 2, cclx + 291 p. See vol. I, p. 98. Oxford in Asia
Historical Reprints, Oxford Univ. Press, 1978.
• Summary: In the section titled “Cooking” (Vol. I, p. 98)
we read: “The Chinese prepare from the gédelé [kédelé =
soybean] a species of soy [sauce], somewhat inferior to that
brought from Japan.”
A passage on rice cultivation (Vol. I, p. 116-17) states:
“Besides the annual crop of rice which is raised on the sáwah
lands, a variety of plants are raised upon them as a second
or light crop within the same year. Among these are several
species of káchang or bean... Among the most important
are... kédéle [soybeans]...” “Together with rice are deposited
the seeds of other vegetables, which arrive to maturity at
different periods, chiefly after the rice harvest. The most
common and useful among these is cotton... Next to this are
various leguminous and other plants, which do not interfere
with rice. No less than six or eight kinds of vegetables are
sometimes in this manner seen to shoot up promiscuously in
a single field.”
The section on Java’s “Oil-giving plants” (p. 123) states:
“Of the oil-giving plants there are many. The káchang góring
of the Malay countries, or, as it is indifferently termed by the
Javans, káchang chína, pénden, or tána [peanut] is cultivated
almost exclusively for the purpose of obtaining its oil... It
is never employed as an article of food by itself; but what
remains of it after the oil is expressed, forms an ingredient
for the seasoning of rice... The oil is obtained by grinding the
seeds between two grooved cylinders, and then separating
it either by expression or boiling. The former is chiefly used
by the Chinese, and yields as a refuse the oil-cakes, which I
formerly observed were employed as manure in some of the
gardens near Batavia.”
Raffles (lived 1781-1826) was lieutenant-governor of
Java from 1811 to 1816. He acquired and founded Singapore
on 6 Feb. 1819. A 2nd edition was published in 1830 in
London by J. Murray. Address: Lieutenant-Governor of Java.
105. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1818. Advertentie [Advertisement]. Jan. 31. p. 6, col. 1.
[Dut]
• Summary: By Jan Velthuijsen, on commission, the
following Japanese goods: Soy sauce, saké, miso, pickled
vegetables [ko-no-mono], umeboshi,... (Soija, sakkij, miso,
connomon, meebos).
This same ad appeared in this newspaper on 2 July 1818
(p. 6, col. 1). Right below it was a different ad for a different
ship which also mentioned miso, soy sauce, and saké.
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that mentions miso.
Note 3. Between 1818 and 1899, about 5 records in this
database contain the word miso.
106. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1818. Advertentie [Advertisement]. Feb. 7. p. 6, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: On the ship De Vrougwe Agatha from Canton,
the following Japanese goods: Various fruits, apricots, peach
trees, pickled vegetables [ko-no-mono], miso, soy sauce,
saké,... (konomon, miso, soja, sakkij).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
107. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1818. Advertentie [Advertisement]. Feb. 7. p. 6, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: Batavia, 24 Jan 1818 the following Japanese
goods: porcelains, soy sauce, saké, miso, fruits and other
goods. (porceleinen, soija, sakkij, miso, vruchten en andere
goedern meer).
Directly below this ad is another selling soy sauce, saké.
miso, pickled vegetables, etc.
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
108. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1818. Advertentie [Advertisement]. Feb. 7. p. 6, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: By Leps & Fetmenger on the ship Vrouwe
Agatha, captain R. Witsen, has brought the following goods
from Japan: soy sauce, saké, miso, pickled vegetables, dried
fruits, Japanese rice. (soja, sakkij, miso, conomon, gedroogde
vruchten, Japansche rijst).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
109. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1818. Vendu advertissementen [Advertisements]. Feb. 21. p.
4, col. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: On Monday, the 23rd Feb. 1818, in front of the
warehouse of J. van Reenen & Co., which stands on the east
side of the Groote River, goods for sale include soy sauce
and saké in kegs (soija en sakkij in balies).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
110. Golownin, Capt. Vasilii Mikhailovich [Golovnin,
Mikhaiforich]. 1819. Recollections of Japan, comprising a
particular account of the religion, language, government,
laws and manners of the people, with observations on the
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 59
geography, climate, population & productions of the country.
with observations on the country and the people. To which
is added an account of voyages to the coast of Japan, and of
negotiations with the Japanese, for the release of the author
and his companions, by Captain Rikord. Vol. II. London:
Printed for Henry Colburn. 302 p. See p. 157, 213. No index.
22 cm.
• Summary: Page 157: “... many kinds of beans, which are
a favorite dish of the Japanese; they sometimes eat them
merely boiled in water, sometimes in treacle or soy [sauce];
small beans are often boiled with thick rice, and pass for a
great delicacy. The Japanese soy is also prepared of beans,
and turned sour in casks. They say that three years are
required for preparing the best soy.”
Page 213: Footnote: “The imports by the Dutch ships
at Nangasaki, consisted, in 1775, of sugar, elephant’s teeth,
Japan wood for dying, tin, lead, bar-iron, fine chintzes, Dutch
cloths of various colours and fineness, silks, spices, tortoiseshell, saffron, Venice treacle, Spanish liquorice, canes,
optical glasses, watches, and the sea-unicorns’ horns from
Greenland, which bear a high value in Japan. The exports
were copper, raw camphor, lackered wood work, porcelain,
silks, rice and soy” [sauce]. Address: Russian Navy.
111. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1822. Vendu advertissementen [Sales department (Ad)]. June
29. p. 6, col. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: On Tuesday 2nd July 1822, in front of the
warehouse of Messrs. Brouwer, Nolthonius & Co., on the
Groote River, goods to be sold include tea,... soy sauce,
saké,... (soija, sakkij,...).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
112. Livett & Gonsalves. 1823. Advertentie
[Advertisements]. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia,
Netherlands Indies). April 26. p. 2, cols. 1-2. [Dut]
• Summary: Just arrived by the English ship Lonach, from
London: excellent cognac brandy, fine Devonshire cider,...
sausages and anchovies, mushroom ketjap, durham mustard
(sauciisen en anchovis, musroom ketjap, durham mosterd).
Note 1. This brief ad (near bottom left of page) was
found by searching the Dutch-language database http://
kranten.delpher.nl/ for “ketjap” using advanced search
between 1618 and 1840.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that contains the word ketjap. Between 1823
and 1899, about 691 records in this database contain the
word kedele.
Note 3. This exact same ad appeared in this same
newspaper on May 3, p. 2.
Note 4. We do not know whether or not soy sauce was
one of the ingredients of mushroom ketjap. It may well have
been, since today the word ketjap, in Dutch, means “soy
sauce.” Address: Groote rivier-straat [Great River Street].
113. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1824. Te koop [The purchase / bargain (Ad)]. Jan. 24. p. 8,
col. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: By Leps & Co., on commission, the following
goods: saké,... uncooked / unpasteurized soy sauce, miso,
pickled vegetables (sakkij,... ongekookte soija, miso,
connomon).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “miso” using
advanced search between 1618 and 1855.
114. Titsing, Isaac. 1824. Bereiding van de Soija [Preparation
of soy sauce]. Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch
Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen 3:159-60.
Published in Batavia. [Dut]
• Summary: “The preparation of soy sauce (soija) is simple,
and is performed in the following way:
“One takes a gantang (a local Malay unit of measure
equivalent to 3.125 kg of rice, or about a gallon) of boiled
miso-beans (gestoofde miso-boonen). A gantang of boiled
wheat or barley groats (gestoofde tarw of gort), and as many
roasted and ground (gebrande en gemalen) wheat or barley
groats as one deems to be sufficient to give it the necessary
color. One then mixes these three together and encloses the
mixture in a cupboard to let it mold, for which 8 days are
required. After this mixture has become completely green
from the mold, it is taken out of the cupboard and allowed to
dry in the sun for one full day.
“Next one takes 2½ gantang of boiled water and one
gantang of pure salt, which one dissolves in the water
completely; after this it is allowed to stand for 24 hours, until
the dirt from the salt has sunk and the water has turned cold.
The pure water is then strained off, followed by the addition
of the above-mentioned molded substance, which is then
stirred with a shovel for 14 days.
“One uses wheat or barley groats for this. The difference
is that when the soy sauce (soija) is made out of barley
groats, it will be much thinner, whereas that made from
wheat will be much thicker, have more body, and look like
ink.
“The soy sauce (soija), which the Chinese call ketjap
is used like a very delicious and tasty salt with roasted flesh
foods, both in Batavia [Jakarta] and in the Netherlands.”
Note: The previous sentence is very interesting! In
1824, in the capital of today’s Indonesia, the Chinese called
soy sauce ketjap. Mr. Titsingh [Titsing] lived 1744-1812.
He wrote a lot about the Dutch East Indies and Japan. Note
that in 1880, Mr. A. Paillieux, in the appendix to his long
and excellent article on the soybean in Bulletin de la Societe
d’Acclimatation (Oct. p. 594-95), gives a French translation
of this article but cites the original year of publication as
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 60
1781, Vol. III. We believe the date should be 1824 instead.
The resulting soy sauce product is more like Chinesestyle soy sauce [kecap asin] than Indonesian-style soy sauce,
which typically includes sugar plus various herbs and spices.
It is very interesting that Titsingh chooses to use the word
soija (based on the Japanese word shoyu = soy sauce) rather
than the local Malay word ketjap to describe how ketjap is
made. Address: Netherlands.
115. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1825. Vendu departement [Sales department (Ad)]. Oct. 5. p.
6, col. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: On Tuesday 4th Oct. 1825, in front of the
warehouse of J. van Dijk, at Weltevrede, goods to be sold
include Japanese soy sauce, saké and flour, etc. (japansche
soija, sakkij en meel, enz.).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
116. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1826. Advertentie [Advertisements]. Jan. 25. p. 7, col. 2.
[Dut]
• Summary: By Westerman, de Nijs and Co. goods from
Japan to be sold include soy sauce and saké in little pots,...
(soija en sakkij in balies en kannetjes).
Note 1. Kannetjes are little pots for liquids usually fitted
with a handle and a spout.
Note 2. This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
117. Bataviasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands Indies).
1826. Verkoop van goedern [Sale of goods (Ad)]. Feb. 1. p.
7, col. 3. [Dut]
• Summary: Westerman, de Nijs and Co. are now selling the
following goods from Japan: soy sauce and saké in little pots
(soija en sakkij in balies en kannetjes).
Note 1. Kannetjes are little pots for liquids usually fitted
with a handle and a spout.
Note 2. This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
118. Nahuijs van Burgst, Huibert Gerhard. 1827. Brieven
over Bencoolen, Padang, het rijk van Memang-Kabau,
Rhiouw, Sincapoera en Poelo-Pinang. Tweede, vermeerderde
druk [Letters from Bencoolen {Begkulu}. Padang,... 2nd
printing]. Breda: Hollingérus Pijpers. xxi + 288 p. 22 cm.
[Dut]
• Summary: Ketjap (soja) is mentioned on page 62.
Note 1. This is very interesting. The writer seems to be
saying either that in Indonesia (1) Ketjap and soy sauce are
identical; or that (2) Ketjap (Indonesian soy sauce) is made
from soybeans.
Note 2. This is a biographical description of the author’s
travels in today’s Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaya.
Address: Colonel, Ridder van de Militaire Willemsorde.
119. Hamilton, Walter. 1828. The East-India gazetteer:
containing particular descriptions of the empires, kingdoms,
principalities, provinces, cities, towns, districts, fortresses,...
2nd ed. Vol. 1 of 2. London: Printed for Parbury, Allen, and
Co. See p. 148. Two (folded) maps. 23 cm. [6 ref]
• Summary: Under the entry for Batavia: “The Dutch being
the only nation that keeps up an intercourse with Japan,
a ship is annually despatched from Batavia laden with
kerseymeres, fine cloths, clock-work, spices, elephant’s teeth,
sapan wood, tin and tortoiseshell. The returns from Japan
consist principally of ingots of the finest red copper, which
is converted into a clumsy sort of coin for paying the native
and European troops. Various other articles are smuggled in
by the officers such as sabre-blades of an excellent temper,
Japan camphor, soy [sauce], china-ware, lacquered ware,
and silk goods. The cargo always contains a present for the
emperor of Japan, and he in return sends one to the Governor
general, consisting usually of...
“A.D. 1619, John Pieterson Coen, the Dutch governor,
took the town of Jacatra by assault, and in a great measure
destroyed it. He afterwards founded another city, not exactly
on the same spot, to which he have the name of Batavia. In
1811 it surrendered at discretion to the British army under
Sir Samuel Auchmuty... During the British possession of
Batavia, which lasted until 19th August 1816, its condition
was greatly improved and even its pestilential atmosphere
somewhat ameliorated by the great pains bestowed on the
draining of the marshes, the cleaning of the town, and the
removing of the Europeans to the elevated tracts of the
interior.”
Note: A kerseymere is a fine woolen cloth with a fancy
twill weave. Address: M.R.A.S.
120. Nederlandsch-Indisch Handelsblad (Batavia,
Netherlands Indies). 1829. Aangebragt [Arrivals (Ad)]. April
8. p. 5, col. 4. [Dut]
• Summary: By the Dutch ship Cornelis Houtman, G. de
Jong, from Japan. 5 kegs of soy sauce. 50 kegs of saké. (50
balies soija; 50 dito [= balies] sakkij).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
121. Minister of State, Commissioner General of the
Netherlands Indies (De Minister van Staat, Kommissaris
Generaal over Nederlandsch Indië). 1829. Officeel gedeelte
[Official Section]. Javasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands
Indies). Dec. 22. p. 1-2. See page 2, near top left. [Dut]
• Summary: This is a list of professions, trades, businesses,
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 61
and activities subject to taxation (Beroep, Neringen,
bedrijven en Handteringen aan de belasting onderworpen),
as written across the top of the first and widest column. The
list is divided into classes (5th and 6th listed here partially)
and their rate of taxation. In the 5th class (near the top left
of page 2), soy sauce, tofu, soybean jiang, and bean sprouts
(ketjap, tahoe, touw tjam [dou-jiang] en touwge [tauge]).
Across the top of the 2nd and 3rd columns: Amount of
the license [Begrag der Recognitie]. Below that, across the
top of the 2nd column: Alaandelijks. Across the top of the
3rd column: Daily [Dagelijks].
In the first column is “f5” which means “5 florins or
guilders,” the unit of Dutch currency. “10 ct.” means “10
cents.”
Note: This long 2-page list was found by searching
the Dutch-language database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for
“ketjap” using advanced search between 1618 and 1840.
122. Armstorff (J.G.). 1830. Verkoop van goederen [Sale
of goods (Ad)]. Javasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands
Indies). Feb. 6. p. 4, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: Salatiga, 6th Jan. 1830. Messrs. De Nijs, Brown
and Co., on the Jonge Jacobus, a ship from Japan, have for
sale, soy sauce, saké (soija, sakkij,...).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
123. Dijk (J. van). 1830. Verkoop van goederen [Sale of
goods (Ad)]. Javasche Courant (Batavia, Netherlands
Indies). May 11. p. 4, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: Soerabana / Soerabaja. 1 May 1930. Goods for
also include soy sauce and saké (soija en sakkij).
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sakkij”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1830.
124. First report (Part II). Minutes of evidence taken before
the select committee of the House of Commons appointed
to enquire into the present state of affairs of the East-India
Company, and into the trade between Great Britain, the
East-Indies, and China;... 1830. London: Printed for Parbury,
Allen and Co. p. 246-418. See p. 385.
• Summary: On 16 March 1830, Mr. John Deans is called
in and examined. He has resided constantly in the Eastern
Archipelago of the East Indies for upwards of twenty years.
For most of the time he lived in Java.
#3609. “Can you give the Committee any information
with respect to the trade with Japan?–The Dutch are allowed
to trade with Japan, and they are only allowed to send two
ships. The trade was conducted until two years ago by the
Dutch government of Java. I have here a list of the cargoes in
the year 1825, both the imports and exports.”
#3610. “Will you state the principal items of the trade?–
In the Japan trade in 1825 there were two ships, amounting
in all to about 1,300 tons; one was 600 and the other was 700
tons... The import cargoes [to the East Indies from Japan]
consisted of... sackie and soy [sauce], 14,332 f. [Dutch
florins];...”
125. Hogendorp, C.S.W. de. 1830. Coup d’oeil sur l’île de
Java et les autres possessions néerlandaises dans l’archipel
des Indes [A glance around the isle of Java and the other
Dutch possessions in the East Indies]. Brussels: C.J. de Mat.
xii + 422 p. Folded color map. 24 cm. [Fre]
• Summary: Page 158: Under the Malay name of katjang
idjoe, the Chinese and some indigenous people cultivate a
legume which is quite like the pea (phaseolus radiatus), from
which is made on Java a sort of soy sauce (soya), which is
called ketjap.
Note: Soy sauce in Java is made from the soybean, not
from the mung bean (katjang idjoe). In Java, soy sauce is,
indeed, called ketjap.
Page 204: The Europeans burn coconut oil in their
lamps; and for this use it is preferable to bean oil (l’huile de
katjang) [probably soy bean oil].
A long table (p. 396-97) shows the items to be taken
on an expedition to Japan in 1827. The items exported from
Japan on the return trip will consist mainly of refined copper,
camphor, silk cloth,... porcelain, soy sauce (du soya), saké
(du sackie),... Address: Graaf [Count], Knight of the Legion
of Honor, Former Resident of Batavia, Buitenzorg, and
Crawang.
126. Siebold, Philipp Franz von. 1830. Synopsis plantarum
oeconomicarum universi regni Japonici [Synopsis of
the economic plants from the entire empire of Japan].
Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van
Kunsten en Wetenschappen 12:1-74. See p. 54-57. Also first
table at end. [Lat; Dut]
• Summary: The English translation of this periodical
title is: “Transactions of the Batavian Society of Arts and
Sciences.” Batavia roughly corresponds to today’s Jakarta on
the island of Java, Indonesia. This work lists 447 economic
plants, including the soybean. The section on Leguminaceæ
[sic, Leguminosæ] (p. 54+), mentions plants of the genera
Dolichos (incl. D. hirsutus or Kudsu / Kudzu), Sooja,
Phaseolus, Pisum, Vicia, Medicago, Arachis, Glycyrrhiza,
and Mimorsa. There are two species of soybeans: Sooja
Japonica, the cultivated soybean, and Sooja nomame, the
wild soybean. The genus and its species and varieties are
described as follows (p. 56):
“CLXXVIII. Sooja, Moench. Sieb. (Sooja du Japon).
296 S. Japonica, Sieb. Sooju vernacular Daisu, Japan.
Varieties, grouped by color: a. White seeds. Daisu,
Japan. b. White fuscis seeds. Tobimame, Japan. c. Fuscis
seeds. Sinsjumame, Japan. d. Black round seeds. Kuromame,
Japan. a. Black flattened seeds. Kurotokorosun, Japan. a.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 62
Greenish seeds. Awomame, Japan.
Uses: To make Sooju, Miso, Toofu (shoyu, miso, and
tofu).
297 S. nomame, Sieb. Nomame ac Jawaraketsmai, Japan
(v.v.). [vidi vivam = I have seen a living plant specimen.]
Plantae sponte crescentis folia adhuc tenera pro potu Thea
colliguntur.
At the end of this article are two large fold-out tables,
each 30 by 18 inches, and each titled “Synoptic Table of
Plant Uses.” Each table contains six vertical double columns.
References to soy appear only in table I. At the bottom right
corner of the first is written in Latin: “Dabam in Insula
Dezima mensi Novembris 1827, Dr. von Siebold.” This
translates as: “Given [as a letter for delivery] from the island
of Dezima [Deshima], November 1827, Dr. von Siebold.”
The plants are divided into categories by type of use. For
example: I. Simple foods: A. Cereal grains. B. Legumes.
C. Fruits, etc. Under each category is a numbered list of
the scientific names of the Japanese plants in that category,
followed by its name written in both katakana and Chinese
characters. Soy-based uses include: IA. Simple foods
(Alimenta simplicia) (columns 1-4): Legumes (Legumina). 1.
Sooja Japonica, Sieb. Daizu, “Yellow + Bean.”
Note 1. This is the second earliest document seen (June
1999) written by a European or Westerner in which Chinese
characters are used to write the name of the soybean or
related products.
II. Composite foods (Alimenta composita) (columns
4-5). B. For the sauce “Sooju.” Shoyu. Sooja Japonica, Sieb.
C. For the paste (pulto) “Miso.” Miso. Sooja Japonica,
Sieb. plus rice and barley
D. For the cake (placenta) “Toofu.” Tôfu. Sooja
Japonica, Sieb. Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language
or Latin-language document seen (April 2013) that uses the
word “Toofu” or the word “Tôfu” to refer to tofu.
P. For the sprouts (germinatione artifaali) “Mogasi.”
Moyashi. Soja Japonica, Sieb.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen by Siebold
in which the soybean is mentioned. This document also
contains the earliest date connected with Siebold and
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 63
germinatione artifaali, “Mogasi.” Moyashi. Soja Japonica.
Note 5. Siebold was born on 17 Feb. 1796 in Würzburg
[Bavaria, Germany]. In 1821, as a young ship’s doctor, he
arrived in Japan, where he worked as a doctor at Deshima
near Nagasaki for the Dutch colony. Illustrations show him
as a younger and older man.
Also: Column 1 of table 1 also mentions: 13. Coix
lachryma, P.S., suudama [Job’s tears]. 2. Phaseolus atsuki,
Japon, Azuki. “Red + Small + Bean.” 12. Arachis hypogaea,
L.E. Rakkasei [peanut]. “Fall + Flower + Bean.” Column 2
mentions Sesamum Orientale, P.S., goma [sesame seeds].
Column 3 mentions the wild soybean (Sooja nomame),
Amaranthus oleraceus, A. Japonicus, and A. bicolor. Column
4 also includes sea vegetables (kaiso).
Column 5 mentions ame [grain syrup], fu [wheat gluten
cakes], soba, somen [wheat noodles], mochi, konnyaku,
kudzu, and tokoroten. III. Medicinal foods (Medicamina)
(columns 5-6).
soybeans (Nov. 1827). His name on the title page is written
“De. de Siebold.”
Note 4. This is the earliest Latin-language document
seen (Jan. 2013) that mentions soy sprouts, which it calls
127. Don, George. 1832. A general system of gardening and
botany: Containing a complete enumeration and description
of all plants hitherto known; ...Founded upon Miller’s
Gardener’s Dictionary, and arranged according to the natural
system. Vol. 2. London: C.J.G. and F. Rivington. 875 p. See
p. 356-57 (Soja), 220-21 (Glycine). Index at front. 27 cm. [3
ref]
• Summary: This work was published in 4 volumes between
1831 and 1838. It was “caused to be prepared” by the
proprietors of Miller’s Gardener’s and Botanist’s Dictionary.
The alphabetical arrangement of genera used by Miller was
discarded. “It only remained, therefore, to choose between
the Linnæan artificial method, and the Natural System
of Jussieu; but the numerous advantages of the latter,
particularly in an extensive work like the present, were too
apparent to leave any doubt in the mind of the Editor as to
which he ought to adopt... In the Linnæan artificial method,
it often happens, that genera, intimately related, are separated
far apart into different classes and orders, merely on account
of the difference in the number of their stamens and pistils;
a circumstance now found in many instances scarcely to be
of sufficient importance, even to separate species, still less
genera... The plan of the present work is founded on that
of M. de Candolle, in his invaluable works entitled Regni
Vegetabilis Systems Naturale and Prodromus, with such
alterations as were rendered necessary by the rapid increase
of science, and with numerous additions of new genera and
species...” Like Miller, Don classifies soybeans in the genus
Soja.
“CXC. SOJA (sooja is the name of a sauce prepared
from the seeds by the Japanese). Moench. meth. 153. Savi,
diss. 1824. p. 16. D.C. legum. mem. ix. prod. 2. p. 396.
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term “sooja” to refer to soy
sauce.
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 64
“Lin. Syst. Diadélphia, Decándria. Calyx bibracteolate
at the base, 5-cleft, the 3 lower segments straight and acute,
but the 2 upper ones are joined together beyond the middle.
Corolla with an ovate vexillum, which stands on a short
stipe, and with an oblong straight keel.” Note 2. A Dictionary
of Botany, by Little and Jones (1980) defines vexillum
(plural: vexilla) as “See Banner.” Banner is defined as “The
broad uppermost petal of a papilionaceous corolla as in
the irregular flowers of certain members of the pea family,
Fabaceae. Synonym: Standard or vexillum.”
“Stamens diadelphous, the tenth one approximate,
but certainly distinct. Stipe of ovary not surrounded by
a sheath at the base. Style short. Legume oblong, 2-5
seeded, membranous; the seeds intercepted by cellular
dissepiments. Seeds ovate, compressed.–A hispid erect herb,
with pinnately-trifoliate leaves, and with the flowers either
aggregate in the axils of the leaves on short pedicels, or
disposed in short peduncalate racemes.
“1 S. híspida (Moench. l. c.) Annual. Hardy. Native of
Japan, East Indies, and the Moluccas. Dólichos Soja, Li.
spec. 1621. Jacq. icon. rar. t. 145. Soja Japónica, Savi, diss.
1. c. Kæmpf. amoen. 837 and 838, with a figure. Corolla
violaceous, hardly longer than the calyx.
“The seeds, which are usually called Miso [sic, error
based on Miller 1807] in Japan, are put into soups, and are
the most common dish there, insomuch that the Japanese
frequently eat them three times a day. The Soja of the
Japanese, which is preferred to the Kitjap of the Chinese, is
prepared from the seeds, and is used in almost all their dishes
instead of common salt. The Chinese also have a favourite
dish made of these seeds, called ten-hu [sic, teu-hu, i.e. tofu]
or tau-hu, which looks like curd, and though insipid in itself,
yet with proper seasoning is agreeable and wholesome.
“Var. Beta, pállida (D.C. prod 2. p. 396.) flowers
yellow; seeds white. Roxb. [Roxburgh] hort. beng. p. 55.
“Hispid Soja. Fl. [Flowering] July, Aug. Clt. [Cultivated
since] 1790. Pl. [Plant] 1½ foot.
“Cult [Culture and propagation]. The seeds of this plant
only require to be sown in a warm sheltered situation in the
month of May.”
Under Phaseolus, Don lists a species named Phaseolus
max, following Linnaeus and Rumphius, but he apparently
did not confuse this with the soybean (listed on the same
page under Soja hispida), since he noted that the species was
not sufficiently known, the seeds were black, about the size
of coriander-seeds, and that Max is the Spanish name of the
plant.
On p. 220 we read: “XCV. Pueraria (in honour of
M.N.N. Puerari, a professor at Copenhagen [Denmark]).
D.C. ann. sc. nat. 1825. jan. p. 29. Leg. mem.vi. prod.2.
p. 240. Lin. syst. Monadélphia, Decándria.” Species: P.
tuberosa, P. Wallichii.
George Don, son of George Don (1764-1814), was a
British plant collector and nurseryman, born in Scotland, and
lived 1798-1856. He collected plants on various expeditions
for the Horticultural Society of London in Brazil, West
Indies, and Sierra Leone. One of the most indefatigable and
accurate botanists. Philip Miller lived 1691-1771. Note the
similarity of the section on food uses of soybean seeds to that
of Miller (1807). Address: England.
128. Henschel, August Wilhelm Eduard Theodor. 1833. Vita
G.E. Rumphii, Plinii Indici. Accedunt specimen materiae
Rumphianae medicae clavisque Herbarii et Thesauri
amboinensis [Life of G.E. Rumpf / Rumph (Rumphius),
the Pliny of the Indies. To which are added a specimen of
Rumphius’ medicinals and a key to the herbarium and the
treasury of plants of the island of Ambon / Amboina]. PhD
thesis, Vratislaviae [Wroclav, Poland]. xiv + 215 p. See p.
181. [Lat]*
• Summary: On page 118-19, under XXX. Papilionaceae, the
soybean is not mentioned. But in appendix A, titled “Clavis
Herbarii Amboinensis” [“The key to Rumphius’ Herbarium
Amboinense], on page 181 headed “Liber IX. Tomus V”
[Book 9. Vol. 5; the volume and book in which the soybean
is described by Rumphius in 1747], the table states: “Tab.
20. Cap. 140. Rumphiana nomina et Amboinica: Cadelium.
Cadelie. Recentorium nomina [recent names]: Soja hirsuta
DC [De Candolle]. (see/sec. Lour. [Loureiro]) Phaseolus
Max. Encycl.” Henschel is apparently saying that the plant
named Cadelium or Cadelie by Rumphius has more recently
been known as Soja hirsuta.
Merrill (1917, p. 275), discussing changes in
nomenclature of the soybean, states: “By Henschel and by
Pritzel it has been also correctly referred to Soja hispida
Moench., another synonym of Glycine max Merr.” It is
not clear whether Merrill was referring to another work by
Henschel or whether he mistakenly transcribed “hirsuta” as
“hispida.
Note: Vratislaviae, where the author wrote his thesis,
was later called Vrotslav, Wroclav, Wreslaw, Breslau,
Breslaw, or Breslavia. It is a university city on the Oder
(Odra) River in today’s Poland, but was formerly in Prussian
Lower Silesia. Two other works written by this author are
listed as being published in Breslau in 1820 and 1837.
129. Quarterly Review (London). 1834. English-language
reviews of two Dutch-language articles about Japan. 52:292317. Nov. [2 ref]
• Summary: The articles are: 1. Japan, voorgesteld in
Schetsen over de Zeden en Gebruiken van dat Rijk; byzonder
over de Ingezetenen der Stad Nagasaky. Door G.F. Meijlan,
Opperhoofd aldaar.
2. Bijdrage tot de Kennis van het Japansche Rijk. Door
J. F. van Overmeer Fischer, Ambteenaar van Neer- landsch
Indie...
“Japan” is mentioned on pages 292-316; 576-77.
However soy is mentioned only on p. 307. The Japanese
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 65
“have an aversion to fat or grease, which strongly
distinguishes their cookery from that of the Chinese, and
we may add the Tartar family in Europe. Poultry are much
cultivated; pheasants and various sorts of game afford the
squires of Japan ample occupation in their pursuit. The staple
of their animal food, however, is afforded by their seas and
rivers; and every product of both, says Mr. Meylan, from
the whale to the cockle, is turned to account, down even to
the whalebone itself, which is scraped and powdered into a
ragout. This dish, as well as the raw dolphin, eaten with soy,
sakki, and mustard, although Mr. Fischer speaks favourably
of it, we can spare without envy to the Japanese and the
gentlemen of the factory.”
130. Titsingh, Isaac. trans. 1834. Nipon o daï itsi ran: ou,
Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh
[Annals of the Japanese emperors. Translated by Isaac
Titsingh, edited by and Julius H. Klaproth]. Paris: Printed for
the Oriental translation fund of Great Britain and Ireland. 3 +
xxxvi + 460 p. See p. 345. 31 cm. [Fre]
• Summary: Page 343 states that 1444 was the first year of
the Bunnan (Boun an) era. In the third month of this year,
there fell from the sky-blue vault the beans called miso*
and the red beans (des fèves rouges) [azuki]. (Footnote: *In
Chinese Ta teou, Dolichos soya. [Klaproth] The two Chinese
characters for soybean are shown. written from right to left).
Note 1. This is the third earliest document seen (June
1999) written by a European or Westerner in which Chinese
characters are used to write the name of the soybean or
related products.
Note 2. The meaning of this entry is not clear. Isaac
Titsingh [Titsing] lived 1744-1812. Julius Heinrich Klaproth
lived 1783-1835. The title pages states that this work was
translated by M. Isaac Titsingh with the aid of several
interpreters attached to the Dutch factory or settlement at
Nagasaki. The work includes a glance at the mythological
history of Japan by Mr. J. Klaproth.
131. Dictionnaire des productions de la nature et de l’art
[Dictionary of the productions of nature and of art...]. 1836.
Brussels, Belgium: Imprimerie de Balleroy. See Vol. 2, p.
237. [Fre]
• Summary: Soja. Soy sauce (Le soja) is a liquid (liqueur)
prepared with the seeds of the dolic of Japan [soybean]. The
dolic is a plant of the leguminous family and of the genus of
diadelphia decandria (diadelphie déandrie): it contains 16
known species.
Note 1. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term Le soja to refer to soy
sauce.
Note 2. The subtitle of this book is: Qui sont l’objet du
commerce tant de la Belgique que de la France [Which are
the object of commerce for both Belgium and France].
132. Siebold, Philipp Franz von; Busk, M.M. 1841. Manners
and customs of the Japanese, in the nineteenth century: From
recent Dutch residents of Japan, and the German of Dr. Ph.
Fr. von Siebold. London: John Murray. xi + 423 p. 20 cm.
No index.
• Summary: This book was compiled from earlier sources,
especially those of the first three physicians at Dejima, Japan.
Philipp Franz von Siebold, a learned German, lived
1796-1866. Note Sieb. & Zucc. Siebold’s German book titled
Nippon was published in 1897. Japan is largely an unknown
country. Europeans are excluded except for the Dutch
factory at Dezima [Dejima]. Siebold, “like his talented and
indefatigable predecessors, Kaempfer and Thunberg, held the
situation of physician to the factory.”
In the chapter on “Banquets” we read (p. 186): “At
entertainments of this description, each guest is served with
a portion of every dish in a small bowl. Another bowl is
placed beside him, and kept constantly replenished with rice,
whilst the sauces and other condiments, of which, besides
soy [sauce], are salted ginger and salted fish, are handed
round by the servants of both sexes, who are in constant
attendance.”
The chapter on “Husbandry” states (p. 329): “Barley and
wheat are likewise grown–the former for feeding the cattle;
the latter is little valued, and chiefly used for cakes and soy.
This last is made by fermenting together, under ground,
wheat, a peculiar kind of bean, and salt. Beans of all sorts,
some other vegetables, and various roots, are sedulously
cultivated,...”
“Dr. Von Siebold’s Japanese museum [at Leyden] is said
to be the finest in Europe, and far richer and in every respect
superior to the Japanese rooms in the Royal Museum at the
Hague.” (p. 297). Mrs. M.M. Busk is listed by some as the
compiler of this book, but her name does not appear in this
1841 edition.
Note: Soy is not mentioned in this book.
133. Waterston, William. 1843. A cyclopædia of commerce,
mercantile law, finance, and commercial geography:...
Edinburgh, Scotland: Oliver & Boyd; London: Simpkin,
Marshall, & Co. iv + 684 + 39 + 128 p. 23 cm.
• Summary: The section titled “Soy” (p. 627) states: “Soy,
a peculiar savoury sauce made from the bean of the Soja,
a species of Dolichos growing in the eastern parts of Asia.
Genuine soy is well flavoured, thick, brown, and clear;
and when shaken in a glass, it should leave a coat on the
surface of a bright yellowish brown colour. It is imported
from Canton, but the best is brought from Japan by way of
Batavia” [today’s Jakarta in the Dutch East Indies].
Note 1. Following p. 672 (the end of the basic
cyclopædia) is a one-page table titled “Tariff of duties
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 66
exigible in the United Kingdom.” For each
imported item there are two rates: (1) From foreign
countries, and (2) From British possessions. Tariffs
are levied on beans (10 pence/bu), “oil-seed cakes”
(1 shilling/ton), and some seeds (“Cole, flax,
hemp, rape, sesamum;” 1 pence/qr [pence/quarter;
in the UK a “quarter” is usually a quarter of a
hundredweight {112 lb} or 28 lbs]).
Note 2. No soybeans or soy cakes were being
imported to England at this time. Soy [sauce]
is not mentioned. At the end of the book is an
alphabetical “Supplement” and three maps of Great
Britain.
Note 3. This is the earliest English-language
document seen (March 2005) that mentions “rape”
seeds (or the rape plant), or that mentions “Cole” a
seed very similar or identical to rape seed.
Note 4. This is the earliest English-language
document seen (Sept. 2006) that contains the term
“oil-seed” (or “oil seed”).
Note 5. This is the earliest English-language
document seen (Sept. 2005) that contains the
term “oil-seed cake” (or “oil-seed cakes” or “oil
seed cake”). Address: Accountant, Edinburgh
[Scotland].
134. Siebold, Philipp Franz von. 1844. Liste des plantes
anciennement et nouvellement importées du Japon et de
la Chine, cultivées dans la pépinière de la Société Royale
pour l’encouragement de l’horticulture, outre quelques
éclaircissements historiques sur l’importation de plantes du
Japon depuis l’anneé 1824 jusqu’ en 1844 [List of plants
imported from Japan and China in recent and ancient
times, cultivated in the nursery of the Royal Society for
the Encouragement of Horticulture, plus some historical
clarifications on the importation of plants from Japan
from 1824 to 1844]. Annuaire de la Societe Royale pour
l’Encouragement de l’Horticulture dans les Pays-Bas p.
1-39. (Publ. by C.L. Blume and Ph. F. von Siebold, Leiden).
[Fre]*
Address: Leiden, The Netherlands.
135. Siebold, Ph. Fr. de; Zuccarini, J.G. 1845. Florae
Japonicae familiae naturales, adjectis generum et specierum
exemplis selectis [Flora of Japan: Natural families with
genera and selected examples of species]. Abhandlungen
der Mathematisch-Physikalischen Classe der Koeniglich
Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Munich). Vol.
4, no. 3, part 2. See p. 119. Reprinted as a monograph in
Muenchen, Germany, 1851. [3 ref. Lat]
• Summary: This work by Philipp Franz von Siebold and
Joseph G. Zuccarini first gave the soybean its present genus
name, Glycine. It also gave the wild soybean its present
scientific name Glycine soja.
“9. Glycine DC.
“14. Gl. Soja Sieb. et Zuccar.–Gl. volubilis retrorsum
hirsuta, foliis longe petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis acutis
vel acuminatis hirtis, intermedio pedicellato bistipellato,
stipulis parvis linearibus, stipellis setaceis, racemis
axillaribus 8–12-floris petiolo multo brevioribus, floribus
parvis, inferioribus 3–4 tantum fertilibus, leguminibus
linearibus compressis subfalcatis hirsutis 2–3-spermis, styli
basi uncinata terminatis, seminibus trausversim ellipticis
compressiusculis.–An hic Glyc. javanica Thunb. Act. Linn.
II. p. 340 excl. Synon?”
“10. Soja Mönch.
“15. S. hispida Mönch. Dolichos Soja L.–Soja japonica
Savi. Daidsu vel Mame Kämpf. Amoen pag. 837 c. ic. opt.,
ubi et condimenti conditio effuse describitur.”
Note: The year of publication is also given as 18431846.
136. Serat Centini [The Book of Centini]. 1846. In: Codex
Orientalis 1814 of the Leiden University Library. Vol. 1.
See p. 295. Reprinted in Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk
Bataviaasch Genootschap voor Kunsten en Wetenschappen
(Batavia, 1912-15), Vol, I-II. p. 82, Canto 31, stanza 212.
[Ind]
• Summary: Mentions tempeh.
137. Waterston, William. 1847. A cyclopædia of commerce,
mercantile law, finance, commercial geography, and
navigation. New ed. Containing the present tariff and an
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 67
essay on commerce. London: Henry G. Bohn. iv + 684 + 39
+ 128 p. 23 cm.
• Summary: The section titled “Soy” (p. 627) is identical to
that in the 1843 edition. Address: Esq., mercantile agent and
accountant [England].
138. Rundall, Thomas; Adams, William. 1850. Memorials of
the empire of Japon: In the XVI and XVII centuries. London:
Printed for the Hakluyt Society (Series 1, No, 8). xxviii +
186 p. 22 cm. Facsimile edition reprinted in 1968 by B.
Franklin (New York). [20+ ref]
• Summary: Contents: Preface–A description of the empire
in the 16th century. From... Harleian manuscript #6249. Six
letters of William Adams, 1611 to 1617. Notes. Summary
of a narrative by His Excellency Don Rodrigo de Vivero y
Velasco... of his residence in the empire: A.D. 1608-1610.
The preface states: The Portuguese first arrived in Japan
in about 1542; the Spaniards arrived a little later. The first
indication of any misunderstanding between the Japanese
government [shogun, “Taico Sama”] and the Europeans
residing there appears in 1587. In that year the shogun
“despatched [dispatched] two imperial commissioners, in
rapid succession, to Father Cuello, the vice-provincial of the
Portuguese, to demand: 1. Why he and his associates forced
their creed [Jesuit Roman Catholicism] on the subjects of
the empire. 2. Why they incited their disciples to destroy
the national temples? 3. Why they persecuted the bonzes
[native priests]? 4. Why they, and the rest of their nation,
used for food animals useful to man, such as oxen and cows?
[see note M]. Finally, why they permitted the merchants of
their nation to traffic in his subjects, and carry them away as
slaves to the Indies?” The replies of the vice-provincial are
given, showing disdain for the Japanese and their religions
(p. x-xi).
On p. xxiv is a detailed discussion of Dutch trade with
Japan and the island of Deshima.
The English attempts at trade with Japan failed. “The
English retired from Japan in 1623, and a subsequent attempt
was made (in 1673) to renew the intercourse; but it proved
unsuccessful” (p. xxv).
“The Americans must be placed in the same category
with ourselves [the British]. In the year 1837 the Morrison,
a vessel belonging to citizens of the United States, sailed
from Singapore, on an expedition to Japan.” It was driven
away by cannon fire from isolationist Japan (p. xxviii).
Note: In addition to its commercial aims, the ship (headed
by Charles W. King) had been attempting to repatriate seven
shipwrecked Japanese citizens who had been picked up in
Macau. It also carried Christian missionaries such as Samuel
Wells Williams.
Letter No. IV by Sir Thomas Smith to William Adams
concerns Capt. John Saris of the Clove, who anchored near
Firando [Hirado] in June 1613.
Units of currency (p. 88). 10 Condrins = 1 Mas = 6
pence (British). 10 Mas = 1 Taie = 5 shillings.
In the section of the book titled “Notes” (p. 89+), Note
O (p. 123-24) is about “Produce of the fields” (from E.
Kaempfer). One of the five fruits of the field is: “4. Daidsu,
or Daid-beans; from which soeju [shoyu], or soy [sauce], is
made; and which is highly esteemed as an article of food.”
Note A A (p. 164-67), titled “Fate of the English factory
at Firando,” discusses what items the Spaniards, Portuguese,
and Dutch tried to import to Japan, and the weak demand for
these products. Note: William Adams lived 1564-1620.
139. McCulloch, John Ramsay; Vethake, Henry. 1852.
A dictionary, practical, theoretical, and historical, of
commerce and commercial navigation. 2 vols. Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: Hart, Carey and Hart. See Vol. 2, p. 201, 536,
18 at end.
• Summary: Nangasacki [Nagasaki] (p. 200-01): The
Japanese islands are believed to contain 50,000,000 people.
All foreigners are rigidly excluded, “with the exception
of the Dutch and Chinese; and they are allowed to visit
Nangasacki, the former with 2 ships and the latter with 10
junks.”
“The Chinese trade with Japan is understood to be
conducted from the port of Ningpo, in the province of
Chekiang, which is so conveniently situated, that 2 voyages
may be performed in the year, even by the clumsy junks of
China. The commodities with which the Chinese furnish
the Japanese, consist of raw sugar, cow and buffalo hides,
wrought silks, consisting chiefly of satins and damasks, eagle
and sandal wood, ginseng, tutenague or zinc, tin, lead, fine
teas, and, for more than 100 years back, some European
broad cloths and camlets. The exports consist of copper,
limited to 15,000 piculs, or about 900 tons; camphor, sabre
[sword] blades, pearls, some descriptions of paper and
porcelain, and some Japan ware, which is either curious or
handsome, but not so substantial as that of China.”
“The following are the quantities and value of goods
exported and imported by the Dutch in their trade with Japan
in 1825; the ships employed being one of 600, and one of
700 tons burden. The trade is exclusively carried on with
the port of Batavia.” A table shows exports to and imports
from Nangasacki. Imports from Nangasacki to Batavia, then
Holland include: “Sakkie [saké] and soy [sauce]. Value:
14,302 florins.
Soy (p. 536): a species of sauce prepared in China and
Japan from a small bean, the produce of the Dolichos soja.
It is eaten with fish and other articles. It should be chosen
of a good flavour, not too salt nor too sweet, of a good
thick consistence, a brown colour, and clear; when shaken
in a glass, it should leave a coat on the surface, of a bright
yellowish brown colour; if it do not, it is of an inferior kind,
and should be rejected. Japan soy is deemed superior to the
Chinese. It is worth, in bond, from 6s. to 7s. a gallon. It is
believed to be extensively counterfeited.–(Milburn’s Orient.
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 68
Com.).
At the end is a long table titled “The new tariff of 1846,
together with the tariff of 1842, reduced to ad valorem rates,
as far as practicable.” On page 18 is “Soy.” 1846 = 30. 1842
= 30. Address: 1. Esq.; 2. LL.D, Prof., Univ. of Pennsylvania.
140. Java-Bode: Nieuws, Handels- en Advertentieblad voor
Nederlandsch-Indie (Batavia, Netherlands-Indies). 1853.
Kunsten, wetenschappen, landbouw, nijverheid, land–en
volkenkunde [Arts, sciences, agriculture, industry, geography
and ethnography]. July 9. p. 4, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: The term katjang-kedele [the Malay word for
soybean] is mentioned in this article.
Note: This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “kedele”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1855.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that contains the word kedele.
Note 2. Between 1853 and 1899, about 193 records in
this database contain the word kedele and 98 records contain
the term katjang-kedele.
141. Junghuhn, Franz W. 1853. Plantae Junghuhnianae.
Enumeratio plantarum, quas in insulis Java et Sumatra
[Listing of plants from the islands of Java and Sumatra].
Lugduni-Batavorum (Leiden): A.W. Sythoff. Lipsiae
(Leipzig): T.O. Weigel. 570 p. See p. 205, 233. [1 ref. Lat]
• Summary: Edited by FAW Miquel. Bentham is the author
of the Leguminosae chapter, starting on p. 205. The basic
entry, in Latin reads: “1. Soja hispida Moench.–W. et
Arn. Prodr. v. 1. p. 247 (*). Hab. in Javae monte GunungGamping prope Jogjakérta (Jungh.).” It refers to the fact
that Junghuhn reported soybeans in Java on Mount GunungGamping near Yogyakarta in 1853.
The asterisk (*) refers to a long footnote which discuses,
in Latin, possible relationships between the following
species: Soja Wightii Grah., Johnia Wightii W. et Arn.,
Bujacia anonychia E. Mey, Soja javanica, Glycine micrantha
Hachet, Johnia Willdenowii Hook., and Johnia Petitiana A.
Rich.
Note: The great naturalist Junghuhn died in April
1864, apparently in Java. His life had been devoted to the
cultivation of chinchona, from which quinine was extracted.
His successor was Van Gorkom. Address: Indonesia,
Netherlands, and Germany.
142. Java-Bode: Nieuws, Handels- en Advertentieblad voor
Nederlandsch-Indie (Batavia, Netherlands-Indies). 1854.
Handelsberigten... Aanvoer [Trade reports... Arrivals]. April
5. p. 6, cols. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: The term katjang-kedele [the Malay word for
soybean] is mentioned in the middle of column 1 of this
article.
Note: This article was found by searching the Dutch-
language database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “kedele”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1855.
143. Java-Bode: Nieuws, Handels- en Advertentieblad voor
Nederlandsch-Indie (Batavia, Netherlands-Indies). 1854.
Handelsberigten... Aanvoer [Trade reports... Arrivals]. Oct.
28. p. 6, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: Nine soybean plants (9 pie. kedele).
Note 1. Kedele, the Malay word for soybean, is
mentioned in the middle of this article.
Note 2. This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “kedele”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1855.
144. Java-Bode: Nieuws, Handels- en Advertentieblad voor
Nederlandsch-Indie (Batavia, Netherlands-Indies). 1854.
Handelsberigten. Aan- en Uitvoer te Batavia van den 6 tot en
met den 9 December 1854. Aanvoer [Trade reports. Arrivals
at and departures from Batavia from 6-9 December 1854.
Arrivals]. Dec. 9. p. 6, col. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: 60 sugar cane plants and 120 soybean plants (60
pic. suiker, 120 do. [= ditto] kedele).
Note 1. Kedele, the Malay word for soybean, is
mentioned in the middle of this article.
Note 2. This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “kedele”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1855.
145. Java-Bode: Nieuws, Handels- en Advertentieblad voor
Nederlandsch-Indie (Batavia, Netherlands-Indies). 1854.
Handelsberigten... Aanvoer [Trade reports... Arrivals]. Dec.
13. p. 6, cols. 1-2. [Dut]
• Summary: The term katjang-kedele [the Malay word for
soybean] is mentioned in the middle of column 1 of this
article.
Note: This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “kedele”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1855.
146. Java-Bode: Nieuws, Handels- en Advertentieblad voor
Nederlandsch-Indie (Batavia, Netherlands-Indies). 1854.
Handelsberigten... Aanvoer [Trade reports... Arrivals]. Dec.
16. p. 6, cols. 1-2. [Dut]
• Summary: The term katjang-kedele [the Malay word
for soybean] is mentioned The middle of column 2 of this
article.
Note: This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “kedele”
using advanced search between 1618 and 1855.
147. Hildreth, Richard. 1855. Japan as it was and is.
Boston, Massachusetts: Phillips, Sampson and Co.; New
York: J.C. Derby. xii + 576 p. Map (folded). Index. 21 cm.
Facsimile edition reprinted in 1973 by Scholarly Resources
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 69
(Wilmington, Delaware).
• Summary: Richard Hildreth (lived 1807-1865) never
traveled to Japan, but he read widely from the writings of
those who did. He summarizes them and quotes them in this
book, which is basically a history (in chronological order, by
the date of Hildreth’s source).
In Chapter 32 (1690-1692), in the section on tea, the
following quotation (probably from Engelbert Kaempfer)
appears (p. 312): “’The common sauce for these and other
dishes is a little soy [sauce], as they call it, mixed with saki
[sake], or the beer of the country.’”
In Chapter 39 (1775-76), in the section on imports
and exports, the following summary appears (from C.P.
Thunberg) (p. 390-91): “The chief articles of export were
copper, camphor and lackered [sic, lacquered] goods;
porcelain, rice, saki, soy,* were also exported” (Footnote:
*”This sauce, used in great quantities in Japan and exported
to Batavia by the Dutch, whence it has become known
throughout the East Indies and also in Europe, is made from
the soy bean (Dolichos Soia) [sic], extensively used by the
Japanese in the making of soup [sic]. The soy is prepared
as follows: the beans are boiled until they become rather
soft, when an equal quantity of pounded barley or wheat is
added. These ingredients being mixed, the compound is set
away for twenty-four hours in a warm place to ferment. An
equal quality of salt is than added, and twice and a half as
much water. It is stirred several times a day for several days,
and then stands well covered for two or three months, when
the liquid portion is decanted, strained, and put in wooden
casks. It is of a brown color, improves with age, but varies
in quality, according to the province where it is made. The
Dutch of Deshima cork up the better qualities in glass [sic,
porcelain] bottles, boiling the liquor first in an iron kettle, to
prevent fermentation, by which it is liable to be spoiled).”
Address: Author, Boston, Massachusetts.
148. Miquel, Friedrich Anton Wilhelm. 1855. Flora van
Nederlandsch Indie (Flora Indiae Batavae) [Flora of the
Netherlands Indies. Vol. I, part 1]. Amsterdam and Utrecht:
C.G. van der Post. 1116 p. See p. 196-97 (Phaseolus species)
and p. 221-24 (Glycine and Soya species). [9 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Miquel’s Soya species include: 1. Soya hispida
Moench, 2. Soya Wightii Grah. (named Glycine javanica by
Linnaeus and Soya javanica by Grah.), 3. Soya angustifolia
Miq. 4. Soya hamata Miq.
Glycine species include: 1. Glycine labialis Linn., 2.
Glycine mollis Wight et Arn.
Note: This is the earliest document seen (July 2014) that
mentions Soya angustifolia.
According to Merrill (1917), Miquel (p. 197) named
a narrow-leafed form from Java Phaseolus radiatus. He
erroneously thought it was the soybean. Note: It may have
been the azuki bean.
Miquel was born on 24 Oct. 1811 at Neuenhaus,
Germany, and died on 23 Jan. 1871 at Utrecht, Netherlands.
A botanist, he was the son of a country physician. His
University studies and subsequent academic career took
place in the Netherlands. “Trained as a physician at the
University of Groningen, Miguel specialized in botany
and was director of the Rotterdam botanic garden (18351846), professor of botany at Amsterdam (1846-1859) and
at Utrecht (1859-1871), and director of the Rijksherbarium
at Leiden (1862-1871). His numerous (296 items in his
bibliography) botanical publications deal mainly with the
floras of the former Netherlands East Indies, Surinam, and
Japan... Miguel was also the founder of the University of
Utrecht herbarium.”
An illustration facing the title pages shows a portrait of
Georgius Everhardus Rumphius, blind and white-haired in
his old age, holding a branch on a table.
Also discusses: Psophocarpus tetragonolobus [winged
bean] (p. 181). Address: Hoogleeraar in de Plantenkunde te
Amsterdam.
149. Faulkner, Alexander. 1856. Faulkner’s dictionary
of commercial terms: With their synonyms in various
languages. Bombay, India: Printed at L.M. D’Souza’s Press.
iii + 158 + vii p. 18 cm. [1 ref]
• Summary: “Soy. A peculiar savoury sauce, made from
the bean of the Soja, a species of Dolichos, growing in the
Eastern parts of Asia. Genuine soy is well flavoured, thick,
brown, and clear; and when shaken in a glass it should have
a coat on the surface of a bright yellowish-brown colour. It is
obtained from Canton [China]; but the best is exported from
Japan, by way of Batavia [Dutch East Indies]. Waterston.”
Also discusses: “Ground nuts.–Guz. (Guzerattee)
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 70
[Gujarati], Hind [Hindi], Bhoysing. Groundnuts are now
extensively cultivated in the Concans on account of the
oil which they afford. They are occasionally exported to
England and France.
“Ground nut oil.–Hind. Bhoysing ka teil. It is the oil
obtained from ground-nuts by expression. It is largely
exported from Bombay to France and England.”
Note: The Concans or Co’ncan was an extensive
maritime district of southwestern India in the province of
Bejapore extending 220 miles along the shore from Damaun
to Malabar, bounded on the west by the Indian Ocean and
on the south by Canara and Sattara [Satara]. Between 16º
and 20º north latitude. On today’s map, it would be along the
coast south of Bombay. A long range of mountains, named
the Western Ghats, runs right along the shore of western
India from the Gulf of Khambhat to near the southern tip of
the continent (Cape of Comorin).
150. Siebold & Comp. 1856. Catalogue raisonné et prixcourant des plantes et graines du Japon cultivées dans
l’établissement de von Siebold & Comp. à Leide [Annotated
catalogue and current price list of plants and seeds from
Japan cultivated at the firm of von Siebold & Co., Leiden,
Netherlands]. Leyden [Netherlands] and Bonn: Henry &
Cohen. 24 p. 23 cm. [1 ref. Fre]
• Summary: See next page. In the section titled “Seeds of
garden and agricultural plants harvested in the fall of 1855
in Japan” is a one-line entry (p. 18) which reads: “28. Soja
japonica Savi * à graines blanch. vert et noir. Usage: Pl. à
Soy. Un petit paquet: Fr. 1.” (Footnote: *”C’est la plante
légumineuse, des graines de laquelle les Japonais préparent
le Soy (Sojû). sauce bien connue aux gourmands.”)
Translated into English: “28. Soja japonica Savi *;
white, green, or black seeds. Usage: Plant can be used
to make soy sauce. (Footnote 4: *”This is a leguminous
plant, whose seeds the Japanese use to make Soy (Shôyu)
sauce, which is well known to connoisseurs of fine food
(gourmands).”)
Note 1. This is the earliest seed catalog seen (July 2014),
worldwide, in which soybean seeds are offered for sale–
although no prices are given. The original catalog is located
at the Department of East Asian Studies, Ruhr-Universitaet
Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, 4630 Bochum 1,
Germany.
Note 2. Philipp Franz von Siebold, a German physician,
botanist and traveler, lived in Japan from 1823 to 1829.
Siebold & Co., plant and seed company, was started in 1842
by Siebold with Blume and Rodbard; Siebold and Joseph
G. Zuccarini first gave the soybean its present genus name,
Glycine. They gave the wild soybean its present scientific
name Glycine soja. M.M. Busk in 1841 wrote: “Dr. Von
Siebold’s Japanese museum [at Leyden] is said to be the
finest in Europe...” For details on Siebold’s life and work as a
botanist see: Bretschneider (1882–Botanicon Sinicum, Part I,
p. 126-27).
Note 3. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term Le Soy (Sojû) to refer to
soy sauce.
Note 4. First cited by Prof. Ted Hymowitz, Univ. of
Illinois. Personal communication 1 Jan. 1997. Address:
Leyden, Netherlands.
151. Smith, J. Jay. 1856. Editor’s table: New and valuable
trees and fruits. Horticulturist, and Journal of Rural Art and
Rural Taste (Albany, New York) 11:330-31. [1 ref]
• Summary: “One of the most remarkable catalogs ever
published has just appeared in Leyden [Netherlands];
it contains a priced list of the Japanese plants actually
cultivated in the nursery of Siebold & Co., of that place”
[Leyden].
“He also offers seeds of the Soja japonica, the real plant
from which the sauce called Soy is prepared.”
Note 1. Siebold & Co. was started by Philipp Franz von
Siebold; he and Joseph G. Zuccarini first gave the soybean
its present genus name, Glycine. They also gave the wild
soybean its present scientific name Glycine soja. M.M.
Busk in 1841 wrote: “Dr. Von Siebold’s Japanese museum
[at Leyden] is said to be the finest in Europe...” For details
on Siebold’s life and work as a botanist see: Bretschneider
(1882–Botanicon Sinicum, Part I, p. 126-27).
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (July 2014)
stating that the soybean was being sold in a seed catalog.
Note 3. First cited by Prof. Ted Hymowitz, Univ. of
Illinois. Personal communication 1 Jan. 1997.
To continue: “As is well known, the Dutch monopolize
the intercourse of Europeans with Japan, the country most
in climate like the British Isles, but resplendent with a
vegetation infinitely richer and more varied. Camellia,
Cephalotaxus, Cryptomeria, Aucuba, Chimonanthus,
Clematis, and Pyrus Japonica, sufficiently indicate how
beautiful and hardy is the flora of Japan, to say nothing of
Weigela, Forsythia, and the whole race of Moutans. Availing
themselves of their commercial privileges, the Dutch have
sedulously occupied themselves with the acquisition of
everything most worthy of introduction to Europe, and
the result is already a total number of 3 or 400 species and
varieties offered for sale by the firm mentioned above. Of so
curious an assemblage, we are sure that a brief account will
be interesting to all lovers of gardens. We shall, however,
confine our remarks to what are represented to be hardy
races.”
These include conifers (4 species) and sycamores
(2). “Fruit trees comprehend a very early apricot called
Armeniaca Mume [later Prunus mume], whose early rosecolored flowers are extremely ornamental, while the fruit,
owing to the firmness of the flesh, is particularly well
adapted for preserving [as umeboshi in Japan]... Mention,
moreover, is made of a Japanese variety of Peach.” Also
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 72
described are many small flowering trees and shrubs, and
some climbing shrubs. “Finally there is a considerable
number of herbaceous plants, among which are included
several new kinds of Funkia and Lilium, a Burdock called
Lappa edulis, the roots of which are eaten like Scorzonera;
a couple of Irises; Polygonatum japonicum whose roots are
a substitute for asparagus; a Polygonum called Sieboldi,
recommended as a green crop for cattle food, as an excellent
bee plant, &c. &c.; and the Chinese Yam, which M. Siebold
calls Dioscorea opposita, and to the hardiness of which he
fully testifies.” Soja japonica is then mentioned.
“Some of these novelties have already been introduced
into England, and are offered for sale by E.G. Henderson.
Who will be the first to advertise these interesting articles in
America?”
Note 4. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Dec. 2006) that refers to umeboshi salt plums, but it
does not mention them specifically.
152. Dagregister gehouden door de Nederlandse
Commissaris in Japan vanaf 17 augustus 1658 tot februari
1859 [Journal with a shipment register by the Director of The
Netherlands in Japan from 17 Aug. 1658 to 16 Feb. 1859].
1859. Deshima, Japan. Jan. 4. Unpublished manuscript.
[Dut]
• Summary: (Freight carried by other ships). Departure of
the American clipper Ann with captain “Kanto,” sailing to
Shanghai, China, [from Japan]. Her cargo includes 5,000
piculs pit coal, 100 barrels rapeseed oil, 100 piculs camphor,
12 barrels soy [sauce] (soja), plus lacquerware and porcelain.
Bibliographic reference in Dutch: NA, NFJ 1621,
dagregister (4-1-1859). On microfilm.
Location: Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, De Archieven
van de Nederlandse Factorij Japan (NFJ); toegangsnummer
1.04.21; inventaris nummer 1621 [National Archives, Prins
Wilhem Alexanderhof 20, The Hague. www.nationaalarchief.
nl. The Archives of the Dutch Factory in Japan (NFJ); access
number 1.04.21; record number 1621. The pages are not
numbered].
Note: A clipper is a fast sailing ship, especially one with
long, slender lines, an overhanging bow, tall masts, and a
large sail area. Address: Deshima, Nagasaki, Kyushu, Japan.
153. Bataviaasch Handlesblad (Batavia, Netherlands
Indies). 1859. Handels-Berigten [Commercial news]. May 4.
p. 5. [Dut]
• Summary: Batavia. May 4. 400 cases of soy sauce (kisten
Soya) for 17.50 florins @ 18.50 florins.
Note: This 2-line brief report appears at the bottom
center of this page. It was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/
154. Cornwallis, Kinahan. 1859. Two journeys to Japan,
1856-7. 2 vols. London: Thomas C. Newby. Vol. 1, vii + 340
p.; Vol. 2, 340 p. Illust. No index. 19 cm. Facsimile edition
reprinted in 2002 by Ganesha Publishing (London) and
Edition Synapse (Tokyo). Series: Japan in English, Vols. 4-5.
• Summary: This book appeared five years after the Perry
Expedition to Japan captured the interest of the western
world. Cornwallis, a young British writer, took advantage of
this interest by writing this book–which was later exposed
as a forgery (See: Yamigawa, Joseph K. 1941. “Cornwallis
Account of Japan a Forgery and its exposure. Monumenta
Nipponica 4(1):124-32. Jan.). He drew his material partly
from the numerous authentic books about Japan already
widely available, and partly from his imagination.
Cornwallis said that he first arrived in Japan in July 1856
on an American sloop of war which landed in the harbor of
Shimoda. He immediately becomes enchanted by everything
about Japan, and depicts it as an almost ideal place.
During a visit to Simoda [Shimoda], he had lunch at
the temple of the Russians: “After we had discussed to our
satisfaction the birds and the fishes, the rice and the soya,
the latter the finest fish sauce in the world, we wound up by
eating fruit and drinking saki [sake],...” (p. 34).
The next morning, on board ship after the usual
Japanese breakfast, a Russian came on board. “He laughed
at our complaints [about the food, and said] that we had
better, for our own peace, make up our minds to rest content
with a good supply of rice, soya, saki, and a stray chicken
or fish now and then, so long as we remained at our present
anchorage” (p. 35).
His 2nd journey to Japan supposedly took place in Aug.
1857. This time he was on board an American steam-frigate
that went from Shanghae [Shanghai, China], to the “Japanese
island of Lew-kew” [in the Ryukyu Islands, also spelled
Luchu or Loochoo; a chain of islands extending 600 miles
from Taiwan to Kyushu, Japan].
Part / Volume II contains a long history of European
exploration of and visits to Japan. With his host, Mr.
Noskotoska, he visits Nagasaki and the old Dutch trading
post there he calls “Desima” [Dejima, Deshima]. During
a visit in Nagasaki to the Noskotsuka home, where he is
fascinated by the women (who do not feel embarrassed to
be seen naked after bathing) and treated like a king, he was
invited to “the mid-day repast” at home. “Here were four
small lacquered tables, on each of which lay the accustomed
ivory chopstick, the small porcelain cup for tea, and the
larger one of lacquer-work for saki [sake, saké], the small
glass cruet of soy [sauce], the porcelain spoon, and the silver
fork” (p. 105). Address: [England].
155. Pasinomie: Collection des Lois, Decrets, Arretes et
Reglements Generaux Qui Peuvent Invoques en Belgique
(Brussels). 1860. Tarif: Désignation, droits d’entrée,
assimilation [Tariff schedule]. 38:330. For 18 Dec. 1857. No.
510. Reign of Leopold I. [Fre]
• Summary: There are three columns in this long (p. 329+)
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 73
tariff schedule. However before explaining them we must
explain that when No. 17 in the left column is paired with
#12 in the right column (as they now are), they make no
sense. So the two columns on this page are not properly
aligned. In fact (as we can see from other tariff schedules
published at about this time), No. 18 in the left column was
intended to be paired with #12 in the right column; in this
way they make perfect sense. The following explanation
assumes that small change in alignment.
For the soy entry (p. 330) these are: (Col. 1, No. 18).
Designation of merchandise: Grains / seeds not specifically
subject to other tariffs. (2) Entry duty / tariff: Free (no
duty or tariff). (3) Assimilations (Assimilations). These
are assimilated into spices (épiceries): Cardamom, cumin,
saffron, soy [sauce] (le soja), and vanilla.
Note 1. It is not clear how to translate le soja. Is it a
grain or seed (the soybean) as described in column 1” If so,
then what does that have to do with spices? Or is it a spice
(soy sauce) as implied in column 3? Yet it is the only item in
its group in column 3 that is not a seed. Looking at the broad
historical context, it probably refers to soy sauce, which had
probably been imported into Belgium (from the Netherlands)
long before this time, whereas soybeans probably had not
been. If our guess is correct, then soy sauce may be imported
into Belgium duty-free.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Aug. 2014)
concerning soy in connection with (but not yet in) Belgium.
Address: Brussels, Belgium.
156. Smith, George. 1861. Ten weeks in Japan. London:
Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts. xv + 459 p.
Illust. Index. 23 cm. Facsimile edition reprinted in 2002 by
Ganesha Publishing (London) and Edition Synapse (Tokyo).
Series: Japan in English, Vol. 11. [20* ref]
• Summary: This is a very interesting book by a careful
observer of Japanese culture. In 1860 he stayed mostly
in Nagasaki, Yokuhama (Yokohama), and Yeddo (Edo,
later Tokyo). Though he has long experience living as a
Christian missionary and bishop in China and Hong Kong,
he generally admires the Japanese, yet repeatedly calls them
“pagans.”
While walking among the shops in Nagasaki, he notes
(p. 27): “Soon again we pass the spacious warehouses of
the dealers in sauces, condiments and soys, where large jars
lie filled with decoctions of pulse and rice, and are left to
ferment and become mellow with exposure and age.”
In the countryside around Yeddo he observed (p. 235):
“The large quantities of rye grown in these parts were
explained to us as being used in the manufacture of the
celebrated Japanese soy; while rice is the ordinary material
employed in making the universal spirituous beverage so
often alluded to under the name of sakee” (saké, sake). Note:
The word “sakee” appears in at least 19 places in this book.
“The secluded Chinese community who reside in
Nagasaki compose a trading guild and factory, subjected for
ages to all the past vexatious restrictions experienced by the
Dutch.” They generally number about 200 persons (p. 32).
The chapter on “Nagasaki” begins (p. 78-79): “The
Chinese form no unimportant part of the community
in Nagasaki and are regarded with much dislike by the
Japanese. In ancient times there was a free intercourse
and unrestricted commerce between the two countries.
But the change produced by former European difficulties
and civil wars in the policy of the Japanese government
towards the Spaniards, Portuguese and Dutch, was extended
also to the Chinese mercantile strangers. After the severe
edicts against the Christian religion and the prohibition of
Christian books, the Chinese were detected importing Roman
Catholic publications, and incurred the heavy displeasure of
the government. In the year A.D. 1688 they were forcibly
confined to a small settlement on the edge of the harbour,
and subjected to the same restraints as those endured by
the Dutch in the neighbouring scene of their imprisonment
in Desima (Deshima). In the year A.D. 1780 the Chinese
trading guild was removed a couple of hundred yards further
back from the harbour to a Budhist [Buddhist] monastery...
Rigidly guarded and watched, the Chinese factory shared
with the Dutch the humiliation and inconvenience of a
common captivity.” The Chinese guild is now confined to
their factory in the southern suburb, where they are isolated
by Japanese guards. “Formerly the Chinese were not allowed
to walk into the city... At present they amount to about four
or five hundred persons, their number being diminished or
increased by the departure or return of their junks trading
to Japan.” At present, three Chinese junks are annually
permitted to make a trading voyage to Japan.
Mr. von Siebold first came to Japan in 1823 and
remained in the Dutch factory at Desima until 1830,
“devoting himself to literary pursuits and scientific
researches into the botany and natural history of the
country.” While studying the “history and geography of
Japan, he purchased and published a native map of the
empire. In the days of the old regime this audacious act was
easily made to bear the appearance of constructive treason;
and the colonel was... imprisoned for thirteen months in
a solitary room at Desima, and finally banished from the
Japanese empire. After an absence of nearly thirty years
he returned eight months ago, and has resumed at the age
of sixty-four his studies and investigations respecting the
country in the hope of being able after three or four years
to perfect his observations and on his return to Europe to
publish the results of his lengthened researches for the
benefit of the scientific world.” He now has a lithographed
map of Nagasaki, and believes the population is a little over
60,000 (p. 208-09).
A table shows that 35 ships with cargo and 20 in ballast
(empty) arrived in Nagasaki during the last 6 months of
1859. During the same period there departed 43 ships with
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 74
cargo and 9 in ballast. Much of the trade is with China; items
include sea weed for jelly, sea slugs for soup, peas and beans
(p. 227-28).
Along the Tokaido, near Kanagawa: “The usual crops
of wheat, barley, bean, peas and small quantities of still
ungathered rape-seed, prevailed...” (p. 271). Address: D.D.,
Bishop of Victoria, Hong Kong.
157. Simon, Eugène. 1862. Sur un envoi d’animaux et de
végétaux du Japan [On a shipment of animals and vegetables
from Japan (Letter to the editor)]. Bulletin de la Societe
d’Acclimatation 9:689-93. Aug. See p. 691-93. [Fre]
• Summary: This is a long letter addressed to the Secretary
General of the Society for Acclimatization. A section titled
Sur la fabrication du soja [On the production of soy sauce]
(p. 691-93) states: Soja, or soy sauce, is a condiment which,
in Japan, is consumed in considerable quantities. Some years
ago it enjoyed marked success in America, England, Holland,
and in India, where it had first been introduced. Today, the
popularity remains only in America. The exportation is weak
from the Indies, where it is replaced by another product, and
the trade is nearly null in Europe because of the difficulty of
making it cross the hot latitudes of the tropics via the tip of
South of Africa.
It is nevertheless an excellent product, which could offer
the culinary art a resource to be used in many ways, if one
could obtain a quality as good as that in the country from
which it comes. Actually, nothing could be easier. All one
needs to do is to make it locally [in France]. This is a very
important industry in Japan. There are more than 6 factories
in the city of Nagasaki, and each occupies an average area of
700 to 800 square meters. In total, they produce 1.2 million
kg of soy sauce for consumption.
Two types of grain are necessary to make soy sauce. One
is a special type of bean called haricot Soja, or soybeans, of
which 15 kg are included under #5 in the shipment I have
just made to France. The other is ordinary barley (orge, not
ble, wheat). One makes equal parts of beans and wheat.
The beans are cooked in an equal volume of water and the
wheat is roasted. Then one combines them in a big tub, into
which one pours them little by little, while mixing them
as much as possible with the aid of a large wooden spatula
(pusher). When it all has the consistency of a rather thick
paste, one places it in a wooden mold (koji tray) about 1.5
inches deep, 18 inches long, and 8 inches wide. In arranging
this cake or this brick in the mold, one must make the upper
surface slightly concave. These cakes are then transported
into hermetically sealed chambers (the koji room), where it
must ferment on shelves around the walls and in the center of
the room. All the walls and the openings, with the exception
of two window placed at the height of a man, from which
one can watch the fermentation from the outside, must be
carefully insulated or padded with straw, fixed in the middle
of a lattice of bamboo or other wood.
The fermentation starts at the end of very few hours [no
inoculation?] but if the temperature of the chamber is very
low, one can stimulate the fermentation by placing a small
brazier here. However, one must use the brazier only as a
last resort; the effect is to brown the cakes. The fermentation
lasts for 7 days, during which time one can enter once or
twice into the chamber, in order to assure oneself that all is
in good condition. When they are well made, the cakes must
have a uniform yellowish gold tint. They are then removed
and thrown into a large vat, 6 feet deep and 4.5 feet in
diameter. Here one adds a saturated salt solution [sel a chaux
= calcium oxide] in the proportion of 2 kg of solution to 1 kg
of cake. One agitates it and mixes it gradually until the vat is
full.
One must then leave the vat alone for at least one year,
but when one wants an extra fine soy sauce (soja), it must
be left for 3 years. Regardless of the time, one removes the
mash (pâte) from the vat, puts it in a hemp sack, or better
yet, one of palm filaments, and carries it to the press. The
soja which collects during the first turns of the press is
the best quality. But because of the high price it would be
able to demand, one would not find its sale assured. One
therefore renounces this quality, except in the two capitals of
Edo (Tokyo) and Miyako (Kyoto), where there live a large
number of princes and rich people, who can conveniently
pay for it.
In general, only two grades of soy sauce are made. The
first is made from all the liquid which one is able to extract
by the press, and which is then of a good medium quality.
The second is obtained by mixing the presscake with salt
water and letting it stand for 6 months; this is only sold to
the poor. A jar of soja weighing 214.5 kg sells in Japan for
16-17 French francs. The ordinary soja of the first quality is a
liquid of thick consistency and dark brown color. It is almost
the only sauce for all Japanese dishes, rich or poor. It always
accompanies fish. The Europeans in China or Japan, who
have used it a lot or a little, add it to beef or to beef bouillon,
to which it imparts a most agreeable color and flavor. The
number 10 case of various products, which will be a part of
my shipment contains 3 bottles of soja of different qualities
under the numbers 18, 19, and 20. No. 18 comes from
Miyako (Kyoto), but it is possible that the trip may alter it a
little.
Note: This is the 2nd earliest French-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the word soja to refer to soy
sauce. The French used the word soja to refer to soy sauce
before they used it to refer to the soybean. Address: French
consul in China.
158. Rigg, Jonathan. 1862. A dictionary of the Sunda
language of Java. Batavia, Java: Lange & Co. xvi + 537 + v
p. 27 cm. Constituting: Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch
Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. Vol. 29.
• Summary: The term “Sunda Isles” once referred to the
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 75
Malay Archipelago; Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Sulawesi
were called the “Greater Sunda Islands.” This SundaneseEnglish dictionary includes the following soy-related words:
“Kachang, a pea, a bean, pulse. Dolichos and Phaseolus of
which the species are very numerous” (p. 182).
“Kadalé, a variety of pulse frequently planted” (p. 183).
Kéchap, Catchup, a dark coloured sauce prepared by the
Chinese” (p. 212).
Also mentions: “Kachang tanëuh, ground nut, Arachis
hypogæa, so called from the seed vessels returning into
the earth, and becoming a sort of granulous root” (p. 183).
Ragi, which acts as a ferment in preparing Tapai (p. 391).
“Tahi-minyak, oil-cake. The refuse of making oil from the
ground-nut or kachang taneuh. This oil cake is much used
as a valuable manure, especially for sugar cane” (p. 473).
“Tapai, a preparation of boiled ketan rice, in which Ragi has
been mixed and set to ferment for a couple of days. Tapai
is given as a treat at all native entertainments” (p. 483).
About 150 different words for different kinds of rice are also
given. Address: Member of the Batavian Society of Arts and
Sciences [Jakarta, Dutch East Indies].
159. Oppelt, Gustave Louis. 1864. Traité général théorique
et pratique de compatabilité: Commerciale, industriale et
administrative [General treatise, theoretical and practical, on
compatability: Commercial, industrial and administrative].
Paris: Eugéne Lacroix. vi + 367 p. 25 cm. [Fre]
• Summary: A long table titled “Revision of the Belgian
tariff duties” (p. 236+) contains three columns. For the soy
entry (p. 237) these are: (Col. 1, No. 17). Designation of
merchandise: Grains / seeds not specifically subject to other
tariffs. (2) Entry duty / tariff: Free (no duty or tariff). (3)
Assimilations (Assimilations). These are assimilated into
spices (épiceries): Cardamom, cumin, saffron, soy [sauce]
(le soja), and vanilla.
In short, soy sauce may be imported into Belgium dutyfree. Address: Prof. of commercial sciences.
160. Miquel, Frederich Anton Wilhelm. 1866-1867. Prolusio
florae Iaponicae [Essay on the flora of Japan]. Amstelodami
(Amsterdam): Printed by C.G. van der Post. viii + 392 p. See
p. 240. 2 plates 45 cm. [Lat]*
• Summary: Discusses Glycine hispida (Soja hispida).
161. Miquel, Frederich A.W. 1867. Prolusio florae Iaponicae
[Essay on the flora of Japan]. Annales Musei Botanici
Lugduno-Batavi (Leiden) 3:52-53, 99. [5 ref. Lat]
• Summary: Under Glycine Linn. (p. 52) the author lists one
species: “1. Glycine soja Sieb et Zucc. Abh. l.c. IV. 2, p. 119.
A Soja angustifolia Miq. Fl. Ind. bat. I. 1, p. 223... Siebold
legit; “sponte crescentum”; in vallibus m. Kawara Jama ins.
Kiusiu legit Pierot, propre Nangasaki [Nagasaki] Oldham n.
368.
Under Soja Moench (p. 52-53) the author lists one
species with 3-4 varieties: “1. Soja hispida Moench., Sieb
et Zucc. l.c.p. 119. Maxim. Prim. p. 87. Dolichos Soja Linn.
Soja iaponica Savi.”
Variat sub cultura vario mondo, v.c. seminum colore
quae autem sub germinatione omina plantulas similes
proferunt, teste Sieboldo. Spontanea etam provenit, foliolis
latioribus, medio basi leviter attenuato–In regione littorea
prope Oko Mura ins. Kiusiu et in fruticetis prope urbem
Kokura legit Pierot; aliis locis cultam legerunt Siebold et
Buerger [Bürger], prope Nangasaki [Nagasaki] Oldham n.
360.
[Translation: Pierot collected it in the coastal regions
on the island of Kyushu near Oko Mura {or Okumura; mura
= village} and in the shrubbery near the city of Kokura {in
northern Kyushu, Japan}; Siebold and Buerger collected
it in other places where it was cultivated / grown, and
{Richard} Oldham (specimen No. 360) collected it near
Nagasaki {located on the far western tip of central Kyushu,
near Deshima / Dejima, where Siebold and Buerger usually
resided}].
- Kuro mame [Black soybean], No mame [wild
soybean], Kuzu, Kokura iap.
var. praecox Sieb. [Siebold], humilior, non vel vix
volubilis, densius rufo-hirta, foliolis satis variantibus.–Culta.
var. obtusa Miq. [Miquel] humilis stricta robusta dense
hispida, foliolis late ovalibus utrinque obtusissimus.–
Spontaneam legit Pierot ad radicem m. San Saka Toge
ins. Kiusiu [island of Kyushu].–Jama [Yama] daisu iap.
[Mountain soybean of Japan].
var lanceolata Miq., elatior, minus hispida, foliis
longe petiolatis, foliolo terminali sublanceolato, lateralibus
semilanceatis, mucronatis. In regione littorea prope oppidum
Oko Mura ins. Kiusiu [island of Kyushu] detexit Pierot–
Kuzu iap.
Observ. Cl. Bentham (Journ. Linn. Soc. VIII, p. 269)
hanc sp. et superiorem coniunxit; nostrae autem plane
diversae, a b. Zuccarinio determinate.
Other non-soy genera: Under Pueraria DC (p. 52) he
lists Pueraria Thunbergiana Benth. Journ. Proceed. Linn.
Soc. IX. p. 122.–Pachyrrhizus Thunbergianus Sieb. et Zucc.
Abh. l. c. IV. 3, p. 237. Neustanthus chinensis Benth. Hongk.
p. 86. Dolichos hirsutus Thunb. in Linn. Transact. II. p. 339...
Under Phaseolus (p. 52) Linn. he lists Phaseolus
radiatus Linn., Miq. Fl. Ind. bat. I. p. 197. Ph. Mungo
(Linn.) Sieb et Zucc. Abh. l. c. IV. 2, p. 118. Cum pluribus ut
veditur varietatibus cultus. Assuki iap. [Japanese adzuki] and
Phaseolus nanus Linn.
Under Deutzia Thunb. (p. 99) he lists 3 species: crenata,
scabra, and gracilis.
Note 1. How Miquel compiled this book (according
to Bretschneider 1882): In 1830 the Japanese government
forced Siebold to leave Japan, saying that he had a map of
the island, which was illegal. “Siebold had forwarded one
portion of his vast botanical collections accumulated in Japan
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 76
to Prof. C.L. Blume in Java, who described some of these
plants in the Museum botanicum Lugduno-Batavorum, 184951... The greater part of his dried plants, however, had been
transmitted by Siebold to the Museum of Leyden, and from
these materials Prof. Miquel compiled his Prolusio Florae
japonicae [Prolusio florae Iaponicae], 1865-67.”
Note 2. This is the earliest document see (May 2002)
concerning Heinrich Bürger.
Note 3. Richard Oldham (1837-1864) collected plants
for the Kew gardens (England) in Eastern Asia in 1861.
The Oldham numbers, 360 and 368, refer to the numbers of
the specimens in his collection–which is now at the British
Museum of Natural History, Kew. Address: Prof. of Botany,
Director of the Rijksherbarium in Leiden, Netherlands.
162. Saito, Akio. 1868. [Chronology of soybeans in Japan,
1700 to 1868, the last half of the Tokugawa / Edo period]
(Document part). In: Akio Saito. 1985. Daizu Geppo
(Soybean Monthly News). Jan. p. 16. Feb. p. 10-11. [Jap]
• Summary: 1707 May–The Tokugawa shogunate
government (bakufu) passes a law to lower the prices of
goods. Shops selling high-priced tofu are punished. But
tofu makers argue that although the price of soybeans has
dropped, the prices of other ingredients such as nigari and oil
have risen.
1709–Kaibara Ekken (1630-1714) writes Yamato
Honso, in which he discusses the shapes and use of the 1,362
products from Japan, China, and other countries. He notes
that among the five crops (go-koku), soybeans are the second
most widely produced after rice.
1712–Kaempfer, the German physician and naturalist
who stayed in Japan during 1691-1692, writes Nihon-shi
in the Netherlands. In the book he discusses soybeans and
includes a very accurate illustration of the soybean. This
draws the attention of other European scholars.
1722–Kinzanji miso becomes popular in Edo (today’s
Tokyo).
1724 Feb.–The Tokugawa shogunate government
commands that various goods, such as sake and shoyu [soy
sauce], should be lower in price because the price of rice has
decreased.
1726–The amount of shoyu imported to Edo from the
Osaka-Kyoto area (kudari shoyu) is about 132,000 kegs
(taru). Note: The average keg held 9 shô = 16.2 liters = 4.28
gallons (U.S.). Thus, 132,000 kegs = 564,960 gallons or
2,138,400 liters.
1730–The amount of shoyu imported to Edo from the
Osaka-Kyoto area increases to 162,000 kegs.
1739–A French missionary living in China sends some
soybean seeds to France for the first time. Attempts are made
to grow them at the botanical garden, but the weather is not
good and they fail. Later unsuccessful attempts were made to
grow soybeans in Germany in 1786 and in England in 1790.
There is another theory which says that the soybean went to
Europe through Russia.
1748–The cookbook titled Ryôri Kasen no Soshi is
published. It is the first cookbook which introduces the
present form of tempura batter.
1753–The Swedish naturalist Linne (Linnaeus; 17071778) gives the soybean its first scientific name.
1770–Sugita Genpaku (lived 1733-1817) discusses the
nutritional value of foods and uses the word eiyo (meaning
“nutrition”) for the first time in Japan.
1782–The book Tofu Hyakuchin (One hundred rare
and favorite tofu recipes) is written by Ka Hitsujun (his
pen name) of Osaka. He introduces about 100 tofu recipes.
The next year he publishes a supplementary volume, Zoku
Tofu Hyakuchin. He divides tofu recipes into five different
categories according to their special characteristics, like
common, regular, good, very good, and fantastic (jinjohin,
tsuhin, kahin, myohin, and zeppin). In his jinjohin category,
he includes 36 recipes such as Kinome Dengaku, Kijiyaki,
Dengaku, etc.–showing that these were common recipes of
the period. Over the next several years, many books with the
word “Hitsujin” at the end of the title appear.
1783-1787–The terrible famine of the Tenmei period
(Tenmei no Dai Kikin) occurs. It is worst in Oou province,
where several hundred thousand people die of starvation.
Many farm villages are abandoned.
1788–At about this time the word nukamiso first
appears.
1802–Takizawa Bakin (lived 1767-1848) writes Kiryo
Manroku, a travel book, and in it he states: “Gion tofu is not
as good as the Dengaku of Shinzaki, and Nanzenji tofu is not
better than Awayuki in Edo. He criticizes tofu as a famous
product from Kyoto (Kyoto meibutsu tofu) in his writing.
1804–Takahashi Fumiuemon (or Bunuemon) on the
island of Shodoshima starts making shoyu; he starts selling it
in 1805.
1810–Choshi Shoyu receives an order from the
Tokugawa Bakufu (Gozen Goyo-rei).
1818–There are now 10 miso manufacturers in Edo
(today’s Tokyo). Yomo Hyobei’s miso shop in Shin Izumicho (presently Ningyo-cho 3-chome, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku,
Tokyo) has a prosperous business. In some funny poems
(Senryu) this shop is mentioned: “With sake and miso their
name is ringing in the four directions” (“Sake, miso de sono
na mo shiho ni hibiku nari”). And: “This shop is surrounded
by nested boxes for food, and these boxes are used for red
miso” (“Jûbako ni torimakaretaru shiho-ga-mise”). His
red miso and his fine sake made with water from a waterfall
(takisui) are very popular.
1822–Pounded natto (tataki natto), an instant food made
of chopped natto, sells for about one-fifth the price of tofu
on a weight basis. The restaurant Sasa no Yuki in the Negishi
area of Edo, becomes well known for its tofu cuisine.
1832–Shoyu production in Noda reaches 23,000 koku
(1 koku = 180 liters or 47.6 gallons), compared with only
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 77
17,000 koku in Choshi. Thus Noda passes Choshi in shoyu
production.
1839–Shibata Kyuo (1783-1839), a follower of
Shingaku, writes Zokuzoku Kyuo Dowa in which he pens
words that later become famous: “In a place where the
cuckoo can sing freely, you have to walk 3 ri (1 ri = 2.445
miles or 3.924 km) to buy your sake and 2 ri to buy your
tofu” (Hototogisu jiyu jizai ni naku sato wa, sakaya e san
ri, tofu-ya e ni ri). Shingaku, founded by Ishida Bangai, is a
popular teaching of the time combining Shinto, Buddhism,
and Confucianism (Jugaku). It emphasizes that “to
understand heart/mind is the most important thing.”
1845–Inari-zushi becomes very popular in Edo.
It originated around Hiranaga-cho (presently Sadacho
1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo). It is made with deep-fried
tofu pouches (abura-agé) stuffed with rice or okara and sells
for 7 mon each.
1851–There are now 140 miso manufacturers in Edo.
Half of them are in the Hongo area of Tokyo.
1853–Kitagawa Morisada (born 1810) writes Morisada
Manko, the story of his life during the Edo period. In it he
says of tofu: “In the Kyoto-Osaka area it is soft, white, and
delicious, but in Edo [today’s Tokyo] it is hard, not white,
and not tasty.” Of miso he says: “In the Kyoto-Osaka area
many people make their own miso each winter, but in Edo
people buy red miso and Inaka miso (from the countryside),
and nobody makes their own miso.” Concerning the sale
of natto (natto-uri) he says: “Cook soybeans, ferment them
overnight, then sell them. In the old days, natto was sold only
in the winter, but recently it has also come to be sold in the
summer.”
1857–Soybean varieties brought back from Japan by the
Perry Expedition are distributed to the U.S. Commissioner of
Patents.
1858–Eitaro, a Japanese confectionery shop in
Nihonbashi, Edo, starts selling Amanatto [sugar-sweetened
red beans] made from Kintoki Sasage for the first time.
Sasage is a type of cowpea [Vigna sinensis].
1864–For the first time shoyu made in the area around
Edo (Kanto shoyu) is permitted to use the term “highest
quality shoyu” saijo shoyu to describe the product.
1865–Inflation in Edo. The prices of rice, sake, miso, oil,
vegetables, fish, etc. skyrocket. The Tokugawa Shogunate
(Bakufu) orders people to lower their prices and forbids
holding back or buying up goods. Address: Norin Suisansho,
Tokei Johobu, Norin Tokeika Kacho Hosa.
163. Hoffman, J.J. 1870. Bereiding van de Japansche soya
[Preparation of Japanese soy sauce]. Bijdragen tot de Taal-,
Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië 5:192-94. [2
ref. Dut]
• Summary: Describes, step by step, using some Japanese
characters, the preparation of both No. 1 and No. 2 Japanese
shoyu.
The article is summarized in English by Schlegel (1894,
p. 140-41).
164. Grocer (The) (London). 1874. Price current. Saturday,
March 7, 1874. 25(636):209-10. March 7.
• Summary: “Articles in the following List subject to duty
are quoted with the duties paid as annexed...” “Soy” [sauce]
is £1 and 5 pence, with a duty of 1 pence.
Also on the list are linseed oilcake, rape oilcake, many
different oils and fats (not including oil from soybeans),
small pearl sago, sauces, and pickles. Butter is measured in
firkins. In the category “Provisions” are butter, Canadian
butters, Irish butter, bacon, Irish bacon, ham (beware putrid
hams), pickled meats, pork (in barrels), dressed hogs, lard,
beef, Australian meats, cheese, American cheese, and eggs.
Widely used oils (see Supplement, p. 5) are linseed oil, rape
oil, olive oils, Florence oil, refined cotton oil, cocoanut oil,
palm oil, fish oils (incl. sperm oil, which is now expensive),
colza. Among the seeds (p. 6 and later issues) are “Dutch
hempseed,” rapeseed, cloverseed, canaryseed.
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Nov. 2005) that contains the term “linseed oilcake” or
the term “rape oilcake.”
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Nov. 2005) that uses the term “cotton oil.”
Note 3. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Aug. 2003) that contains the word “hempseed” (or
“hempseeds”).
165. Bernardin, J. de W. 1874. Classification de 160 huiles
et graisses végétales. 2e ed. Suive de la classification de 95
huiles et graisses animales [Classification of 160 vegetable
oils and fats. 2nd ed. Followed by the classification of 95
animal oils and fats]. Gand [Ghent], Belgium: Imprimerie et
Lithographie C. Anoot-Braeckman. 24 p. No index. 27 cm.
1st edition 1867. [1 ref. Fre]
• Summary: This booklet is divided into two parts: vegetable
oils and fats (p. 1-17), and animal oils and fats (p. 18-24,
including birds and insects). In the section on Legumes
(Légumineuses) (p. 17) is an entry for: Dolichos soya, China;
oil used for the preparation of foods, incorrectly called oil of
peas (huile de pois).”
Also discusses: Hemp oil (p. 6). Sesame oil (p. 8).
Linseed oil (p. 15). Almond oil (p. 16). Peanut oil (Arachis
hypogea) (p. 17). Address: Curator of the CommercialIndustrial Museum and Prof. at the House of Melle-lez Gand
(Conservateur du Musée commercial-industriel et Professeur
à la Maison de Melle-lez-Gand [Ghent] (Belgium)).
166. Gericke, J.F.C.; Roorda, T. 1875. JavaanschNederduitsch Handwoordenboek [Javanese-Low German
concise dictionary]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Johannes
Mueller. 1051 p. See p. 378, bottom right. Foreword by A.C.
Vreede. Also in 2nd edition, 1901. p. 695. [Dut; Jav; Mal]
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 78
• Summary: This is the second earliest document seen (Sept.
2011) that mentions tempeh, which is defined as “Fermented
soybeans or presscake (bunkil) baked or fried in flat pressed
cakes. It is well-liked as a side dish with rice.”
This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen (Sept.
2011) that mentions tempeh, which it calls “témpé.”
In the 1901 edition, under the heading témpé is a textual
reference to “Tjentini I, 295,” which refers to Volume I of
LOr 1814, a 5 volume manuscript of the Centini stored in
the Leiden Oriental Department of the Leiden University
Library. Address: Indonesia and Netherlands.
167. Lith, Pieter Antonie van der. 1875. Nederlandsch OostIndië beschreven en afgebeeld vor het Nederlandsche volk
[Dutch East Indies described and illustrated for the Dutch
people]. Doesborg, Netherlands: J.C. van Schenk Brill. 452 +
12 p. See p. 131. Illust. Index. 29 cm. [Dut]
• Summary: One page 131 we read of “hills of Soja”
(heuvelen van Soja). Sesame oil is mentioned on p. 412.
Pieter Antonie van der Lith lived 1844-1901. Address:
Leiden, Netherlands (Hoogleerar aan de Rijks-instelling voor
Indische taal-, land- en volkenkunde te Leiden, Officer van
de Orde de Eikenkroon).
168. Blavet, A. 1877. Le Soja Hispida et le Cicer Arietinum
[The soybean and the chickpea]. Moniteur Horticole
(Belgium) No. 1. p. 7. Jan. [Fre]*
• Summary: Even though not shining among the first rank
of the food species, these two legumes are of real interest for
our vegetable plots. For some time now, based on favorable
trials conducted in France, they have been recommended
very seriously to all those who are interested in the important
question of food. We believe, therefore, that it would be
useful to our readers to give a brief description of these two
vegetables which are still almost unknown in our country.
The Soja Hispida or Dolichos Soja belongs to a genus
that is very closely related to the genus Glycine, and certain
botanists even lump them together. It is an annual hairy
(hispide) plant, about 1 meter in height when erect. Its
leaves are trifoliate, consisting of three leaflets or folioles.
Its flowers are violet, arranged in clusters (en grappes
ascillaires), followed by oblong pods, slightly arched, each
containing from 2 to 5 oval seeds, a little compressed. It
originated in Asia.
In Japan, in China, and in tropical Asia (I might add
in Mexico), these seeds are eaten as a vegetable [green
vegetable soybeans]. In these regions, it can be said that
the culinary art owes them a lot, because they enter into the
preparation of all the sauces. Among other things, they are
made into the celebrated Soy [sauce], so sought after by
Asiatic gastronomes, and which is also known and used in
Europe to enhance the taste of certain dishes, and especially
beef, whose digestion it uniquely facilitates. The soybean (le
Soja) is also said to be an important oil-bearing plant.
In October 1878 we had two soybean plants growing
in our plot of vegetables at the Universal Exposition [in
Vienna]. One member of our society asked Mr. Vilmorin
what he knew about this plant. He replied: About eight years
ago [i.e., in 1870] I saw it appear, then it was not spoken
about again. Anyway, the visitors [at the Exposition] paid
such high honors to our two plants, that all we were left with
was the stems [because the visitors had stripped off the pods
and seeds].
You know better than anyone how much perseverance
and stubbornness it takes to propagate a novelty, regardless
of its excellence. You have to convince, particularly at the
beginning, you have to overcome the bad will, the habits,
the distrust, the jealousy, the incompetence, the conviction
that it is impossible to do better... and whatever! This the
first year I gave the soybean (le Soja) to market gardeners /
vegetable growers (maraîchers); a certain number of them
did not wait for the plant to reach maturity before putting it
on the compost pile. They called it an obscenity which took
up room unnecessarily. They came to a hasty conclusion /
judgment, as you can tell.
Others who thought about it more gave the plant the
opportunity to bear fruit, but the failed to write a report about
its cultivation.
Finally, only two people understood that this very
accommodating legume was not out of place. Yet one must
add that this was thanks to the presence of a ship-owner
(armateur), who had eaten it in Mexico. He was very fond
of this product, and it is to this fact that the plant was given
the honor of being cultivated on a large scale in one of the
châteaus where one of our two gardeners happened to be.
Note: This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2009)
concerning soybeans in Mexico, Central America, or Latin
America. It is not clear whether or not these soybeans were
cultivated in Mexico (they may well have been) or where
they came from (they may well have come from China on a
Manila galleon as part of the China trade).
It’s the same kind of thinking. Without the laudable
perseverance of one of our horticulturists, our excellent
Etampes soybean (very early), would never have come to our
attention. What if it had been grown by a market gardener
who just brought some of it to our market without thinking
for years to give it the least extension to its cultivation.
The first year it was sold for 12 francs per liter.
169. Mittheilungen ueber Gegenstaende der Land, Forst-, und Hauswirtschaft (Organ der k.k.
Landwirthschaftgesellschaft fuer Kaernten). 1877. “Die
rauhaarige Sojabohne” (Soja hispida Moench) [The hirsute
soybean]. 34(22):173-75. Nov. 15. [Ger]
• Summary: The soybean (Die Sojabohne) is for us a
new crop plant, insofar as prior to 1875, no one had heard
anything about it. However it is very well known as an
agricultural plant in China, Mongolia, and Japan, where it
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 79
is widely cultivated. It is also indigenous to the Malaysian
islands, on Java, and in the Dutch East Indies, where various
varieties are widely disseminated.
The soybean grows stiffly upright with abundantly
branching stems, somewhat like the lupin. It reaches a height
of 0.6 to 1 meter. The leaves come in groups of three–like
our Feuerbohne [scarlet runner] and Stangenbohne [string
bean or runner bean], but larger than the leaves of the latter.
The numerous flowers, the spring from the angle of the
leaves, sit on shortly branched bases (Steilchen), and are
white, yellow or violet in color, according to the type of
plant, and are, on the whole, not particularly good-looking.
The soybean carries its seeds in pods, and there are
many on each plant; there are 2 to 5 seeds in each pod. The
seeds, themselves are spherical or egg-shaped and they look
very much like the seeds of the Phaseolus (Fisole). Their
color is reddish-brown with a white protruding hilum (Nabel)
or pale yellow with brownish-red bordered hilum. The entire
plant itself, including the hulls, is covered with brownish or
rust-reddish short, tiny stiff hairs. For this reason the plant is
called “hairy” (rauhaarig).
Also discusses the varieties on display at the Vienna
World Exposition of 1873 (Wiener Weltausstellung 1873).
Acclimatization trials were conducted in the experimental
garden (Versuchsgarten) of the Royal College of Agriculture
in Vienna (k.k. Hochschule für Bodenkultur in Wien). In
these trials the soybeans came to maturity completely.
The results of these trials proved that some varieties of
the soybean came to complete maturity during the first half
of the month of September and could be harvested; these are
now known as the early-ripening varieties; they are native
to northern Asia. However there are other varieties that
bloomed in these trials but did not set seeds, and yet others
that did not even reach this stage.
In the year 1876 these acclimatization trial were
repeated, not only in Vienna but in various other places
in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, in order to study
the development of this plant under various conditions
(Verhältnisse). The results will be discussed in detail by Prof.
Haberlandt, who is in charge of these experiments.
Tables show: (1) The composition of three kinds of
seeds: Pea seeds, the original soybean seeds, acclimatized
soybean seeds. The nitrogen-containing substances (protein)
are, respectively 23.18%, 30.56%, and 34.37%. (2) A
nutritional comparison of pea straw vs. soybean straw.
The protein content is, respectively 7.36% and 9.43%.
The essential components of the ash are potassium and
phosphoric acid.
Professor Friedrich Haberlandt expresses the hope that
soybeans will be recognized as a superior plant, widely
tested, and within a few years recognized as being on a level
of importance with the various cereal grains, the potato, and
maize / corn.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (June 2014)
that contains the term Vienna World Exposition of 1873
(Wiener Weltausstellung 1873).
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (June 2014)
that contains the term Royal College of Agriculture in Vienna
(k.k. Hochschule für Bodenkultur in Wien)
Note 3. Kaernten (Kaernthen or Kärnten) [also
called Carinthia] was an Austrian crownland; now a state
of southern Austria, bordering on Italy and Yugoslavia.
Address: Austria.
170. Roorda van Eysinga, W.A.P. 1877. MaleischNederduitsch woordenboek, ook ten dienste van hen,
die geen Arabisch karakter gebruiken [Malaysian-Dutch
dictionary, for those who know how to use Arabic
characters]. Amsterdam: G. Theod. Bom. 156 p. [Dut]
• Summary: Page 53: katjang, puelvrucht; boonen [legumes,
beans].
Page 54: kedjap, ketjap, met de oogen wenken; wenk [to
wink with the eyes].
Page 55: ketjap, see kedjap.
171. Corroy, M. 1878. Alimentation des chevaux et mulets
importés en Cochinchine [The feeding of horses and mules
imported into Cochin China]. Bulletin du Comite Agricole
et Industriel de la Cochinchine 1:449-58. For the year 1877.
Series 2. See p. 456-58. [1 ref. Fre]
• Summary: Section 7 (p. 456-58), titled Pois noirs (Glycine
soja) [Black beans], is undoubtedly referring to black
soybeans. It was observed that they are fed to animals in
northern China, but only as a supplement to their rations. It
was found they made a better feed if they were first cooked.
M. Pierre, director of the botanical garden and of the
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 80
Mares Farm in Cochin China, found in comparing the
soybean cultivated in India and Java, and a black variety
from China, sufficient differences to justify the distinction
made by Miquel for a Soja angustifolia. The variety from
China had, in effect, a less pronounced hispid character,
with oval folioles, more often very little acuminate, and with
fruits (seeds) being larger and more flattened, less long and
more falcate or falciform.
“To sum up, we would like to see the ration of horses
imported to Cochin China established on the basis of the
chemical analysis we have given above, and that we have
borrowed, for the most part, from the book titled l’Hygiène
vétérinaire appliquée [Applied veterinary Hygiene], by Mr.
Magne.
Note: Webster’s Dictionary defines these botanical terms
as follows: (1) hispid (derived from the Latin hispidus;
probably akin to the Latin horrere, and first used in 1646) as
“rough or covered with bristles, stiff hairs, or minute spines.”
The soybean has hispid leaves.
(2) foliole (derived from the French, from the Late Latin
foliolum, diminutive of folium leaf–more at blade) as “1:
Leaflet 2: a small leaf-shaped organ or a part resembling a
leaf.”
(3) acuminate (first used in 1646) as “tapering to a
slender point.”
(4) falcate (derived from the Latin falcatus from falc-,
falx sickle, scythe, and first used in about 1726) as “hooked
or curved like a sickle.” Address: Vétérinaire en premier,
Directeur du jardin botanique et de la ferme des Mares (Head
veterinarian, and director of the botanical garden in Saigon,
and of the Mares Farm).
172. Haberlandt, Friedrich. 1878. Die Sojabohne: Ergebnisse
der Studien und Versuche ueber die Anbauwuerdigkeit dieser
neu einzufuehrenden Culturpflanze [The soybean: Results
of the studies and trials on the merits of cultivating this
newly introduced crop plant]. Vienna, Austria-Hungary: Carl
Gerold’s Sohn. ii + 119 p. 28 cm. [30 ref. Ger]
• Summary: This is the first book about soybeans written in
the western world. An extremely important, classic work, it
discusses the introduction of soybeans to Europe, by many
cooperators.
Contents: Foreword. Part 1 (p. 1-15). Introduction:
The possibility of increasing the number of our cultivated
plants from the legume family. Prospects opened to us by the
cultivation of soybeans. Previous soybean agronomic trials
in Hohenheim, Bamberg (by Dr. A. Rauch using seeds from
Japan supplied by Siebold), Hainsberg-Deuben in Saxony
(Sachsen) (by Carl Berndt, a velvet manufacturer), and
Coswig bei Messen (in 1872) in Germany. Acclimatization
of the soybean in France. Sporadic, heretofore unnoticed
occurrences of soybeans in South Tirol (also spelled Tyrol),
Istria (or Istrian Peninsula; now in Slovenia), Dalmatia
[now mostly in Croatia; see Note below], and Italy. The
collection of soybeans, obtained at the Vienna World
Exposition (Wiener Weltausstellung) of 1873 from China,
Japan, Mongolia, Transcaucasia, and Tunis [North Africa],
and their use in wider agronomic trials. Enumeration of
authors who have cited (anführen) the soybean under
different names and planned for its dissemination.
Characteristics of the soybean plant. Description of the seeds
and their anatomical structure. Their high nutritional value
in comparison with ordinary legumes. Their use in Japan,
according to Kaempfer. Obtaining oil and cake from the
soybean.
Part 2. Agronomic trials in the years 1875 and 1876 (p.
16-35; see Document part for details). Source of the supply
of the various soybean varieties used in the original trials.
Trials at the Royal College of Agriculture (Hochschule für
Bodencultur) in Vienna in 1875. Results from 1876 from
Hungarian Altenburg and Gross-Becskerek in Hungary, in
St. Peter bei Graz in Steiermark [Styria], in Napagedl in
Mähren [Moravia; in the Czech Republic as of Jan. 1993],
in Sichrow, Swijan, Darenic, Tetschen-Liebwerd in Böhmen
[Bohemia], in Bukowina [Bukovina or Bucovina, a former
Austrian crownland, as of 1994 divided among the Ukraine
and Romania], in Proskau [now Proszkow in today’s
Poland] in Preussisch-Schlesien [Prussian Silesia], and in
the experimental garden at the Royal School of Agriculture.
Comparison of the resulting seeds with the original seeds.
Chemical analysis of the seeds and straw. Evidence of
the “heat units” (Wärmesummen; “warm temperature
summation” or “warm sum,” similar to U.S. maturity groups)
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 81
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 82
which the soybean was able to use for their development in
Vienna, St. Peter, Tetschen-Liebwerd, and Proskau.
Part 3. Agronomic trials in the year 1877 (p. 36-86).
Results of the soybean agronomic trials in Austria-Hungary,
Germany, etc. in 1877. Extracts from 14 reports of various
trial locations in lower Austria, and 11 trial locations in
Mähren [Moravia]. Extracts from 19 reports from Bohemia,
10 from Austrian Silesia (Oesterr.-Schlesien), Galizien
[Galicia; a former Austrian crownland; after World War II
the western half was made part of Poland and the eastern half
was made part of the Ukranian S.S.R. in the Soviet Union],
Bukowina, and Russian-Poland, 6 reports from upper
Austria, Salzburg, and Tirol, 11 reports from Steiermark,
Krain [Carniola; now mostly in Slovenia], and Kärnthen
[Kaernten or Carinthia, an Austrian crownland; now a state
of southern Austria, bordering on Italy and Yugoslavia],
12 from Istria, Dalmatia, and the Grafschaft [county and
earldom] of Görz, 40 from Hungary and Croatia [formerly
part of Yugoslavia], 23 from Germany, 1 from Switzerland,
and 1 from Holland.
Part 4 (p. 87-113). Comparison of the value of the three
different colors of soybeans (yellow, reddish-brown, and
black) used in the trials. Time of planting. Ability of hydrated
seeds to withstand freezing. Width of planting. Condition and
care of the soil. Requirements for light and warmth. Need
for moisture. Time that the harvests took place and general
remarks on the weather in 1877. The quantity of planted
and harvested soybeans in 1877 and the yields. Animals
[incl. insects, especially the so-called Drahtwurm, the larva
of Agriotes segetis] and parasites that damage soybeans.
Chemical composition of the soybeans [by Dr. Mach and
asst. Portele in S. Michele {South Tirol}, and by Caplan in
Vienna]. Feeding trials with the straw and preparation of the
seeds as a food for humans. Retrospective and conclusion.
Note 1. Austria-Hungary is a former “dual monarchy”
in central Europe formed in 1867. It included what is
now Austria and Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Bukovina,
Transylvania [now in northwestern and central Romania],
Carniola, Kustenland, Dalmatia, Croatia, Fiume [later named
Rijeka in Croatia], and Galicia. After the treaty of Berlin in
1878, it administered the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and
Herzegovina, which it annexed in 1908. It was a member
of the triple alliance with Germany and Italy from 1882
to 1914. It collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I.
In 1918 it was divided into many independent republics,
including Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
Note 2. Dalmatia, a former Austrian crownland, is
a region on the Adriatic Sea, largely in today’s Croatia.
It extends from Zadar on the north to near the border of
Montenegro, and contains a small southern portion of Bosnia
and Herzegovina (Jan. 1993). It is mountainous and contains
many island and good harbors.
Note 3. Carniola (German: Krain) is a region that lies in
today’s Slovenia. The chief town is Ljubljana. It is bounded
on the west by the Julian Alps and on the northwest by
east end of the Carnic Alps. It was a duchy of Austria until
1849, then an Austrian crownland from 1849 to 1918. It was
divided after World War I with 80% of the area going to
Yugoslavia and 20% going to Italy. A 1947 treaty placed it
entirely within Yugoslavia.
Note 4. This document contains the earliest date seen
for soybeans in Hungary, or the cultivation of soybeans in
Hungary (April 1876) (one of two documents). The source of
these soybeans was Prof. Friedrich Haberlandt in Vienna.
Note 5. Details on parts I and IV are given in separate
1878 “Document Part” records in this database.
Note 6. This is the earliest document seen that contains
the word Wärmesummen (“heat units”).
Note 7. This book, surprisingly and unfortunately,
contains no illustrations.
Note 8. A portrait of Dr. Haberlandt (oil painting) is
owned by the University of Mosomagyarovar in Hungary.
Soyfoods Center owns a black-and-white photo of the
painting.
Note 9. The Vienna World Exposition opened on 1
May 1873 and closed on 1 November 1873. So it lasted for
6 months. Address: Hochschule fuer Bodencultur [Royal
College of Agriculture], Vienna, Austria.
173. Haberlandt, Friedrich. 1878. Dritte Abtheilung.
Anbauversuche im Jahre 1877 [Part 3: Agronomic trials in
the year 1877. Part II (Document part)]. In: F. Haberlandt.
1878. Die Sojabohne [The Soybean]. Vienna: Carl Gerold’s
Sohn. ii + 119 p. See p. 60-86. [Ger]
• Summary: Continued (p. 60): Agronomic trials in Trieste,
Istria, Dalmatia, and the Grafschaft [county and earldom] of
Görz (Goerz) by: Mr. Josef Kristan at the Istrian Peninsula
(Capodistria) in Istria, Mr. J.C. Ritter v. Pittoni of k.k.
Truchsess in Görz, Baron von Bianchi of Rubbia in Görz,
Dr. Alb. Levi [Lewi] in Villanuova [Villanova] bei Gradisca
in Görz, Baron von Ritter Zahony’s estate (Zahony’sche
Gutsverwaltung) at Monastero in Görz, the seed schools
(Saatschulen) in Trieste, Görz, and Rodik, the Wine
Cultivation School at Parenzo in Istria, by members of the
agricultural societies (Comizio agrario) in Sign, Scardona,
Scolta, and Ragusa in Dalmatia (via the k.k. Statthalterei in
Zara).
Agronomic trials in Hungary and Croatia (p. 66-76) by:
Mr. von Deak, on the farm of J. von Deak, in N. Pann, Mr.
R. Skrkanek in Markusfalva (Zipser Comitat), Mr. Leop.
Langfelder in Dohnau, Prof. Deininger and master-gardener
W. Köhler (Koehler) in Hungarian Altenburg, Mr. C.
Tekusch, Mr. Alex Heuffel, and Mr. Sig. Szloboda on Baron
Sina’s estate in Szt. Miklos (3 locations incl. Sandorhaz), Mr.
Heykal in Pápa (#93), Mr. Adalb v. Otocska in Kövesd (#94;
or Kövesdö, a small village presently named Kamenicná
{near Komárna}). Mr. von Czech in Szanto, Friedrich Karoly
in Kajar, Hofrichter [Estate judge] Sporschill in Korompa,
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 83
Mr. Joh. Handler in Urmeny [Uermeny], Mr. Jaroslaw
Fleischer in Csasztkocz (#99 Császtkócz is now Cásta, near
Bratislava), Mr. Hermann Schulz in Szucsany, Mr. Isidor
Trosztler in Szucsany (#100 and #101 Szucsany is now
Sucany, in Slovak transcription), Mr. Alois Baron (Freiherr)
von Baratta in Poltar (#102 Poltár is near Lucenec), F.
Gröber (Groeber) & Sons in Erlau, Mr. M. Pöschl (Poeschl)
in Balvanyos (#104. Bálványos is now Balvany, near
Levice), Mr. Josef Mosdosy in Kapolnas-Nyek (#105
Kápolnás-Nyék is now Kaplná, near Bratislava).
Note 1. Eight of the above trials (each followed by
the number preceding it in the book), were
conducted in the region that became Slovakia
/ the Slovak Republic after 1 Jan. 1993. Notice
that the names of some villages have been
changed, as indicated after each number. This
is the earliest document seen (July 2014)
concerning soybeans in what is today Slovakia
(though it was not officially created until 1
Jan. 1993), or the cultivation of soybeans in
Slovakia. This document contains the earliest
date seen for soybeans in Slovakia, or the
cultivation of soybeans in Slovakia (18 April
1877, #100). The source of these soybeans was
Friedrich Haberlandt in Vienna.
Mr. Edmund Ammon in Sulz (Sooskut),
Mr. Arthur Ade in Sarbogard, Freiherr von
Ambrozy in Tana, Mr. Victor Ritter von Hebra
in Szerdicza, Mr. Edw. Egan in Bernstein
bei Steinamanger, Freiherr v. Werlhof in
Schachendorf, Mr. Franz Marc (director of the
Animal- and Plant Acclimatization Union) in Budapest, C.G.
Schulz in Fugyi near Grosswardein, Mr. A. Stojics [Sztojics]
in Grosswardein [Gross-Becskerek], Mr. C. Pollak in Arad,
Mr. Paul Rimler in Bekes-Csaba, Mr. Brückl (Brueckl;
Prince Thurn-Taxis’ Rentkammervorstand) at Banija in
Croatia, Mr. A. Vichodil of the agricultural society at
Agram, Count von Alten Hemmingen in Huszt (Marmaroser
Comitat), Prof. Deininger in Hungarian-Alterburg in
various places (agricultural teaching institute in Kaschau
[the German name; called Kosice in Czech and Kassa
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 84
on Hungarian. Part of Slovakia in 1995], and Debreczin,
Perberte Szt. Miklos, Lekehalma, Dr. Farkas Mihaly, Karl
Fazekas, agricultural teaching institute in Keszthely; a table
shows the results).
Agronomic trials in Germany (p. 76+) by: Mr. Wolfes
director of the test field at the agricultural school in DargunMecklenburg, Prof. Dr. v. Liebenberg at the agricultural
university institute at Königsberg (Koenigsberg), Dr. Mirus
in Leisnig, Prof. Dr. Lehmann (Director of the Central
Agricultural Research Station for Bavaria) in Munich, Mr.
Schuster at the Agricultural Academy in Weihenstephan
[near Munich], Prof. Dr. Rees at the University in Erlangen,
Mr. H. Hirschberg in Sondershausen, Prof. Dr. Hellriegel
in Bernburg (He planted 105 soybean seeds, which began
to emerge on May 28. The growth was rather rank (die
Pflanzen rankten ziemlich stark). They began to bloom at the
beginning of August. He harvested 2,600 ripe or nearly ripe
seeds weighing 285.5 gm. He submitted an in-depth report).
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (May 2015)
that mentions Dr. Hellriegel in connection with soybeans.
Mr. J. Butterbrodt [Butterbrod] in Hindesheim, Mr.
Burkhardt in Duesseldorf, Mr. von Cordes (Rittmeister) in
Ehrenberg bei Leipzig, Dr. Hugo Tobisch director of the
agricultural school in Friedberg (Oberhessen), Dr. Stutzer,
director of the agricultural research station in Bonn, Mr.
Carl Berndt, Sr., a velvet manufacturer (Sammtfabrikant)
at Deuben in Saxony (Sachsen), Mr. Schnorrenpfeil
administrator of lands at the imperial Academy in Proskau,
Mr. E. Kühne (Kuehne) at the Kleutsch manor in PrussianSilesia (Preuss.-Schlesien), Mr. D. Wildt–director of the
agricultural-chemical research station in Posen [Poznan, in
Poland since 1918], Mr. Meyer–director of the agricultural
school at Nieder-Briesnitz in Prussian Silesia, Mr. C. Vogt–
meteorological observer at Claussen bei Arys in East Prussia,
Th. Scholz in Klein-Tinz bei Domslau im Kreise Breslau
[Wroclaw, Poland], Mr. Boer (Inspector) in Plaschwitz,
Mr. Dotzauer in Schlanz (Administrative district of Breslau
[Wroclaw, Poland]), Prof. Anderegg at Chur [or Thur; Italian:
Coira; French: Coire] in central eastern Switzerland, and
Prof. Dr. Adolf Mayer, Director of the Agricultural Academy
at Wageningen in Holland (p. 82).
In Switzerland (p. 82) Prof. Anderegg received 50
yellow and 50 brownish-red seeds. They were planted late,
on May 20. By June 5-10 all had germinated (hatten alle
gekeimt). Some plants reached a height of 95 cm, others
only 47 to 73 cm. The first blossoms appeared on July 20. A
frost on Sept. 27, which destroyed the leaves of all the grape
vines, corn (Mais), common beans, pumpkins, gourds etc.,
did little damage to the soybeans. The harvest on Oct. 16 was
successful. For each seed planted, 91.5 seeds were harvested.
Some plants bore 90-132 pods.
Note 3. This is the 2nd earliest document seen (June
2014) concerning soybeans in Switzerland, or the cultivation
of soybeans in Switzerland. This document contains the
2nd earliest date seen for soybeans in Switzerland, or the
cultivation of soybeans in Switzerland (20 May 1877). The
source of these soybeans was Prof. F. Haberlandt in Vienna.
Dr. Adolf Mayer wrote from Holland that during the
unfavorable summer, the plants that were tested did not
ripen, so he will repeat the trial (p. 82). See previous page.
Agronomic trials in the garden of the Imperial-Royal
College of Agriculture (k.k. = kaiserlich-königliche
Hochschule für Bodencultur) in Vienna in the year 1877 (p.
83+; 4-page summary with a table). This very interesting
table (p. 84, reproduced in part in Piper & Morse. 1923. The
Soybean. p. 156) shows that Haberlandt planted 20 seeds of
one variety at Vienna at intervals of one week for 11 even
weeks throughout the season (from March 31 to June 9) and
attempted to correlate the number of days to maturity (life
periods) with several variables shown below. Relatively few
seeds sprouted and emerged. The seeds planted first emerged
first (May 7) and those planted last emerged last (June 15).
The first batch began to bloom on June 23, and the last batch
on July 18. The first batch was harvested on Sept. 29 and the
last batch on Oct. 26. The table shows the number of plants
that survived, the number of full and empty pods, the weight
(in grams) of the seeds, pods, and stems and leaves, and
the number of pods (maximum and minimum). The largest
yield of seeds came from the plants sown from April 14 to
May 5. The weather was unfavorable and one type of pest
(Webermilbe; Tetranychus telarius–probably the spider mite,
now called Spinnemilbe) was a big problem. Continued.
Address: Hochschule fuer Bodencultur, Vienna, Austria.
174. Bulletin de la Societe d’Horticulture et de Viticulture
d’Eure-et-Loir (Chartres). 1879. Soja hispida. Lettre de MM.
Vilmorin et Andrieux [The soybean: Letter from Messrs.
Vilmorin and Andrieux]. 11:65-71. April. [1 ref. Fre]
• Summary: We have received from Messrs. Vilmorin and
Andrieux, the well-known seed merchants at quai de la
Méisserie, No. 4, in Paris, a letter in response to that which
we sent them on the subject of Soja hispida (see p. 27 and 34
below). We reproduce this letter which is interesting from the
point of view of both horticulture and agriculture.
Paris, 24 March 1879. Sir, We have received your letter
of March 14... The sample which you set us was definitely
Soja hispida, only the color of the seed differed a little
from the samples that we have received up until now from
Hungary. We thank you for sending this seed on which we
will now conduct trials. We have read with interest the little
article on this subject in your Bulletin.
Formerly, we conducted our own trials on this plant, but
we did not continue because we confirmed that in our climate
the plant does not reach full maturity.
Since then, we have obtained varieties which, it is said,
mature perfectly in the north of Austria and in Hungary.
We have ourselves procured seeds from these countries and
this year we have conducted trials of this plant on a rather
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 85
large scale, with the goal of commercializing it if our trials
give satisfactory results, as we hope they will. According
to the information that we have received, we are not sure
that the plant could be successfully cultivated for human
food, because it seems that the seed requires long and rather
difficult cooking. But it could be of great interest and render
real service as a feed for animals.
We are sending you 10 small packets each containing
several seeds of Soja hispida from various places of origin
and each containing a number. We would like to ask you
to conduct trials with these, and we would be very much
obliged if you would inform us of the results you obtain.
With sincere salutations, Vilmorin-Andrieux.
Note: This is the earliest document seen (July 2015)
concerning soybeans in Belgium. This document contains
the earliest date seen for soybeans in Belgium (March 1870).
The source of these seeds was the seed company VilmorinAndrieux in France.
Soja hispida was introduced formerly under the name
of Pois oléagineux de Chine (Oil pea of China); but this
was a very late variety and it did not mature in the south
(midi) of France. If the new early varieties respond as was
written about them to us from Hungary, this will be a good
acquisition for agriculture. The estimated yield of seeds is
2,500 to 3,000 kg per hectare. These seeds contain 15-18%
oil. They should be planted at the end of April and harvested
in September.
Mr. J. Courtois then gives a brief discussion of teosinte,
sorghum (le Sorgho), and maize. It also becomes clear that
Vilmorin tried to cook dry soybeans whereas Mr. Blavet
cooked them as green vegetable soybeans.
We have hopes for the Soja hispida, at least for the
variety that was mailed to us by the president of the Society
of Etampes. We have higher hopes for this one than for the
variety spoken of by Messrs. Vilmorin and Andrieux. We had
eaten some that had been prepared as [green] haricot beans
are. The grain remained slightly firm but very tasty. Mr.
Blavet has the same opinion in the letter that accompanied
his shipment. The cooking process took place within a time
period that did not exceed the one ordinarily required by
vegetables of this type: beans (haricots), peas, or lentils.
Next comes the text of a letter from Mr. Blavet,
President of the Society of Etampes, dated 24 March 1879.
Soja Hispida is also known as Dolichos Soja. First let us set
aside any possible misunderstanding; it never dawned on
me to give you this product as a novelty, or new product,
in the absolute sense of the word. In 1874 I first received
some of these seeds from the acclimatization garden (Jardin
d’acclimatation) and in July 1876 I reported on the good
qualities of this product in the Bulletin of this Society
[Bulletin de la Societe d’Acclimatation], no. 7, p. 457. He has
also written about Soja hispida to Mr. Gillekens, director of
the school of horticulture of the state of Vilvorde (Belgium),
under whose direction the periodical Moniteur Horticole
Belge is published. Blavet then quotes at length from the text
of an article he wrote about the soybean and the chick-pea
that was published in that periodical in Jan. 1877, No. 1, p. 7.
So you see, dear sir, that I would not dream of
presenting to you a true novelty, but one well acclimatized
dating from 1874-75 here in Étampes.
In Oct. 1878, we planted two plats [of soybeans] in our
designated area at the Universal Exposition, and one of our
secretaries asked Mr. Vilmorin if he knew this plant. He
replied: About 8 years since I first saw it, then it was not
heard of again. The net result is that the visitors paid great
honor to our planting; at the end of the show, we were left
with only the stems.
Note: Martine Liguori adds that French society at this
time (before the French Revolution) was divided into classes.
The agriculturists who cultivated the land were far below
landlords and aristocrats. French aristocrats were forbidden,
by the king, from engaging in commerce with the peasants.
One of the few activities open to aristocrats was agriculture,
so they formed scientific societies which introduced, studied,
and exchanged plants, but which were not commercial.
175. Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad (Rotterdam). 1879. Het 32e
Landhuishoudkundig Congres te ‘s-Hertogenbosch [The
32nd rural economy congress at Hertogenbosch]. July 26. p.
1. col. 5. [Dut]
• Summary: The word sojaboon [soybean] appears once in
this brief article.
Note 1. This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sojaboon”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1880.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that contains the word sojaboon.
Note 3. Between 1879 and 1899, about 24 records in this
database contain the word sojaboon. Address: Netherlands.
176. Standaard (De) (Amsterdam). 1879. Geldermalsen, 26
July [Geldermalsen, 26 July]. July 30. p. 2. col. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The term sojaboon (glycine soja) [soybean +
its scientific name] appears once and the term sojaboonen
[soybeans] appears once in this brief article.
Note 1. This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sojaboonen”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1880.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that contains the word sojaboonen.
Note 3. Between 1879 and 1899, about 23 records in
this database contain the word sojaboonen (regardless of
hyphenation or capitalization).
177. Huettig, O. 1880. Bericht ueber Kulturen aus den
vom Verein zur Befoerderung des Gartenbaues gelieferten
Samen [Report on crops grown from seeds obtained from
the Society for the Promotion of Gardening]. Monatsschrift
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 86
des Vereines zur Befoerderung des Gartenbaues in den
Koeniglich Preussischen Staaten und der Gesellschaft der
Gartenfreunde Berlins 23(1):24-26. Jan. [1 ref. Ger]
• Summary: In Section 1, “Vegetables,” the first entry is for:
150. Soja hispida. The soybean, planted at the end of April,
completely rotted. It was planted again in mid-May but
did not ripen. Each plant, on a 60 by 60 cm plot of ground,
produced two stems and 200 seeds on average; this is small
compared with other beans, and on a plot 3 times as large.
The taste of the unripe, cooked soybeans was, compared
with other beans (such as the Yellow Princess Bean), greatly
inferior. The latter are grown in Holland on a large scale
and exported by the shipload to northern Europe, despite the
fact that they usually (but not always!) still ripen in central
Sweden. I definitely prefer the taste of this Yellow Princess
Bean to that of the soybean. Address: Garten-Direktor emer.,
Charlottenberg, Berlinerstr. 12 [very near Berlin, Germany].
178. Het Nieuws van den Tag: Kleine Courant (Amsterdam).
1880. Gemengd nieuws [Miscellaneous news]. April 14. p. 1.
col. 4. [Dut]
• Summary: The agriculturist A. Kuipers, of Steggerda,
during this past year, has planted some soybeans (eenige
sojaboonen gepoot).
Note: This very short article was found by searching
the Dutch-language database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for
“sojaboonen” using advanced search between 1700 and
1880.
179. Kuipers, A.H. 1880. De Sojaboon [The soybean].
Leeuwarder Courant (Leeuwarden, Friesland province,
Netherlands). April 26. p. 5, cols. 2-3. [Dut]
• Summary: The word Sojaboonen [soybeans] appears many
times in this long article. The progress of this crop in the
United States is discussed.
Note 1. This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sojaboonen”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1880.
Note 2. Steggerda is the third largest village of the
Dutch municipality of Weststellingwerf, in the province of
Friesland.
180. Bataviaasch Handlesblad (Batavia, Netherlands
Indies). 1880. Nederlandsch-Indie [Netherlands Indies].
Sept. 3. p. 3. [Dut]
• Summary: Batavia–3 September 1880. The menu for a
Chinese gala dinner included soy sauce (soya-saus) and five
types of confections.
Note 1. This was found by searching the Dutch-language
database http://kranten.delpher.nl/
Note 2. This is the earliest (and only) document seen
(Sept. 2014) in this database that contains the word sojasaus.
181. Algemeen Handelsblad (Amsterdam). 1880. Landbouw
[Agriculture]. Oct. 24. p. 5. col. 4. [Dut]
• Summary: The word sojaboonen [soybeans] appears twice
in this brief article.
Note: This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sojaboonen”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1880. Address:
Netherlands.
182. Paillieux, Auguste. 1880. Le soya, sa composition
chimique, ses variétés, sa culture et ses usages: Le soja en
France [The soybean, its chemical composition, varieties,
culture, and uses: Soya in France (Document part)]. Bulletin
de la Societe d’Acclimatation 27:561-76. Oct. [Fre]
• Summary: Page 561: “Historical–Buffon [GeorgesLouis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, lived 1707-1778] became
director of the Jardin des Plantes [Royal Garden, also called
Jardin du Roi] in 1739. Shortly thereafter French [Catholic]
missionaries in China sent him specimens and seeds of
most of the important plants of that country. Soybeans or
their seeds were almost certainly among their shipments,
and without being able to prove it, we have no doubt on
this subject. Be that as it may, we have recovered from
the Museum [of Natural History] a sachet which, in 1779,
contained soybean seeds. It bears the following dates of
harvest: 1834, 1836 to 1841, 1843, 1844, 1846, 1847, 1849,
and 1850 to 1855 inclusive. Then 1857 to 1859, 1862, 1865
to 1867, 1870, 1871, 1873, 1874, 1877.
“In fact, soybeans have been cultivated at the Museum
very probably since 1740, certainly in 1779, and more
recently from 1834 to 1880 without interruption. The plant
has always germinated and borne fruit as desired, cultivated
like haricot beans (French green beans), without any
particular problems. It has proved its hardiness and the small
influence which changes in atmospheric conditions have on
it.
“Since 1855, the abundant distribution of soybean seeds
ceaselessly by the Society for Acclimatization, has allowed
soybean agronomic trials to be conducted throughout France.
But it is difficult, if not impossible, to obtain information
about trials made before 1855.
Mr. Blavet, president of the Horticultural Society
of Etampes, has uncovered an interesting document in a
brochure titled Seance publique de la Societe d’Agriculture
de l’arrondissement d’Etampes (Public session of the
Agricultural Society of Etampes), for the year 1832, page
84. One chapter bears the title “Report by Mr. C. Brun of
Beaumes, member of the Agricultural Society of Etampes,
chevalier of Saint-Louis, doctor on the faculty of sciences
of France, of some agronomic trials conducted by him in
1821, on various species of cereal grains, on his property
of Champ-Rond, near Etampes [Seine-et-Oise], France.”
A final note says: The heat of the summer of 1821 was so
favorable to exotic plants that I saw the following plants bear
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 87
fruit abundantly in my outdoor garden at Champ-Rond, near
Etampes: the Dolichos of China (le Dolichos de la Chine;
perhaps wistaria), the soybean (Dolichos Soja), and Dolichos
Lablab (also called hyacinth bean). The Niouelle (?) of
Senegal showed here for the first time its long pods (épis),
etc.” Note: This is the earliest document seen (April 2014)
that describes the 1821 soybean experiment by Mr. C. Brun
of Beaumes.
“The duty of the Museum, as a public-interest
organization is to distribute seeds, either as a pure gift
or as part of an exchange, to persons who request them.
Undoubtedly, therefore, trials have been made at various
early dates, but we have no record of them.
“Starting in 1855 a large number of participants received
seeds from the Société d’Acclimatation and experimented
with them. Most of these people did not report the results of
their trials, as they were obliged to. Others, however, did,
including Messrs. Vilmorin, Delisse, Lachaume, etc. But
their cultivation did not lead to any progress, so the soybean
was not established a permanent crop in France.
“In 1868 Mr. Chauvin, vice-president of the Society of
Horticulture at Côte-d’Or [a department in eastern France],
cultivated several soybean varieties there, and the culture has
continued there to this day.
“In 1874 the Society of horticulture of Etampes received
soybean seeds from the Society for Acclimatization, and
began experiments that continued until 1880. One can find
them mentioned in the Introduction to the Etampes livestock
reports. Their cultivation is directed with great zeal by Mr.
Blavet, president of the horticultural society of that area.
During the same period, one Dr. H... brought the best
soybean varieties from Japan and cultivated them. He failed
in this trial because his soybeans were late-maturing types.
He then restricted himself to cultivating yellow soybeans
from China. He encountered no more difficulties and he
made Sho [perhaps shoyu, or Japanese-style soy sauce] by
himself for use in his home.
“In 1878 we received seeds of two soybean varieties.
One, from Japan, had white flowers and very pale yellow
seeds with a greenish hue. The other, from China, was yellow
and belonged to the Houang-téou [“yellow soybean”] series;
they were among the seeds received from Mr. Montigny and
other donors, and have been cultivated at the Museum, at
Etampes, at Marseilles, and a little bit all over. (Footnote:
These varieties look a little different on the outside, but their
chemical composition, usage, and cultivation are the same).
“The seeds from Japan give us nice green foliage, but
the plants do not mature their seeds. The Chinese variety
succeeds in France as it does anywhere else.”
In 1879 a yellow variety received directly from China
matured well and was harvested at Marseilles. In 1880
Vilmorin-Andrieux & Company introduced into France one
of the varieties tested by Haberlandt in Austria, which variety
has proven well adapted to French conditions.
On pages 564-65 the author attempts a sober appraisal
as to why a plant with such obvious merits, that has been
known in France for over 140 years, is still virtually
unknown. Established institutions such as the Museum of
Natural History and the government had taken exasperatingly
little interest in aiding the private efforts of the Society to
introduce new plants. Chemical analyses, demonstrating the
nutritional superiority of the soybean, had been lacking until
about 1855, when Mr. Frémy [Fremy] confirmed that the
soybean contained oil. Messrs. Champion and Lhôte have
given an incomplete analysis [published in 1869]. But the
classical books on agricultural chemistry, the works of our
professors, which make known the chemical composition
of the seeds of our typical legumes, omit information on the
soybean. There was a general resistance, especially on the
part of the establishment, to growing new crops and using
new foods. And finally the basic approach of the Society in
introducing soya first and foremost as a human food was
questioned.
“Our point of departure has not been successful. Soya
has been presented simply as a new legume. But it is more
difficult to cook than other legumes. The flavor is good,
but not superior. Fresh, it takes lots of time to shell. Dry, it
requires pre-soaking for 24 hours in water that is not hard.
If one is ignorant of its nutritive properties, there would be
little incentive to grow it, and one would keep growing the
traditional legumes instead.
“The people of Austria-Hungary have been wiser.
Having already acquired incontestable proof of the value
of soya for livestock fodder, they have no other objectives.
They seem at the very least to have considered as secondary
the utilization of soya for human nutrition. Therefore as soon
as they had enough seed, they cultivated large areas, while
we were still cultivating the furrows between the rows in the
kitchen garden for use as food.
“The seeds will soon be found in all the good markets
of southern Germany. The small farmer will then find them
(soybeans) all around him at low prices. In eating them, he
will find himself strengthened. Then he, in turn, will plant
them himself.”
Varieties (p. 565-66): In 1878, Japan, China, and the
Dutch East Indies presented all their varieties of soybeans
at our Universal Exposition in Vienna. We think that there
are more than 30 varieties of soybeans. Let the Society for
Acclimatization and Messrs. Vilmorin, Andrieux, etc. get us
seeds and we will plant them all. Then we will find among
them, perhaps, some early varieties, to add to those we know.
Cultivation (p. 566-56).
Utilization (p. 567-71): We believe it has already been
demonstrated that the cultivation of soybeans is easy, that
its fecundity is great, and that its chemical composition is
superior. Then why have they not been cultivated for the past
10 years?
We tried to introduce soya as a food plant for the garden
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 88
rather than as a fodder and oilseed. We started where we
should have finished. If we persist in this direction we shall
fail. Soya will fall back into oblivion, while in southern
Germany, the Danube provinces, central Russia, and Italy, it
will soon be widely grown and serve as a source of riches.
Accessory uses (p. 571): The soybean is used to make
miso (le miso), shoyu (le shoyu), Chinese-style soy sauce (le
tsiang-yeou [jiangyou]), the tofu (le tô-fu) of the Japanese,
the tofu (le téou-fou) of the Chinese, fermented black
soybeans (le téou-che [douchi]), and soy coffee (le café de
Soja). We have always said that the shoyu of the Japanese is
excellent, whereas the soy sauce of the Chinese is inferior (p.
571).
In the middle of page 571 and near the bottom of page
572 the term fromage de soja is used to refer to tofu.
Note 2. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (April 2013) that uses the term fromage de soja to refer
to tofu.
Note 3. This document contains the earliest date seen
for soybeans in France, or the cultivation of soybeans in
France (very probably in 1740, certainly in 1779). The
source of these soybeans was French missionaries in China.
Continued. Address: France.
183. Paillieux, Auguste. 1880. Le soya, sa composition
chimique, ses variétés, sa culture et ses usages: M.P. Olivier
Lecq nous adress une lettre... [The soybean, its chemical
composition, varieties, culture, and uses: Letter from Mr.
P. Olivier Lecq (Document part)]. Bulletin de la Societe
d’Acclimatation 27:567-71. Oct. [1 ref. Fre]
• Summary: The writer believes that the main use for
soybeans in France will be as fodder and as a source of oil,
with the straw being fed to livestock. When soy is widely
cultivated, it will be widely researched.
Its accessory uses will come later, in due time. We will
make the Shoyu of Japan, which is excellent and which
supplements the juice from meats. We shall make tofu (téoufou), a cheese whose flavor does not appeal to Europeans but
that children will eat in its fresh state and will go on eating as
they grow into adults.
Mr. Olivier Lecq (p. 568), the writer, is an agronomic
engineer from Templeuve, in the department of Nord, located
in the far north of France, about 209 km (130 miles) northnortheast of Paris on the border with Belgium. Templeuve is
a tiny town about 15 km (9 miles) west of Lille (the capital
of Nord) and about midway between Tournai and Roubaix.
Mr. Paillieux notes that this letter which he received is of
great importance.
Mr. Lecq writes: “As I have already had the honor to tell
you, I have pursued the cultivation of the soybean (du Soja)
only from the viewpoint of feed for animals. Cultivating
this plant for the first year, I was unable to conduct trials,
and I believe I must rely on the trials made at Séclowitz
[Seelowitz], in Moravia. Here is what Mr. Jules Robert told
me about the soybean.”
“’In 1879 the soybean (le Soja) gave me, at maturity,
1,873 kg of beans per hectare and 400 kg of straw. Another
part, cut before maturity, gave me 10,500 kg of half-dry hay,
ready to be ensiled. (This harvest was relatively poor.) This
hay, of which I send you a sample, was mixed with maize
and millet... The soya constitutes one-fifth of this mixture,
in order to enrich the mass with nitrogenous materials. It
is important that the pods be well developed. All the plants
must have lost at least 50% of their weight while being dried
for hay. When the mass has been well compacted by humans,
and if possible by horses, and has been completely covered
with 40 cm of soil, it will begin to generate its own heat,
turn brown, and again sink down to about half its volume–
at which point it will have the appearance and odor of the
sample you have.
“It is important that the piling up be done layer by layer,
if these plants, which have such a large mass, are to obtain
the desired high temperature.
“If the silo is dug down into the earth to a depth of 1
meter, it is a good idea to have the pile rise 1.5 meters above
ground level, so that the total mass, after settling, barely rises
above ground level, as if to form a rounded roof.
The best dirt in which to dig a sunken silo is clay with a
plastic quality. It would be appropriate to pat the sides with
the back of a spade that has been wetted if the weather is dry
in order to polish the surface, and to prevent the action of air
and the passage of water.
An illustration (p. 569) shows the shape and dimensions
of the excavated silo, and the soil covering the silage. The
circular pit is 3 meters in diameter at the top and 2 meters in
diameter at the bottom, 1 meter below ground level.
A table (p. 569) gives the composition of the forage:
Water 8.6%, fatty materials 2.33%, cellulose 43.94%,
proteinaceous substances 8.75%, ash 8.80%, and other
27.56% (“extractive substances” or substances extractives,
probably starch).
This analysis was made at the agricultural laboratory of
the prince of Schwarzenberg, at Lobositz (Bohemia).
I am unable to give you the loss in weight which results
following the end of the fermentation. I will determine that at
the time of my ensilage (mes ensilages) of 1880. Thirty oxen
which were being fattened were nourished from this mixture
whose composition was shown above. A second table (p.
570) shows the average weight of each ox: On Feb. 1, 633
kg each. On March 1, 654 kg. And on April 1 690 kg. A third
table (p. 570) shows the ration of six ingredients given to
each animal during February, March, and April. In February
it was: Natural hay 3 kg. Brown hay (foin brun = silage) 5
kg. Corn flour (farine de maïs) 1 kg. Peelings of beetroots
(cossettes de betteraves = mangel-wurzel). Chopped straw 6
kg. And salt 80 gm.
Olivier Lecq continues: In a letter of Sept. 10, Mr.
Robert told me: ‘I am recognizing more and more the great
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 89
nutritive value of the forage conserved in silos in which the
soybean constitutes about 20%. I increasingly appreciate
the importance of this plant from the viewpoint of feeding
animals, as we wait for it to be used in human nutrition.’
More nourishing than hay, less exposed to the falling
rain and the attacks of insects, the soybean (le Soja) in its
green state but with pods formed, gave me a harvest of
30,000 kg. I mixed it with green alfalfa (luzerne), grass, and
maize. I wouldn’t dare to give the soybean by itself; I would
be afraid of over-exciting the animals with a feed that would
be too concentrated.’
One hectare would, therefore, suffice to feed 100 steers
for 30 days. 10 kg of this concentrated forage have produced
the same effect as 5 kg of maize flour. These 10 kg cost 25
centimes, whereas the 5 kg of maize flour cost at least 1
franc [100 centimes, or 4 times as much].
This, sir, is the information I can give you on soybeans
cultivated for the purpose of feeding animals.
I cannot yet give you information on my own crop. I
don’t yet have much of it, about 3 ares [1 are = 100 square
meters], since it did not come up as well as desired. I have
some very strong plants and others that are weaker because I
had to fill in the gaps by replanting during the drought.
I believe one can compare the soybean with the grape
vine for the heat that is necessary for its maturation. I believe
that soya requires even less heat–if I can judge by what
happened in my case.
One cannot be sure of being able to harvest the beans
each year in the department of Nord, but 90% of the time one
should be able to.
This crop should, therefore, be encouraged, because
even in when it doesn’t mature, the soybean will still provide
an abundance of very nutritious and beneficial forage, and
it will leave the soil in excellent condition for the following
crop. Address: France.
184. Standaard (De) (Amsterdam). 1880. Gemengd nieuws
[Miscellaneous news]. Nov. 2. p. 2. col. 2. [Dut]
• Summary: The word sojaboonen [soybeans] appears twice
in this brief article.
Note: This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sojaboonen”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1880. Address:
Netherlands.
185. Standaard (De) (Amsterdam). 1880. Proeven, met de
teelt van de soyaboonen [Trials done with the growing of
soybeans]. Dec. 7. p. 2, cols. 4-5. [Dut]
• Summary: During the meeting of the Appingedam chapter
of the Society for Industry in Groningen, on 13 November
recently, Mr. Jentink, of Delfzijl, presented a report regarding
the results of a trial conducted by him of growing a small
quantity of soybean (soyaboon). He concluded, that the bean
has to be planted on a warm spot; that every plant yields 60
to 70 pods, that contain 2 to 3 and sometimes 4 little beans;
that the little beans look very clean [schoon could also mean
“beautiful”] and equal in size, treated and cooked like regular
domestic ones, they are not done quickly, but are very tasty;
that the bean is more suited for growing in a garden and for
the joy of it [as a hobby] than for large cultivation, because
the harvest of the fruits and their shelling take too much
time; that when summers are dry the pods could be threshed
in bulk and can be an economical crop then. Meanwhile the
question remains, whether our summers allow the fruit to
ripen consistently and sufficiently. Mr. Jentink will continue
his trials.
Note 1. The word soyaboonen [soybeans] is mentioned
once and the word soyaboon [soybean] is mentioned once in
this article.
Note 2. This brief ad (near bottom of page) was found
by searching the Dutch-language database http://kranten.
delpher.nl/ for “soyaboonen” using advanced search between
1618 and 1890.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that contains the word soyaboonen.
Note 3. Between 1880 and 1899, about 6 records in this
database contain the word soyaboonen but only this one
record contains the word soyaboon. Address: Netherlands.
186. Blavet, A. 1880. Le Soja hispida [The soybean].
Bulletin des Travaux de la Societe d’Horticulture de
l’Arrondissement d’Etampes (Seine-et-Oise) p. 46-50. [Fre]
• Summary: Historical: Cultivation and propagation of
this legume by the care of the Société d’horticulture de
l’arrondìssement d’Etampes from 1874 to 1880.
As indicated by Dr. Baillon on page 687 of the
Journal de la Société centrale d’horticulture de France
(Vol. 1, 3rd series, Nov. 1879), this plant was introduced
to Europe in about 1800. It will be of interest to learn that
when I dedicated myself to research on this subject, I was
fortunate enough to uncover a printed note relating to this
matter. It appears in Vol. 3 of the Société d’Agriculture de
l’Arrondìssement d’Étampes, printed in Paris in 1822. We
read on page 84:
“’The heat of the summer of 1822 has been so favorable
to exotic plants that this year at Champ-Rond, near Étampes,
in my fields full of crops (cultures en pleine terre), I have
seen the following plants bear fruits abundantly: The
dolichos from China (le dolichos de la Chìne), the soybean
(le dolichos soja), the lablab bean (le dolichos lablab), etc.
Signed, Brun des Beaumes, doctor at the Faculty of Sciences,
Royal University of France docteur en la Faculté des
sciences de l’université royale de France.’
“Cultivated as a botanical curiosity, this plant fell into
oblivion.
“We must jump ahead to April 1854 (as we read in the
Bulletin of the Society for Acclimatization of Nov. 1879) to
see it reappear through the care of M. de Montigny, French
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 90
consul at Shanghai [China]–although it is said to have
existed in botanical gardens for 50 years.
“In 1858, Mr. Fr. Jacquemart confirmed that the
naturalization of this legume was complete; then Mr. Quihou,
in 1873, declared that he had tried the crop without success.
“It was not until Nov. 1874, as indicated in the same
bulletin, that I received directly from the Society for
Acclimatization a very small sample of seeds, harvested
at the garden of Hyères. I immediately acknowledged the
receipt with thanks. I distributed this small provision with
the greatest possible discernment, and in March 1876 the
Society’s bulletin published our first results. On p. 226 we
indicated the preferred soil and exposure, as well as the need
to plant the seed directly in the ground [and not in a pot or
flat].
“In July of the same year [1876], in this Bulletin (No.
7, p. 457), I reported to the society, after tasting at home
[soybeans we had grown locally], in a general session, our
satisfaction and our hopes. But we had only begun our task;
it was necessary to expand the cultivation of this bean.
“The Universal Exposition of 1878 [in Paris], in which
our society participated with success, demonstrated to us
that the numerous samples which we had displayed / labeled
(adressés) were appreciated; for not a single pod remained
on the magnificent plants on our plot. Note: Martine Liguori
states: 2007. March 30. This passage is purposely written
in an opaque manner. This article, and another in this same
periodical, imply that the Society grew soybean plants at
its booth in the 1878 Exposition in Paris. Visitors to the
booth came by and stripped off the pods and the seeds they
contained. At the end, all that were left were bare stems.
“In Feb. 1879, better supplied, I introduced this plant
to Mr. Courtois, president of the Society for Horticulture
of Eure-et-Loir, begging him to do an agronomic trial of
the soybean (soja) as successor to the lentil, formerly so
prosperous in Gallardon before falling prey to the weevil.
“I am happy to say here how much Mr. Courtois was
eager to be useful to our cause. In my letter inserted on p. 27
(February 1879), I indicated for the first time the resistance
of this plant to attacks of the cruel beetle. The April bulletin
of the same society contains on p. 68 my very long letter in
which, announcing the honors made to our soybeans at the
universal exposition, I speak on the culinary question, all
the while addressing historical and botanical information
contained in the Belgian Horticultural Monitor (Moniteur
horticole) (No. 1, January 1877, p. 7). I owe them to the
graciousness / kindness (l’obligeance) of Mr. Gillekens,
director of the horticultural school of Vilvorde. Finally, on p.
75 of the bulletin of Eure-et-Loir (May 1879), I indicated the
preferable means of planting that we adopted.
“From this point forward, the shipments addressed
directly or arriving from our farmers are put to use profitably,
and it is thus that the Central Society of Horticulture (la
Société centrale d’horticulture) was happy to be able to
reward three presenters successively in September-October
1879, our secretaries, Messrs. Coffin, Dudouy, and Lavallée.
“Wanting very much to determine the nutritional value
of this soybean, I sent a sample of it to the Agronomic
Institute of France (l’Institut agronomique de France) to be
analyzed at that time, and on November 7 of the same year,
I received by the solicitude of Mr. A. Levallois the analysis
of this plant, to which I join those of several legumes for
comparison. This table, published in a certain number
of copies, appears on p. 695 of the Journal de la Société
Centrale d’Horticulture de France (November 1879).
The results appeared so interesting to me that they should
assuredly decide success.
“From this moment on, the horticultural press occupied
itself with the greatest zeal on behalf of this plant, which is
so generous and productive.
“To the envy of one another, the farmers did me
(ce firent plaisir [sic]) the pleasure of indicating the
extraordinary yield of soybeans when cultivated in suitable
soil.” Continued. Address: President of the Society for
Horticulture of Étampes and environments, France.
187. Blavet, A. 1880. Le Soja hispida [The soybean
(Continued–Document Part II)]. Bulletin des Travaux de
la Societe d’Horticulture de l’Arrondissement d’Etampes
(Seine-et-Oise) p. 46-50. [Fre]
• Summary: Continued: Thus, our society’s goal had
been attained; we had distributed the seeds of our crops
to 18 departments in France. England, Belgium, Senegal,
Switzerland, and Venezuela had likewise received some
samples. It was now up to commerce to propagate this
product. We could not have done better than to go to one
of our society’s secretaries, Mr. Vilmorin, to whom we
owe being able to study comparatively in our experimental
garden, for two harvests now, 10 soybean varieties. Today
one can certainly obtain this bean, under the name of edible
soybean of Etampes (soja comestible d’Etampes), a variety
with a bright yellow seed coat (testa) and a white hilum (oeil
= eye)–the object of our constant preoccupation since 1874.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (June 2009)
concerning soybeans in connection with Venezuela. The
soybeans probably arrived in Venezuela and they may have
been cultivated–but we do not know for sure.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (March 2009)
that contains the word “testa.”
After having thanked once again, and in first place, the
Society for Acclimatization, we are equally happy to address
our thanks to Mr. Carrière who, in the Horticultural Review
(Revue horticole) of 16 April 1880 [p. 153-57], published
an extremely complete article with illustrations in the text,
depicting the plant in a very faithful fashion.
May Mr. E. Vavin receive as well the expression of
our warm gratitude; we can thank him for one of the most
instructive and detailed notices on this subject, inserted in
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 91
the Journal de la Societe Centrale d’Horticulture de France
(Journal of the Central Society of Horticulture of France)
(3rd series, Vol. II, 1880, p. 429-33) receives also the
expression of our humble recognition.
An excellent way of cooking dried soybeans
Dissolve 50 gm of sugar in 1 liter of rain or river water.
Add ½ liter of beans; allow to soak 24 hours. This [mixture]
will yield 1½ liters after cooking.
The next day, drain the beans, plunge them (like other
dry legumes) into cold water, bring to a boil, and continue
to boil them for three hours. Use a large volume of water in
the pot [as when cooking pasta] (Faire cuire à grande eau.)
Salt appropriately halfway through. At the same time or a
bit later, you can even add some fat such as a pat of butter.
Season them with a fat of your choice or other meatless
seasonings, but avoid excessive use of fat (au gras ou au
maigre).
This issue finished, we shall receive Bulletin No. 9 of
the Society for Acclimatization (September), which contains
the most complete bibliography of soybeans published.
Compiled by Mr. Paillieux, it references works from 1855
onwards (traite la question depuis 1855).
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (Aug. 2009)
concerning soybeans in Senegal. This document contains the
earliest date seen for soybeans in Senegal (1880 or shortly
before). The source of these soybeans was Mr. Blavet from
Étampes, France. It would be very interesting to know: (1)
Who received these soybeans in Senegal? Where? (2) Were
these soybeans ever cultivated or tested in Senegal at this
early date? If yes, what were the results?
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (Nov. 2012)
that gives the name soja comestible d’Etampes to a soybean
from Etampes, France.
Note 5. This is the earliest document seen (Sept.
2004) that mentions a soybean variety (Soja d’Etampes)
with a white hilum. Address: President of the Society for
Horticulture of Étampes and environments, France.
188. Algemeen Handelsblad (Amsterdam). 1882. Landbouw
[Agriculture]. June 5. p. 1-2, cols. 5 and 1. [Dut]
• Summary: The word soyaboonen [soybeans] is mentioned
once on page 2, at the top of column 1.
Note: This brief article was found by searching the
Dutch-language database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for
“soyaboonen” using advanced search between 1618 and
1890. Address: Netherlands.
189. Bretschneider, Emil V. 1882. Botanicon sinicum.
Notes on Chinese botany from native and Western sources.
I. Andreas Cleyer and Engelberth [Englebert] Kaempfer
(Document part). J. of the North-China Branch of the Royal
Asiatic Society 16:18-230. New Series. For the year 1881.
See p. 125-26. [1 ref. Eng]
• Summary: “The first attempt of a European to study the
Flora of Japan was made by Andreas Cleyer, a German,
who visited Yeddo in 1683 as envoy of the Dutch East-India
Company, and who resided in Nagasaki as chief supercargo
[in charge of the commercial concerns] of the Dutch factory
till 1686. His letters on Japanese plants addressed to Dr.
Mentzel have been published in the Academiæ naturæ
curiosorum Ephemerides, 1686-1700. Cleyer’s descriptions
as well as the drawings appended have little value.”
In the Royal Library at Berlin Bretschneider saw
Cleyer’s drawings as well as “another volume entitled
Cleyer’s Flora Japonica, containing only 101 coloured
drawings of Japanese plants, apparently painted from
nature in Japan by Cleyer’s order. These have more claim
to botanical correctness. Cleyer has himself added some
memoranda. The names are given in Japanese letters only.
This volume was referred to Dr. Siebold, who in 1856
drew up an Index of the drawings and added the scientific
botanical names.
Note: Cleyer’s diary was published in German in 1985
under the title Tagebuch des Kontors zu Nagasaki auf der
Insel Deshima, 20 Oktober 1682–5 November 1683, edited
by Eva. S. Kraft.
“A few years after Cleyer had left Japan, another
German, an able explorer and botanist, arrived in that
country and spent about two years there. Engelberth
[Englebert] Kaempfer was born in 1651 at Lemgo (LippeDetmold). In 1683 he accompanied a Swedish Embassy
to Persia as secretary, but on its return he separated from
it and proceeded to the Persian Gulf, where a Dutch fleet
was stationed at that time. In 1685 he entered the service
of the Dutch East-India Company as a surgeon, and arrived
at Batavia [later renamed Jakarta, Indonesia] in 1689.
In the following year a Dutch squadron was sent out to
Siam and Japan, and Kaempfer was of the party. On the
22nd September 1690 he reached Nagasaki. He had two
opportunities of visiting Yeddo, performing the journey
thither partly by the overland road, partly by sea. His first
stay in Yeddo lasted from March 13 to April 5, 1691; the
second from March 31 to April 29, 1692. He left Japan
in the same year, returned to Europe in 1694, and died in
1716 in his native country. For further biographical details
regarding Kaempfer see Rosny’s “Variétés orientales,” 1872,
p. 98, where an interesting account of his life and scientific
works is found. Kaempfer was not only a skillful botanist,
but an acute observer in general. He has connected his name
imperishably with the history of botanical discoveries in
Japan, and the accounts he noted down with respect to the
Japanese Empire and other countries he visited will always
stand as a model of accurate and judicious information and
keen observation. In 1712 he brought out his Amoenitates
Exocticae. The second fasciculus [fascicle] (p. 466) contains
an account of the plants from which paper is manufactured
in Japan; in the third fasciculus (p. 605) a treatise on the Teashrub is found. Besides this the whole of the fifth fasciculus
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 92
(p. 707-912) is devoted to the description of more than 500
species of Japanese plants, 31 of which are represented by
excellent drawings. The Japanese names of the plants are
always given, and Chinese names in Chinese characters are
generally added. Although these characters are often wrongly
or indistinctly printed, there is no difficulty in deciphering
them. Kaempfer’s botanical descriptions are generally
faithful, in some instances much detailed.
“The Amoenitates Exoticae represents only a small
portion of Kaempfer’s labours. After his death all his
unpublished manuscripts as well as his herbarium, namely
the plants collected in Japan and his drawings of Japanese
plants, were purchased by Hans Sloane, the well-known
collector and promoter of science, whose immense collection
subsequently gave origin to the British Museum. In 1727
Kaempfer’s valuable History of Japan, etc. was published
in English, translated from his original (Dutch) manuscript.
In 1791 Sir J. Banks edited a volume with the title: Icones
selector plantarum quas in Japonia collegit et delineavit
E. Kaempfer, ex archtyp, in Museo Britannico asservatis. It
contains 50 plates.” Address: China.
190. Bretschneider, Emil V. 1882. Botanicon sinicum. Notes
on Chinese botany from native and Western sources. I.
Philipp Franz von Siebold (Document part). J. of the NorthChina Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 16:18-230. New
Series. For the year 1881. See p. 126-27. [1 ref. Eng]
• Summary: After describing the pioneering botanical
work of Englebert Kaempfer and C.P. Thunberg in Japan,
Bretschneider continues: “Much more was done in this
respect by Dr. Siebold, the well-known and ardent explorer
of Japan.–Ph. Fr. v. Siebold, a German, was born in 1796
in Wuerzburg. After having studied medicine and natural
sciences he went to Holland, and entering the service of the
Dutch East-India Company, set out for Batavia, where he
arrived in 1822. The next year he was sent as a physician
and naturalist to Japan. He lived several years in the Dutch
Factory at Decima [Deshima] (Nagasaki). In 1826 he had an
opportunity of visiting Yeddo [Edo, today’s Tokyo]. As the
Japanese government suspected him of being in possession
of a map of Japan, he was obliged to leave the country in
1830, and returned to Europe, where he employed himself
for several years in publishing the results of his researches in
Japan. In 1859 he went again to that country, where he lived
till 1862. He died at Munich in 1866.
“Siebold had forwarded one portion of his vast botanical
collections accumulated in Japan to Prof. C.L. Blume in
Java, who described some of these plants in the Museum
botanicum Lugduno-Batavorum, 1849-51. H. Zollinger
published a few years later an Index of Siebold’s plants in
the Java Herbarium (Buitenzorg). The greater part of his
dried plants, however, had been transmitted by Siebold to the
Museum of Leyden, and from these materials Prof. Miquel
compiled his Prolusio Florae japonicae [Prolusio florae
Iaponicae], 1865-67.
“Siebold himself, with the assistance of Prof. J.G.
Zuccarini of Munich, had commenced much earlier to
describe his Japanese botanical collections, but their
publications were left in a fragmentary state. The most
interesting of them is the Flora japonica, sive plantæ quas
in Imperio Japonico collegit, descripsit, ex parte in ipsis
locis pingendas curavit Dr. Ph. Fr. de Siebold, digessit Dr.
Zuccarini, 1835-1844, 127 plates. Miquel attempted to
continue this iconographical work and published, from 18681870, 23 additional plates.* The original drawings to which
Siebold alludes on the title pages (about 600) have been
purchased, together with a set of Siebold’s dried Japanese
plants, from his widow, by the Academy of St. Petersburg
[Russia]. The drawings form eight large volumes and are
beautifully executed.
“Siebold always tried to ascertain the Japanese names
of the plants he gathered, and also noted down the Chinese
characters applied in Japan to these plants. He was assisted
in this task by native botanists, and we can, I think, assume
that his identifications are quite reliable.”
Footnote: *”I know only the 127 plates published
by Siebold and Zuccarini. Franchet and Savatier, Enum.
plant. Japon. [Enumeratio Plantarum in Japonia sponte
crescentium...], Pref. XIII, state that in all 175 of these
plates have been published, but in the second vol. p. 665 that
authors assign to Flora japonica 150 plates only.” Address:
China.
191. Geerts, A.J.C. 1883. Observations on Kinch’s list of
plants used for food. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of
Japan 11(Part 1):31-35. April. [3 ref. Eng]
• Summary: Note 1. Geerts is referring to the article by
Kinch titled “List of plants used for food or from which
foods are obtained in Japan,” on pages 1-30 of this issue of
this periodical.
“Prof. Kinch seems not to have been acquainted with
the list of 447 economical plants, published in 1826 by Ph.
Fr. von Siebold in the Transactions of the Batavian Society
of Arts and Sciences [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch
Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen], Vol. XII,
under the title of ‘Synopsis plantarum oeconomicarum
universi regni Japonici,’ for Mr. Kinch mentions only
the more imperfect list given by Thunberg in his Flora
Japonica. Further, several articles written on the subject of
economic Japanese plants, published by von Siebold in the
Journal of the Royal Dutch Society for the Advancement
of Horticulture, during the years 1844-45-46, etc., might
be perused with advantage by those who wish to study the
practical side of Japanese economic plants.
“In Karl von Scherzer’s work, Fachmaenuische Berichte
ueber die oesterreichisch-ungarische Expedition nach Siam,
China und Japan, Stuttgart, 1872, there is an extensive
article by Dr. S. Syrski, on Japanese horticulture and
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 93
economic cultivated plants, pp. 175-220. Several interesting
observations on the mode of culture, time of sowing,
planting, and harvesting, will be found there.”
“As a preliminary catalogue Mr. Kinch’s list may be
useful for those persons who do not possess the botanical
literature on the Japanese flora, but as a practical indication
for horticulturists the list is deficient. Note 2. Chinese
characters (or katakana) are given for each for the following
Japanese terms.
“For instance the plant Dai-dzu or O-mame, the Soja
hispida, Moench, has in Japan five distinct cultivated
varieties and eleven or perhaps more sub-varieties, viz:
“I. White or slightly yellow beans, Haku-dai-dzu. 1.
Very early variety with very small bean. Harvest in July.
Goguwatsu-mame 2. Early variety with small white bean,
Wase-mame or Natsu-mame. These [first] two varieties
are also called Bai-to or Tofu-mame and serve especially
for preparing To-fu [tofu]. 3. Middle early variety with
somewhat larger round beans, Nakate-mame. Much used for
preparing miso. 4. Late variety with round and hard beans,
Okute-mame. 5. Late variety, with smaller, perfectly round
and hard beans, Maru-mame. Can be kept a very long time
and is much used as food for horses. 6. Late variety, with
large, perfectly round, and very hard beans, Teppo-mame or
Aki-mame. Is much valued for the preparation of Shoyu [soy
sauce].
II. “Black beans, Koku-dai-dzu or Kuro-mame. 1.
Middle late variety, with round, small, hard, black beans,
Kuro-mame. 2. Middle late variety, with round, large black
beans, Kuro-teppo-mame. 3. Late variety, with flat, elliptic,
black beans, Go-ishi-mame or Kuro-torokusun or Hachi-buname or Tamba-kuro-mame. These kinds [in category II.] are
eaten in a boiled mixed with sugar as entremets.
“III. Brown beans, Katsu-dai-dzu. 1. Round reddish
brown beans, Aka-mame. According to the size the Japanese
distinguish even six subvarieties of this brownish Soya-bean.
The reddish kinds are far less cultivated than the white and
black varieties. 2. Light brownish-red and round beans,
Cha-mame. According to the more or less intense colour the
Japanese distinguish three sub-varieties of Cha-mame. They
are rarely cultivated. [Both these types] are eaten with sugar
in a boiled state” (p. 34).
Note 3. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Oct. 2004) that mentions red or reddish soybeans
(actually brownish-red).
Note 4. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Feb. 2007) that contains the word “Soya-bean” or
(“Soya-beans”).
“IV. Greenish or blue-greenish beans, Sei-dai-dzu or
Aö-mame. 1. Round, middle-sized greenish beans, Aö-mame.
The Japanese distinguish two sub-varieties, viz., . Sei-hi-to
with the epidermis only of a green colour, but white inside
[and] Beta. Nikuri-Sei, which are outside and inside of a
greenish colour. 2. Light green round beans, Kagemame.
[All] are only cultivated in the provinces of Ise, Iyo, Harima,
Idzumo [Izumo], Omi. Eaten with sugar in a boiled state.
Note 5. This is the earliest English-language document seen
(Oct. 2004) that uses the term “light green” to describe the
color of a soybean.
“V. Spotted beans, Han-dai-dzu or Fu-iri-mame. 1.
Greenish, flat, oblong beans with a black spot at the navel.
Kuro-kurakake-mame. Relatively rare and only cultivated
in Nagato [an old province on the southwest tip of Honshu,
Japan; as of 2003 part of Yamaguchi prefecture], Idzumo
[Izumo] and the environs of Kiyoto [Kyoto]. 2. Yellowishgreen, flat, and slightly oblong beans, with a dark brown spot
at the navel. Aka-kura-kake-mame. Rare. 3. Yellowish-green
beans with many dark spots. Furi-mame or Udzura-mame.
Rare. Cultivated in Harima province.”
Note 6. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Oct. 2004) that uses the term “Yellowish-green” to
describe the color of a soybean.
Note 7. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Sept. 2004) that uses the word “spots” (or “spotted” or
“spotting”) or the term “reddish brown” to describe the color
of soybean seeds.
Note 8. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Oct. 2013) that discusses the color of many soybean
varieties.
Note 9. Geerts’ initials stand for Antonius Johannes
Cornelius.
Note 10. This is an excellent, original article, which
gives the names of many Japanese soybean varieties for the
first time in English or any other European language. That
information is largely derived from Iinuma (1861 and/or
1874).
192. Bisschop Grevelink, A.H. 1883. Planten van
Nederlandsch-Indië: Bruikbar voor handel, nijverheid en
geneeskunde [Plants of the Netherlands Indies: Useful for
trade, industry, and medicine]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: J.H.
de Bussy. xlviii + 876 p. Illust. Index. 23 cm. [Dut]
• Summary: Under sub-order Papilionaceae verae, the
taxonomy of the soybean is outlined on p. 68, then the plant
is discussed in detail on p. 98 under the following heading:
“XXXVIII. Soya hispida Mönch.–Dolichos soya L.–S.
japonica Savi. Japansche slingerboon Ned. [Dutch].–Katjang
Kedeléh jav. [Javanese].–Katjang boeloe mal. [Malay].
Also discusses: Voandzeia Subterranea Thouars.
Katjang Manilla [Katjang Manila; Malay]. (Bambara
groundnut, p. 80-81). Psophocarpus tetragonolobus DC.–
Lobus quadrangularis Rumphius.–Vierhoekige slingerboon
[Dutch]–Djaat [Javanese]–Botor [Malay]–Ketjippeer
[Katjang ketjipir] [East Java]. (Winged bean, p. 81).
Arachis hypogaea (peanut, p. 101-06). Amarantus oleraceus
(amaranth, p. 263-65). Linum usitissimum (linseed, p. 308).
Cannabis sativa (hemp, p. 370-73). Coix lachryma (Job’s
tears, p. 411). Cyperus esculentus Aardmandelen [Dutch].
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 94
Earth-chestnuts [English]. Amande de terre [French] (Chufa,
p. 658). Sesamum indicum (sesame, p. 675-77). Arnoldus
Hermanus Bisschop Grevelink was born in 1811.
193. Kobus, J.D. 1884. Kraftfutter und seine Verfaelschung:
Resultate der Futtermittel-Kontrole an der hollaendischen
Reichs-Versuchs-Station zu Wageningen [Concentrated
feed and its adulteration: Results of fodder investigations
at the Dutch experiment station at Wageningen].
Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbuecher 13:813-50. [19* ref. Ger]
• Summary: Includes discussions of: Linseed cake. Peanut
cake. Sesame cake. Wheat germ cake. Leindotter cake
(German sesame, camelina, cameline). Rice fodder meal.
Contains 22 illustrations with explanations (but none of
plants mentioned above).
In addition to cakes from the seeds mentioned above,
cakes from many other seeds have been investigated at
Wageningen. A table (p. 842) gives information on a
selection of these, including soybeans, almonds, and poppy
seeds. For each is given (with soy used here as an example):
Name of the cake: Soyakuchen. Scientific name of the seed
from which the cake is derived: Soya hispida. Protein:
40.8%. Fat 7.4%. Ash 5.2%. Water 13.5%. Crude fiber
5.4%. Nitrogen-free extract: 27.7%. Address: [Wageningen,
Netherlands].
194. Algemeen Handelsbad (Amsterdam). 1887. Soja [Soy
sauce]. Dec. 4. p. 6. [Dut]
• Summary: A brief description of how Japanese soy sauce is
made using barley, cooking salt, a ferment, and soybeans (de
Japansche Soja bereid nit gerst, keukensout, een ferment en
sojaboonen).
Note: This brief ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sojaboon”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1850. Address:
Netherlands.
195. Lecerf, Ch. 1888. Sur la valeur alimentaire du Soya
hispida [On the nutritional value of the soybean]. Bulletin de
la Societe de Medecine Pratique de Paris p. 442-49. Meeting
of April 26. Presided over by M. Laburthe. [Fre]
• Summary: Because of the difficulty many people have in
tolerating gluten bread, we are anxious to find another food
free from sugar and amylaceous materials for diabetics. I
thought it would be interesting to do some trials on the use of
the seeds of a bean used often in China, Japan, and Malaysia.
I had the occasion to study this bean under the direction
of my master, Mr. Muntz, when I was at his laboratory at the
Agronomic Institute (l’Institut agronomique). I wish to speak
of soybeans (Soya).
In 1855, Mr. de Montigny, struck by the considerable
nutritional value of soybeans, imported some to France,
and submitted them to the Society for Acclimatization (la
Société d’acclimatation), hoping that our farmers would
make the best of this legume that is the foundation of
the food of the poor classes of China and Japan. In these
countries, the soybean equals the potato in our countryside,
in consumption. We shall see, in a bit, that the bean of this
legume (sub-order papillonacée [sic, papilionaceæ]) is richer
by far in nutritious elements than the tuber of Parmentier [the
potato].
Since this attempt [by Mr. Montigny in 1855], many
agronomical trials have been conducted, at different places in
our territory [France and its colonies], and they have proven
that the acclimatization of this plant, in France, is possible.
They have also permitted us to hope that the climate of our
regions is analogous to that of the Chinese and Japanese
provinces where the soybean (le Soya) is cultivated on a
large scale. Unfortunately, these trials had the goal of feeding
animals rather than the introduction of this bean into the
human diet.
However, eight years ago, Count Attems, who was
busy with the cultivation of soybeans in Austria, wrote:
We fool ourselves when we think that soybeans are only
an advantageous pasturage, or when we believe that they
constitute a delicate dish only for the table of the rich.
Soybeans have also been discovered for the large class of
less idle consumers, for the country folk and the workers;
and although it is a plant of ancient Asia, future generations
will make a great case for them and without a doubt will
call them Haberlandt’s bean (Haricot de Haberlandt) in
recognition.
Professor Haberlandt, who tested the cultivation of
soybeans following the Exposition of 1873, published
his results in 1878 and became the popularizer of their
cultivation and use in Austria. Here is this author’s
[Haberlandt’s] opinion on the nutritive value of this bean:
I think that soybeans are a food too concentrated to be
prepared alone and that, consequently, it is better to mix
them with other foods, especially those containing starch...
They can furnish armies with provisions of little volume, and
enter with good right, as the best equivalent, in pea sausages.
In France, although many notes relative to the
cultivation and use of soybeans have been addressed to
the Society of Acclimatization, I believe that the first, if
not the only monograph that was made of it, is that of Mr.
Paillieux. This work was published in 1881; I have borrowed
from him numerous times. As for me, it was in 1883 at
the Agronomical Institute that I came to know soybeans,
following the analyses and experience of Mr. Muntz,
and of my dear friend, the late Levallois, from whom the
Academy of Sciences received last April 3rd a posthumous
communication on the composition of the beans that he
harvested at the agronomic station in Nice, of which he was
the director.
The name Dolichos soya was given by Linnaeus to this
Chinese bean that Moench later named Soya hispida.
In Japan, they call it Daïzu Mame, that is, food seed par
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 95
excellence. In China, it is known under the name Yéou-téou;
its cultivation there is less important than in Japan, although
it enters largely into the food of the working class and is
used, as in Japan, for the commercial / industrial preparation
of a variety foods.
The soybean is also cultivated and consumed in India,
the Himalayas, Ceylon, Tonkin, Cochin China, and the Dutch
possessions in Malaysia. In these different lands, it is eaten
in its natural state (en nature), and used to make many food
products, on the one hand the daily food of the poor, on the
other condiments sought after by the rich.
Because of the high content of fatty materials in
soybeans (17-18%), its flour (sa farine) emulsifies with
water, giving with oil a certain quantity of légumine [a
protein found in soybeans]. The mixture, passed through a
cloth, yields, as a filtered liquid, a true milk (vrai lait), used
like that of cows, goats, or sheep. This is the milk (le lait) of
the Chinese.
This milk is used to prepare a cheese (named Téou-fou
in China, Tou-fou in Japan), that resembles a white cheese
known, in France, under the name of fromage à la pie
(quark). The lightly heated milk is coagulated when it is
warm with the help of a few spoonfuls of liquid nigari / pure
sea water (d’eaux mères de sel marin). The curds (caillé)
thus obtained are allowed to drain, then submitted to the
action of flowing water. Note 1. The drained curds are first
pressed to make tofu, then cut into cakes, which a placed into
a container of cold, circulating water.
According to Mr. Champion, in China a piece of tofu
(fromage de pois) as big as a fist sells for a cent (un centime).
For many people of the working class, it constitutes the
morning meal, either in a liquid state [as soymilk], or
coagulated and fresh [as curds], or in a dried state [probably
as pressed or firm tofu, or possibly as yuba] and fried in oil
extracted from soybeans.
According to the analyses of Mr. Fremy, the soybean
contains 18% of this oil, which is in the first rank among the
15-20 types of oils that the Chinese possess. It is of excellent
quality and for Europeans, has the sole drawback of retaining
the aftertaste of the raw bean.
In Canton [China], soybeans figure in the composition
of a solid ferment, Kiu-tsée, that the Chinese use to make an
artificial wine and their brandy (eau-de-vie).
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Oct. 2012)
that contains the term Kiu-tsée (written with an acute accent),
which it uses to refer to a solid Cantonese wine ferment.
Continued.
196. Lecerf, Ch. 1888. Sur la valeur alimentaire du Soya
hispida [On the nutritional value of the soybean (Continued–
Document Part II)]. Bulletin de la Societe de Medecine
Pratique de Paris p. 442-49. Meeting of April 26. Presided
over by M. Laburthe. [Fre]
• Summary: Continued from page 444: Finally, this bean
is the base of a sort of sauce that has now jumped the
boundaries of Asia and whose consumption is widespread
among the well-to-do classes (les classes aisées) of North
America, England, and Holland. This is the Tsiang-yeou
[pinyin: jiangyou] of the Chinese, the Shoyu of the Japanese,
the Ketjap of Batavia and Java, the India-Soy of the
Americans and the English, and the Zoya of the Dutch. This
product is a liquid of a darker or lighter brown, depending on
the quality, obtained by the fermentation of cakes (gâteaux
[of koji]) made of grilled barley and boiled soybeans.
These cakes, after fermentation, are dissolved in water
with salt, and left alone for 2 and even 3 years [for a 2nd
fermentation], then pressed in sacks. The liquid that flows
out is Shoyu; it has a taste and a smell that are reminiscent
of meat extracts. In Japan it replaces butter, oil, fat and meat
sauces. Everything–vegetables, fish, noodles–is ordinarily
seasoned with shoyu. It is the object of an important industry:
in Nagasaki, there are more than 10 factories that produce
1,200,000 kg/year for consumption. The most sought-after
quality is that of Tokio (Yédo). It is from this city that
originates the sketch that I have the honor to present you.
Composition: According to analyses communicated by
Mr. Pellet to the Academy of Sciences in May 1880, here
are the composition of two soybeans, the first from China
and the second harvested in France. Table 1 (p. 445) gives
the percentage of macro- and micronutrients in each. The
Chinese soybeans contain 16.4% lipids (matières grasses),
35.5% protein (matières proteiques), and 4.8% ash (cendres)
vs. 14.12%, 31.75%, and 5.15% for the French. Table 2 (p.
446) gives the composition of the ash for the two soybeans
as follows: phosphoric acid, potash, lime / limestone, and
magnesia. It shows that the phosphoric acid and potash
represent about 75% of the weight of the ash. Table 3 (p.
446) compares the composition of 100 soybeans harvested
at Nice and analysed by Levallois, with the composition of
100 grains of wheat analysed by Isidore Pierre. The soybeans
contain about 2.8 times as much nitrogen (protein).
To the analyses done by Mr. Pellet, we must add some
slight corrections: according to the analyses made by Mr.
Müntz, at the Agronomic Institute (l’Institut agronomique),
the starchy and sugary materials [carbohydrates] have been
increased to 6.40%, the nitrogenous materials [protein] to
36.67% and the fatty materials to 17.00%.
The sugary material, contained in the soybean (Soya),
constitutes a particular sugar that, like cane sugar, only
reduces to Fehling’s solution / liquid after having been
inverted by sulfuric acid, as Levallois discovered as well.
Its rotary power is much higher than that of cane sugar.
Exact degree measurements are given.
Let us now compare the compositions of wheat, beans,
potatoes, according to Boussingault, with that of soybeans.
Table 4 (p. 446-47) gives percentages of starch and sugared
principles, nitrogenous materials, fatty materials, water,
potash, and phosphoric acid.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 96
This comparison shows the superiority of soybeans over
these vegetable products, even over wheat, for if the ash of it
appears richer in phosphoric acid, we must take into account
that wheat furnishes 2.41% ash while soybeans give more
twice the weight of ash, 5.15%.
The liquid prepared with soybeans in Japan, shoyu, was
analyzed at the official laboratory in Tokio (no. 1 [on table
5]). I duplicated the analysis (no. 2) to reassure myself that
shipment [to France] had not altered its composition. Table 5
(p. 447) shows, nearly identical values for the two sauces, in
terms of density, dry extract, ash, nitrogenous materials, salt
(NaCl), phosphoric acid, and potash.
As these analyses show, shoyu contains about a third
of its weight in solid matter, half of which is formed of
minerals. Of the latter (minerals), table salt (NaCl) is found
in the proportion of 9/11 [i.e., 82% of the minerals is NaCl],
phosphoric acid 2%, and potash 3%. Nitrogenous materials
represent about a tenth of the total solid matter.
Conclusions: The analyses that I just cited make the
considerable value of soybeans from a nutritional point of
view stand out. Its richness in protein (matières protéiques),
in fact [make it] a vegetable meat (une chair végétale),
and this meat would be superior, as a concentrated food,
to [real] meat. In fact, here is a comparison of percentage
compositions (compositions centésimales) of soybeans and
beef that has had its fats and oils removed [probably in the
laboratory]. Table 6 (p. 447) compares water, protein, fat,
potash, and phosphoric acid.
These figures need no commentary; they are quite
eloquent by themselves and make comprehensible how in
Japan a handful of this bean suffices to nourish a vigorous
man.
One could, advantageously use soybean flour (la
farine de Soya) as a powerful food, in a small volume, with
debilitated individuals. It is, like milk, a type of complete
food, joining the plastic element, represented by protein, the
respiratory element, fat, and salts, in which phosphoric acid
and potash dominate.
Note 1. This is the earliest French-language document
seen (May 2014) which gives a specific name to soy flour, or
which uses the term farine de Soya to refer to soy flour.
The almost total absence of starchy materials, and
the insignificant quantity of sugar that this grain contains,
indicates it quite naturally as the best base for bread or rusks
for the use of diabetics.
I have the honor to present to the Society some samples
of bread and rusks made with soybeans.
Finally, Shoyu, that combines a significant proportion
of nitrogenous materials [protein] with a rather strong
quantity of sodium chloride, could be usefully administered
to consumptives [people having tuberculosis], who would
find there, beside highly nutritious materials, to compensate
for / offset the weakening caused by the loss of salt
(déchloruration) to which they are subject.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
which is of practical importance concerning the use of soy in
diabetic diets.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (May 2014)
that mentions a soy bread, however it is never given a French
name (such as pain de soya).
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (May 2014)
that mentions “biscuits” (or biscuit) made with soy.
Discussion: Mr. Roussel–Could Mr. Lecerf please give
us some information about the cultivation of soya and tell us
if this plant can be acclimatized in France.
Mr. Lecerf–The Soya grows rather well in the same
geographical area as corn / maize. The essential requirement
for it to bear seeds, is that neither light nor heat be
obstructed. Fertilizer is not necessary for it. Even fresh
manure is harmful to it, it grows well in all types of terrain,
and all atmospheric variations support its growth.
It is planted from the middle to the end of April. It yields
about 600 to one [600 seeds from every seed planted]. It
is harvested about the end of October. One indispensable
precaution is to space the plants from 0.25 to 0.5 meters
apart, according to the richness of the soil, by putting several
seeds in the same hole, but not to let them develop as a single
clump.
Mr. Duchaussoy–I am very happy with the
communication by our colleague. I have cultivated Soya for
several years. The first year, the harvest had been average,
but the second year I harvested almost nothing. I attribute
this to the cold, humid weather. Has Mr. Lecerf not observed
that the odor of the Japanese liqueur [soy sauce] recalls that
of the extract of belladonna? [deadly nightshade, which is
dark purple; he is being sarcastic].
Mr. Lecerf–The odor of this liqueur made from Soya,
which the Japanese call Shoyu, is somewhat reminiscent of
buckwheat bread, or better still of meat extracts.
Mr. Bardet–I would like to ask Mr. Lecerf if it is not
possible to modify the color of the bread [which is too
dark], and if there is no butter in the bread [i.e., did he add
some butter to his soy bread to make it taste better, or is he
“buttering up” the whole subject].
Mr. Lecerf–This bread, being made with only soy flour,
could not have its color modified by the addition of other
types of flour, which would detract from its value as a bread
that contains little or no starch.
Mr. Léon Petit–The bread that was presented to us had
an excellent flavor. Mr. Lecerf has accomplished a true tour
de force in masking the bitter taste, so difficult to avoid when
one uses Soya flour–a taste due to the oil contained in the
seeds.
197. Filet, G.J. 1888. Plantkundig woordenboek voor
Nederlandsch-Indië. 2nd ed. [Dictionary of plants for the
Netherlands Indies. 2nd ed.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: J.H.
de Bussy. x + 348 p. See p. 127, no. 3127. 23 cm. First ed.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 97
was 1876 (362 p.) published in Leiden by G. Kolff. [Dut]
• Summary: Each plant is given a number, starting with 1 for
“Aantigan.” The short passage on the soybean reads: “3127.
Kadeleh of kadaleh S. M. & J. [S. = Sundaneesch. M. =
Maleisch. J. = Javaansch] = Soya hispida Mönch, Nat. fam.
der Papilionaceæ. Gr. [Groeiplaats] Op Java en elders in
tuinen, uit Japan overgebracht; zaadplant. Gebr. [Gebruik]
De zaden dienen tot bereiding der Soya of Kétjap.”
This can be translated as follows: “No. 3127. Named
kadeleh or kadaleh in Sundanese, Malayan, and Javanese.
Scientific name: Soja hispida Moench. Member of the
natural family Papilionaceæ. Places of growth: In Java and
elsewhere in gardens, brought over from Japan; a seed plant.
Uses: The seeds are used for the preparation of soy sauce or
ketjap.”
Note: Filet lived 1825-1891. The only other species
of the genus Soja mentioned in this book is Soja Wightii
(Tjijhe-badak), No. 8846 (p. 297). Address: Former Officer
of Health of the Netherlands-Indies Army (Oud-Officier van
Gezondheid van het N.-I. Leger).
198. Wigman, H.J. 1889. Dure rijst en voorziening in de
behoeften van de bevolking [Expensive rice in supplying the
needs of the population]. Tijdschrift voor Land- en Tuinbouw
en Boschkultuur in Nederlandsch Oost-Indie 4(10):382-85.
Jan. 1. [Dut]
• Summary: Discusses the possible, yet unlikely, shortage
of rice, and what to do in case the food supply has to be
supplemented with other food crops. Crop failures in south
China and British India, and a cattle disease in Java (which
has reduced the number of buffaloes that could work the rice
fields) are listed as the causes. Specifically mentioned as
possible supplementary crops are corn (Maïs, which is easily
and widely grown in West Java), Manihot utilissima (cassava
or manihot, which yields abundant fruit, but is quite low in
nutritional value), and soya beans. According to Wigman,
soya is one of the best foodstuffs in terms of food value,
especially for a population that eats hardly any meat.
Not long ago, experiments were conducted in Europe
with the cultivation and acclimatization of Soja hispida. But
despite the great energy that went into them, these had only
limited success, and then only in southern Europe. Chemical
analyses showed that the plant had great nutritional value.
The soya bean is eaten by the indigenous people of
Java when it is still unripe [as green vegetable soybeans?],
which does not enhance its food value. One disadvantage of
the soya bean is that it is so hard that it needs to be soaked
and cooked for a long time before it is edible. Nevertheless,
although the beans are not as soft as our stomach would like
them to be, our brown brothers who are plant eaters have
strong stomachs, and they can digest a lot of foodstuffs that
we would never even consider eating.
There are two varieties of soya, one with black beans
and one with yellowish white. The latter, when planted
in Java, is harvested 100 days after being planted. The
experiments done with soya on sawahs (wet rice fields)
showed a low yield. Manioc gave higher yields, but soya is
superior in nutrients.
Government officials should plan for the future and
possible food shortages, since the natives don’t do this. It
is important to know what to feed the indigenous people
if rice crops fail. Note: Wigman was editor of Teysmannia
(Batavia). Address: Dutch East Indies.
199. Stokvis, Barend Joseph. 1889. Het “congres
international de therapeutique et de matiere medicale” te
Parijs (brieven van Prof. B.J. Stokvis aan den Redacteurgerant van het Ned. Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde) The
“Congres international de therapeutique et de matiere
medicale” in Paris (letters from Prof. B.J. Stokvis to
the editor of the Ned. Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde).
Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2e deel
(Amsterdam) No. 10. p. 307-18. Sept. 7. [2 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Note: The part on soya is on page 313, the
top two-thirds. The author, a professor in Amsterdam,
recommends soybean bread.
Recently [17 May 1888] a conference was held in
Paris where a Mr. Lecerf offered samples of soy bread. The
author attended. Mr. Lecerf entertained and informed us
about Soya (the soybean). Soya (Japansche soya; Japanese
soy sauce), which has already been known for so long to us
Dutch as a piquant (pikant) sauce delivered in small crocks
and small bottles, nothing else but the watery extract of small
soya beans that were soaked in water (with the addition of
some table salt) for several months. The small soya beans
originating from the soybean (Soya) or Glycina hispida (a
plant belonging to the Papilionaceae), which grows not only
in Japan and China, and all of Anatolia (the Western part of
Asian Turkey), but also abundantly in Hungary, have a very
peculiar chemical composition. They contain in contrast to
most other beans and seeds virtually no starch (amylum)
and carbohydrates, but a very large amount of protein and
16% of a certain fatty acid, which has a characteristic flavor,
that is very laxative. For more than a year a search has been
on for a bread for diabetics, that does not contain starch.
In the French military hospital in Algiers they apparently
thought of the idea of using soya meal/flour (Soja-meel).
Beaumetz further developed it and thus Lecerf could offer
us samples of bread, buns, biscuits, waffles (gauffrettes), at
Paris (Rue Ponthieu 2) made from soya meal/flour, that were
somewhat yellow in color, rather flavorful, and very suitable
for diabetics. When eaten only in the first few days would
they cause increased stool movement [due to their laxative
properties]. This bread was not new to me, let alone a great
novelty (“haute nouveaute”).
Already in May or June Mr. Kohler (bread baker,
Weesperstraat, Amsterdam?), who had gone through a
special effort to make out of gluten alone (the French and
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 98
German gluten bread continue to contain quite some starch)
a tasteful and nice-looking bread for diabetics; he prepared
for my examination small soybeans, soya meal/flour and
soya bread. I was able to convince myself at that time of
the absence of starch in soya meal/flour, and tasted his
soya bread, which certainly did not taste or look inferior to
the French diabetic bread. Mister Kohler had, on his own
volition, and on account of a short notice he read in a French
newspaper, ordered small soya beans in Hungary, and had
baked from them the soya bread. He needs just a “gentle
hint,” to put on the market, aside from the soya bread, also
soya biscuits, soya waffles, etc., and since we now have in
our possession saccharin, we can, with peace of mind, offer
to the diabetics not only their daily bread in an agreeable
form, but also these special breads...
Note: Barend Joseph Stokvis was an eminent researcher
in diabetes during the late 19th early 20th century. Address:
Dr.
200. Cox, L.C.W. 1889. Soja-brood [Soya bread (Letter to
the editor)]. Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2e
deel (Amsterdam) No. 19. p. 623-24. Nov. 9. [2 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Contains a chemical analysis of soya bread,
showing it to be a good food. Address: Amsterdam
[Netherlands].
201. Pharmaceutische Centralhalle fuer Deutschland. 1889.
Offene Correspondenz [Open correspondence]. 30(47):698.
Nov. 21. New series: Vol. 10. [Ger]
• Summary: Mr. W. in The Hague (Netherlands) is looking
for a supplier of soybeans. An extract of soybeans is on the
market under the name of “Soya Japan” [probably Japanese
shoyu / soy sauce] or “Kefo” and is used as an ingredient in
or seasoning for soups. One supplier of this Soya extract is
Gehe & Co. in Dresden.
202. G. [Greshoff, M.?]. 1890. De Soja-boon en hare
beteekenis als voedingsmiddel voor Nederlandsch-Indie [The
soybean and its significance as a food for the Netherlands
Indies]. Tijdschrift voor Land- en Tuinbouw en Boschkultuur
in Nederlandsch Oost-Indie 5(10):347-56. Jan. 1. [5 ref. Dut]
• Summary: In the Netherlands Indies, the soybean (De
soja), which is called katjang kadeleh and katjang djepoen,
plays a very important role in the production of the sauce
known as ketjap. However real soy sauce (soja) is of
much greater importance to the Japanese and Chinese. The
Chinese have carried their tradition of soy sauce usage and
consumption abroad. The natives of Java use unripe beans,
whereas the Chinese use well-ripened beans.
Chemical analyses over recent years have proven the
superior nutritional value of the soya bean. No other legume
has given such a favorable analysis. This shows how the
experience makes the right choice ages before theory had
its say about such things. It is as if every reputable chemical
food analyst has to issue their own personal analysis of the
soya bean in order not to embarrass themselves. According
to the Japanese Yossyda [Yoshida?], there are 100 varieties
of soya in cultivation in his homeland. Geerts describes 16
different kinds in his monograph. Analyses are given of
several soybean varieties. The first, by Geerts and Dewars
(Dutch) analyzed 7 varieties: yellow soybeans from Japan
(Wase-mamé) and China, black soybeans from Japan
(Kuro-mamé) and China, green soybeans from Japan (Aomame), Nakaté from Japan, a yellow soybean cultivated in
south Russia. One analysis is given by Meissl and Böcker
(German), and one by Church (British). Then seven analyses
by Church are given of other common legumes from India.
Then follows Church’s analyses of rice, Indian wheat,
corn / maize (Djagoeng [jagung]), and common sorghum
(Sorghum vulgare; Djagoeng tjeutriek)–followed by a short
explanation.
Experience has shown that in colder climates, the starch
content of soybeans rises, while the content of other nutrients
drops. This is why major areas of soybean cultivation (as
promoted for 15 years by Haberlandt) have been limited to
central Europe.
The soybean is said to contain an enzymatic substance
which rapidly converts starch to sugar, and to which the
high value of soy sauce is attributed. But tests have yet to
prove this. Then follows an essay on the caloric value of soy
compared to other foods, and how to calculate this correctly.
Church’s methods of determining the nutrient value of foods
are described as too limited.
Among vegetable foods, the soybean is very digestible.
According to the latest research by Ladd, comparing the
digestibility of various proteins (eiwitstoffen), soybean is
75% versus 64% for flour and 54% for grains. Because soya
is very low in starch, it is a perfect food for diabetics. At a
recent congress for doctors in Paris, soy bread was promoted
and given much attention. Prof. Stokvis told the congress
how a baker named Koehler bakes soy bread and soy cookies
of high quality.
The soybean is also appropriate, because of its
nutritional composition, as a food for children and the sick.
It is up to an enterprising person to bring it onto the market.
Also, soy sauce would be a good commercial product if
manufactured in Europe. But the most important point is
that soya is an excellent food and, as such, is not given the
recognition it deserves in the Netherlands Indies. It is an
inexpensive vegetable meat. It deserves to be cultivated,
because it can serve as a good, low-cost source of protein
for a large number of people. It is appropriate for use
in institutions, orphanages, and the army and navy, and
deserves experimentation on a large scale. The indigenous
people of the Netherlands Indies are used to eating the bean
unripe, and not very well cooked–and they are persistent in
serving it like this, which has led to the rejection of soy in
many important circles.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 99
Glycine soja is a very good secondary crop, next to
rice. There is no need to emphasize this, since the Inspector
of the Civil Medical Service has brought to the attention
of the Netherlands Indies government and its officials, in
a very professionally written piece, the advantages of soya
cultivation.
“I can’t give you any indications about the basis on
which the soybean (“katjang kadeleh”) will best thrive.
There are so many questions concerning the growth and
function of the so-called root nodules (wortelknolletjes) of
the Papilionaceae and the microorganisms that live therein.
It has been determined that these plants, which include the
soybean (de soja) are capable of creating free nitrogen and
assimilating it.”
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (June 2012)
concerning soybean root nodules and nitrogen fixation in the
Western world. It is also the first to state that soybean root
nodules create free nitrogen and assimilate it.
The author closes with the wish that the import of soya
will prove to be a blessing for Java. [Note 2. This could
mean either importation of soybeans from China, or more
widespread introduction of soybean culture to Java, or import
from Java to the Netherlands.] For about a year he has been
trying to bring soy to the attention of the Netherlands, an
attempt he wants to repeat again under the favorable auspices
of a small official publication circulated to those who are
interested.
Note 3. Paerels 1913 (p. 288) and Kempski 1923 (p. 79)
both cite F.A. von Stuerler as the author of this article, but at
the end of the article, the author’s name is written simply as
“G.” On the same line is written: “B. Nov. 1889.”
Note 4. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Feb. 2001) that has the word “Soja” (or “Soja-boon” or
“Sojaboon”) in the title.
Note 5. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Aug. 2003) that uses the word eiwitstoffen (or
eiwitstoff) to refer to proteins in connection with soybeans.
203. Product Name: [Soya Bread].
Foreign Name: Sojabrood.
Manufacturer’s Name: Koehler (G.C.) & Co.
Manufacturer’s Address: 29 Weesperstraat, Amsterdam,
The Netherlands.
Date of Introduction: 1890 January.
New Product–Documentation: Köhler, G.C. 1890.
“Sojabrood [Soya bread” (Letter to the editor)]. Algemeen
Handelsblad (Amsterdam). Jan. 30. p. 3, col. 2. The writer
is a baker who baked one of the first loaves of soya bread in
the Netherlands. He offers a brief review of two important
articles (Stokvis Sept. 1889; Cox Nov. 1889) about soya
bread, which is used by diabetics.
Gorkom, K.W. van. 1890. Supplement op De OostIndische Cultures, in betrekking tot handel en nijverheid
[Supplement to East-Indian crops: In relation to commerce
and industry]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: J.H. de Bussy. vii +
303 p. See p. 283-87.
Schlegel & Cordier. 1894. T’oung Pao. 5:135-46.
March. “The Chinese bean-curd and soy and the soya bread
of Mr. Lecerf.” Holland was the first country to make soy
bread after France. “Mr. G.C.F. Koehler in Amsterdam (29
Weesperstraat) fabricates even a superior kind of Soya-bread,
containing less oil than the Paris bread [made by Mr. Lecerf
and later by Messieurs Peitz & Co.], and therefore more
palatable than the latter, for 40 cents (= 8 pence). But his
breads are double the size of Paris ones, and, consequently,
relatively cheaper.”
Piper and Morse. 1916. USDA Bulletin No. 439. “The
soy bean, with special reference to its utilization for oil, cake,
and other products.” “In England, manufacturers have placed
on the market a so-called ‘soya flour,’ which is 25% soy-bean
meal [probably whole soy flour] and 75% wheat flour. This
soya flour is being used by bakers in making a soy bread
which is very palatable and may be found on the market. A
similar product has been manufactured in Amsterdam for 25
years.”
Note 1. This is the earliest known commercial soy
product made in the Netherlands.
Note 2. This is the earliest known commercial cereal-soy
blend.
Note 3. This is probably the earliest known commercial
product with whole soy flour used as an ingredient. How do
we know? Because in 1891 that was the only kind of soy
flour available in Europe.
204. Köhler, G.C. 1890. Sojabrood [Soya bread (Letter to the
editor). Algemeen Handelsblad (Amsterdam). Jan. 30. p. 3,
col. 2. [2 ref. Dut]
• Summary: The writer is a baker who baked one of the first
loaves of soya bread in the Netherlands. He offers a brief
review of two important articles about soya bread, which is
used by diabetics.
The word Sojabrood [soy bread] and the word Sojaboon
[soybean] both appear in this article.
Note 1. This article was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sojabrood”
using advanced search between 1700 and 1880.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2014)
in this database that contains the word sojabrood.
Note 3. Between 1880 and 1899, about 54 records in this
database contain the word sojabrood. Address: Amsterdam.
205. Schlegel, G. 1890. Re: Dr. Vorderman’s comments on
tofu (Letter to the editor). T’oung Pao (General Newspaper)
1:273. Oct. [Eng]
• Summary: Dr. Vorderman writes from Samarang
[Semarang], Central Java: “The better I get acquainted with
the Chinese, the more I am astonished at the relative height
they have reached in (medical) practice.” He discovered that
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 100
their well-known beh ko (Cc = Chinese characters given) is
exactly the same preparation as our malt-extract, and is often
prescribed for poor patients in the same way.
“Without knowing any thing of the theory, they prepare
leguminous curds: Tau-hoo (Cc for doufu/tofu) and Taukoa (Cc for dougan or pressed tofu) from Kedelei-beans
(Phaseolus mas [sic, max]) by precipitating the legumine
with calcined gypsum, which gypsum is imported in a crude
state from China to Batavia [Jakarta, West Java, Indonesia],
and is there called Batu tau (Malay batu = ‘stone’ and
Chinese tau = ‘bean’).”
Note: This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2013) that uses the word “Tau-hoo” or “Tau-koa”
(or “tau hoo” or “tau kua”) to refer to Chinese-style tofu.
Address: Semarang, Central Java.
206. Boerlage, J.G. 1890. Flora van Nederlandsch Indie
[Flora of the Netherlands Indies (Indonesia)]. Leiden: E.J.
Brill. See Vol. 1, p. 370-71. Index. 22 cm. [3 ref. Dut]
• Summary: There are about 12 species of Glycine in
tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia. The genus Glycine,
according to the opinion of Bentham and Hooker, consists
of two sub-genera: 1. Glycine, in the limited sense; 2. Soya,
which is distinguished by its wide, sickle-shaped pod. In the
past, writers considered both a genus. The approximately
four varieties found in the Dutch Indies belong to the second
subgenus, which was described by Miquel, also under the
name of Soya Savi. Both kinds, which can be found in
Miquel’s Flora under the name of Glycine, are classified in
the genus Teramnus Sw. by Bentham and Hooker. Address:
Dr., Conservator aan ‘s Rijks Herbarium te Leiden.
207. Gorkom, K.W. van. 1890. Supplement op De OostIndische Cultures, in betrekking tot handel en nijverheid
[Supplement to East-Indian crops: In relation to commerce
and industry]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: J.H. de Bussy. vii +
303 p. See p. 283-87. Supplement to the 1884 publication of
the same title. 25 cm. [2 ref. Dut]
• Summary: The section titled “Kadelé” (Soybeans)
discusses the cultivation of soybeans (also called katjang
djepoen [Japan beans], Soya, Glycine hispida, or kadelé
boontjes) on Java and the experimental culture in Europe.
Interest is shown in the cultivation of soybeans as a food for
diabetics.
Soya is cultivated in Java both for its seed and for its
green leaves which are used as animal feed. The small soy
beans are roasted by the indigenous people or, in the form
of cakes / patties (tetempé [tempeh]), eaten like bean-cheese
(boonen-kaas [tofu]). (“De kadele boontjes worden door de
inlanders geroosterd of, in den vorm van koeken (tetempé),
als boonen-kaas gegeten”).
Note. This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(April 2013) that uses the term boonen-kaas to refer to tofu.
The author considers that Indonesian soy sauce (kétjap)
is inferior to Japanese soy sauce. Nutritionally, soya is rich in
proteins (proteïnestoffen) (± 38%) and fat (± 21%), and low
in starch and sugar.
In Germany and Austria, many years have been spent
in developing and cultivating varieties of soybeans adapted
to the European climate. Dr. Haberlandt, professor at the
University of Vienna, distinguished himself for this work,
even to the extent that a variety was named after him. In
the experimental gardens at the National Agricultural in
Wageningen [Netherlands], a field of soya is cultivated,
but the results are not yet satisfactory. Yields are low,
especially during the dry and warm summers, when the
plant flowers abundantly, but the seeds don’t have time to
develop properly. The author hopes that through continued
experiments, a suitable variety will be developed.
The soya bean has received attention from the medical
profession because of its composition. Dr. Le Cerf of
Paris was one of the first to try using soya with diabetic
patients. He introduced soya bread instead of an almond
bread and was successful with it. Dr. Stokvis, a professor
in Amsterdam, recommended soy bread (see Nederlandsch
Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde No. 10), and the chemical
analyses published by Mr. L.C.W. Cox in the same journal
(issue No. 19) supported the recommendation. Patients were
content with the bread, although they did not find it very
appetizing. The author states that if rye or wheat flour could
be used together with soy flour (soja-meel), they would yield
a very digestible and nutritious food. For this reason also he
recommended experiments aimed at acclimatizing soya to
Europe.
Dr. Sollewijn Gelpke has published a work titled “The
Yield and Cultivation of Dryland Crops,” in which he writes
that the cultivation of soya is quite easy and in Java takes
place on sawahs (wet rice fields) and clay, in contrast to
peanuts (katjang-tanah), which is grown on tegals and sand.
[Note: A tegal is a dry (not irrigated) field, near the rice
fields, but used for vegetables and other secondary crops.]
Soya beans are sun-dried, soaked in water for 24 hours,
then sown on land that has first been flooded with water.
Otherwise they are sown by poking holes in the ground and
dropping in the seeds. Gelpke says that soya is so appealing
to the indigenous people that, if the soil is hard, he just opens
the surface with a crowbar and sows his seeds. This way of
cultivation is seen especially on the heavy clay soils of Java.
In the Netherlands it is not well known that soya is
cultivated in Java, because it could be imported for less
money than is currently the case. The author has samples
of the beans and has noticed that the seeds from European
experiments are smaller in size than those grown in Java.
Various laboratory analyses are given. It is noted that
soya flour coming from Hungary is used for the production
of soy bread, baked by Mr. Koehler of Amsterdam. Mr. Cox
studied this bread. The author believes that the sugar content
of this bread is high enough to make it unsuitable for diabetic
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 101
patients, and notes the presence of starch and dextrin.
Morawski and Harz have confirmed that ripe soya beans
don’t contain starch, whereas unripe beans do.
Note 1. Kempski (1923) says: “see van Gorkom’s OostIndische Cultures, neu herausgeg. von Prinsen-Geerligs,
Verlag de Bussy, Amsterdam, 1913, Vol. III, p. 283/86.”
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Aug. 2003) that uses the word proteïnestoffen (or
proteïnestoff) to refer to proteins in connection with
soybeans.
Note 3. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Nov. 2013) that mentions soy flour, which is calls
soja-meel. Address: Dr., Former Head Inspector of Crops,
Dutch East Indies (Oud-Hoofd-Inspecteur der Cultures in
Nederlandsch Oost-Indië).
208. Petit, J. 1891. Le Soja aux îles de la Sonde [Soya in the
Sunda Islands (Java)]. Bulletin de la Societe d’Acclimatation
38(2):462. Oct. [Fre]
• Summary: The seeds of the soybean (de Soja), Soja
hispida, the Japanese legume, are rich in albuminoids and
fats, yet they contain very little starch or sugars. Their
composition is very similar to foods of animal origin, and
soy flour is very valuable for making bread for diabetics–
who are not supposed to eat starches or sugars.
“Mr. Cornellisen, inspector of the medical service in
Java, has just recommended to the Dutch authorities that
they propagate the soybean crop as much as possible in
Malaysia. These beans (fèves), which can potentially take
the place of meat, should be a powerful aid to indigenous
people weakened by a diet that is exclusively vegetarian
and lacking nitrogenous material (matière azotée). Soya is
already cultivated in several parts of Java, and the nature of
its nitrogenous material, composed not of gluten like cereals
but rather of legumin and vegetable casein similar to milk
casein, allows one to make, with its fermented flour, highly
nutritious cheeses.”
Note: In the last paragraph, it is not clear to which food
the author is referring; it could be fermented tofu or tempeh,
although neither is now made from soy flour.
209. Clerq, F.S.A. de. 1892. Inlandsche plantennamen
[Indigenous plant names (in the Dutch East Indies); Glycine
Soja (kadeleh)]. Teysmannia (Batavia [Jakarta]) 3:341-459.
See p. 349. [2 ref. Dut]
• Summary: The entry for soybean is: Glycine Soja
(kadeleh). “Kadélé is Javanese and Sundanese. In Malay it is
kedelai” (diacritical marks are included). Address: Indonesia.
210. Klinkert, Hillebrandus Cornelius. 1892. Nieuw
maleisch-nederlandsch zakwoordenboek [New Malay-Dutch
pocket dictionary]. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. 400 p. 19
cm. [Dut]
• Summary: This dictionary writes Indonesian and Malay
words using Latin characters and defines them in Dutch.
Soy-related entries include: (1) bidjan, widjen, or lenga
(sesame). (2) katjang (bean), including katjang botor, katjang
hidjau (small green beans [mung beans]), katjang kedelai
[soybean], katjang parang (sword-shaped), katjang peroethajam (very long and thin), katjang tanah (peanut), katjang
goreng (fried peanuts). (3) kedelai (the name of a legume
with black seeds, from which soya etc. is made. In Java,
called kedele). (4) ketjap (soy = soija). (5) ragi (a type of
yeast = gist). (6) tapé (Jav. tapeh = tapai).
The following soy-related words do NOT appear: tahu
or tao-hoe (tofu). taoge (sprouts). tautjo (Indonesian miso).
tempe (tempeh). Note: H.C. Klinkert lived 1829-1913.
Address: Leiden, Netherlands.
211. Temps (Le) (Paris). 1893. On lisait dans l’Avenir de
Diego Suarez du 2 mars cet avis: [One reads in l’Avenir de
Diego Suarez of March 2 this notice:]. April 8. p. 2, cols. 2-3.
No. 11641. [1 ref. Fre]
• Summary: The governor hurriedly lets the residents know
that he has just received from Mr. de Mahy a box of soya
bean seeds (une boîte de graines du haricot soya), with
which is made a cheese [tofu] that keeps for a very long
time. It improves with age and that is a precious resource for
settlers who live far from the urban centers.
This notice appears to have surprised a few of our
colleagues. It did not contain, however, the revelation of an
unknown food.
Cheese made from soya is called tofu (to-fu). Here is the
recipe for tofu, which seems to us of interest to reproduce
given the efforts being made to acclimatize this legume
in Europe. You begin by softening the seeds of this bean
in water, then you crush them in a mortar so as to make a
milky paste. When this paste is pressed in a piece of linen it
separates into two parts: one [okara] stays inside the linen
and is used for animal feed. The other, a liquid which passes
through the linen, is rich in emulsified fatty matter and in
albuminoidal matter (albuminoids). This liquid is heated;
coagulation is facilitated by adding nigari (eau mere / mother
water, which flows out of sea salt piles). This curd separates
and gives the cheese. It is eaten either raw, or cooked with
fish, or most often pulverized. During the winter [after being
frozen], it is dried. In this state, it keeps for a very long time.
Soya cheese (Le fromage de soya) is a very important
food in China. Only the Tartars / Mongols have continued
to use [cow’s] milk. The Chinese do not consume any
such milk. In its place they use soya. Its seed is a sort of
solid milk. No other legume contains as much legumin (a
substance chemically analogous to casein) as the soybean.
None other is as rich in fatty acids. All you need to do is to
crush the soya seed, dilute it with water, and filter through
a sieve to obtain a product with milklike properties that can
be used just as you would milk. Soya cheese looks just like
quark cheese (fromage à la pie).
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 102
The soybean (La soya) which is cultivated in Japan, in
China, in the Indies [Dutch East Indies, today’s Indonesia],
in Cochin-China [today’s South Vietnam], in Tonkin [today’s
North Vietnam], etc. is used for more than just making tofu.
It is used in these countries in a great variety of ways to
make human foods and seasonings. Transformed by cooking
in water into a gruel / pap (bouillie) which is mixed with salt
and polished rice, one obtains miso, which is served at lunch
[as the seasoning in miso soup] by many Japanese.
Mixed with barley and submitted to fermentation, after
adding additional water and being pressed, one obtains a
syrupy liquid, called shoyu, a unique sauce used to season
almost all Japanese foods (mets), and which is employed in
such large quantities that the factories of the city of Nagasaki
make more than 1,200,000 kilograms of it each year. Finally,
an oil is extracted from the soybean which is the object
of an important trade and which serves for both human
consumption and in industry.
212. Natuur (De). 1893. Soja [Soya]. 42(20):233-34. May
13. [1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This Dutch-language periodical appears inside
a German-language periodical titled Die Natur (Halle). The
author of this article (whose initials “CKN” appear at the
end) discusses: The soybean plant, named Glycine Soya or
Dolichos Soja or (in Dutch) de Sojaboon, which is widely
used for food in Japan (where it is called Mame or Daizu)
and China. Food products made from the soybean in Japan:
Miso, shoyu (soy sauce), To-fu [tofu] or Kaas van Daizu; a
brief description is given of how each is made. Soybeans in
China, where it is called “Yeou-teou,” and where they make
a cheese (Soja kaas), oil (eigen olie), and milk (melk) which
resembles cow’s milk.
Note. This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(April 2013) that uses the term To-fu or the term Kaas van
Daizu or the term Soja kaas to refer to tofu.
Black soybeans (zwarte Soja) are widely used. Proteins
in the soybean, including legumine. In Europe, by 1881, the
soybean was known in Italy, Austria, Hungary, and France
(especially at Etampes and Montpelier); from the seeds,
people learned to obtain oil, milk, cheese, an excellent cattle
feed, and a vegetable for humans–similar to the French bean
but much better (en een groente voor den mensch, gelijkende
op onze spersiebonen, maar veel beter). Soybeans are used
by doctors to treat people suffering from diabetes.
In France, the seeds are roasted like coffee beans; the
result is a good-tasting coffee substitute (dure koffie,... een
even goed smakend surrogaat verkrijen).
A large illustration (engraving) shows a soybean plant
bearing many pods. In the lower left corner is one large pod.
In the lower right is written “Al Clement,” which appears to
be the artist’s name.
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Nov. 2012) that mentions soy coffee.
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(June 2009) that mentions green vegetable soybeans, which
it calls “een groente voor den mensch,...”
Note 3. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Aug. 2013) that mentions soymilk, which it calls melk.
Note 4. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Oct. 2003) that mentions oil from the soybean, which it
calls olie.
213. White, W. Hale. 1893. On the use of soya beans in
diabetes mellitus. Practitioner (London) 1(5):321-32. May.
[14 ref]
• Summary: The article begins: “The use of preparations
of soya beans in diabetes mellitus has been steadily gaining
ground lately, and I have myself given the biscuits to every
case of diabetes I have had under my care for the last
three years. It is such an advantage to be able to vary the
monotonous food of patients suffering from this disease that
I thought the soya beans ought to be more widely known,
and that therefore some description of the vegetable, together
with an account of a few of the cases I have watched, might
be of interest, especially as there is no doubt that we have
in the soya bean an article of diet which is of the greatest
benefit to sufferers from diabetes.”
“The best account of the plant from which the beans are
derived, and of the uses to which they are put, is given by
Egasse” (1888).
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 103
“Soy sauce, which is imported into England, is used in
enormous quantities in Japan. The Dutch call it zoya, the
Chinese call it tsiang-yeou, the Japanese call it shoyu, sooju,
or soja, and in Batavia and Java it is known as ketjap. This
liquid is obtained by fermentation of cakes of roasted barley
and boiled soya beans. After fermentation salt is added,
the whole is kept two or three years, and then the sauce
is squeezed out of the mass. In Japan it is used largely in
cooking, and for many purposes replaces butter” (p. 323).
“Dujardin-Beaumetz, when speaking at the Académie de
Médecine in 1888, advised the use of soya beans in diabetes.
He is said to have mentioned them again at the Medical
Congress at Berlin in 1890, and in 1891 he briefly referred
to them and recommended a bread prepared from them as a
food for persons suffering from diabetes.
“English abstracts of the articles I have mentioned soon
appeared. A short account of Lecerf’s may be found in the
Pharmaceutical Journal; and that of Egasse is abstracted in
the Therapeutic Gazette published in America.” (p. 323).
“It as been found that soya beans mixed with oats form a
very nutritive food for horses.
“Out of several cases of diabetes which I have treated
with soya bean biscuits, I have taken at random three
appended cases, which followed each other consecutively in
the wards of Guy’s Hospital [London]. They illustrate well
the effects of the treatment.
“At Guy’s Hospital the usual diabetic diet consists
of gluten bread 6 oz., two eggs, butter 2 oz., two almond
biscuits, milk 1 fl. oz., cooked meat 12 oz., greens,
watercress, tea, and soda-water.”
In England, Prof. John Attfield (19 Sept. 1890)
published the following analysis of “soya bean flour:
Nitrogenous material 41.14 per cent. Fatty material 13.70 per
cent. Cellulose, starch and sugar 30.35 per cent. Phosphate
material 4.81 per cent. Other mineral matter 0.52 per cent.
Moisture 9.38 per cent.” (p. 324).
Note: This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Nov. 2013) that contains the term “soya bean flour.”
A table (p. 324) shows an analysis of soya bread, soya
biscuits, and soya flour published by Robert Saundby in
1891.
Case I–Alfred Smith, age 33, admitted into Guy’s
Hospital 15 Oct., 1890, for diabetes. He had been there twice
before in April 1889 and Sept. 1889 for the same disorder.
On the 2nd occasion, on admission, he was passing 5,040
grains of sugar a day. After a stay of seven weeks, during
which he was dieted with gluten bread and the ordinary
diabetic diet, he left passing 640 grains a day–only 13% as
much. Describes the positive effect of replacing gluten bread
with 22 soya biscuits. “While taking soya biscuits this patient
gained two stone in weight” (1 stone = 14 avoirdupois
pounds or about 6.35 kg; 8 stones = a hundredweight in
the Imperial system). “When discharged on this occasion,
he was passing about 300 grains of sugar a day” compared
with 600 grains on a previous occasion when treated with
gluten bread. “We may therefore confidently say that the
improvement was rapid and marked on soya bean diet...
The biscuits produced no diarrhoea [diarrhea] nor other ill
effect.” A large table with 6 columns shows the patient’s
daily progress from Oct. 15 to Dec. 20: Date, urine passed
(fluid oz.), grains of sugar per oz. of urine, specific gravity of
the urine, total sugar passed in 24 hours, weight of patient (p.
327-29).
Case II was the same patient as in Case I, readmitted in
April 1891. A table shows his daily progress (p. 329-30).
Case III was George Killick, age 18, admitted to Guy’s
Hospital on 29 Nov. 1890 and discharged on Jan. 19. A fullpage table shows his daily progress. “We learn, therefore,
that in this case also, the soya bean diet was quite as efficient
as the gluten bread diet, if not more so, in reducing the
quantity of sugar in the urine, and in diminishing the amount
and specific gravity of the excretion.
“The general health of the patient improved
considerably, and the treatment produced no disagreeable
results.” Address: M.D., Physician to, and Lecturer on
Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Guy’s Hospital, London.
214. Hosie, Alexander. 1893. Report by Mr. Hosie on the
island of Formosa with special reference to its resources and
trade. Great Britain Foreign Office. 26 p. Commercial. No.
11. [1 ref]
• Summary: The title page (see next page) states that this
report was “Presented to both Houses of Parliament by
Command of Her Majesty. August 1893.” The report was
received in March 1893. Contents: Introduction. Physical
characteristics. Inhabitants. Agriculture. Economic botany:
Textile plants, oil-producing plants (incl. Dolichos soja, L.),
other commercial plants. Special industries. Trade. Map of
Formosa.
The section titled “Oil-producing plants” (p. 16-19)
begins: “Since the introduction of kerosene oil into China the
demand for native lighting-oils has been on the decline, but
for cooking purposes some of these oils are produced in large
quantities. Oil-yielding seeds are likewise exported, to a
limited extent, to foreign countries, where the oil is extracted
and used to adulterate more valuable oil. Of the seventeen
oil-producing plants cultivated in China, eight grow in
Formosa. They are: “1. Dolichos soja, L. (?). More oil is extracted from
the [soja] bean than from any one of the other oil-yielding
plants of China. The two kinds of bean treated for oil are
small in size and oval in shape, one having a whitish yellow
epidermis and interior, the other being green throughout.
They are probably sub-varieties of the soja bean. The process
of extraction is worthy of description.” Note 1. This is the
earliest English-language document seen (March 2003) that
uses the term “extraction” in connection with the commercial
crushing of soybeans to give oil and meal. Note 2. This is
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 104
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 105
the earliest English-language document seen (Sept. 2004)
that uses the term “whitish yellow” to describe the color of
soybean seeds.
“The first thing that strikes the eye of a visitor to a
bean-oil factory is the enormous stone wheel which is
used to crush the beans. It is of dressed granite, about 10
feet in diameter and 2½ feet thick at the axis, gradually
contracting to a foot at the rim. This wheel, which is of
enormous weight, revolves in a well 30 to 36 inches broad,
paved with stone, and bounded on each side by a low wall
of concrete some 3 feet high... Two mules, blindfolded, are
harnessed to the wheel, one in front, the other behind, and
walk outside the outer wall.” After being crushed, the soja
beans are steamed, then poured into molds composed of
a couple of narrow metal bands surrounded by a wooden
casing with a steamed straw broom forming the bottom. The
mass is trampled down by foot until it is quite hard. “The
wooden casing is removed, and the metal bands arranged
a short distance apart near the top and bottom of the cake
respectively. The whole is then put into a primitive wooden
press, and subjected to considerable pressure by the driving
in of successive wedges. The oil is expressed and drains into
an underground tank... When all the oil has exuded from
the cakes they are taken from the press, the metal bands and
straw casings are removed, and, after being left to dry for
a time, they are ready to be shipped to other parts of China
for manure. The beans yield about 10 per cent. weight of oil,
and the cakes, when removed from the press, weigh some 64
lbs., and are worth about 2s. 9d. each. They constitute a very
valuable manure, and are carefully macerated before being
applied to the soil.
“To show the commercial value of this industry, I may
mention that 60,000 tons of bean cakes were exported from
Chefoo during 1890. Nor is Chefoo the principal exporter.
Newchwang sent out over 156,000 tons in the same year. In
Formosa these beans are grown, and the oil is extracted in
the above manner, but only in quantities sufficient to meet
local requirements. The refuse cakes are not exported. The
oil is used for both cooking and lighting purposes.”
A table (p.25) shows “Trade of the island of Formosa
carried on in vessels of the foreign type.” The major export
is tea, followed by sugar. “Beans” (probably soybeans) are
a minor export; 96,708 lbs. worth £363. Formosa’s main
import by far is opium.
Concerning the inhabitants (p. 8): “The first Europeans
to visit Formosa were the Portuguese, who settled at
Kelung in 1590. They were followed by the Dutch, who
landed in 1624. Two years later came the Spaniards; but
they were expelled by the Dutch in 1642. A Chinese pirate
Chief, Koxinga by name, drove away the Dutch in 1661
and proclaimed himself King; but twenty-two years later,
in 1683, the Chinese dethroned his successor and asserted
their authority. From that date until 1887 Formosa was a
dependency of the Province of Fuhkien [Fukien / Fujian]; but
in the latter year, and chiefly in consequence of the French
hostilities (1884-85) undertaken in the north of the island, the
eyes of the Chinese were opened to the value attached to it
by foreigners, and it was raised to the rank of an independent
Province of the Empire. The Chinese did not reach Formosa
until after Europeans had settled there.”
Concerning agriculture (p. 8): “As the level part of
Formosa is... peopled by immigrants from the Fuhkien
[Fukien] and Kwangtung provinces, agriculture is conducted
on much the same principles as on the adjacent mainland.”
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (March
2014) concerning soybeans (not including wild soybeans)
in Taiwan, or the cultivation of soybeans in Taiwan. This
document contains the earliest date seen for soybeans in
Taiwan, or the cultivation of soybeans in Taiwan (Aug.
1893).
Note 4. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (June 2001) that uses the word “crush” or the word
“crushed” in connection with soybeans. Use of hydraulic
presses is not mentioned.
Also discusses these oil-producing plants: (1) Pueraria
thunbergiana Benth. “This trailing vine is found in North
Formosa, but so far as I can gather, its tendrils are not,
as in the Yang-tse Valley, and especially at Ho-k’ou, near
Kiukiang, treated for fibres, from which is produced an
excellent cloth, strong, durable, and cool” (p. 16). (2)
Brassica Chinensis, L. “Rape is usually a winter crop in
China... It is more widely cultivated in China that any other
of the oil-yielding plants. The seeds are treated much in the
same way as [soy] beans, being crushed, steamed, and being
subjected to pressure... Rape oil is used for lighting as well
as cooking” (p. 17).
(3) Sesamum Indicum et Orientale, D.C. Formosa
exports a large quantity of sesame seeds to France where
their oil is largely used to adulterate olive oil. “Sesame is
essentially a food oil. Refuse seed-cake is much used in
Formosa for adulterating opium” (p. 17).
(4) Arachis hypogæa, L. “The ground nut, a native of
Africa, is extensively cultivated in China, not only for the
food which the nuts supply, but also for the oil which they
contain. Although the Chinese have not yet discovered
a good practical method of removing the shells before
pressing, yet the oil, necessarily impure on that account, is
highly appreciated as a food, as well as a lamp oil. To obtain
the oil, the nuts are roasted, rolled, winnowed–to get rid of
the shells–steamed, and pressed. The plant prefers a sandy
soil, such as is found in the neighborhood of Chefoo, but
it appears to be equally at home in Western China and in
Formosa. I may say, without fear of contradiction, that these
nuts will be found on every roadside stall in China” (p. 1718).
And (p. 18-19): (5) Seeds of the vegetable tallow tree
(Stillingia sebifera, S. and N). (6) Tea seeds (Camellia thea,
Link). (7) Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora, N. and
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 106
E.). (8) Castor oil plant seeds (Ricinus sp.). Address: Acting
British Consul, Tamsui [Tan-shui or Tansui, in northern
Taiwan].
215. Vorderman, Adolf G. 1893. Analecta op bromatologisch
gebied. I. [Writings on foods: Mold-fermented foods.
I.]. Geneeskundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie
33(3):343-99. Sept. See p. 350-360. [Dut]
• Summary: The Dutch microbiologist discusses bean
sprouts (p. 350-54; taôge), light-colored, brown and black
soybeans (p. 354-56; kadelé poetih, merah, item [Bat.
maleisch], Licht gekleurde, bruine en zwarte soja-boontjes),
tofu (p. 356-57; tao-hoe), firm or pressed tofu (p. 357-59
(tao-koa)), ragi (p. 359-60; a traditional inoculum, though
he does not mention tempeh), tapej (p. 360; [tapeh], Tsao in
Chinese), arak (p. 369-78).
His first-hand discussion of tofu and pressed tofu is
particularly interesting:
6. Tao-hoe (Chinese; with 2 Chinese characters): The
tao-hoe and tao-koa consist of bean-based cheese, obtained
from light colored small soybeans.
Preferably are used those [soybeans] imported from
Annam [now part of northern Vietnam], but many of the
Chinese in Batavia [today’s Jakarta] nowadays, prefer the
cheaper kadele poetih, originating from Preanger [the region
on West-Java around Bandung] or the Ommelanden.
The light colored small soybeans are soaked for a
duration of 5 hours in river water, after which they have
swollen to 2 to 3 times their original volume. After being
cleaned of possible contaminants or foreign matter, they are
run into a stone mill, not unlike the ones used by Europeans
to grind paint. One Chinese turns the mill, while another
pours the soaked beans with hull and all and some water into
it.
As a white thin mash the product runs from a small
gutter to a barrel standing ready.
This mash is heated in a large iron cauldron above a fire,
until it boils thoroughly. The foam is scooped off and after
cooking the liquid is filtered through a cotton cloth. A white
dough-like mass [okara] remains in the cloth, which smells
oily, which is sold as duck or chicken feed.
Page 357: “The liquid, that was filtered out and has a
milky white color, is mixed with a percentage of regular salt
from Madura. Or with a little burnt gypsum.
This gypsum comes as stralige (?)” gypsum from China
and is shipped in in large blocks. As it is specifically used for
the bean-based cheese preparation from small soybeans, in
the trade in Batavia it is called batoe tao.
The salt as well as the gypsum change the liquid through
precipitation into a white gelatinous mass, which has a
certain consistency after complete cooling, enough to be cut
from flat blocks into square pieces. However, this cannot
be done within two hours after precipitation. Arranged on
banana leaves and cut into pieces about 10 cm (4 inches)
long, 7 cm (2.75 inches) wide and 2 cm (0.8 inches) high,
protected from dust by a white cotton cloth, they are offered
for sale on the street.
It does not taste pleasant, a real raw bean taste, but
mixed with other ingredients the unpleasantness is lost.
For the preparation of Chinese dishes as well as the
Indonesian rice table tofu (tao hoe) is used.
To keep the preparation for a longer period of time, a
procedure is followed which results in tao koa [pressed tofu].
7. Tao koa [pressed tofu] (with 2 Chinese characters):
By cutting the above-mentioned tofu (tao-hoe) into flat
square cakes and dipping them in an extract of turmeric
(koenjit-rhizoom; Curcuma longa L.) they obtain an intense
yellow color on the outside. The yellow cakes are then
wrapped in white cotton square cloths, put under boards
and exposed to a certain pressure. Usually (p. 358) Chinese
characters are pressed into them at this point.
During pressing much water is lost, but because
of it these cakes keep much longer than cakes of tofu.
These yellow-colored plant-based cheeses are produced
and consumed in large quantities by Chinese as well as
indigenous people and by people of color.
When considering the diet of weak Indonesian children
tofu or pressed tofu can be used as an alternative, when
children refuse to eat eggs, something that is quite common
here. In my earlier practice I used this successfully. Tofu is
also imported from China in dried form [dried frozen tofu].
The cakes from China are larger and flatter and always
have the Chinese characters.
In addition, their surface is darker than those made here
and fattier too, while their consistency is very tough.
According to König, Edward Kinch analyzed the Tofu
(read tao foe) (Footnote: The Keh Chinese pronounce
the name as tao foe) and found in these freshly made
preparations:
89% water,
5% nitrogen-containing compounds,
3.5% fat,
2.1% Nitrogen-free extractive compounds
[carbohydrates],
and 0.5% ash;
while he established the composition of tao-kao on
page 375 of König (cited elsewhere), sub 4, 2nd paragraph
determined as frozen tofu, at:
18.7% water,
48.5% nitrogen-containing compounds,
28.5% fat,
2.6% nitrogen-free extractive compounds,
and 1.7% ash.
Page 359: Most likely, the composition of the latter
preparation is similar to the one from bean-based cheese
cakes imported from China, but surely not to the one of the
pressed tofu freshly made here, which must be the same,
aside from having less water, to regular tofu.
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 107
Translated by Sjon Welters (Montpelier, Vermont).
Plates at the end show microorganisms for ragi, tapej,
sugarcane brem, and rice wine.
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(April 2013) that uses the term tao-hoe or the term tao-koa to
refer to tofu. Address: Inspector, civil health department for
Java and Madura (Inspect. burg. geneesk. dienst voor Java
en Madoera).
216. St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri). 1893. Use of the
soya bean. Nov. 12. p. 20.
• Summary: “The use of the Soya bean in the dietary of
diabetics has recently attracted much attention. Heretofore
the bean has been used only for culinary purposes, the
Japanese using a liquid called sooju [shoyu] or soja [soy
sauce], a condiment which they prepare by fermenting the
seeds of the Soya bean. The Japanese name of the plant
is Daidsu [Daizu]. Linnaeus, the great botanist, called it
Dolichos Soja.”
The Japanese call the beans Mame, and make ‘miso’ or
sooju from them. The preparations are used principally in
cooking meat. In China an emulsion [soymilk] is made from
the oil of the beans [sic, from the whole beans]. It forms a
white liquid and is drunk in the districts in which milk is too
dear for the poor to buy it. The Chinese also make a kind of
cheese [tofu] from the beans. Soy sauce is exported to and
used in many European countries. The Dutch call it ‘Zoya.’
In the East Indies it is known as ‘Ket Jay’ [sic, ‘Ket Jap’]
(probably the source of ‘catchup’ or ‘ketchup’). This liquid
is obtained by fermentation of cakes of roasted barley and
boiled soya bean. After [the first] fermentation salt is added.
The whole is kept for two or three years and then the sauce is
squeezed out of the mass.
“Bread and biscuit, made from the flour of the beans,
have been highly recommended for diabetics on account of
the low proportion of starch and the high proportion of fat
and proteid. They are said to be pleasant to the taste. Dr. W.
Hale White, writing from Guy’s Hospital, London, where he
has used the bread and biscuit for some time, says: ‘They are
to patients suffering from diabetes not only a good substitute
for gluten bread, but they form a pleasant change from it,
and many patients much prefer the taste of them to gluten
bread.’”
217. Japan, Dep. of Agriculture and Commerce, Agricultural
Bureau. 1893. A descriptive catalogue of the agricultural
products exhibited in the World’s Columbian Exposition.
Tokyo: Printed by Seishibun-sha. 115 p.
• Summary: The World’s Columbian Exposition was a
World’s Fair held in Chicago, Illinois, to celebrate the 400th
anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New
World in 1492.
Discusses 38 commercial products, with most divided
into basic information and products made from the crop.
Includes: Rice (“The manures applied to rice fields” include
“green manures, farm yard manures, composts, ordures, fish
manures, Sake kasu, Shoyu kasu, rape seed cake, and soy
bean [cake] {p. 11}), barley (“It is much used as the material
for making miso. Miso is prepared by pounding together
boiled soy bean, salt, and the Koji {yeast}* prepared from
common barley or naked barley; and is one of the most
common articles of food in Japan.” (Footnote: *”Eurotium
oryzae). It [barley] is also used for making ame {p. 23}).
Wheat (“Wheat is used principally for preparing soy
[sauce], vermicelli, onmen [sic, somen?], undon [sic, udon],
and several kinds of confectionary” {p. 27}. It is also used
for making fu or wheat gluten; “Roast ‘fu’ is used as food
by boiling it with soup, soy, mirin, etc.” {p. 29}), naked
barley (Hordeum nudum; hadakamugi), Job’s tears (Coix
lacryma; hatomugi), soy bean (Soja hispida; daidzu), adzuki
(Phaseolus Radiatus, [azuki]), sasage (Dolichos Umbellatus),
haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), peas, buckwheat
(“Sobakiri” and “Kôri-soba” are both seasoned with soy
sauce {p. 46}), rape seed (Brassica chinensis, natane)
and rape seed oil (natane abura), sesame seeds (yellow
{kigoma}, white {shirogoma}, and black {kurogoma} are
displayed) and sesame oil (made from only yellow and white
sesame), yegoma (Perilla occimoides), hemp, shiitake, chilli
(Capsicum Longum; tôgarashi; “The fresh unripe fruit and
leaves of certain varieties are eaten by cooking them with
soy, sugar, “Katsuwobushi” [katsuobushi],* etc.” {p. 103}).
Also discusses: Dried daikon (p. 109-11), konjak flour
(Conophallus konjak; konniak-ko, konnyaku; “For cooking,
it is cut into small pieces and boiled with soy, soup, mirin,
sugar etc.” {p. 112}), kampio (Lagenaria vulgaris; kampio
[kampyo, kanpyo]; “It is used as an article of food by boiling
with water, soy, sugar, mirin etc.” {p. 113}), wine.
Concerning the soy bean: In 1887, the total area of
arable land devoted to soy bean cultivation is 4,633,152 tan
(1 tan = 0.245 acre; thus 1,142,472.2 acres or 462.352.16
hectares). The total production of soy bean in the Empire was
estimated to be 3,253,790 koku [419,459 metric tons] (1 koku
= 180 liters, and 1 bushel = 35.2390 liters; thus 585,682,200
liters = 16,620,284 bushels).
Note 1. From the above figures, a yield of 14.53 bushels
per acre can be calculated.
From 1887 to 1891 the price of soybeans per koku
ranged from 4.180 yen in 1888 to 5.319 yen in 1890. Four
specimens of soybeans were exhibited:
No. 24. Green soy bean (awo-daidzu) The produce of
Akumi-gun, in Yamagata prefecture.
No. 25. Black soy bean (kuro-daidzu). The produce of
Sapporo-gun, in Hokkaido. No. 26. Common soy bean. The
produce of Chikuba-gun, in Ibaraki prefecture. No. 27. Soy
bean (Itachi-daidzu). The produce of Iruma-gun, in Saitama
prefecture.
“Daidzu or soy bean is extensively used in Japan to
prepare various kinds of foods indispensable for the daily
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 109
meal, such as ‘soy’ or ‘shôyu,’ ‘tamari’ (a kind of soy), tofu,
and miso. It is also largely used as a food for horses and
manure [bean cake].
Note 2. This is the 2nd earliest English-language
document seen (April 2012) that mentions tamari, which it
calls “tamari” (not “tamari shoyu”).
A analysis of the percentage composition of 3 kinds
of soy beans analyzed by the Sanitary Experiment Station
at Tokio is given; Green soy beans have the highest crude
protein content (42.85% with 12,28% water). White soy
beans (shiro-daidzu) have the highest ash content (5.00%
with 13.46% water). Black soy beans have the highest fat
content (18.26%, and the 2nd highest crude protein content
40.25%, with 11.09% water). Soy bean (Itachi-daidzu) from
Saitama prefecture.
Although daizu is abundantly produced in Japan, since
its daily consumption by all classes of people is great, it
is now imported from China and Korea in large quantity.
However imported soy bean is never used to make first class
shoyu or soy, since the imported beans are inferior to those
produced in Japan.
A table shows the quantity (in kin) and value (in yen)
of soy bean exported from Japan from 1887 to 1891; 2.1
million kin were exported in 1889.
Four specimens of soy sauce are on display. Two
brands (the trade marks are shown) are made by Mr. Mogi
Shichirouemon, and two are made by Mr. Mogi Saheiji. All
are made at Noda-machi, Chiba prefecture, Japan. Brands (a)
and (c) are of the first quality; brands (b) and (d) are of the
second quality.
A table shows the amount of shoyu made in Japan each
year from 1887 to 1891; the amount ranges from 1,304,551
koku in 1888 to 1,157,982 koku in 1890. Since 1 koku = 180
liters, the amount made in 1888 is 234,819,180 liters. The
total number of shoyu manufacturers in 1889 was 10,682.
A table shows the price (in yen) of various brands and
quantities of shoyu from 1887 to 1892. A brief description
of the process for making shoyu is given. The word “barm”
is used instead of koji. Either barley or wheat can be used
with daizu to make the barm. The “mixture is kept for about
25 months, stirring it occasionally with a paddle, say twice a
day during winter and three times in summer, and when it is
fermented to the required degree, soy is extracted by means
of a soy press. The clear liquid thus obtained is pasteurized
by heating to about 130º F. and when entirely cooled, it is
transferred into casks.”
As shoyu is manufactured from daizu, wheat, etc., “it
naturally contains a large quantity of albuminous matter.
Shoyu is used in Japan as table salt is in Europe and
America; consequently it is indispensable for daily use
for cooking fish, meat, vegetables. etc. It has a remarkable
merit when applying it in the place of sauces (like
‘worcestershire’) for beefsteak, fry, stew, etc. It answers
better than salt when used with cold meat.
“Japanese soy or ‘Shoyu’ has long been exported to
various parts of Europe where those who once taste it never
fail in extolling its flavour. It is said that in Holland, Japanese
soy has been used by many people from long years ago
and highly esteemed by them.” A table shows the chemical
composition of shoyu.
“Since the fine flavour of Japanese soy has recently
become known to people abroad, several trial consignments
were made both to Europe and America, and the result,
though it has obtained a high reputation among them, still
it has not yet become a leading article of export.” A table
shows the annual amount and value of shoyu exported from
Japan from 1887 to 1891. It ranges from 1,302.71 koku
worth 11,091 in 1887 to 3,749.01 koku worth 41,028 yen in
1891. Thus the exports are growing rapidly.
Three specimens of tamari are one display, one dilute
and one concentrated. The first two are made and sold by
Mr. Ishima Mosaku. The 3rd (regular tamari) is made and
sold by Mr. Morimoto Chôhachi. All are made at Yokkaichi
in Miye [Mie] prefecture. Tamari is made chiefly in the
prefectures of Miye, Aichi and Gifu [in central Japan].
Tamari is very similar to shoyu except that no wheat is used
in manufacturing tamari.
Tofu (bean curd): “Tofu is one of the most favourite
foods of Japanese and sold in all places both in towns and
villages. The specimen here exhibited is called Yakidofu
and is prepared by roasting partially dried ‘Tofu’ over a
charcoal fire.” “As ‘Tofu,’ sometimes called bean curd, being
a coagulated vegetable albumen of soy beans, it contains
a large proportion of nutritious matter, most important to
human life, especially, to those who subsist mainly upon
vegetables.” The price of this Yakidofu is 18 yen per 10
dozen.
Note 3. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2013) that mentions grilled tofu, which it calls
Yakidofu.
A specimen of Kôri-tôfu or frozen bean curd is
displayed; it is made in Minami Adzumi-gun, Nagano
prefecture. “As it can be preserved for many years it is a
suitable for provision for vessels undertaking long voyages.”
Concerning adzuki: There are both red adzuki and white
adzuki. Early varieties are sown in the spring; late varieties
{called aki-adzuki in the autumn}. “It is mostly used for
preparing “An”–a pulpy mixture of boiled Adzuki flour and
sugar, and in that state is largely used for making various
kinds of confectionary.” It is also used to make “Sarashi-an
or refined flour of ‘adzuki,” and “shiruko–a juice prepared by
boiling the flour with a suitable quantity of water and adding
sugar...” Note 4. Shiruko could be described as adzuki bean
soup with mochi (rice cake).
Concerning rape seed: “Rape was formerly cultivated
to a great extent but since the introduction of Kerosene Oil,
the acreage of its cultivation has been much diminished, yet
it is grown in nearly all parts of Japan and forms one of the
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 110
important farm crops.”
218. Westeroode, W. de Wolff van. 1893. Inlandsche
plantennamen [Indigenous plant names (in the Dutch East
Indies); Glycine Soja (“kadeleh”)]. Teysmannia (Batavia
[Jakarta]) 4:23-30. See p. 25-26. [Dut]
• Summary: Mentions Glycine Soja (“kadeleh”). The
Ngoko-Javanese is “kadele” or “kedele,” the kromo“kedang-soel”, the same in East as in Central Java. The
soy (kedele) beans deserve a precise pharmacological
investigation in view of the surprising results given by the
soy product ketjap [Indonesian soy sauce] against persistent
malaria, which cannot be cured by other means. Address:
Indonesia.
219. Schlegel, Gustave; Cordier, Henri. 1894. The Chinese
bean-curd and soy and the soya-bread of Mr. Lecerf. I. Tofu.
T’oung Pao (General Newspaper) 5:135-46. March. [11 ref.
Eng]
• Summary: “Of late these Chinese preparations have again
attracted the notice of Europeans. The Temps in France
published last November [sic, April 8, 1893] a note upon the
subject after an article in the Avenir de Diego-Suarez of 2
March 1893, and Dr. Vorderman, of the civil medical service
in Java and Madura... We will add to these notices what is
written about the subject by the Chinese themselves.
“I. Tao-fu or Bean Curd. According to ‘Collected
Omissions of Sieh-choh’ nothing had been ever heard of
the confection of bean-curd before or after the period of the
three dynasties of antiquity (B.C. 2205-250), and it was only
mentioned for the first time in the work of Liu-ngan [Liu An]
king of Hoai-nan [Huai Nan] of the Han (second century
before our era) Cf. Mayers, Chinese Readers Manual, No.
412, Cap. 24.”
“The Tao-fu or Bean-curd was also called ‘Leguminous
milk’, and was prepared by boiling curds or milk from beans.
“It is further related that when Shi-tsih [pinyin: Shi Ji]
was governor of Ts’ing-yang [pinyin: Qing Yang] (Latitude
30º45’, Longitude 115º26’) he, in order to purify himself
and to rouse the population, did not permit himself the use
of meat, but bought every day in the market several pieces
of bean curd, so that the townpeople called these curds ‘The
little slaughtered sheep.’
“The bean of which this curd is prepared is known
in science by the name of Soja hispida, and has been
imported in the form of a meat-sauce from Japan to Europe
under its japanese name of Sho-yu, the corrupted japanese
pronunciation of the chinese tsiang yu or ‘relish-oil’ which
this sauce bears in some parts of China, and which has been
further corrupted by the Dutch into Soja, by which name
(also written soya and soy) it became known all over Europe.
We will return to this by and by.
“According to Dr. Vorderman (loc. cit. p. 354) the
soy-beans are distinguished in light-colored (cream-color,
straw-yellow, light ochre-yellow and amber-yellow),
brown and black. The first two sorts are roundish, the last
either roundish or oblong, as they come from the one or
the other variety of the plant. Accordingly, the plant with
roundish seeds is called Soja hispida, tumida and that with
oblong seeds Soja hispida, platycarpa, amounting, with
the differences in color, to four varieties: 1. Soja hispida,
tumida Beta pallida; 2. Soja hispida, tumida Beta atrospuma
[atrosperma]; 3. Soja hispida, tumida Beta castanea; 4. Soja
hispida, platycarpa Beta melanosperma.
“No. 2 and 4 are black and serve especially for the
fabrication of Soy or Ketchup, whilst No. 1 (pale-yellow)
and No. 3 (brown) are used for other culinary purposes.
“Since the Vienna [Austria] exhibition of 1873, when
several samples of Chinese, Japanese and Indian soybeans
were exhibited, their great nutritive proprieties and richness
of azote [nitrogen] and fat have been shown by chemical
analysis, and the culture of this plant has been largely
introduced into Europe, especially in Hungary.”
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (July 2003) that contains the word “soybeans”–spelled
as one word.
König in his work Die menschlichen Nahrungs und
Genussmittel, 2nd Ed., Vol. II, p. 372, gives an analysis of
the composition of 4 types of soybeans. “Dr. Vorderman says
that he has not been able to detect amylum [starch] in the
Soybeans of Java, China and Annam in applying the reaction
of jodium [iodine] upon the section of the bean. The texture
of the cotyledons consists principally of oblong, radiating
parenchyme-cells, about five times longer than broad.
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Oct. 2004) that uses the word “cotyledons” in
connection with soybeans.
“II. Tao-kan or Preserved Bean Curd. The Chinese make
of the Soy-beans two preparations, one called in Java Taohu and the other Tao-toa. They both consist of leguminous
cheese, obtained from the light-brown beans, principally
those obtained from Annam. But at present many Chinese
in Batavia prefer the so much cheaper kadele putih grown in
the Preanger and the Ommelanden (circumjacent territory of
Batavia).
“These lightcolored beans are macerated during five
hours in rainwater, when they swell up to about twice or
thrice their original size. After having been cleansed from
accidental dirt or admixtures, they are ground in a stone
handmill, very much resembling that in which Europeans
ground colors. One Chinese turns the mill, whilst the other
throws the macerated beans, still in their husk, with a little
water into the mill, so that the stuff runs as a white, thin
mass, by a small gutter, into a tub prepared for its reception.
This mass is then heated upon the fire in a large iron open
cauldron, until it reaches the boiling-point. The froth is
skimmed, and the fluid strained, after boiling, through a
cotton cloth, in which a white, doughy residu [sic, residue
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 111
= okara] remains, having a peculiar oily smell, and which
serves as food for ducks and fowl.
“The filtrated fluid, which has a milkwhite color, is
mixed, whilst it is being cooled, with a certain proportion of
common Madura-salt or with a little calcined gypsum.
Note 3. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Aug. 2013) that refers to soymilk, which it calls the
“milk from beans” and “The filtrated fluid, which has a
milkwhite color...”
“This gypsum is imported from China in the form of
large lumps of radiated gypsum. As it is specially used
for preparing the leguminous cheese of the soybeans, it is
called by traders in Batavia by the Malay-Chinese hybrid
word Batu-tao i.e. ‘bean-stone.’\ “The salt (or, as in China,
the chloride of magnesium) and gypsum change the juice,
by precipitation of the legumine [legumin], into a white,
gelatineous [gelatinous] mass, which, when sufficiently
cooled, obtains a certain consistency, allowing it to be cut
into flat square pieces. This can, however, not be done for
after two hours after the precipitation. These squares are then
laid upon plantain-leaves protected by a white cotton cloth
against dust, and hawked about in the streets.
“They have an unpleasant raw bean-flavor, but when
mixed with other victuals, this taste is lost. It is used as well
in the preparation of Chinese victuals, as in that of the socalled Indian rice-dish.
“In order to preserve the tao-fu for continuous use, it is
made to tao-koa (or dried beans) by the following method.
“The tao-fu, cut into flat squares, is plunged into a
decoctum of Curcuma longa, which colours it intense yellow.
These yellow cakes are then wrapped up in white square
pieces of cotton, laid between boards and exposed to a
certain pressure. Generally they are at the same time stamped
with Chinese characters.
“By this pressure a good deal of water is lost, but the
cakes can be preserved much longer.
“Dr. Vorderman says that both tao-fu and tao-koa can be
successfully used in the nourishment of feeble children, who
refuse to take eggs. Tao-koa is also imported from China, but
these cakes are much larger than those prepared in Java, and
are always stamped with Chinese characters.”
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (Aug. 2002)
that mentions Liu An of Huai Nan in connection with tofu.
Note 5. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (April 2013) that uses the word “Tao-fu” (or “Tao fu”),
or the word “Tao-hu” (or “Tao hu”), or the word “Tao-kan”
(or Tao kan”) to refer to Chinese-style tofu.
Note 6. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Sept. 2004) that uses the term “pale-yellow” or the
term “straw-yellow” to describe the color of soybean seeds.
Note 7. An article in this same issue, titled “The Chinese
in Boston” [Massachusetts], notes that presently “1,000
Chinese live in Boston, of which 700 work in the 180
laundries, and about 300 are merchants and traffickers, all
dwelling on Harrison Ave. Here one also finds 63 gambling
dens (or houses of ill repute) and several others where
opium is smoked–visited in part by the most vile class of
Americans.”
Note 8. We wonder if there wasn’t at least one tofu shop
in Boston at this time. Address: 1. Professeur de Chinois
à l’Universite de Leide [Leiden]; 2. Professeur à l’Ecole
spéciale des Langues orientales vivantes et à l’Ecole libre
des Sciences politiques à Paris.
220. Schlegel, Gustave; Cordier, Henri. 1894. The Chinese
bean-curd and soy and the soya-bread of Mr. Lecerf. III. Taoyu or soy oil. T’oung Pao (General Newspaper) 5:135-46.
March. See p. 140-43. [10 ref. Eng]
• Summary: This section is not about soybean oil, but about
various types of Chinese soy sauce. “But the Soy-bean does
not only serve for the preparation of beancurd, but also for
the renowned condiment and sauce known as Soya, not only
in the far east, but also over all Europe and America. It is
known by the name of Shi which is explained in the Yih-ya as
being a homonyme of the word Shi or ‘taste’ and was known
by the people of Thsi because it is a combination of the five
tastes.
Note: This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Nov. 2011) that uses the word Shi to refer to fermented
black soybeans.
“In the dictionary Shwo-wen [Shuowen] (about A.D.
100) the condiment is described as ‘Salt-mixed dark pulse.’
Bretschneider (Botanicon Sinicum, II, 165, Shanghai 1892)
says he cannot understand what the character (dark) is
intended to mean.
“If he had looked up the word in our Dutch-Chinese
dictionary published in 1884, i.v. Soya, he would have
found its explication given according to the Tan-yuen-luh,
written by Yang-shin, one of the most prominent scholars
of the Ming-dynasty (Wylie, Notes, p. 130), who says: ‘Shi
is properly a bean; it is mixed with salt and darkly shut up
into jars and pots, wherein it is fermented; this is why it is
called dark pulse.’ In fact, this is the way the Soya is made.
The beans are first boiled soft, mixed with an equal quantity
of wheat or barley, and left to ferment; a portion of salt, and
three times as much water as beans, are afterwards put in,
and the whole compound left for two or three months, when
the liquid is pressed and strained.
“As we have said above, the mass is fermented in large
stone covered jars, and any-one who has visited Canton will
have, if not seen, at least smelled the disagreeable stench
emanating from the large jars with fermenting Soy in the
Soymakers-lane.
“The Chinese say that the character Shi does not occur
in the nine classics, but that in the commentary of the
‘Great bitter, the salt and the sour of the Nine discussions of
Sung-yuh,’ the ‘Great bitter’ is explained as being the Shi
or Soy; and that in the Chapter on Aliments in the Annals
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 112
is spoken of a thousand measures of salted soybeans (shi):
whilst, according to the History of Aliments of the former
Han-dynasty, soy was sold in (the capital) Chang-ngan by a
certain Fan Shau-ung, who was on that account called the
Soy-Fan.”
“In the Elegies of Thsoo (Wylie, Notes, 181) 4th
Century B.C., is equally spoken of the Great bitter, the salt,
the sour, the pungent and the sweet, where, according to
the commentary, the great bitter is the Soy, the pungent are
Pepper and Ginger and the sweet Sugar and Honey; and
that it means that the juice of the Soybean was mixed with
Pepper and Ginger, and that the salt and sour was mixed with
Sugar and Honey, so that the pungent and sweet flavor was
produced.
“In the book ‘Antiquities of Wu-lin’ (Wylie, Notes,
p. 45), written during the southern Sung-dynasty (13th
century), we find mentioned among the victuals in the
market: birdsnests (?), gingered soy (shi) and honied and
gingered soybeans.
“This is the native soy; but the Poh-wuh chi (Wylie,
Notes, p. 153), published in the latter part of the 3d century,
says that Soy is also prepared in foreign countries. The
beans are steeped in bitter wine and afterwards dried very
hard; they are then boiled in and again dried, which process
is thrice repeated. Afterwards the mass is mixed with a
proportional quantity of powdered pepper. This species
of Soy is called in China Khang-pih (Man-strengthening)
because it pushes down the humours and composes them.
Bretschneider thinks that though the character Shi does
not occur in the Classics, Soy was very probably known in
olden times under the name of Tsiang [chiang or jiang] which
occurs in the Li-ki, the Chow-li a.o. The common name for
Soy in Peking, he says, is Tsiang-yu or Tsiang oil. This name,
imported into Japan, but pronounced there Sho-yu, from
which our word Soya has been corrupted, was first imported
by the Dutch from Japan to Europe.
“But this supposition is not supported by Chinese
authorities, who describe the Tsiang as a salted condiment
or sauce made from all sorts of meat, fishes, fruits, etc., but
never from beans.
“According to the Fan-tsze-ki-jen the Tsiang was
introduced from Toung-hai, the modern Hoai-ngan fu. The
first quality cost 200 pieces a pound; the middling sort one
hundred, and the inferior quality thirty. This condiment was
so expensive that we read in the Annals that a thousand jars
of briny tsiang were put upon a par with a state of a thousand
carriages.
“In the Ping-tsih are mentioned Briny Tsiang of stewed
chicken, Briny Tsiang of stewed fishroe (Footnote: With
reference to this condiment, we may mention the Ké-tsiap,
brine of pickled fish or shell-fish, prepared in Fuhkian
[Fujian, W.-G. Fukien] {Douglas [1873], Dict. of the Amoy
dialect}, and which is most surely the origin of the word
Ketchup, another name for soy [sauce]. It has nothing to do
with the Malay, though the malay word Ketjap ‘to taste’ has
a family-air.), of stewed turtles, of hashed fish mixed with
mustard, and of the fat of the elk.
“In old Nan-yueh people ate Tsiang made of the
Kow-fruit, a kind of mulberry according to some, but the
betelpepper according to others.
“A condiment was also made of the peony roots of the
elmseeds which was called Mut, of bitter squash and of the
bottle-goard [gourd].
“In like wise a sauce was made of the Yu-tsih fish, and
even of salted bees, crabs, shrimps, or rather lobsters, and
ant-eggs. But not a single writer speaks of tsiang made of
beans, and more particularly of the soyabean” (p. 143).
Note: This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Feb. 2007) that contains the word “soyabean” (or
“soyabeans”), written as one word. Address: 1. Professeur
de Chinois à l’Universite de Leide [Leiden]; 2. Professeur à
l’Ecole spéciale des Langues orientales vivantes et à l’Ecole
libre des Sciences politiques à Paris.
221. Schlegel, Gustave; Cordier, Henri. 1894. The Chinese
bean-curd and soy and the soya-bread of Mr. Lecerf. IV. The
soyabread of Mr. Lecerf. T’oung Pao (General Newspaper)
5:135-46. March. See p. 144-46. [5 ref. Eng]
• Summary: “The high nutritive properties of the Soybean
have induced the Europeans to introduce its culture into
Europe, and since some years a kind of bread has been
baked of it for the use of the sufferers of Diabetes or sugarconsumption.” Note 1. This is the 2nd earliest Englishlanguage document seen (July 2003) that contains the word
“Soybean” (or “soybean”)–spelled as one word.
“After the exposition in Vienna in 1873, attention was
drawn upon the Soya by Mr. Haberland [Haberlandt] and
Count Cettems [sic, Heinrich Attems], and in April 1888, Mr.
Lecerf, a Paris chemist, called the attention of the Société
de Médecine upon the services which this leguminose could
render to sufferers of diabetes and obesity. It is known that
with obese people it are the amylaceous substances which
are changed into fat by the digestive functions. The sufferers
of obesity are able to absorbe [sic] all fat substances without
seeing their “embon-point” [plumpness] augment; for,
as has been shown by Eberstein, fat substances are never
assimilated, but they are decomposed in order to serve the
functions of respiration and to supply the human body with
heat.
“Mr. Lecerf’s proposal met with success, and professor
Dujardin-Beaumetz, having firstly tried the bread invented
by Mr. Lecerf in the hospital Cochin, offered, in the sitting
of 19 May 1888 of the Académie de Médecine, samples of
the Soya-bread Lecerf fabricated without any admixture of
foreign flours, and proposed to substitute it for the glutenbread in the alimentation of diabetics.
“Later on, Doctor Blondel published a very interesting
study of the Soya, and showed the nearly complete absence
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 113
of amylum [starch] in its tissues.
“We let follow here a comparative table of the
chemical composition of Soya compared to that
of wheat and lean beef according to the analysis
of Messr. [sic, Messrs.] Boussingault, Lehmann
and Pellet... These ciphers show the superiority of
Soya above all known alimentary substances.
“Before the introduction of the soya-flour into
the therapeutic treatment, the ordinary bread and
even the gluten-bread were a serious obstacle in
the diet followed by sufferers of diabetes, and this
on account of the amylum which they contain:
ordinary bread containing 60% of amylum
and gluten-bread 15%; whilst Soya-bread only
contains an insignificant percentage (3%) of
amylum; and, as it also contains a small quantity
of bi-carbonate of soda, dispenses the patients of
drinking Vichy or Karlsbad waters.”
“Strange to say, however, the fabric [factory]
for Soya-bread established by Mr. Lecerf had
to shut up on account of the limited sale of its
produce. He sold his patent to Messieurs Peitz
& Co., druggists and chemists in Paris (98 Place
Beauvau), who have also placed a depot of their
bread in the ‘Grande Pharmacie hygenique Desvilles’, 24
Rue Etienne-Marcel, and who sell this bread at the price of
50 centimes (5 pence).”
Holland was the first country which followed in
the wake, and Mr. G.C.F. Koehler in Amsterdam (29
Weesperstraat) fabricates even a superior kind of Soya-bread,
containing less oil than the Paris bread [made by Mr. Lecerf
and later by Messieurs Peitz & Co.], and therefore more
palatable than the latter, for 40 cents (= 8 pence). But his
breads are double the size of Paris ones, and, consequently,
relatively cheaper.
“To the great shame, however, of Germany, Austria
and Great-Britain, this highly beneficial and nutritive bread
seems to be totally unknown and ignored in these respective
countries. In London no baker, druggist or chemist had ever
heard of it, and I could only get a kind of échaudé de gluten
fabricated in Paris, and tasting like old dry sponge; and this
in a town, where are some five-thousand of sufferers of
diabetes!!...
“It seems to us imperative that in each larger town of
Europe and America special bakeries for the fabrication
of Soya-bread and Soya-flour be established. We can
recommend it by our own experience of five years to all
sufferers of Diabetes and Obesity as a most wholesome and
welcome article of food.”
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Nov. 2013) that uses the term “soya-flour.” Address:
1. Professeur de Chinois à l’Universite de Leide [Leiden]; 2.
Professeur à l’Ecole spéciale des Langues orientales vivantes
et à l’Ecole libre des Sciences politiques à Paris.
222. Middelburgsche Courant (Middelburg, Netherlands).
1895. Homeopatische geneesmiddeln van Dr Willmar
Schwabe [Homeopathic remedies by Dr Willmar Schwabe].
Jan. 15. p. 4, col. 3. [Dut]
• Summary: This advertisement is for four specialty breads:
Aleurone bread [from Greek aleuron, flour; aleurone is
a protein found in protein granules of maturing seeds],
almond bread, gluten bread, and soya bread (Aleuronaat-,
Amandel-, Gluten- en Sojabrood). These breads are sold by
the apothecary firm of F.G. Vrijdag Zijnen in the Hague (‘s
Gravenhage). They are probably for diabetics.
Note: This ad was found by searching the Dutchlanguage database http://kranten.delpher.nl/ for “sojabrood”
using advanced search between 1880 and 1899.
223. Martin, Ernest. 1895. Le Tao-fu (soya), son origine,
ses propriétés, son acclimatation [Tofu (soya): Its origin,
properties, and acclimatization]. Revue Scientifique (Revue
Rose) 3(5):144-46. Feb. 2. Series 4. [Fre]
• Summary: A French-language review of the literature
on tofu, including a brief discussion of soy sauce and
soybeans. The Soya hispida (Family: Papilionacées; Glycine
Phaseolus) is an oilseed (graine oléagineuse) that originated
in China. According to the research of Prof. Schlegel at the
University of Leiden, it was first mentioned in the work of
Liu-An, king of Huai-nan, of the Han dynasty, in the 2nd
century before the Christian era. From this period, the seed
was boiled and a milk-like liquid [soymilk] was extracted
which had the reputation of possessing beneficial properties.
When the soybean (le soya) was imported to Europe,
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 114
it was in the form of a sauce made in Japan and sold by the
Dutch who were the first [sic] European navigators to arrive
in Japan. Note: Portuguese navigators arrived in and traded
with Japan before the Dutch.
Its name was sho-yu, which is nothing but the corruption
of the Chinese characters tsiang-yu, which signifies savory
oil [sic]. From sho-yu, the Dutch made the word “soya” or
“soy” the name by which the bean is known in Europe.
Discusses: The shape and color of soybeans. The
Exposition of Vienna [Austria] in 1873. König’s discovery
that soybeans contain 31-33% protein. The research of
Vorderman and Pellet. Tao-Kan, Tao-Hu (tofu in Java),
and Tao-Koa. Tofu exported from Annam. How Chinese
in Batavia make soymilk and tofu (curded with gypsum);
use of the pasty residue (résidu pâteux) [okara] for feeding
to penned poultry, such as chickens and ducks. Further
processing of tofu to extend its shelf life.
Note: This is the earliest French-language document
seen (June 2013) that uses the term résidu pâteux to refer
to okara. Preparation of soy sauce. Many uses of tofu in
Chinese therapy. Shi-tsih as the founder of the vegetarian
diet. Writings of Montigny, the French consul general. Soy
bread in diabetic diets. Mr. Desvilles. Soybean trials and
acclimatization in France. Composition of soybeans grown in
France.
“From the viewpoint of practical utility, we conclude
that the acclimatization of species of the vegetable and
animal kingdoms, which was formerly the goal of multiple
costly tests, has now lost much of its importance. The ease
of communications and the rapidity with which exotic
shipments can be made often provide the same results.
“However we must continue to be attentive to failures
of acclimatization, for they have much to teach us. One of
the most interesting problems of science is that of mutations.
The work of the mutationists (tératologistes), and especially
of Dareste, on the production of artificial anomalies, has
led to new proof that the variability of animal organization
is much greater than one would be tempted to believe–and
this variability extends also to plants... Such research can
help elucidate the problem of the origin of races, which has
heretofore remained in the deepest obscurity despite the
work of savants such as Is. Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, Darwin,
and Quatrefages.
“Thus there is nothing surprising in the transformations
manifested in living things which, transplanted from
afar, find themselves placed in telluric [terrestrial] and
climatological conditions completely different from those
of their original habitat. Examples of this transformation
multiple with each new day;” they include the opium poppy,
rhubarb, some legumes, numerous varieties of bamboo.
“What is the reason for these laws of transformation and
degeneration that extend over each of the large kingdoms
of nature? The problem is posed but has not been seriously
addressed.
“As for the soybean (graine de soya), we have shown
that it undergoes this transformation in a very sensitive
manner: in it, the protein molecule progressively gives way
to the starch (amylacée) molecule. At the heart of the plant
organism, a special synthesis is accomplished: its chemical
composition is modified in proportions such that it becomes
inappropriate for the goal targeted by its cultivation in
Europe.”
224. Went, F.A.F.C.; Prinsen Geerligs, H.C. 1895.
Beobachtungen ueber die Hefearten und zuckerbildenden
Pilze der Arrakfabrikation [Observations on the yeast
varieties and saccharifying fungi used in making arak,
rice brandy]. Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie. Series 2.
1(13/14):501-04. July 10. Extracted from Verhandelingen der
Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. II. 4(2):. [1 ref.
Ger]
• Summary: Discusses raggi (ragi), tapej (tape, tapeh),
and brem. Japanese miso and koji (as described by
Kellner) are mentioned in passing. The four new species
of microorganisms described are: Monilia javanica,
Saccharomyces Vordermanni, Chlamydomucor Oryzae, and
Rhizopus Oryzae.
225. Prinsen Geerligs, H.C. 1895. Eenige Chineesche
voedingsmiddelen uit Sojaboonen bereid [Some Chinese
foods made from soybeans]. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad voor
Nederland 32(33):1-2. Dec. 14. Summarized in Teysmannia
(1897) 7:413-15. [5 ref. Dut; eng]
• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Tofu or bean cheese
(Tao-hoe of boonenkaas). Chinese soja or Fao-ijoe
(boonenolie; soybean oil). Japanese soya (soy sauce; In
Japanese: Shoijoe; in Chinese: Sex-sze-ijve). Taucho or bean
paste (Fao toio of boonenbrei).
In the section on tofu, soymilk is mentioned twice.
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (April 2013) that uses the term boonenkaas
(unhyphenated) to refer to tofu.
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Aug. 2013) that uses the term melkachtige, vettige
vloeistof (“milky, fatty liquid”) or gefiltreerde melkachtige
vleistof (“filtered milky liquid”) to refer to soymilk.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (March 2009)
that mentions Indonesian-style miso, which it calls “Fao
toio.” This would later be spelled tao-tjo, taotjo, tauco, or
taucho.
At the end of the section on tofu, the author continues:
Another widely used bean preparation is soy sauce (de Soja),
of which two kinds exist: the Japanese and the Chinese
Soja. The first-mentioned has already been repeatedly
described, for example by König (1889, p. 241), further by
J.J. Hoffman in his “Contributions to the Knowledge of the
Language, Geography, and Ethnology of the Netherlands
Indies” (Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 115
Nederl. Indië; Vol. V, p. 192), and recently by G. Schlegel
in T’oeng pao [T’oung Pao 1894] (Part 5, No. 2) and O.
Kellner in Chemiker Zeitung (1895, p. 120). While I could
not find anything in the literature about the preparation of
Chinese soy sauce (Soja), I have copied the following from
the manufacturers themselves.
Chinese Soja or Fao-ijoe (bean oil). For this, only
black varieties of the Soja hipida [sic, hispida] humida Beta
atrosperma or Soja hipida platycarpa Beta melanosperma
have been used. Their seeds are cooked and the water poured
off, after which the beans are left in the sun for half a day to
dry. Now they are cooled on big trays of woven bamboo out
of the sun, then covered with leaves of a Hibiscus variety.
On the beans there will always appear a type of mold, the
Aspergillus Oryzae to be precise, which, at least on Java,
appears every time again on moist soybeans exposed to
the open air, but strangely enough does not appear on
other foods. The beans are allowed to stand until the mold
sporulates, which can be seen by the green color of the mold
threads (hyphae), then they are dried again for some days
and then put in a strong salt solution that has been cooled.
This mixture is put in the sun for 8 days and afterwards it is
boiled. The salt solution is then poured off from the beans
and saved. The beans are boiled again and the water is added
to the first salt solution. This process is repeated as many
times as it takes to extract the residue completely.
The decoction is strained through a fine sieve, boiled
again, and the sugar from the areng palm, star anise (not
the leaves), and some other herbs (which are available from
Chinese druggists as “soya herbs”) are added. Finally, this
dark brown, pleasantly aromatic liquid is boiled down until
salt crystals start to appear on the surface, indicating that the
liquid is completely saturated with salt. After cooling, the
soy sauce (soja) is ready to use. It yields a spice which is
used together with all different kinds of foods as a pleasant
condiment, and in the Chinese, Javanese, and even the
European kitchen on Java it is an irreplaceable ingredient.
Soy sauce is sold in several quality grades, of which the
best is a thick sauce with a special aroma. The lesser kinds
are thinner and are made by diluting the thick soy sauce with
salt water, while in the very low-grade kinds, instead of the
pleasantly sweet-tasting palm sugar, the bitter, sour-smelling
unassimilated molasses from sugar factories is used.
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (May 2010)
that describes the preparation of a sweet Indonesian-style
soy sauce quite similar to ketjap manis (which seems to
have been first created about 1960), yet the writer does not
mention its name.
The Chinese soy sauce appears as a black colored, thick,
clear liquid in which sometimes a viscous sediment can be
found. When diluted with water it turns turbid or cloudy,
but after adding salt this cloudiness disappears. Here is
an analysis of one of the most common varieties: Specific
gravity 1.254, saccharose and glucose 15.60%, nitrogen
containing substances (stikstofhoudende stof) soluble in
alcohol 4.87%, nitrogen containing substances not soluble in
alcohol 2.62%, nitrogen-free substances soluble in alcohol
0.25%, nitrogen-free substances (stikstofrije stof) not soluble
in alcohol 0.75%, salt 17.11%, other ash components 1.65%,
water 57.12%. Total 100%.
The substances insoluble in nitrogen consist (except for
peptone) mainly of legumin, which is soluble in strong salt
solutions (compare Beilstein, Handbuch Organische Chemie,
III, p. 1275) and will precipitate when diluted. This protein
product (eiwitstof) has, by repeated precipitation with alcohol
and renewed dilution in water and salt, been cleaned and
could be recognized as a legumin. The elementary analyses
gave these figures: Carbon 51.6, hydrogen 7.1, nitrogen 15.9.
Furthermore, the dilution in water was precipitated by
ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate
and not by a large quantity of sodium chloride.
The nitrogen containing substances soluble in alcohol
were leucine, tyrosine and aspartic acid, all breakdown
products of legumin, plus a little ammonia. Nitrogen-free
extraction substances are almost not present and consist of a
little pectin and the black coloring agent from the skin of the
soybeans, which gives the black color to the soya.
Just like Kellner (Chemiker Zeitung 1895, p. 121)
remarks, the composition of the soya is very similar to the
one of meat extract, by which the big importance of this
condiment in countries, where mainly vegetable type food is
consumed, can be readily explained. Very peculiar moreover
is the way in which during the preparation of the soya the
heavily digestible protein substances, which are locked into
the thick skinned cells of the soya, have been converted into
an easily digestible, very delicious food.
One lets the boiled beans mold by means of the
Aspergillus oryzae, which above all has the quality of
changing amylodextrine and starchy substances into sugars
followed by carbonic acid and water breakdown. We can say
that a microscopic investigation of a molded soybean shows
that the mold threads (hyphae) penetrate the cell walls of the
complete soybean and partly dissolve them so the contents
will be more readily available. When the mold has used up
all that food, as shown by its fructification, the beans are put
into a strong solution of salt water so that the legumin will
dissolve, producing a thick fluid liquid. At the same time,
the broken down substances of the legumin will dissolve
pepton [peptone], leucine, tyrosine and ammonia, next to the
aromatic substance that will start to form in this stage. The
continued manipulations, addition of sugar, herbs, etc., are of
course of minor importance, but principally the clever way
in which the mold is being used to dissolve the cell walls is
highly interesting. This, like so many Chinese preparations,
is completely empiric and no Chinese would have the
slightest notion of what all this molding is about.
This article describes the first attempt to identify the
tempeh mold. In the section on Indonesian miso (taucho),
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 116
the author notes: In a similar way, in Java, other molds are
used to make leguminous seeds into more digestible foods.
Thus the presscake, which remains after making peanut
oil and would be indigestible without further preparation,
is subjected to the action of molds. In central and eastern
Java Chlamydomucor Oryzae [now known as Amylomyces
rouxii] is used, whereas in western Java an orange mold
of the family Oospore (Neurospora) is used. In the former
case, the food is called ‘bongkrek,’ and in the latter ‘ontjom.’
If soybeans are molded with Chlamydomucor the spice is
called ‘tempets’ [sic, tempeh]. In the preparation, the seeds
are boiled, spread, mixed with a little molded cake from
a former batch, and left alone for a while until the mass is
bound into a solid white cake.
All the aforementioned molds have the ability to break
starch and pectin substances down into sugars, by which
means the cell walls are opened and the seeds made more
easy to digest.
In the case of the starch-containing peanut presscakes,
the breakdown of starch into sugars, followed by the use
of the resulting sugars, proceeds so rapidly that the cakes
become warm and within 1 day about 5% of their weight will
disappear.
Kagok Tegal 28.9.95.
Note 5. This is the earliest document seen written only
in Dutch that mentions Indonesian miso, which it calls Fao
toio or boonenbrei, and tao tsioe.
Note 6. This is the earliest document seen stating that
Hibiscus leaves are used in Indonesia to make soyfoods–in
this case soy sauce.
Note 7. This is the earliest document seen (April 2012)
that mentions “bongkrek”–but the explanation is incorrect.
Note 7. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2011)
that mentions “ontjom.” Address: Java, Indonesia.
tempeh corrected. He changed the name of the mold from
Chlamydomucor Oryzae to Rhizopus Oryzae and he changed
the name of the product from “tempets” to “tempeh.” He
added in conclusion that “it was finely sliced and enjoyed,
mold and all.” But he continued, apparently mistakenly, to
refer to tempeh as a Chinese soyfood.
He also improved his description of Chinese-style
soybean paste, which he now calls Tao-tjiung (Bohnenbrei)
[doujiang], and says has much similarity with the miso of the
Japanese (p. 68 R.7).
Note 1. These two articles by Prinsen Geerligs ushered
in the era of scientific research on tempeh by European
microbiologists and food scientists.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2011)
that contains the word “tempeh”–spelled with an “h” on the
end.
Note 3. It is also the earliest German-language document
seen (Sept. 2011) that mentions tempeh, which it calls
“tempeh.”
Note 4. This is the earliest German-language document
seen (Aug. 2013) that uses the term milchweisse Flüssigkeit
(“milk-white liquid”) to refer to soymilk. Address: Java,
Indonesia.
226. Gillekens, L. Guillaume. 1895. Cours pratique de
culture maraîchère [Practical course in market-gardening].
Brussels, Belgium: Lebègue et Cie. vi + 633 p. Illust. 8vo.
[Fre]*
• Summary: The author mentions two varieties of soybeans:
the ordinary yellow soybean (le soja ordinaire à grain jaune)
and the soya of Etampes (soja d’Etampes).
Note: Vilvoorde (also spelled Vilvorde) is located in
Brabant province, in central Belgium, on the Senne River,
just north of Brussels. Address: Directeur honoraire de
l’ecole d’horticulture de l’État, à Vilvorde [Vilvoorde,
Belgium].
228. Wehmer, Carl. 1896. Aspergillus Wentii, eine neue
technische Pilzart Javas [Aspergillus Wentii, a new type of
technical mold from Java]. Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie.
Series 2. 2(5):140-51. March 27. [8 ref. Ger]
• Summary: Contents: General and background. The mold.
3. Physiology of the mold. 4. Comparison with similar mold
varieties. 5. Diagnosis: Aspergillus Wentii [Wehmer] nov.
spec.–a new species of mold.
This new species of mold was observed by Went in
the preparation of Chinese-style soy sauce (Tao Yu, see
vol. 1, p. 248) and Chinese-style soybean paste (Tao-tjiung
or Bohnenbrei) according to the method practised in Java,
and was described by Wehmer (XIX.) in 1896. It appears
spontaneously on the boiled Soja beans that have been
covered with Hibiscus leaves, and affects a loosening and
disintegration of the firm tissue of the bean.
Ten illustrations on p. 151 show different stages and
parts of the mold (see next page).
Note: This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2009)
that contains the term Tao-tjiung, a term, and perhaps a
product, that appears to be between doujiang (Chinese-style
miso) and tao-tjo (Indonesian-style miso). Address: PhD,
Privatdozenten an der Technischen Hochschule, Hannover.
227. Prinsen Geerligs, H.C. 1896. Einige chinesische
Sojabohnenpraeparate [Some Chinese soybean preparations].
Chemiker-Zeitung 20(9):67-69. Jan. 29. (Exp. Station Record
8:72). [3 ref. Ger]
• Summary: This is a German translation of the author’s
1895 Dutch article, but with two mistakes concerning
229. Bulletin van het Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem.
1896. Naamlijst van Indische nuttige gewassen, die in
gedroogden staat in het Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem zijn
tentoongesteld [A list of the names of useful Indonesian
crops, which are exhibited in the dried state at the Colonial
Museum in Haarlem]. No. 12. p. 48-60. March. [Dut]
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 117
compilation of information on important events that took
place here, including summaries of reports from the trading
posts (factories) of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in
Southeast Asia. The record was continued until March 1808.
Among the goods traded from Japan to Batavia were
Japanese shoyu, miso, and sake (rice wine), although in
rather small quantities.
231. Heeres, G.E.; et al. 1896. Dagh-Register int Casteel
Batavia, Anno 1624-1629 [Registry of goods traded at
Batavia, 1624-1629]. ‘s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.
[Dut]*
• Summary: This is a primary historical document of great
and unique significance. It is a series of records compiled by
the Government-General (Headquarters) of Holland in the
Castle Batavia (today’s Jakarta, Indonesia). It is a diary and
compilation of information on important events that took
place here, including summaries of reports from the trading
posts (factories) of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in
Southeast Asia. The record was continued until March 1808.
Among the goods traded from Japan to Batavia were
Japanese shoyu, miso, and sake (rice wine), although in
rather small quantities.
232. Epicure: A Journal of Taste (The). 1897. Notes from the
Brussels Exhibition. 4(46):354. Sept.
• Summary: At the Brussels International Exhibition:
“Another firm exhibiting is the Birmingham Vinegar
Brewery Company, who show a pyramid of bottles of
Holbrook’s Worcestershire Sauce, 20 feet high by 20 feet
square.”
• Summary: The plants are listed alphabetically by scientific
name. On page 59 we read: “Soya hispida Mönch, fam.
Leguminosae-Papilionaceae. Soja-plant. Katjang kadelé.”
Also discusses: (1) Arachis hypogaea. Aardnoot.
Curaçaosche amandel. Katjang tanah. Groundnuts. (2)
Sesamum Indicum. Sésamé. Widjen. Sesame seeds. (3)
Voandzeia subterranea. Madagascar-aardnoot. Katjang
bogor. Bambarra groundnuts.
230. Colenbrander, H.T. 1896. Dagh-register gehouden int
casteel Batavia vant passerende daer ter plaetse als over
geheel Nederlandts-India anno 1631-1634, uitgegeven door
het Departement van koloniën. [Registry of goods held at
Batavia, Netherlands-Indies 1631-1634]. ‘s-Gravenhage:
Departement van koloniën. 6 + 480 p. [Dut]*
• Summary: This is a primary historical document of great
and unique significance. It is a series of records compiled by
the Government-General (Headquarters) of Holland in the
Castle Batavia (today’s Jakarta, Indonesia). It is a diary and
233. Angell, Stephen H. 1897. Soya as food and fodder.
Consular Reports [USA] 55(207):551-52. Dec. [2 ref. Eng]
• Summary: A remarkable article about all aspects of
soybeans and soyfoods. It begins: “The following is a
translation from an article by M. Henri Fortune, the wellknown French agriculturist. ‘There exists a plant extensively
cultivated throughout China, Japan, Cochin China, and
Tonquin, of which the culture on clay and flinty clay lands
would be an excellent experiment for agriculturists and
persons interested in the progress of agriculture. This plant
acclimatizes perfectly in Belgium.
“’It is employed in the above countries as a food and
for divers other purposes. Transformed by cooking into a
pulp, which is mixed with salt and rice, we obtain the ‘miso,’
which constitutes the regulation breakfast of the Japanese.
I have eaten this preparation in Yedo [Edo, Tokyo] in 1892,
and I found it excellent in taste and very nourishing.
“’Mixed with barley, fermented with water and pressed,
this product yields a sirup known as the “soya,” which is, so
to speak, the unique sauce for all and every Japanese dish,
and is employed in such large quantities that the works in
the town of Nagasaki have a yearly production of 2,000 tons.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 118
The soya also yields a very superior quality of oil, which
advantageously replaces olive oil.’”
“’The bread made from the flour of the soya is as good
as cake without sugar, and is very appetizing, and is not
to be compared with gluten bread, which constipates.’”
Fortune believes that ‘soya bread is twice as nourishing as
wheaten bread, five times as poor in starch, and ten times
as rich in fatty materials, and, once its qualities are fully
known, the soya may be pronounced the bread of the future.’
He recommends the use of soya in bread and biscuits for
diabetic diets.
“’In China, the soya replaces milk, which the Chinese do
not drink at all. To make this milk, the grain must be crushed,
put in a sieve, water slowly poured over it, and a product
obtained having all the qualities of milk.
“’The cheese made from soya is delicious. The grain
is softened in water and pounded in a mortar. The pulp
compressed in a cloth gives two parts; that which is hard
is used to feed poultry, etc., and the other, which passes
through the cloth, is albumen, and is put on the fire, the curds
separated with the aid of rennet, and, when coagulated, a
little salt is added.’”
Of green vegetable soybeans he writes: “’We have a
project in hand to call together the principal Paris restaurant
keepers this winter, to allow them to partake of this new
vegetable, which will advertise it throughout the world under
the patronage of such substantial connoisseurs.
“’In a few years hence, one will buy soya at the grocers,
as to-day one buys beans. It is an excellent substitute for hay,
and keeps horses in good condition, and cows, when fed on
it, will yield at least 20 per cent more milk daily than when
fed on ordinary hay.
“’The soya produces per hectare (2.471 acres) from
2,500 to 3,000 kilograms (5,512 to 6,614 pounds) of
seed, especially if phosphate fertilizers are sufficiently
employed.’”
Note: This is the 2nd earliest document seen (July.
2015) concerning soybeans in Belgium, or the cultivation of
soybeans in Belgium. This document contains the earliest
date seen for the cultivation of soybeans in Belgium (Dec.
1897). The source of these soybeans is unknown. Address:
Commercial Agent, Roubaix, France July 13, 1897.
234. Scott, Charles Payson Gurley. 1897. The Malayan
words in English. New Haven, Connecticut: The American
Oriental Society. 93-144, 49-124 p. See p. 64-67. Index. 25
cm. [73* ref]
• Summary: The word “ketchup” is discussed in detail (p.
64-67). It is a well-known name for various kinds of sauces.
The word catchup, which first appears in English in 1690,
is defined as a “high East Indian Sauce.” This word is found
in Malay as kechap or kichap, and in Dutch transliteration
as ketjap. It is also found in Lampong as kichap and in
Sundanese as kechap. In Malay dictionaries from 1884 to
1895 it is defined as soy [sauce], Japanese soy [sauce], or
indigenous / native soy [sauce]. The earliest Sundanese entry
found (Rigg 1862) states: “Kéchap, Catchup, a dark coloured
sauce prepared by the Chinese.”
But what is soy? The word comes from the Japanese
shô-yu (Hepburn 1867). The Chinese form, in Mandarin, is
sh’-yiu (Williams 1874) or shi-yu (Doolittle 1872), Canton
shi-yau (Chalmers 1870; Williams 1856), Ningpo tsiang-yiu
(Morrison 1876). The Chinese forms are probably original.
Other words that have come into English from Malay
or other languages of the Malay archipelago (Javanese,
Lampong, Sundanese, etc.) include: agar-agar (a sea-weed),
amuck (frenzied, homicidal rage), bantam (a dwarf fowl),
batik (spotted cloth), catchup (see ketchup), cockatoo (a
parrot), compound (from campong, a village), gecko (a
lizard), gingham (cotton cloth), gong (instrument of sound),
gutta-percha (a gum or resin produced by a tree), junk (a
boat), kachang (a legume), ketchup (a condiment), lorikeet
(a parrot), lory (a parrot), orang-utan (primate animal),
padi (rice), picul (a weight), rattan (part of palm stem used
for walking sticks and wickerwork), sago (pith of a palm),
sambal (a curry).
Note: Reprinted from the Journal of the American
Oriental Society vol. 17 (1896) and vol. 18 (1897).
235. Bretschneider, Emil V. 1898. IV. Sea-Trade of the
Dutch with Eastern Asia in the 17th century. In: Emil
V. Bretschneider. 1898. History of European Botanical
Discoveries in China. 2 vols. London: Sampson Low,
Marston and Co., Ltd. xv + 1167 p. See Vol. I, p. 21-26. [3
ref]
• Summary: “The first appearance of the Dutch in the Indian
Archipelago dates from the end of the 16th century.
1595–A “squadron consisting of 4 ships under the
command of C. Houtman sailed from Holland to the East
Indies. Having visited in the next year several places in the
island of Java and adjacent islands, they returned to Holland
with a rich cargo of spices. This first attempt was followed
by other Dutch commercial expeditions to India and the
Archipelago, which also proved successful. In
1602–”The Dutch East India Company was established.
The war which then issued between the Dutch, Spaniards and
Portuguese for the possession of the Spice islands lasted till
1610, when the Dutch remained masters of these seas and
monopolized the lucrative trade there. The seat of the Dutch
government was first established in the island of Amboyna
but...
1619–”It was transferred to the newly founded city of
Batavia in Java, from which year may be dated the formation
of the Dutch East Indian Empire.
1607–”Twelve years before the first commercial
expedition of the Dutch to the Archipelago took place, J.H.
Van Linschoten, a studious young Dutch-man had visited
India. Having obtained a place in the suite of the newly
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 119
appointed Portuguese Archbishop of Goa, he reached that
place in 1583, and spent 5 years there. On his return to
Europe he began to compile a book with the title: Navigatio
et Itinerarium in Indiam Orientalem, which was first printed
in 1599, and published also in Dutch. In 1885 the Hakluyt
Society edited an English version of it. This book contains
interesting accounts of India and other countries visited by
the author, or of which he had gathered information from
other persons. There are also a number of chapters devoted to
the natural productions of India especially those of vegetable
origin, fruits, drugs etc., accompanied with drawings. L.
also speaks of some Chinese drugs, as Rhubarb, China root,
China Camphor, and notices the Chinese Lac or Varnish. But
his notes on plants are for the greater part borrowed from
Garcia ab Orta.
1601–”It was in 1601, a year before the Dutch E. I.
Company was founded, that Dutch ships made their first
appearance in the Chinese waters. In this year the Admiral
J.C. Van Neck, who had been sent out to the East with a
small trading fleet by Dutch merchants, made sail for China.
In Sept. 1601 he found himself, without knowing it, with his
two ships off Macao. Some of the crew, who were sent on
shore, were hung by the Portuguese, whereupon the admiral
made haste to return to the Archipelago.
1604–”The first attempt was made by the Company to
obtain a footing for their trade in China. W. Van Warwijk
was sent with a commission to open friendly commercial
intercourse with the Chinese, but owing to the influence of
the Portuguese of Macao, this was refused.
1622–”J.P. Koen Governor of the Dutch settlements,
sent out from Batavia, which city he had founded in 1619,
a fleet of 8 vessels under the command of Bontekoe Van
Hoorn and C. Reijersz, to attempt the expulsion of the
Portuguese from Macao. This place having been bombarded
without any success and with considerable loss on the part
of the assailants, the Dutch fleet sailed to the Pescadore
[Pescadores, Penghu] Islands situated between Formosa and
the mainland and the Dutch established themselves on one
of the islands, and built a fort there. In the same year they
visited Taivan [sic, Taiwan] in Formosa, Amoy and Chin
chew (Chang chou fu), but were not allowed by the Chinese
authorities to carry on trade in the Chinese ports.
1624–”The Dutch removed from the Pescadore Is. to
Formosa and built the fort of Zeelandia on an island at the
entrance of the Bay of Taivan.
1655–”The Company at Batavia resolved on despatching
[dispatching] an embassy to Peking to the Emperor Shun
chi in order to obtain free trade in some Chinese ports. P.
de Goijer and J. de Keyzer were appointed envoys. The
narrative of this embassy was published by J. Nieuhof, who
had accompanied them as steward of the mission, with the
title: Legatio Batavica ad Magnum Tartariae Chanum Sung
Teium, Sinae Imperatorem, 1665. Comp. my Earl. Europ.
Res. p. 25. The embassy started from Canton on March
17th 1656 in Chinese boats, followed up the Pe kiang or
North River to Shao chou fu, then ascended an affluent of it
which comes from the N. E., to Nan hiung chow. Then they
had to cross the mountain range separating the province of
Kuang tung from that of Kiang si. At Nan an fu in Kiang
si they came again to a river, where they embarked. Then
descending the Kan River they reached Nan ch’ang fu, sailed
across Lake Po yang, entered the Yangtze kiang, reached at
Yang chou fu the Grand Canal, which led them to T`ien tsin.
Peking was reached on July 17th. The envoys were admitted
to an audience, prostrated themselves before the Emperor,
but did not obtain permission to trade. On Oct. 16th 1656
they set out on their return, and travelling by the same river
way they had come, the embassy reached Canton on Jan.
28th 1657.
1662–”After occupying for about 38 years a large part
of Formosa, the Dutch were expelled from the island, in Jan.
1662, by Cheng C’heng kung (Koxinga of the Portuguese),
a powerful Chinese pirate, and thus lost their footing in
China.1600–”In Japan the Dutch had been more successful
in their commercial enterprises. According to Kaempfer,
History of Japan, the first Dutch vessels visited Japan in
1600. Nine years later, in 1609, the Dutch E. I. Company
sent several small vessels to Firando (N.W. of Nagasaki),
where they were well received by the Japanese, and, in 1611,
a formal edict in favour of their trade was obtained. A Dutch
factory was established at Firando. The Dutch trade was
opened in Japan by Jac. Spex sent by the Company in the
quality of an envoy and subsequently chief of the factory.
He left Japan in 1620, and in 1629 was appointed GovernorGeneral of the Netherlands India. Subsequently Japan was
closed against foreigners (Portuguese, Spaniards) with the
exception of the Dutch and Chinese. From 1834, however,
the Dutch trade with Japan has been limited to the island
of Decima (Deshima) in Nagasaki. After the year 1653 the
Chinese pirate Koxinga began to harass with his fleet the
forces of the new Tartar (Manchu) dynasty in China, and
ravaged and plundered the coast of the Fu kien province. He
even established himself in the islands of Amoy and Quemoy
and built fortifications there. After the expulsion of the Dutch
from Formosa, the Council at Batavia decided to send a fleet
to China, and to propose to the Tartars to operate conjointly
against Koxinga.
1662–On June 20th 1662 B. Bort, in the capacity of
envoy left Batavia with a squadron of twelve vessels, and
reached Hoksieu (Fu chou fu) on Aug. 14th. The vice roy
[viceroy] Sing la mong and the commander-in-chief of the
Tartar forces Lipui, then living in the interior of the province,
induced the Dutch-envoy to send two of his officers to the
vice roy’s camp, to arrange concerning operations. These
officers performed the journey to this camp, at a place called
Sinksien (?), in 11 days, conferred with the commander and
returned to Fu chou fu. After leaving this port the squadron
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 120
visited several ports on the coast, and amongst them Swatow,
and on April 11th 1663 reached Batavia. In a few months
Bort was again despatched to China with a reinforcement
of 16 other ships. Meanwhile Koxinga had died and his
son prosecuted his father’s depredations. The Dutch fleet,
in conjunction with the Tartars, attacked the pirates and
succeeded in expelling them from Amoy and Quemoy. The
Dutch were then permitted to trade with Canton, Fu chou
and Chin chew (Chang chou fu). Continued. Address: Late
physician to the Russian Legation at Peking.
236. Bretschneider, Emil V. 1898. IV. Sea-Trade of the Dutch
with Eastern Asia in the 17th century (Continued–Document
part II). In: Emil V. Bretschneider. 1898. History of European
Botanical Discoveries in China. 2 vols. London: Sampson
Low, Marston and Co., Ltd. xv + 1167 p. See Vol. I, p. 21-26.
[3 ref]
• Summary: Continued: 1666–”The council at Batavia
despatched for the second time an embassy to the court of
Peking. Pieter Van Hoorn was appointed ambassador and
received instructions to petition for free trade and permission
to erect factories. He landed at Hoksieu (Fu chou fu) on Aug.
6th 1666, but did not start for Peking till the 20th of January
1667. The narrative of this embassy as well as that of Bort’s
mission, in 1662, are found in Dapper’s Gedenkw. Bedryf d.
Nederl. O.I. Maetschappye in het keizerrijk van Taising of
Sina, 1670. We find there a detailed account of the journey
and the route followed, which we can easily trace as the
geographical names are not much corrupted. They proceeded
from Fu chou in boats up the Min River to, Kien ning fu, and
then ascended an affluent of this river on which the cities
of Kien yang fu and P’u ch’eng are situated. From the latter
place they went by land, and having to cross the mountain
chain forming the boundary between the provinces of Fu
kien and Che kiang they came to a navigable river where
they embarked again. Descending this river they passed by
Lan k’i hien, Yen chou fu and entered the great river (Ts’ien
t’ang kiang) which flows past Hang chou fu. The rest of the
journey was performed on the Grand Canal, and Peking was
reached on June 21st 1667. At the end of August they left the
capital, and returned to Fu chou by the same route. Hoorn
was admitted to an audience and had to perform the act of
prostration before the emperor. None of the privileges he
solicited for the Company were granted.
“After this summary outline of the early commercial
intercourse of the Dutch with Eastern Asia, derived from
various authentic sources, I shall now proceed to examine
what advantages resulted to botanical science from it,
and what the Dutch in the 17th century contributed to our
knowledge of Chinese plants: Clusius, in his Exotica, 1605,
p. 36, describes and figures a collection of fruits brought
home by the Dutch expedition (Van Neck) sent to the East
Indies, in 1597. In fig. V we may easily recognise the
Chinese Litchi fruit.–In the same book, p. 82, Clusius states
that the first specimen of Gummi Gutti or Gambogia was
brought to Europe from China by the Dutch admiral Van
Neck, in 1603. But these articles had hardly been procured in
China. Comp. supra p. 22.
“Let me further notice that we owe to the Dutch the
first authentic account of the useful Tea plant. Jac. Bontius
a Dutch physician, for many years a resident in Batavia, in
his Historia naturalis et med. Indiae orienltalis, written in
1631, p. 87, gives a short notice of the Tea shrub: `de Herba
sen Frutice quam Chinenses The dicunt, unde potum suum
ejusdem nominis conficiunt.’ B. states that no European has
ever seen the Chinese Tea plant, and that he is indebted for
all information about it to the General Jac. Spex, who resided
several years in Japan (v. supra p. 23) and saw it growing
there. G. Piso, likewise a Dutch physician, who in 1658
published Bontius’ writings, adds a more detailed and quite
correct description of the Tea shrub, with a figure which,
as he states, had been drawn from nature in Japan, and
presented to him by D. Caron, ‘olim in Japonia praefectus’*
(Footnote: “*My respected friend, Professor Dr. G.
Schlegel of Leyden, to whom I owe many interesting notices
regarding Dutch intercourse with Japan and China, drawn
from Dutch documents, kindly informed me that François
Caron was sent to Yeddo [Edo, later renamed Tokyo] by the
Dutch E. I. Comp. in 1688, and in 1639 was appointed chief
of the Dutch factory at Decima”).
“It has also been asserted and even admitted as a fact,
that Tea (as a beverage, dried leaves) was first introduced
into Europe by the Dutch E. I. Comp. J.C. Lettsom, in his
Monograph on Tea, 1772, states that the Dutch first imported
Tea in the beginning of the 17th century, and suggests that
it was then brought not from China, but from Japan, for the
Dutch trade with China, at that time, was trifling compared
with that carried on in Japan. I have not been able to make
out the earliest or original source of this assertion, nor has
Professor Schlegel found any allusion to such an early Tea
trade of the Dutch in ancient Dutch records. I may observe
that in Valmont de Bomare’s Dictionnaire d’Hist. nat., 1791,
article `Sauge’, a curious statement referring to the Dutch
Tea trade is found. We read there (source of information not
given) that our common Sage (Salvia officinalis) is highly
valued by the Chinese and Japanese and that the Dutch use
(or used) to gather this plant in South Europe and take it to
the Chinese, accepting in return the Chinese Tea. For one
chest of Sage they receive from two to three chests of Green
Tea. I have in vain tried to find a corroboration for this
statement elsewhere.
“Although it cannot be proved that the Dutch in the first
half of the 17th century first introduced Tea as an article of
commerce into Europe, it is, nevertheless, a fact that they
were the first to introduce the Tea plant from Japan into the
gardens of Holland, and to recommend Tea as a beverage.
“N. Tulpius, a Dutch physician of Amsterdam, in his
Observationes medicae, 1641, lib. IV, cap. 60, details the
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 121
medical effects of the ‘Herba Thee.’ But he confesses that
Tea was unknown to him, and that all he writes about it
was communicated to him by persons who had visited the
native countries of the plant.–Piso (l.c.), however, states
(in 1658) that the Magnates in Europe were accustomed to
drink Tea: ‘unde fit ut magna copia et magno pretio ipsa
folia exsiccata et in capsulis plumbeis recondita, undiquaque
nunc distrahantur.’” Address: Late physician to the Russian
Legation at Peking.
237. Koningsberger, J.C. 1898. Eerste overzicht der
schadelijke en nuttige insecten van Java [First survey of the
destructive and useful insects in Java]. Mededeelingen uit ‘s
Lands Plantentuin (Buitenzorg) No 22. 53 p. See p. 16, 2021, 36, 51-53. [22 ref. Dut]
• Summary: The following insects are mentioned in
connection with soybeans (Kedeleh; Soya hispida, Moench):
74. Siriocauta [Maruca] testualis, Led.; 98. Creatonotus
lactineus, Cr.; 99. Creatonotus interruptus, Gmel.; 196.
Psylloides spec.
Pages 49-51 contain an index of the plants on which
various insects live. Note 1. This is one of the three earliest
publications on insects which attack soybeans.
Note 2. ‘s Lands Plantentuin is the botanical garden at
Buitenzorg, Java.
238. Mayer, Leendert Theodorus. 1898. De javaan als
landbouwer en veefokker [The Javanese people as farmers
and cattle breeders]. Batavia [Jakarta]: Albrecht & Co. vii +
187 + ii p. 22 cm. [Dut]*
• Summary: Mayer was born in 1851. This book is bound
with: Maijer, L. Th. 1894. De Jaavan, als mensch en als lid
van het Javaansche huisgezin. Batavia-Solo, Albrecht &
Rusche.
239. Schulz, Carlotto. 1899. La table du végétarien: Choix,
préparation et usage rationells des aliments. 700 recettes
suivie des règles d’hygiène [The vegetarian table: Choice,
preparation, and rational usage of foods. 700 recipes
following the rules of hygiene]. Paris and Brussels: La
Sociéte végétarienne de France; Georges Balat, éditeur à
Bruxelles. 395 p. Illust. General index. Recipe index. [Fre]
• Summary: Contains an introduction on vegetarianism by
the author. Soy is not mentioned in the index. However,
a table (p. 18) titled “Seasonal vegetables” (Légumes de
saison) includes fresh soybeans (soja frais) for August and
September.
The section titled “Throughout the year” (what to eat)
(p. 20), under “dry legumes” includes: Fèves–Soja. Haricots–
Arachides (peanuts). Lentils–Lentils of Egypt. Pois cassés–
Chick peas.
An advertisement by a company named Dépôt Central
Vegétarien (“Central Vegetarian Depot”) in Brussels
includes: Soybean extract, an excellent condiment (Extrait
de Fêves de Soya, condiment excellent). Note: This extract is
probably soy sauce.
240. Sack, J. 1900. Samenstelling van Indische
voedingsmiddelen: Eerste serie (I-L) [Composition of
Indonesian foods: First series (1-50)]. Bulletin van het
Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem No. 22. p. 76. March. Foldout table bound at the end of No. 22. [1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This is the first such table published in this
Bulletin. The second table by J. Sack was published in
Bulletin No. 23 (Nov. 1900). Dr. M. Greshoff supervised the
work. The composition of fifty Indonesian foods is given,
with two lines of notes in one wide column after each. Each
food is numbered: 1-50. Soy-related foods are: 15. Soybeans
(Katjang kadelé; K.M.; Sojaboon; white soybeans). 16.
Soybeans (Katjang kadelé; H.). Note No. 2 states: “The
products marked with ‘K.M.’ come from the Koloniaal
Museum; those marked with ‘H.’ [=Handel] are taken, with
supervision, from trade.
The composition of the first soybean seeds (no. 15) are:
Nitrogen 5.60%, protein (Nitrogen x 6.25) 35%, fat 19.20%,
carbohydrates 10.20%, fiber (Vezelstof) 9.40%, ash 4.36%,
and water 15.89%.
Also discusses: 20. Groundnuts (Arachis). Address:
Assistent bij het Laboratorium, van het Koloniaal Museum te
Haarlem [Netherlands].
241. Sack, J. 1900. Samenstelling van Indische
voedingsmiddelen: Tweede serie (LI-C) [Composition of
Indonesian foods: Second series (51-100)]. Bulletin van het
Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem No. 23. p. 85. Nov. Fold-out
table bound at the end of No. 23. [3 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This is the second such table published in this
Bulletin. The first table by J. Sack was published in Bulletin
No. 22 (March 1900). Dr. M. Greshoff supervised the work.
The composition of fifty Indonesian foods is given, with
two lines of notes in one wide column after each. Each
food is numbered: 51-100. Soy-related foods are: 56. Black
soybeans (Katjang kadelé itam; zwarte soja). 76. Tempeh
(Tempé). 81. Japanese shoyu (Japansche soja).
Also discusses: 57. Katjang poetih (Poetih [putih] means
“white.” A note says this is a type of soybean but we think
it is a species of Vigna). 58. Katjang ketjipir (Psophocarpus
tetragonolobus). 67. Sesame seeds. 82. Agar-agar. Address:
Assistent bij het Laboratorium, van het Koloniaal Museum te
Haarlem [Netherlands].
242. Sack, J. 1900. Samenstelling van één honderd Indische
voedingsmiddelen [Composition of one hundred Indonesian
foods]. Bulletin van het Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem No.
23. p. 68-73. Nov. [Dut]
• Summary: This is a detailed summary of information
published in two fold-out tables by J. Sack, published in
Bulletin No. 22 (March 1900) and No. 23 (Nov. 1900). Here,
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 122
however, the 100 foods are listed in a different sequence–
alphabetically by Indonesian name.
Soy-related foods are: 33 and 34. Soybeans (Katjang
kadelé; Glycine). 35. Black soybeans (Katjang kadelé itam).
84. Japanese shoyu (Soja; Japansche). 90. Tempeh (Tempé).
Also discusses: 1. Agar-agar (Eucheuma). 36. Winged
beans (Katjang ketjipir; Psophocarpus tetragonolobus). 43.
Peanuts (Katjang tanah; Arachis). 81. Sesame seeds (Sesamzaad; Sesamum). Address: Assistent bij het Laboratorium,
in het Laboratorium van het Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem
[Netherlands].
243. Boorsma, P.A. 1900. Scheikundig onderzoek van in
Ned.-Indie inheemsche voedingsmiddelen. De sojaboon
[Chemical analysis of some indigenous foodstuffs in the
Netherlands Indies. The soybean]. Geneeskundig Tijdschrift
voor Nederlandsch-Indie 40:247-59. [18 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Contents: Literature review. Introduction
(Boorsma is living in Java). Chemical composition of
indigenous soybeans: Table giving figures (based on
Boorsma’s original research) for large black, large yellow,
small yellow, unripe or immature black soybeans, soy protein
(eiwit in de soja) or legumine, the oil (De vette olie), analysis
of the ash, starch, the black soybean (zwarte kedeleh), use
of soybeans in Java and Japan. Japanese soy preparations
(Japansche soja preparaten): Shoyu (soja) made with
koji, tofu, yuba, miso and natto. Indigenous (Chinese)
preparations: Tempeh (tempe kedeleh), Indonesian soy sauce
(Ketjap–Bataviasche soja), tofu and pressed tofu (Tao-hoe en
Tao-koan), Indonesian miso and fermented black soybeans
(Tao-tjo en Tao-dji).
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Jan. 2012) in
any language that mentions “Tao-dji.”
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Jan. 2012) that mentions fermented black soybeans,
which it calls Tao-dji.
Note 3. This is the 2nd earliest document seen (March
2009) that mentions Indonesian-style miso, which it calls
“Tao-tjo.” This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Feb. 2009) that uses the word “Tao-tjo” to refer to
Indonesian-style miso.
The section titled “Japanese soy preparations” (p.
251-53) includes descriptions of koji, tofu, dried frozen
tofu (kori-tofu), yuba, miso and natto, as follows: Tofu is
the Japanese name for a yellow-white to gray mass, which
is prepared by macerating the finely ground up soybeans
with water; an initial [natural] fermentation, which occurs
alongside, creates enough acid to precipitate part of the
protein. Then a short heating, causes as much fat as possible
to bind to the protein, so that the liquid after filtration has
a milky appearance. Through the addition of the highly
alkaline magnesium concentrate, a by-product of making sea
salt, the protein is precipitated, separated out by hand and
shaped into cakes–which contain lots of water, protein and
fat. As a side dish or in the preparation of soup, tofu is used a
lot. To remove most of the water, it is common to freeze and
dry the cakes in the sun afterward. Then they are called koritofu.
Note. This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(April 2013) that mentions dried frozen tofu, which it calls
kori-dofu.
Yuba is an even fattier product obtained by the
evaporation of the cream layer, that aggregates on the surface
of the just mentioned bean milk.
In Japan, most soybeans are processed into cheese types,
called miso and natto [which the author confuses in the
following].
The cooked beans, that have been formed into a firm
dough are fermented again with koji, kitchen salt and water.
The temperature and the amount of kitchen salt, that one
uses, affect the nature of the product [miso] and the speed
of fermentation. Finally the mass is cooked for a long time
in the brine, separated and shaped into cakes. The resulting
vegetable cheese [natto] is then wrapped in bundles, of about
500 grams, of straw, and left to its own for a few days in a
heated space; where, according to Loew [sic, Yabe 1895,
p. 438-39] the microbes attached to the straw cause an
additional post-fermentation.
The reason for the somewhat extensive attention [in
this writing] to the latter, is that the native soybean (katjang
kedeleh) preparations of the Dutch East Indies are, more or
less, patterned after the Japanese.
This excellent article contains a 4½-page description
(the best seen to date, p. 253-58) of the traditional process
for making soybean tempeh (Tempe kedeleh). The soybeans
are parboiled, soaked in water for 2-3 days, drained, steamed
in a steamer (koekesan), spread in a layer several centimeters
thick on woven bamboo trays in shelves, and covered
completely with banana leaves. They are then inoculated
with the bijang, which is the “mold containing residues of a
previous preparation.” This is mixed in here and there, then
the trays are covered lightly with banana leaves so as to let
in some air. “Rampant growth of the mold soon begins. In
the evening the mass is molded a little and after two 24-hour
periods one will obtain a coherent cake, which is cut into
pieces and taken as is to the market.”
The cotyledons are stuck together by a dense mycelium,
which has grown into a somewhat white covering. According
to Prinsen Geerligs (cited above), the name of the mold is
Chlamydomucor Oryzae.
During the two days of rampant mold growth, a radical
conversion takes place in the components of the seeds; a
lot of water, carbonic acid, and heat start to develop... A
thermometer inserted into the fermenting mass shows a
temperature 10-12ºC above that of the environment.
As the preparation is finished, the banana leaves are
taken away; the temperature drops slowly to normal, the
rampant mold growth stops, and the mass dries out slightly.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 123
In this condition, the tempeh can be kept for several days
without spoiling.
When the rampant mold growth is allowed to continue
for a third day, simply by leaving the banana leaves in place,
the conversion will soon become much stronger as noted by
the formation of ammonia. Also poisonous products start to
form; a monkey, given a little bit [of overripe tempeh] among
his other foods that day was vomiting violently one hour
later. Thus we should admit that the stories about poisonings
caused by various sorts of tempeh [such bongkrek, made
from coconut presscake] probably have some foundation.
But there is little fear of this from soybean tempeh.
After microscopic examination, Boorsma concluded that
Prinsen Geerligs and others were wrong in stating that (1)
the mold hyphae penetrate and dissolve the hard soybean cell
walls, and (2) cellulose is decreased during tempeh (tempe)
fermentation. He studied the chemical and compositional
changes at four stages during a 3-day tempeh fermentation;
a table shows his findings. He observed that fats and soluble
carbohydrates decreased substantially, while nitrogen
decreased only slightly. He also discussed the hydrolysis
of soybean lipids, and why tempeh is easier to digest than
whole soybeans.
Note 4. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Sept. 2011) that uses the term tempe kedele or the word
tempe to refer to tempeh.
Note 5. This is the earliest document seen (Jan. 2012)
that describes how to make tempeh on a commercial scale.
On page 258 Boorsma briefly discusses Ketjap (which
he called Bataviasche soja, or Jakarta soy sauce) and Taohoe and Tao-koan (tofu and firm tofu), based on information
from Prinsen-Geerlings (for both) and Vorderman (for
firm tofu). For each he gives a nutritional composition. On
page 259 Boorsma briefly discusses Tao tjo and Tao-dji
(Indonesian-style miso and fermented black soybeans). Note
6. This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen (Dec.
1999) that uses the term Tao tjo to refer to Indonesian-style
miso or tauco / taucho.
Note 7. This is the earliest document seen (April 2001)
that contains the term Tao-koan.
Note 8. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Jan. 2012) that contains the word natto.
Note 9. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Oct. 2012) that mentions yuba, which it calls Yuba and
describes as een nog vetrijker product dat verkregen wordt
bij uitdampen van de roomloog, die zich bij de zooeven
genoende boonenmelk aan de oppervlatke verzamelt.”
Note 10. Boorsma was a Dutch naturalist who lived in
Indonesia in the early 1900s. Address: Netherlands.
244. Grijns, G. 1901. Over polyneuritis gallinarum. I.
[On polyneuritis. I.]. Geneeskundig Tijdschrift voor
Nederlandsch-Indie 41:3-110. Jan. [32 ref. Dut]
• Summary: In the Dutch Indies and Federated Malay States
germinated beans or “tow-gay” [taugé, bean sprouts] are
eaten raw as a common article of the diet. Note: Polyneuritis
may be caused by a deficiency in poultry of the vitamin
thiamine (vitamin B-1). Address: M.D., Netherlands Indies.
245. D.A.R. 1901. De Katjang Kedelih [The soybean].
Orgaan van de Vereeniging van Oudleerlingen der Rijks
Landbouwschool (see Landbouwkundig Tijdschrift)
13(153):77-79. April. [Dut]
246. D.A.R. 1901. Katjang-Kedelihpraeparaten [Soyfoods].
Orgaan van de Vereeniging van oud Leerlingen der
Rijks Landbouwshool (see Landbouwkundig Tijdschrift)
13(161):242-45. Dec. [Dut]
• Summary: The author wrote an article in the April issue of
this magazine about soybean cultivation. Now he will discuss
how soybeans are used to make foods. As mentioned in the
previous article, soya beans as such are not good to eat, even
boiled or roasted; they need to be processed so as to digest
the indigestible protein; then this protein can be absorbed by
the digestive enzymes of the stomach and intestines.
As Japan is the soya country, we will start with the
product that is most popular there, soy sauce, which has
also earned its place in Europe. It is made from equal parts
of roasted soybeans and wheat, 1-3 parts water, and much
salt. The koji is fermented for a long time. Prof. Dr. M.
Fesco [sic, Fesca], who provided much of this information,
said it takes about 20 weeks to 5 years. The longest and
slowest fermentation gives the best quality product. In Japan,
every housewife makes her own soya sauce and there is
competition for the best homemade soy sauce. Late-ripening
protein-rich soybeans, called shoyu-mame, are used. In Java,
the residue from soy sauce is used a lot, along with peanut
presscake, for fertilizing sugar-cane fields.
In the Netherlands Indies, ketjap [Indonesian-style soy
sauce] is made solely by the Chinese. Also called Tao-yoe,
it is prepared by covering cooked soybeans with hibiscus
(waroe) leaves. The age and variety of the leaves is very
important. The mold that grows produces substances
[enzymes] that digest legumin [soy protein]. More of the
process is described.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2009)
that contains the term Tao-yoe. H.T. Huang (e-mail of 25
Feb. 2009) states: “Tao-Yoe sounds like Cantonese for
Douyou (pinyin) or tou yu (W.-G.) which in Mandarin mean
soy sauce, and which first appeared in about 1750 in the
Xingyuan Lu (Hsing Yüan Lu). See Huang 2000, p. 371-73.
Star anise (Hades manies) is also added to Indonesian
soy sauce. Some Chinese have gained a reputation for
their knowledge of the different additives (boemboengs
[boemboes]). 61. kg of soybeans (1 gantang or 10 katties)
can yield 3 bottles of number 1 ketjap (which retails for
50 Dutch cents per bottle), plus 3 bottles of 2nd extraction
ketjap (each 40 cents), plus 3 bottles of ketjap no. 3 (which
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 124
is little better than salt water with a light brown tint; each 20
cents).
The Japanese also use soybeans to make tofu (tofoe).
Precipitated with magnesium chloride, it is a greyish-white
dough, or sometimes yellow product. Although containing
90% water, it is a concentrated food. A table (based on
analyses by E. Kirch [sic, Kinch] of Tokyo) shows the
composition of tofu and kori-tofu; the latter is made by
freezing tofu then thawing it. Tofu is a good product for
vegetarians, but beware than it can act as a laxative because
of the magnesium chloride.
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Sept. 2011) with the term Katjang-Kedelihpraeparaten
in the title; it means “Soyfoods.”
Note 3. This is the 2nd earliest Dutch-language
document seen (April 2013) that mentions dried-frozen tofu,
which it calls kori-tofu.
247. Van Eck, J.J. 1901. Samenstelling van Indische
voedingsmiddelen: Derde serie (CI-CL) [Composition of
Indonesian foods: Third series (101-150)]. Bulletin van het
Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem No. 25. p. 91. Dec. Fold-out
table bound at the end of No. 25. [1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This is the third such table published in
this Bulletin. The first and second tables by J. Sack were
published in Bulletin No. 22 (March 1900) and No. 23
(Nov. 1900). Dr. M. Greshoff supervised the work. The
composition of fifty Indonesian foods is given, with two
lines of notes in one wide column after each. Each food is
numbered: 101-150. Soy-related foods are: 125. Soybean
meal (Soja-meel) from Amsterdam.
Also discusses: 123. Katjang bogor (Voandzeia).
Address: Doctorandus in de pharmacie, Laboratorium van
het Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem.
248. Bie, H.C.H. de. 1901. De cultuur van cassave in de
Preanger-Regentschappen en het gebruik, dat van dit gewas
door de bevolking wordt gemaakt en hare verwerking
tot tapioca-meel [The culture of cassava in the Praenger
Regency, its use by the population, and its processing into
tapioca flour]. Teysmannia (Batavia [Jakarta]) 11:273-98.
See p. 273, 288-89. [Dut]
• Summary: The soybean (kadele, sojaboon) is mentioned
only in passing (p. 273). Ontjom is described as a tempeh
substitute in Java (p. 288-89). Address: Controleur voor de
landrenteonderzoeking te Bandong.
249. Bie, H.C.H. de. 1901. De landbouw der inlandsche
bevolking op Java [The agriculture of the indigenous
people in Java]. Mededeelingen uit ‘s Lands Plantentuin
(Buitenzorg) No. 45. 143 p. See p. 97, 99, 138-43. [Dut]
• Summary: The soybean is discussed in the chapter titled
“Cultivation of crops other than paddy rice: Cultivation
of secondary crops (Palawidja).” Soya bean is one of the
secondary foods served with rice, but it is mostly used to
make soy sauce and tempeh (tempe). One variety of soybean,
which originally came from Japan, is widely grown as a
second crop on the wet rice fields (sawahs), and it is easy to
cultivate at altitudes of 1,200 to 1,500 feet above sea level. It
is called katjang kedele in Central and East Java, but katjang
djepoen in Sunda or West Java (de Soendalanden; [the area
around Bandung only]). A description of the plant and the
method of cultivation in Java is then given. It is planted
much more on wet rice fields than on dry (non-irrigated)
fields (tegalans) near the rice fields used for vegetables and
secondary crops. Usually the soybean seeds are planted right
after the paddy stumps have been cut away, but sometimes
they are planted just before or during the paddy harvest,
and pressed into the earth under the feet of the paddy
cutters. They are rarely weeded, excepted when the crop is
suffocated by tall weeds. At harvest, the plants are pulled
completely out of the ground and bound into bunches. At
night they are stored under a specially-constructed roofed
shelter in the field, and during the day they are sun-dried on
bamboo structures or on the ground. This takes at most 3-4
days, if the plants are really ripe and the weather is good,
after which the bunches are put on bamboo mats in heaps and
threshed. To protect the seeds from damage, one preferably
uses piece of banana tree branches which still have fibrous
veins. The fibrous plant stems and branches are removed
together with the soybean pods and burned on the sawah
fields. Poor people first sort out the pieces good enough for
fuel and take these home. Immature green leaves are fed to
animals. Sometimes soybeans are planted on the dikes of the
paddy fields at the same time as or a few days later than the
paddy rice. The fresh seeds from this harvest are then planted
in the sawah fields after the paddy is harvested. Soybeans
planted in this way are called katjang apitan.
There are two varieties of soya: one has an ivory yellow
seed coat and the other is black. The latter is used almost
exclusively to make soy sauce; the former to make pastry
and condiments for rice or as a vegetable (sayur; sajoer).
Soya is cooked with salt in the green pod and eaten as a
snack.
The indigenous people do not occupy themselves with
the production of soya (soy sauce) or ketjap or other products
made from soybeans such as taoetjo [tao tjo, tauco, taucho
= Indonesian style miso], taoehoe [tao hoe, tahu = tofu],
taoekwa [tao koan, taokoan or takoa = fermented tofu], and
taoetji [tao dji, tausi = fermented black soybeans]. The work
is too involved and takes too long before the product is ready
to be sold. Most people are too inexperienced and there is not
enough of a market for the product.
The only food that most people make out of soybeans
is tempeh (témpé), which plays the same role in Central
and East Java as does ontjom in Sunda or West Java, and is
prepared similarly. The tempeh-making process is described.
It takes place indoors, out of the light. Tempeh is sometimes
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 125
cut into smaller pieces. It is usually eaten pan-fried after
being soaked in a solution of tamarind and salt. It is also
cooked with vegetables.
Most soybean seeds are sold to the Chinese, who export
them or process them to make soy sauce and other products.
To make soy sauce, the seeds are roasted to aid in removing
the hulls. Some people pound the seeds instead. They are
cleaned, boiled in water, drained, spread on flat bamboo
trays (tampah or njiroe) and dried daily for a week in the
wind. They are washed again then soaked for 30-40 days in
salt water which has been boiled then cooled. This mash is
mixed thoroughly and strained through a cloth. To the black
liquid is added a boiled and cooled mixture of cane sugar and
water, then the mixture is boiled until its volume is reduced
by 20%. If the solid residue removed by filtering still tastes
salty, it is put into water, kneaded and strained again. A sugar
solution is added and all is boiled down as before to make
second-grade ketjap.
To make taoetjo (tauco, taucho or Indonesian-style
miso), the soybeans are soaked in fresh water, the hulls
are removed, the seeds boiled and spread on bamboo trays
to cool. Rice or glutinous rice flour is roasted until golden
brown, then mixed with the seeds and set aside for 2-3 days
to ferment between hibiscus (waroe) leaves on flat trays.
When the mass has molded, it is sun dried for a few days
until very hard. Note: This is the soybean koji used making
taucho.
Remove the leaves and put this mass of soybean koji
into salt water. On the third or fourth day, add some yeast
(gist) and some cane sugar syrup. Continue the soaking and
fermentation in salt water for 2-3 weeks. Place it [in crocks]
daily outside in the dew, taking care that no rain gets on it.
To stimulate the fermentation, take steamed rice or
glutinous rice that is only half cooked. Add ragi starter and
allow it to ferment for 2-3 days until a sweet, alcoholic flavor
develops. This kind of fermented rice is called peujeum in
West Java, or tapé in Central or East Java. Now add this
fermented rice to the soybeans in salt water to enhance both
the fermentation and the product.
After 3-4 weeks the soybeans should be very soft like
porridge; then the taucho is ready to be used. It is eaten raw
with cooked or raw vegetables, or mixed with meat or rice
dishes; other condiments are also made from it.
Another product that the Chinese make out of soybeans
is tofu (tahoe or tauwhoe). Soaked soybeans are ground and
the puree is mixed with fresh water. Then a milky liquid
(melkachtige vloeistof) is filtered off and coagulated. The
Chinese use a coagulant called tjiogo (gypsum or calcium
sulfate), which is specially imported from China and is not
always available, even to the Chinese apothecary. It is first
burned, then cooled before being added to the milky liquid.
The white mass which is precipitated is called tofu. A similar
product can be made from mung beans. Address: Batavia
(Jakarta), Java.
250. Sollewijn Gelpke, J.H.F. 1901. Obrengst en verbouwing
van droge gewassen [The yield and cultivation of dry land
crops]. In: Naar aanleiding van Staatsblad, 1878. No. 110.
Batavia: Landsdrukkerij. x + 278 p. See p. 75-177. 22 cm.
[Dut]*
• Summary: The cultivation of soya is quite easy and in Java
takes place on sawahs (wet rice fields) and clay, in contrast
to peanuts (katjang-tanah), which are grown on tegals and
sand. [Note: A tegal is a dry (not irrigated) field, near the rice
fields, but used for vegetables and other secondary crops].
Note 1. This document is cited in two ways: The second
one has the publisher as Ogilvie in Batavia and the year of
publication as 1879.
Note 2. Johann Herman Frederick Sellewijn Gelpke
lived 1844-1890.
251. Teysmannia (Batavia [Jakarta]). 1901. De
wortelknolletjes der Peulvruchten [The root nodules of
leguminous plants (Abstract)]. 11:390-97. See p. 390-91,
397. [Dut]
• Summary: Contains a long Dutch-language summary of
the following English-language article: Cottrell, H.M.; Otis,
D.H.; Haney, J.G. 1900. “Farm Department. Soil inoculation
for soy beans.” Kansas Agric. Exp. Station, Bulletin No. 96.
p. 97-116. May. The word “soybeans” is translated as katjang
kadeleh and Soya boonen.
252. Zehntner, L. 1901. De Kedelehboorder. (Agromyza
spec.?) [The soybean borer or Agromyza phaseoli fly
(Agromyza species?)]. Indische Natuur (De) 1(7-8):113-24.
[Dut]
• Summary: Discusses the behavior, damage, and control of
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 126
this insect pest [also called French bean fly]. A nice 4-part
illustration (p. 122) shows the (a) fly (greatly enlarged), (b)
the full-grown larva, (c) the pupa (enlarged), and (d) the
pupa inside the stem of a soybean plant. Views (a-c) are
enlarged 15 times, view (b) is enlarged 7 times.
Dr. Zehntner was in Indonesia in 1897-1900. P. van
der Goot (1930) says of Dr. Zehntner: “Little information
is available in the literature on the Agromyza of soybean in
the tropics... Zehntner (1900) was the first researcher to pay
attention to these pests, and wrote in ‘De Indische Natuur’
a concise description [with an illustration {line drawing},
p. 122] of this insect and gave a scientific name Agromyza
soya Zehntner... As with every pioneering work, either in
entomology or other fields, the work of Zehntner had some
inaccuracies, and it seemed advisable to investigate the
subject once again.”
“Zehntner thought this insect to be the same as soybean
stemborer because he found the larvae in the pith of older
plants.”
Note: This is the earliest document seen (April 2007)
that mentions an insect of the genus Agromyza in connection
with soybeans. Address: Dr.
253. Vorderman, Adolf G. 1902. Analecta op bromatologisch
gebied. IV. [Writings on mold-fermented foods. IV.].
Geneeskundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie 42:395431. See p. 411-31. [10 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Describes the “ontjom” and “tèmpé” [he
spells the word tempeh with these two accents throughout]
processes, including ontjom beureum [a Sundanese food
made from boengkil katjang (bean waste or okara) and
Monilia sitophila mold], onggok, and tempe-kedele. He
describes two ways of making tempeh that he saw. The first
is the well-known one in which soybeans are fermented
between banana leaves. In the second way the soybeans are
wrapped in a banana leaf to form a package about 20 cm (8
inches) long and 7 cm (2.8 inches) wide, then wrapped in
a djati (jati) leaf. These packages are stacked in a bamboo
basket covered with sacks for 24 hours, then taken out and
spread on the floor to cool for another 24 hours.
He also describes: Tempe bongkrek katjang; same as
ontjom beureum [okara onchom] except that a Rhizopus
mold is used. Ontjom bodas; same as tempe bongkrek
katjang except that another Rhizopus mold, not similar
to Oryzae, is used. Tempe bongkrek kelapa (from South
Banjoemas [Banyumas]); Quite similar to ontjom beureum,
it is made from pressed coconut and inoculated in the old
leaves from tempe kedele. It is eaten mostly by poorer
people because of its lower price. Tempe morrie made with
Soempiaoeh type soybeans (from Banjoemas) and coconut
residue pressed 3 times. The soybeans are treated like soy
tempe up to the laroe [laru] process. Then they are mixed
with coconut presscake, which has been washed, steamed,
and inoculated with ground bibit leaves on which there
is Rhizopus oryzae. Finally it is packed in the skin of the
banana stem to make long slender rods, and fermented.
Tempe enthoe, from South Bagelen, is made from coconut
(no soy) wrapped in a banana stem. Tempe tjenggereng is
made with coconut presscake (called gatok in Banjoemas)
and ragi, no soy; “This tempeh has, like the tempeh bongkrek
kelapa, led to several cases of fatal food poisoning. Dagé
[Dage, Dageh] is made with bacteria rather than molds on
a substrate of oilseed cakes, primarily pressed coconut,
sesame seeds, or peanuts.” The last page contains detailed
illustrations (drawings) of Rhizopus species from Ontjom
bodas and Rhizopus oryzae from tempe kedele, each
magnified 60 times.
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (June 2013) that mentions okara, which it calls boengkil
katjang.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2011)
that mentions and correctly describes tempeh bongkrek,
which, for the sake of clarity, he describes as tempeh
bongkrek kelapa.
254. Sack, J. 1903. Samenstelling van Indische
voedingsmiddelen: Vierde serie (CLI-CC) [Composition of
Indonesian foods: Fourth series (101-200)]. Bulletin van het
Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem No. 28. p. 160. May. Fold-out
table bound at the end of No. 28. [1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This is the fourth such table published in
this Bulletin. Dr. M. Greshoff supervised the work. The
composition of fifty Indonesian foods is given, with two
lines of notes after each. Each food is numbered: 151-200.
Soy-related foods are: 163. Soybeans (Soja-boonen, gele;
Glycine). Address: Assistent bij het Laboratorium, van het
Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem [Netherlands].
255. Koningsberger, J.C. 1903. Ziekten van rijst, tabak, thee
en andere cultuurgewassen, die door insecten veroorzaakt
worden [Diseases of rice, tobacco, tea, and other crops,
which are caused by insects]. Mededeelingen uit ‘s Lands
Plantentuin (Buitenzorg) No. 64. 109 p. + 5 plates. See p.
87-91. [Dut]
• Summary: Section VII is titled “Soybeans, regular beans,
and other legumes” (Kedeleh, katjangsoorten en andere
leguminosen). Address: Dr., Java.
256. Burg, Cornelis Leendert van der. 1904. De voeding in
Nederlandsch-Indië [The foods of the Netherlands Indies].
Amsterdam, Netherlands: J.H. de Bussy. viii + 526 p. See p.
210-20, 222-23, 255-56. Index. 24 cm. [49 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Burg describes the preparation of tempe as
follows: “Yellow soy-beans are boiled, soaked in cold water
for 48-72 hours, squeezed out between cloths, and then
steamed in a conical basket, made of flattened bamboo or of
cane (Malay: kukusan) till they are done. Afterwards they are
spread out on wire frames, which are entirely covered with
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 127
banana leaves, and mouldy remains of a previous preparation
are added, then all is covered again with banana leaves.
The whole mass is stirred a few times, and after 2 days a
cake has been formed, from which pieces are cut, which
are fried in cocoanut oil and eaten afterwards. During the
preparation, the cotyledons have been bound together by a
tight mycelium, much water and carbonic acid being secreted
in the meantime and the temperature of the mass rising 10 to
12ºC above that of the surroundings. The cellular walls are
not dissolved by the hyphae, but the soluble carbohydrates
and the fat diminish, the nitrogen content remains about the
same, but in tempé only 70% is to be found of the protein, as
originally present in the beans.”
He also describes, on Prinsen Geerligs’ authority, the
preparation of tao-tjo (Indonesian-style miso). Peanuts are
discussed on p. 220; tempé boengkil, tempé bongkrek, ontjom
beurreum, ontjom bodas on p. 222.
257. Kiliaan, H.N. 1904. Madoereesch-Nederlandsch
woordenboek [Madurese-Dutch dictionary]. Leiden,
Netherlands: Boekhandel en Drukkerij voorheen E.J. Brill.
vii + 384 p. [Dut]
• Summary: Dutch-language definitions are given for each of
the following words: (1) ketjap (p. 193) = soy sauce. Made
from soja.
(2) “kadhelli” (p. 260) = soybean. Jav. kedele. Glycine
soja. De soja boon.
(3) kotok (p. 281) = “koffie, amfioen of soja voor de
tweede maal koken; koto kotoghan.” (4) “tahu” (p. 302) =
tofu. includes the words “kadhelli” [kadele / kedele] and
“soya.” Address: East-Indian civil servant with permission
[Oost-Indisch Ambtenaar met verlof.
258. Lewkowitsch, Julius. 1904. Chemical technology and
analysis of oils, fats, and waxes. 3rd ed. Entirely rewritten
and enlarged. 2 vols. London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.; New
York, NY: The Macmillan Co. xii + 1152 p. See vol. 2, p.
506-08. Illust. Index. 23 cm. Translated into German in 1905.
4th ed. 1909-1910. 6th ed. 1921-23. [18 ref]
• Summary: Contains a good review of publications on
various vegetable oils and margarine. The section titled
“Soja bean oil” (p. 506-08) begins: “Soja bean oil (soybean oil, bean oil, Chinese bean oil): French–Huile de Soya.
German–Saubohnenfett, Sojabohnenoel. Italian–Olio di Soia.
This oil is obtained from the seeds of Soja hispida, a plant
indigenous in China, Manchuria, and Japan, where the oil
is used for edible purposes. The seeds contain 18 per cent
of oil. The manufacture of soja bean oil forms one of the
staple industries of Manchuria. The plant is also extensively
cultivated in Japan. The beans contain besides the oil about
30-40 per cent of casein.”
“The proportion of solid fatty acids in the oil is
approximately 11.5 per cent of the total mixed fatty acids;
Lane found 80.26 per cent of fatty acids. The bulk of the
solid fatty acids is stated to consist of palmitic acid; the
liquid fatty acids consist of oleic and linolic acids. On
exposure to air it dries slowly with formation of a thin skin.”
One table gives the “Physical and chemical constants of
soja bean oil” based on three previous observers: Morawski
and Stingl (1887), De Negri and Fabris (1891-1892), and
Shukoff (based on seed grown in an experimental station
in South Russia): Specific gravity at 15ºC: 0.924–0.9270.
Solidifying point: +15 to +8ºC. Saponification value (Mgrms.
KOH): 190.6–192.9. Iodine value: 122.2%–124%. Hehner
value: 95.5%. Maumené test: 59º–61ºC.
A second table gives the “Physical and chemical
constants of mixed fatty acids” based on the same three
observers plus Lane. Solidifying point: 23-25ºC. Melting
point: 27-29ºC. Iodine value: 115.2–122%. Liquid fatty
acids: 131.
The section titled “Refining and bleaching” (p. 442-45)
gives basic background information, but soja bean oil is not
mentioned.
The section titled “Butter Substitutes” (p. 916-26)
is divided into two parts: (a) Margarine (American–
Oleomargarine; French–Margarine; German–Margarine;
Italian–Burro di margarina); and (b) Vegetable butters. Soy
is not mentioned in either part. Older names for margarine,
partly suppressed by legislation, are “butterine,” “Dutch
butter,” and (in German) Kunstbutter (artificial butter), and
Sparbutter (economical butter). Margarine is made of a
mixture of animal fats (oleomargarine, oleo oil or neutral
lard) and vegetable oils (especially cotton seed oil and cotton
seed stearine). “For the production of oleomargarine, the
rough fat is removed from the slaughtered animal as quickly
as possible and brought immediately into the works, where
it is sorted. The kidney fat is selected and carefully washed
with warm water and thoroughly cleaned.” It is then cooled,
cut up, shredded in a shredding machine, and finally ground
between rollers. Then it is melted in a jacketed kettle at a
temperature not exceeding 45ºC. The fat which melts, called
“premier jus,” is run off into shallow tin-lined trays and
cooled. The bulk of the stearine separates out in a crystalline
condition. It is then cut into pieces of about 3 lbs. weight,
wrapped in canvas cloths, and pressed using a hydraulic
press. The oleomargarine or “oleo-oil” which runs out from
the presses forms the chief raw material for the manufacture
of margarine. “A general working recipe for the manufacture
of margarine is the following:–Mix 65 parts of oleomargarine
[animal fat], 20 parts of vegetable oils, and 30 parts of milk.
The yield is 100 parts of finished product, 15 parts of water
being eliminated in the course of manufacture.” Salt and
colouring matter are also added. “In the United States the
mixing of butter with margarine is not forbidden, provided
this product be sold as ‘oleomargarine.’” Formulas for 3
grades of margarine as manufactured in the USA are given
(p. 919). The highest grades contains oleo oil (100 parts),
neutral lard (130 parts), butter (95 parts), salt (32 parts), and
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 128
coloring matter (0.5 parts).
A table (p. 925) shows estimated production of
margarine in major countries during 1900 (in million
pounds): Germany 220. Netherlands 123. United States more
than 100. United Kingdom 82. Denmark 35. Sweden 22.
Norway 22. Belgium 20. Total produced in these countries:
624 million lb. Another table on the same page shows the
amounts of the main materials used in the production of
oleomargarine in the USA for the fiscal year ended 20 June
1899. The most widely used ingredients are: Neutral lard
34.27% of all ingredients, oleo oil 26.82%, milk 15.55%, salt
7.42%, cotton seed oil 4.77%, “Butter oil” (a special brand of
cotton seed oil) 4.76%, and cream 3.86%. Soybean oil is not
mentioned.
“Vegetable butters: A butter substitute made from
cocoa nut oil or palm nut oil was originally prepared for the
Indian market, where the native population are forbidden
by their religious tenets to consume beef fat or hog fat. This
vegetable butter has recently found extensive use at home
in confectionery and as a cooking fat. It is being sold under
a variety of fancy names, such as ‘lactine,’ ‘vegetaline,’
‘cocoaline,’ ‘laureol,’ ‘nucoline,’ ‘albene,’ ‘palmine,’
‘cocose,’ ‘kunerol,’ etc.”
Also discusses: Perilla oil (p. 448-49). Linseed oil or
flax seed oil (p. 449-63). Sesamé oil, gingilli oil, or teel oil
(p. 538-44). Almond oil (589-96). Arachis oil, peanut oil, or
earthnut oil (p. 598-611).
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (July 1997) that uses the term “vegetable butter” or
“vegetable butters” to refer to margarine.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (March 2004)
that uses the term “linolic acids” (or acid) in connection
with the soja bean. This was later (circa 1922-24) renamed
linoleic acid.
Note 3. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Sept. 2006) that contains the term “Soy-bean oil,” but
this term is only used once in parentheses; the main term
used throughout this section is “soja bean oil.”
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (Jan. 2000)
that mentions “Hehner value” in connection with oil
constants.
Note 5. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2000)
that uses the term “gingilli oil” (spelled that way) to refer to
sesame oil.
Note 6. Julius Lewkowitsch lived 1857-1913. Address:
Ph.D., M.A., F.I.C., Consulting and analytical chemist, and
chemical engineer, examiner in “soap manufacture” and in
“fats and oils” to the City and Guilds of London Inst.
259. Clement, Ernest W. 1905. Mito samurai and British
sailors in 1824. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan
33:86-123. July. See p. 113, 122. Read May 17, 1905. [5 ref]
• Summary: In 1638, Tokugawa Iemitsu, the 3rd Tokugawa
shogun, issued his famous edict with two parts: First, it
prohibited foreigners from landing on the coast of Japan.
Second, it prohibited Japanese from leaving Japan. Only a
limited amount of trade was permitted at Nagasaki with the
Dutch and the Chinese.
Yet no policy, no matter how stringent, could prevent
the winds and currents from carrying foreign vessels to the
Japanese shores. The seclusion became even more difficult
to enforce after about 1750, when whaling and merchant
vessels began to frequent the waters of the Pacific Ocean.
Page 88 cites three documents that discuss the attempts
made before Commodore Perry’s visit to open intercourse
with Japan. Mito was a fief (han) on the eastern cost of Japan
just northeast of today’s Tokyo. Before 1824 various western
ships were seen off the coast. “In 1823, some fishermen
discovered a foreign ship off the coast of Hitachi [a village
in Mito] and had an opportunity to go aboard. In the ship
they found many swords, guns, etc.; and they saw the crew
getting oil from whales.” The crew of one stranded ship
landed, and attacked and robbed the people, throwing them
into confusion.
On about June 24, twelve foreigners [British] landed at
the village of Hitachi. They attempted to communicate with a
villager, and succeeded at basics; the story is told by Aizawa
An, a prominent Mito samurai.
In The Leading men of Japan, by Charles Lanman
[1883] we read (p. 283): “According to the native annals,
the coast of Japan was visited by foreign vessels in 1637,
1673, 1768, 1791, 1793, 1796, 1803, 1808, 1813, and
1829.” In 1846 two American ships first arrived at Nagasaki
[then Tokyo Bay] under Commander James Biddle, and
Commander Matthew C. Perry made his visit in 1853, made
memorable by resulting in a treaty with the United States.
In 1854, Sir James Stirling, an English admiral, visited
Nagasaki, and also concluded a treaty with Japan;... Perry
“opened” Japan primarily for the U.S. whaling industry. In
1824 British sailors landed in Japan.
Page 113: “Kuhachiro and Tôzô received the following
provisions for three days’ use: 3 shô of rice, 6 seki of miso, 6
seki of salt.
“The following are the provisions for horses: 2 shô 1
gô of soja bean, 1 shô 2 gô of rice-bran, 9 kwan of hay and
straw. These were to be used for three days...”
Footnotes (p. 110, 113, 122): 1 shô = about 1.5 quarts.
1 seki is about 0.03 pint. 1 gô is about 0.3 pint. 1 kwan is
8.2673 lbs. 1 hiki is ¼ sen [a small unit of Japanese money].
Page 122: “6 seki and 6 sai* of miso... 3 gô and 5 seki of
soja beans.” Address: M.A.
260. Li, Yu-ying. 1905. Le lait végétal fabriqué en
Chine [The vegetal milk made in China]. In: 2e Congrès
International de Laiterie: Compte-Rendu des Séances (2nd
International Dairy Congress: Proceedings): Paris: Comité
Français–Fédération International de Laiterie. 548 p. See p.
387-89. Held 16-19 Oct. 1905 at Paris, France. [Fre]
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• Summary: The president of this international milk congress
introduces Li Yu-ying as attaché at the Chinese Legation, and
official delegate to the congress. Li begins by expressing his
happiness at being able to speak to the congress and getting
to know the many scholars and very competent people from
many countries.
“In China, not much animal milk is consumed. It is
replaced by another product: vegetable milk (le lait végétal).
This latter product could not be used here and, therefore, is
of little interest to you. I will speak to you about it only as a
curiosity, first to explain the special method employed in my
country for the production of vegetable milk and vegetable
cheese [tofu], and finally to increase interest in these
products because of their hygiene and economy.
“Everyone knows that animal milk is an excellent
substance with numerous advantages. One may ask,
therefore, why so little of it is consumed by the people of
China. The reason is because it is relatively expensive and
because cows cannot be raised in all parts of China. Dairying
is practiced only in the north and the west of China. In the
other provinces dairying is difficult because of the climate
and the nature of the soil; so vegetable milk is consumed
there.
“The latter is made with the seeds of Soja hispida or
‘oil peas of China.’ This is an annual legume which has been
imported to England, Spain, Belgium, and France. Presently
it is widely cultivated in America as forage.
“Mr. Lechartier, director of the agronomic station at
Rennes, has experimented with this plant in France; he
obtained yields of up to 25,000 to 30,000 kg of green forage
per hectare. This plant is therefore already known here.”
“As forage, the soja hispida is as rich in protein as clover
(trèfle), horse beans or dried kidney beans (les féveroles),
etc.; but it is richer in fats than the other legumes. The seeds
are richer in nitrogenous materials [protein] than other plants
of the same family. Analyses show that they contain 30%
protein, oil, and little starch.
“The seeds of this plant can also be used to make a
cheese (tofou [tofu]) which is a major source nourishment
for the peoples of China and Japan. It is consumed, in effect,
every day and at every meal, as a main dish.
“The production of these two products [milk and
cheese] is very simple. First the seeds are cooked, then
they are pressed strongly to obtain a sort of puree, which
is coagulated by a mineral salt that plays the role of rennet.
The fresh cheese, which is made daily, must be sold and
consumed the same day. It can be used in recipes like
vegetables or meats. However it can also be preserved, either
hot, or by putting it in a salt solution: in this way one obtains
various cheeses which are used as desserts, as following:
“(1). Salted and smoked cheese (Le fromage salé
et fumé), which in both flavor and form bears some
resemblance to gruyere cheese. It can be stored for a rather
long time; (2) Salted cheese (Le fromage salé), white in
color, whose taste somewhat resembles that of goat cheese;
(3) Fermented cheese (Le fromage fermenté). Its color is
white, yellow, or gray, and it flavor is very strong, like that of
Roquefort.
Note 1. It is unclear whether this “fermented cheese” is
simply traditional Chinese fermented tofu, or whether it is
a new creation in which the traditional Chinese product is
somehow made to resemble French cheeses, such Roquefort.
If it is the latter, this would be the earliest document seen
(Oct. 2013) that mentions a Western-style cheese, and it
would be the world’s first such product, probably soy-based
and non-dairy.
“The processes which give rise to Chinese milk and
cheese also give residues [okara] which are not lost. They
are employed either as fertilizer, or as feed for farm animals.
Thus nothing is wasted from soybeans. Moreover, the
factories where this plant is processed are very numerous,
and the products made by them are the most moderately
priced. A square or cake of vegetable cheese (carré de
fromage végétal) (11 by 10 by 2½ cm), consumed daily by
one person, costs about one centime, or about one-fiftieth the
price of an animal cheese of average price.
“It is of interest, finally, to compare the products of the
animal dairy with those of the vegetable dairy, not only in
terms of their similarity in appearance, but also in terms of
their chemical composition. It is well known that animal
milk contains a large proportion of casein; the same is true of
vegetable milk, which contains legumine that has the same
chemical formula as casein.
“Furthermore, during processing, the peas (le pois, i.e.
soybeans) undergo a complete chemical and mechanical
transformation which concentrates the nutritive parts and
eliminates the others; it is this which explains the richness of
the vegetable milk and cheese in nutritive principles.
“After all these considerations, you can realize the
interest present in this industry in China.
“It can also be interesting in places where raising
livestock is impossible. It is evident that this would be
more difficult than in the countries which produce animal
milk in large quantities. I am well aware that animal milk
has a real superiority over vegetable milk, but doesn’t it
also have its disadvantages: Fraud, on the one hand, and its
contagious diseases on the other? Moreover, milk merchants
have various categories of milk at different prices; it is clear
that the most expensive is the best, and vice versa. But the
consumer knows full well that some milk is not of good
quality, yet he is obliged to take it in order to earn money.
Thus it is the fate of the poor to be condemned to drink milk
of inferior quality, and often fraudulent. However, vegetable
milk does not support fraud and cannot transmit contagious
diseases. It is the same for everyone; the poor consume the
same product as the rich.
“Let the culture of soybeans expand therefore in
Europe. One might try to make vegetable milk which will
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 130
be destined, not for those who have the means to buy good
milk, but rather for those who can only afford low-price
milk; thus, fraud becomes useless, and this will a benefit for
public hygiene and for the purse of poor people.”
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (April 2015)
concerning Li Yu-ying. It is also the earliest publication seen
by him on the subject of soya.
Note 3. These proceedings contain a list of attendees and
of excursions. Address: Attaché at the Chinese Legation, and
official delegate.
261. Kaempfer, Engelbert. 1906. The history of Japan,
together with a description of the Kingdom of Siam 16901692 (translated by J.G. Scheuchzer from the original
edition of April 1727. 3 vols.). Glasgow, Scotland: James
MacLehose and Sons. Vol. 1, xc + 334 p. Reprinted 1971
New York, NY: AMS Press Inc.
• Summary: Please see the original 1727 edition of this
work for a long quote on soybeans, miso, shoyu, and azuki
beans; it appears in this 1906 edition in Vol. 1, p. 187-88.
Many of Dr. Kaempfer’s botanical specimens may still be
seen in the Natural History Museum, South Kensington. The
front matter in this book is very interesting: The frontispiece
shows a full-page portrait (illustration, painting) of Sir Hans
Sloane. List of illustrations. Publisher’s note. Biographical
note of the Scheucher family, by Sir Archibald Geikie. To
the King, by J.G. Scheucher. The names of the subscribers
[alphabetical]. The author’s preface. The life of the author,
by the translator. An introduction, by the translator.
In the author’s preface Kaempfer explains (p. xxixxxxiii) that the Swedish Embassy, where he was secretary,
was dismissed by the Persian Court. Since his native country
Germany was at war, he decided to travel rather than to
return home. He joined the Dutch-East India Company and
went to Japan, where most visitors find it very difficult to
obtain any information about the country, since all Japanese
are obliged by solemn oath not to discourse with foreigners.
But Kaempfer developed a rare friendship with his
interpreters and the Japanese officers on his island (Deshima
in Nagasaki Bay). He assisted them in the fields of medicine,
astronomy, and mathematics, and in turn was able to learn
about their country. Kaempfer was especially fortunate in
gaining “the assistance of a discreet young man, by whose
means I was richly supplied with whatever notice I wanted
concerning, the affairs of Japan. He was about twentyfour years of age, well vers’d in the Chinese and Japanese
languages, and very desirous of improving himself. Upon
my arrival, he was appointed to wait on me, as my servant,
and at the same time to be by me instructed in Physick and
Surgery” (p. xxxii). The chief of the island allowed him “to
continue in my service during the whole time of my abode
in the Country, which was two years, and to attend me in
our two journeys to Court, consequently four times almost
from one end of the Empire to the other... As I could not
well have obtain’d my end without giving him a competent
knowledge of the Dutch language, I instructed him therein
with so much success, that in a year’s time he could write
and read it better than any of our interpreters: I also gave
him all the information I could in Anatomy and Physick, and
farther allow’d him a handsome yearly salary, to the best of
my abilities... There was not a Book I desired to see, on these
and other subjects, which he did not bring to me, and explain
to me, out of it, whatever I wanted to know.”
A very interesting map of Japan shows each of the
provinces and off-shore islands, with the name of each
written in both English and Japanese characters (kanji).
Note: The long index in volume 3, which makes
interesting reading, includes acupuncture, algae (marine,
used for food), amasake (amazake, see sake), Amoenitates
Exoticæ, atheists, Buddhism & pagan worship, cami [kami],
Canagawa [Kanagawa], cannnib, hempstuffs, Corea [Korea],
Cublai–Tartar monarch, culis (see coolies), Deshima (island
of Kaempfer at Nagasaki), Dutch East India Company,
Fide Jori [Hideyori], Fide Joshi [Hideyoshi], Gendsii
[Genji], gokokf [go-kokufu, chief kinds of peas], herbals,
Hirando, Isje [Ise], Jejas [Ieyasu], Kami, Kioto (see Miaco),
Koja [Koya], Marco Polo, Mikado, moxa, Nagasaki, oil
seeds, opium, paganism, paper made by Japanese, pulse,
Pythagoras, Quannon [Kwannon], religion, sago, saki [sake],
salt, sasen [zazen], secular monarchs [Shogun], sesamum
(plant and oil), Siaka (Buddha), Shimonoseki, submarine
plants, Tokaido, Tokio, transmigration of souls, umbrellas,
Wilstach (Maria Sophia, wife of Dr. Kaempfer). Address:
Physician to the Dutch Embassy to the Emperor’s Court, Edo
(Tokyo), Japan.
262. Stuerler, F.A. von. 1906. Nederlandsch Oost-Indische
cultuurgewassen: Hunne kenmerken, teelt en bereiding
[Crops of the Dutch East Indies: Their characteristics,
cultivation and preparation]. Tiel: A. van Loon. ii + 373 p.
See p. 341-43. Illust. Index. 25 cm. [5 ref. Dut]
• Summary: The subsection on the hibiscus plant (De Waroeboom, Hibiscus tiliaceus, p. 334) states that the leaves are
used in making foods from soybeans [tempeh].
In the chapter on crops that yield oils and fats (Vette
oliegewassen, p. 335-44), the section titled “Soja” (p.
341-43) has the following contents: General botanical
characteristics: Introduction, the plant, stem, leaves, flowers,
fruit, seeds. Cultivation. Chemical composition of the seeds,
preparation, and uses.
The main product made with soybeans is soy
sauce (kètjap). The Chinese in Java cook the soybeans
and inoculate them between hibiscus leaves (Hibiscus
tiliaceceus) to make tempeh (tèmpé). They also make taotjo, a sort of bean paste (Indonesian-style miso). And with
the black soybeans they make a sort of bean cheese, taodjie (fermented black soybeans). Also discusses peanuts
(aardnooten, p. 335-37), sesame seeds (sesam, p. 337-39),
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 131
the castor oil plant (ricinus, p. 339-41), other crops that yield
oils and fats (p. 343-44).
Note: This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2011)
stating that molds grown on Hibiscus leaves are used in
Indonesia to inoculate tempeh. Address: Leiden.
263. Wijs, Jacob Jan Alexander. 1906. Vetten, olien en
wassen [Fats, oils, and waxes]. Haarlem, Netherlands:
Koloniaal Museum. xi + 122 p. Index. 19 cm. [55* ref. Dut]
• Summary: In this descriptive catalog, in the section titled
Glycine Soya Sieb. et. Zucc. (p. 77) is brief description of the
soybean and soybean oil (sojaboonen-olie). Also discussed:
Peanuts (p. 74-76), and sesame seeds (p. 93-94).
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen that uses the term sojaboonen-olie to refer to soybean
oil. Address: Chemist at the Oilmill Calvé-Delft, Delft
[Netherlands].
264. Frank N. Meyer collection (Archival collection). 19071919. Washington, DC. *
• Summary: This collection, located at the National
Agricultural Library (Beltsville, Maryland), Special
Collections, comprises 0.5 linear feet of papers by and about
Frank N. Meyer, Dutch botanist and USDA agricultural
explorer. “Isabel S. Cunningham collected these papers while
doing research for her book, Frank N. Meyer: Plant Hunter
in Asia. The collection consists of photocopies of original
correspondence, documents, and articles. Copyright does not
belong to this repository. The National Archives houses the
originals in the records of Frank N. Meyer, Plant Explorer
(1902-1918).
“Series I consists of correspondence between Meyer
and another botanical explorer, E.H. Wilson (May 7,
1907-January 9, 1908). There are also three letters
from Meyer to Professor C.S. Sargent (February 16,
1913-December 7, 1913) and three letters from Meyer to
Hugo de Vries (July 27, 1911-October 5, 1915). Cunningham
received some of the correspondence after the 1984
publication of her book. There is a typed transcript of the
letter from Wilson to Meyer dated February 15, 1907. The
letters to de Vries are in Dutch but a translation accompanies
the photocopies. All letters courtesy of the Arnold
Arboretum, Harvard University.
“Series II comprises biographical articles written about
Meyer. The first one titled, “The Traveler-Botanist Frank N.
Meyer” by Leo Derkesen appeared in Panorama, vol. 44,
number 20, 1957. Both articles were translated into English
from the Dutch by Jeannette Bouter Bernaerts.
“Series III consists of photocopies of original
documents. The first one is Meyer’s Petition for
Naturalization filed July 21, 1908 right after he returned
home from the first expedition in China. The second
document is a copy of Meyer’s Last Will and Testament,
witnessed August 5, 1916. Dutch Botanist.
Ernest Henry Wilson lived 1876-1930. Charles Sprague
Sargent lived 1841-1927. Hugo de Vries lived 1848-1935.
Isabel Cunningham was born in 1919. Address: USDA.
Phone: 313-764-3482.
265. Savornin Lohman, C. de. 1907. Aanwijzingen voor het
planten van Kadele [Instructions for planting soybeans].
Beknopte Gegevens over Cultuurgewassen, Hunne
Behandeling en Ziekten (Departement van Landbouw in Ned.
Indië (Buitenzorg)) No. 6. [Dut]*
• Summary: JN: Beknopt = Concise, brief, succinct.
Gegevens = Data, fundamental idea. Cultuurgewassen =
Cultivated crops.
266. Lipman, Jacob G. 1908. Bacteria in relation to country
life. New York, NY: Macmillan Co. xx + 486 p. See p. 231,
245, 258. Sept. Illust. Index. 20 cm.
• Summary: Chapter 23, titled “Soil-inoculation” (p. 221+)
begins with a discussion of the early research of Hellriegel
and Wilfarth, tests concerning legume nodules conducted in
1887 at the Moore Experiment Station at Bremen, Germany,
and the development in Germany of “pure cultures” and of
Nitragin followed by many disappointments from 18961898, “which cast discredit on artificial cultures.” Yet there is
now hope that they will be made to succeed.
The section on “Soil-inoculation in the United States”
states (p. 230-31) that at first, crops such as clovers,
cow-peas, field-peas, etc. did not appear to require any
inoculation. “It was otherwise with at least two leguminous
crops, soybeans and alfalfa. Soybeans, originally introduced
into the United States from Japan, did not do very well.
They frequently failed to develop that healthy, dark green
color characteristic of vigorous leguminous plants. Careful
examination showed their roots to be devoid of tubercles.
Soybean earth, straw and chaff were obtained from Japan
and placed in the ground together with the seed. The plants
thus inoculated developed normally and produced an
abundance of tubercles.
“This experience demonstrated the need of soilinoculation of soybeans. Many cases are reported in
experiment station literature in which these inoculations gave
positive results. For instance, in the experiments of the New
Jersey Station, on light sandy soils at Hammonton, when
cowpeas and soybeans were planted in the same ground, the
former grew luxuriantly and gathered nitrogen from the air
by means of their numerous nodules, while the soybeans
remained small and yellow and produced no tubercles. It was
not until the introduction of some soil from a field where
these plants had been grown successfully for several years
that the soybeans developed properly and grew as luxuriantly
as did the cowpeas.
“Similar observations were made time and again in the
case of alfalfa.” Figure 38 (three photos, p. 224) shows three
soybean plants and their roots: (a) the largest, with nodules
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 132
on the roots, is inoculated with soil; (b) medium size with no
root nodules, is untreated; (c) thin and with no root nodules,
is “inoculated with soybean chaff.”
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (June 2011) that contains the term “soybean chaff.” It
refers a by-product that results when soybeans are threshed
or the seeds cleaned.
In the Chapter 24, titled “Green-manuring” we read
(p. 245): “The cowpea, soybean, and velvet bean as greenmanure crops.–On the sandy soils of the East, the cowpea,
soybean, sand vetch, crimson clover, and velvet bean have
been widely used for improvement of the land. In the
cotton-growing states of the South, the cowpea is almost
indispensable as an aid in the maintenance of the humus
and nitrogen of the soil.” Soil bacteria decompose the vines
and roots. “The soybean, which is related to the cowpea,
has also been used as a green-manure on light soils. It does
well, however, also on heavier soils, provided it is properly
inoculated, and is not as readily injured by cold weather.”
A full-page black-and-white photo (p. 258) shows “A
thoroughly inoculated crop of soybeans” growing in a large
field.
Chapter 1, titled “The rise of bacteriology” (p. 1-12)
gives an interesting, early history. Leeuwenhoek (lived
1632-1723) in Holland first beheld bacteria with his lenses
in 1675; he called them “animacules.” “He recognized
differences in their appearance and size as well as in their
mode of motion.” These and subsequent observations “gave
rise to much speculation and heated discussion concerning
the relation of the animacules to animal diseases”–and to the
issues of contagion and spontaneous generation. Belief in
spontaneous generation had existed since the Middle ages,
and the discovery of bacteria seemed to support the ancient
theory. But various experiments from 1765 to 1875 gradually
disproved the theory.
“The physiology of bacteria.–Pasteur’s epoch-making
investigations on fermentation shed a broader light on the
activities of microörganisms. His work plainly indicated
that the various kinds of bacteria possess specific functions
and differ in the chemical changes which they produce. This
work may, therefore, be regarded as the starting point for
much fruitful research... Bacteria were to be distinguished,
henceforth, not by their appearance alone, but by the
chemical transformations of which they are capable. They
were to be regarded as chemical agents of wide significance,
builders and destroyers in vegetable and animal substances,
in organic and inorganic materials, in the presence or absence
of air.
“Bacteria as a cause of disease.–The study of bacteria,
and of other microorganisms, as agents of decay, putrefaction
and fermentation, gained in interest with the recognition
that bacteria may also be the specific cause of disease. As
far back as 1762, the belief was expressed by Plenciz, a
Vienna physician, that disease is the result of infection by
animalcules; and, more important still, that every disease
has its particular germ. The views of Plenciz met with no
acceptance, and were soon forgotten amid the clashing
opinions on spontaneous generation” (p. 6).
During the 1800s important advances were made by
Bassi, Henle, Pasteur, and Lemaire. Lister developed a
method of antiseptic surgery (1868), “through which medical
science has achieved splendid results.” “The investigations
of [the German bacteriologist Edwin] Klebs during the
Franco-Prussian War [July 1870–May 1871] traced the
entrance and development of bacteria in wounds and
their passing into the circulatory system. Klebs and other
investigators also noted the constant presence of bacteria
in diphtheric infections.” “The systematic study of bacteria
was furthered by the work of Schroeter, published in 1872.”
Ferdinand Kohn then articulated the “opinion that, among
bacteria, as among more highly organized organisms, there
exist definite species fairly constant in their structure and in
their physiological activities.”
“Anthrax bacillus.–In 1876, [the German Robert] Koch
[1843-1910] demonstrated clearly and convincingly that
anthrax in cattle is due to a specific germ, and thus confirmed
a fact already, indicated by the observation of others. He
isolated the anthrax bacillus in pure culture, studied it under
the microscope, and showed that he could produce anthrax in
other animals by inoculation from such cultures” (p. 8).
“In agriculture, the development of bacteriology has
given un new insight into the nature of soil fertility. We have
learned to regard the soil as a culture medium with its almost
endless number of species...” We have also “made some
progress towards successful systems of soil-inoculation.”
Chapter 47, titled “Bacteria in miscellaneous agricultural
industries,” states (p. 456-57): “The preparation of natto.–
Natto is a vegetable cheese made in Japan by fermenting
boiled soybeans. The fermenting mass is kept in a warm
place for one or two days, at the end of which time it has
become filled with vast numbers of bacteria. The material is
then found to contain a large proportion of a mucilaginous,
viscous substance, which is highly esteemed by the
Japanese.”
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Jan. 2012) that uses the word “mucilaginous” or the
word “viscous” to describe Japanese natto.
“The bacterial flora of natto consists at first largely of
bacilli, but subsequently spherical forms become prominent.
“Two rod-shaped organisms, isolated by Sawamura,
were found to change boiled soybeans into a product similar
to natto. One of these produced the characteristics taste and
aroma, but did not develop a strong viscosity in the beans.
The other organism was found to possess a more pronounced
ability to form mucilaginous materials, but did not develop
as desirable a taste and aroma. The changes produced by
these organisms in the preparation of natto were shown to be
due to enzymes secreted by them.”
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 133
Note 3. Although the date on the title page of some
editions is 1911, the copyright page and last page of the
Preface indicate that it should be Sept. 1908.
Facing the title page (frontispiece) is a painted portrait
of Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced lay-ven-hook), a
Dutch naturalist (1632-1723), who is generally cited as the
first to discover bacteria [or microorganisms]. Address: A.M.,
Ph.D., Soil Chemist and Bacteriologist, New Jersey Agric.
Exp. Station, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and Assoc. Prof.
of Agriculture at Rutgers College.
267. Grijns, G. 1909. Over polyneuritis gallinarum. II.
[On polyneuritis. II.]. Geneeskundig Tijdschrift voor
Nederlandsch Indie 49:216-38. Jan. [10 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Experiments with cocks indicate that the
vitamin content of soybeans is lower than that of katjang
idjoe (Cacang ijo [Kacang ijo]; Phaseolus radiatus var.
Javan.; mung bean, now named Vigna radiata).
Note: Polyneuritis may be caused by a deficiency of
the vitamin thiamine. Address: Treasurer, Geneeskundige
Wetenschappen in Nederlandsch-Indië.
268. Mitsui & Co., Limited. 1909. Soya bean oil. China
wood oil (Ad). Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter 76(1):20. July
5.
• Summary: “English soya bean oil–Prompt shipment from
Hull. We are largest supplier of soya bean from Manchuria,
and have special connections with crushers. Manchurian
soya bean oil. Shipment from our Eastern Oil Plant. Fall
delivery at New York.” Other offices: “Kobe, Yokohama,
Hankow, Shanghai, London, Hamburg [Germany], Antwerp
[Belgium]. Also branches in all the principal cities of the
world.” Address: Head office: Tokio, Japan. New York: Silk
Exchange Bldg. San Francisco: Merchant Exchange Bldg.
269. Atlanta Constitution (Georgia). 1909. Italy leads
importers of cotton seed oil. Aug. 9. p. 4.
• Summary: “There has been received by the various
members of the Cotton Seed Crushers’ Association of
Georgia copies of the latest report of Special Agent Julian
L. Brode, who is now investigating the cotton seed products
markets in Europe,...” It “is replete with interest concerning
the consumption of cotton seed oil and other cotton seed byproducts in Italy.”
Italy has the third highest duty on cotton seed oil (after
Austria-Hungary and Servia [Serbia]). In spite of that, Italy
is the 2nd largest importer (after Holland) of cottonseed oil
in Europe. “This is due mainly to the olive soil shortage in
Italy. During the recent season the Italians have made up the
greater part of their olive oil shortage from cotton seed oil,
in preference to other edible oils, such as sesame, arachide
[peanut], sunflower seed, soya bean, cocoanut, etc., all of
which can be bought cheaper on account of enjoying a lower
tariff duty.” Italy is the world’s leading producer of olive oil.
270. Meyer, Frank N. 1909. Re: Resumé of work as a USDA
agricultural explorer. In: Letters of Frank N. Meyer. 4 vols.
1902-1918. Compiled by Bureau of Plant Introduction,
USDA. 2444 p. See p. 811-13. Letter of 2 Nov. 1909 from
Berlin, Germany.
• Summary: Meyer filled out this form for USDA as he was
passing through Berlin on the way to his second expedition,
which started in Russia. “Salary: $1,600 per annum. 1.
Education: An ordinary school education up to 14 years of
age. After that much private tuition in Foreign languages, in
Botany, Drawing (mechanical and landscape), Arithmetic
and Measuring, Principles of plant propagation, etc.
“2. Experience: From 14th to 16th years as a pupil in the
Botanic Gardens of Amsterdam, from 16th to 23rd year as an
gardener and assistant to Prof. Hugo de Vries in his special
experimental garden. From 23rd to 25th year as a gardner in
commercial nurseries in England, especially having learned
the culture of fruits and vegetables under glass and the
culture of fruit trees against walls and fences as is practiced
in the countries of Northern Europe.
“3. Departmental Service: From October 23, 1901
to August 31, 1902, as a gardener in the Department
greenhouses at Washington D.C. Resigned September 1,
1902. September 15, 1902, re-entered Departmental service
again in the Plant Improvement Garden at Santa Ana,
California. Worked there as a propagator and all-around
gardener. Resigned on account of very unsatisfactory
conditions at the garden and improper treatment by Mr. P.
Pierce, in charge, on April 1, 1903. Worked as head gardener
in a carnation and palm nursery in Montecito, California,
from April 1903 until March 15, 1904. Made journeys of
study in California, Mexico, and Cuba from March 16, 1904,
until August 1, 1904. Worked in the St. Louis Botanical
Gardens from August 1, 1904 until July 1, 1905, as a
propagator of mainly herbaceous plants. Was also member of
the Jury on Forestry at the World’s Fair in St. Louis during
September 1904. Re-entered Department service for the
third time on July 10, 1905, as an agricultural explorer. Left
Washington, D.C. on July 27, 1905, and returned to the same
city July 7, 1908, having visited in these three years parts of
Japan, Korea, Eastern and Northern China, Manchuria and
Eastern Siberia and collected nearly 2000 numbers of various
plans and seeds.
“4. Results accomplished: Valuable varieties of Chinese
fruits, vegetables, cover crops and ornamental plants
introduced. From February 1909 until July 1909 having
written his observations on Chinese agri- and horti-culture in
a series of four bulletins which are in course of publication.
“5. Special qualifications. These questions can hardly be
answered by the undersigned himself.”
“8. Value. To be answered by those in charge.”
Location: University of California at Davis, Special
Collections SB108 A7M49. Address: USDA Plant Explorer.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 134
271. Indische Mercuur (De) (Amsterdam). 1909. De
sojaboon [The soybean (Abstract)]. 32(50):965-66. Dec. 14.
[1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: A Dutch-language summary of the following
English-language article: Edie, E.S. 1909. “Cultivation
and uses of soya beans.” Liverpool University, Institute of
Commercial Research in the Tropics, Bulletin 1(1):1-7. Oct.
8.
272. Wildeman, É. de. 1909. Le soja [The soybean].
Agronomie Tropicale; Organe Mensuel de la Societe
d’Etudes d’Agriculture Tropicale 1(12):195-200. Dec. 25;
2(1&2):5-8. Jan/Feb. 1910. [10 ref. Fre]
• Summary: An overview of the subject, including a brief
history, based largely on a summary of about ten documents.
It begins: “For some years now, attention has been drawn
to the soybean (Soja hispida (Mönch) or Glycine hispida
(Max.)), which comes from Manchuria; its products are now
used in various ways in our daily lives.”
“It is not a question of exhausting the question, but as
the Bulletin of the Imperial Institute of London has already
devoted several articles to this plant this year and that the
first part of vol. I of the Liverpool University, Institute of
Commercial Research in the Tropics, Bulletin [Edie, 8 Oct.
1909] is entirely devoted to it, it appeared useful to us to
insist here on the soybean which would also have a certain
importance for our colonies.”
This legume originated in Southeast Asia, and has
been cultivated for centuries in China and Japan. It is
now abundant throughout Manchuria, where the seeds are
widely appreciated for their nutritive value. It was later
introduced into the Indies (l’Inde) and arrived in England
at the end of the 18th century. About 30 years, it was the
subject of numerous trials [by Haberlandt and co-workers] in
Austria, but is only recently that it has become an article of
commercial importance in Europe.
“The occupation of Northern Manchuria by Russian
troops, during the Russo-Japanese War, gave rise to
numerous demands for this bean, which stimulated the
extension of [its] agriculture. After the departure of the
troops, the local demand fell naturally, and it was necessary
to find an outlet in foreign markets. From 1906 to 1908, a
large part of the products of N. Manchuria were exported
to Japan via Vladivostok, but in 1908 the economic crisis
of Japan diverted a part of these products to Europe,
which actually received large quantities of soybeans,
especially in England. The first large shipment of soybeans
contained 5,200 tonnes (metric tons) and arrived at Hull
on 2 March 1909. The beans arrived at the destination in
perfect condition despite the distance. They were classed in
three categories: 1. Shipped from Dalny; 2. Shipped from
Vladivostock; and 3. Shipped from Hankow. The value of
those in category No. 1 is about £6 8s./tonne [metric ton];
those in No. 2 and No. 3 is about £6 6s./tonne, these prices
being, naturally, subject to the fluctuations of the market.
Most imported beans are monopolized by the manufacturers
of oil who obtain 10-18% of the weight of the beans in
oil. [The remaining] oilcake can be used in the feed of
livestock.”
There follows a long discussion of soybean cultivation
and production, including soils, fertilizers, nitrogen fixation
by root nodules, planting, intercropping, yields of forage and
seed, use as silage, soil restoration, soybean varieties, tables
showing the chemical composition of the plant and seeds
showing their excellent nutritional value.
“Until recently, soybean cultivation has been confined
to Asia and some states of the USA. Recently, the question
of cultivating this plant in the various British colonies has
been raised. In most of the colonies of West Africa, the
soybean could probably be cultivated with success in rotation
or mixed with maize or other crops, and give significant
yields.”
“In China, Japan, and Indo-China the seeds are used to
prepare a sort of milky liquid (liquide lactescent) [soymilk]
and a sort of cheese” [tofu]. A brief description of each
process is given. The milk has considerable nutritional value
“but is not suited for infants.”
“The flour of soybeans (La farine de fèves de soja) is
used to make biscuits, and, mixed with wheat flour, is used
to make a brown bread; it is sometimes even preferred in
this application to rye flour. Since it contains neither sugar
nor starch, the soybean has been recommended as the basis
of diabetic diets.” Address: Prof., School of Horticulture,
Vilvoorde, Belgium (Professeur au Cors colonial de l’École
d’Horticulture de Vilvorde).
273. Carson, John M. 1909. Soya bean and products. Special
Consular Report (U.S. Bureau of Manufactures, Department
of Commerce and Labor) No. 41. Part 5. 35 p. Erroneously
numbered Special Consular Reports, Vol. XL.
• Summary: An outstanding, comprehensive report.
Contents: Introduction. I. Countries of production. China:
Newchang (Varieties of beans and amount produced {in
centals [hundredweights; 1 cental = 112 pounds]}, methods
of cultivating and harvesting, prices and exports, shipments
to Europe–use by natives), Dalny (Manufacture of bean cake
and oil, preparing the cake, expressing the oil and wages
paid, freight charges to Dalny, exports, stock on hand, and
prices), Chefoo (Beans imported for cake manufacture,
quantity and value of output, bean vermicelli made by a
peculiar process [from the small green bean lü tou {mung
bean}], preparation of beans, drying of product and prices
[for vermicelli]), Shanghai (Extent of export trade in beans),
Shantung (manufacture of bean oil and cake, harvesting and
pressing, shipping and prices), Swatow, Tientsin (Exports
of raw beans, shipments of bean cake, extent of trade at
Tientsin). Tables (p. 5) show prices and exports of soya
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 135
beans, bean cake and bean oil at Newchang for the years
1905-1908. Japan: Cost of production and prices (of soya
beans, quite detailed), imports of beans and cakes, use of
the bean as food (shoyu, miso, tofu, koya-tofu, natto, flour),
Kobe (Beans as human food {eaten boiled with a little soy
[sauce], “made into bean curd, and a kind of sauce made of
wheat, beans, and salt”}–small exports {“The total exports
of beans, pease, and pulse [incl. soy] in 1908 were valued at
$25,971, of which about $24,000 worth went to Hawaii, the
United States, and Canada for use by the Japanese residents
in those countries as an article of food”}, manufacture of
cake), Nagasaki (Production of beans, imports of beans–
market prices). Shipments from Vladivostok * [Russia, of
soybeans probably grown in Manchuria] (Fluctuations in
prices, shipments during present season, immense shipments
planned next season (by Mitsui)).
“It is the intention of Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, the largest
exporter from this port, to ship about 200,000 tons of beans
via Vladivostok during 1909 and about double that quantity
via Dalny. Many large contracts have been made for next
season, and from present indications a strong effort will be
made against the control of Mitsui Bussan Kaisha as the
Chinese are making arrangements to deal direct with the
European market without the aid of the Japanese” (p. 18).
Tables show: The quantities and value of soya beans,
soya-bean cake, and bean oil imported into Japan during
the year 1908 (p. 15). The soya bean harvests (in bushels)
reported in various Japanese districts (p. 16).
II. Markets. Denmark: Experimental imports made,
views of an importer.
France: High duties prevent importation of soya beans,
soya-bean flour bread used by diabetics, unknown in Calais
district.
Germany: Danger of feeding cattle on soya-bean
products, oil value–prices at Hamburg, comparative food
value of the bean.
Italy: Soya beans beans are imported and cultivated (“as
a feed stuff for live stock”) in only very small quantities.
Also gives: prices of soya products–American cottonseed oil, not imported into Catania, home products supply
Piedmont district.
Netherlands: A great future for the soya-bean trade
predicted, prices of the bean and bean cake, soya cake as
cattle feed, manufacture of soya-bean products begun,
English soya-bean cake defective.
Norway: Imports of soya-bean meal and cotton-seed
meal.
Russia: Beans and products unsatisfactory as feeding
stuffs.
Spain: Soya bean unknown in Valencia district [They are
neither cultivated nor imported in this district].
Straits Settlements [Singapore and Malaya].
Sweden: Soya-bean products introduced through
England. Comparative value of cattle feed [work by Nils
Hansson of Sweden], comparative prices of feed stuffs.
Turkey. England: Liverpool (Conversion of the soya
bean into cake and meal), Plymouth (Soya cake and meal
extensively consumed), Southampton (The bean appreciated
as a fattener and as a dairy ration, the soya bean as human
food [for use in diabetic diets]). Ireland: Chinese bean
products are favorably received, soya bean introduced in
Belfast, small imports at Cork. Scotland: Statistics as to
use in Dunfermline not available, test of feeding value of
soya cake [by Prof. Douglas A. Gilchrist], Edinburgh mills
making experiments (based on 1909 report 1909 of U.S.
Consul Rufus Fleming from Edinburgh).
III. Competitive American exports. Tables (p. 35)
show exports for 1907, 1908, and 1909 of cotton-seed
meal, cotton-seed oil, and cottolene, lardine [not defined:
presumably shortening made from cottonseed oil], etc. to
major countries, especially in Europe.
The Introduction notes: “In compliance with requests
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 136
from manufacturers of cotton-seed products in the United
States, who desired that an investigation be made of the
production and use of the soya bean and its manufacturers
in the Far East and of the extent to which they compete with
American cotton-seed products in the European markets, the
reports following have been submitted by consular officers in
the various countries concerned...
“The reports of the consular officers have been placed
in two groups, the first having to do with the countries that
produce the soya bean and the second with the countries
that are sought as markets. Statistics as to the imports of
soya-bean products in many European countries were
not available at the time the reports were submitted, but
inasmuch as the prices quoted were generally lower than for
other seed products, emphasis has been laid on the relative
merits of the two classes of goods as shown by experiments
and analyses in these countries. These manufacturers will
have to work in meeting this new competition.”
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Dec. 2007)
concerning soybean products (oil or meal) in Turkey,
Denmark, Ireland, the Middle East, or Sweden (one of two
documents); soybeans as such have not yet been reported in
any of these countries. This document contains the earliest
date seen for soybean products in the Middle East or Turkey
(1909).
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Nov. 2013) that uses the term “soya-bean flour.”
Address: Chief of Dep.
274. Clercq, Frederik S.A. de. 1909. Nieuw plantkundig
Woordenboek voor Nederlandsch Indië [New botanical
dictionary for the Netherlands Indies]. Amsterdam,
Netherlands: J.H. de Bussy. xx + 395 p. See p. 248, no. 1664.
[1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: In the following, we will spell out, then
translate, abbreviations in square brackets: “1664 Glycine
Soja Sieb. et Zucc. * Nat. fam. der Leguminosae. Dekeman,
Jav. Kr. D. [Krama-Doesoen of Hoog-Dorps-Javaansch
= Mount Dusun high-level village Javanese]; Dele, Jav.
[Javaansch = Javanese]; Gadele, Jav. [Javanese]; Kadele,
Boeg. [Boegineesch = Buginese, spoken in South Sulawesi],
Makas. [Makasaarsch = Makassarese, from Makassar, the
provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia]; Kadale, Jav.
[Javanese]; Kadheli, Madoer. [Madoereesch = Madurese,
spoken in Madura {Dutch: Madoera}, an Indonesian
island off the northeastern coast of Java]; Katjang djepoen,
Soend. [Soendaasch = Sunda, the language of the Sundanse
people of Western Java]; Katjang kedelai, Mal. [Maleisch =
Malay, the language of Malaysia and Brunei, lingua franca
of the Malay Archipelago]; Katjang kedele, Mal. Batav.
[Bataviasch-dialect van Maleisch = the Batavian dialect of
Malay; Batavia was the colonial Dutch name (1600s to 1942)
for today’s Jakarta]; Kedangsoel, Jav. Kr. D. [high-level
village Javanese]; Kedelai, Mal. [Malay]; Kedele, Balin.
[Balineesch = Balinese, the language of the Indonesian
island of Bali], Jav. [Javanese], Mal. Batav. [the Batavian
dialect of Malay]; Keudeule, Soend. [Sunda]; Lawoeï,
Biman. [Bimaneesch = Bima, language of the Bimanese
people, spoken on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa and
its city of Bima]; Leboewi bawak, Sas. [Sasaksch = Sasak,
spoken by the Sasak people on the Indonesian island of
Lombok]; Retak medjong, Lamp. [Lampongsch = Lampung,
spoken by the Lampung people in the Indonesian province of
Lampung, on the southeastern tip of Sumatra].
“Variëteiten (Varieties) in Soend. [Sunda]: Katjang
djepoen beureum; Katjang djepoen bodas; Katjang djepoen
hedjo; Katjang djepoen hideung.–Kruid (herb, plant), de
sojaboon.
“Uses: Known for the high protein content of its beans,
consumed mostly by indigenous people as green vegetable
soybeans (unripe). For the preparation of Batavian ketjap
or Soy (Bataviasche ketjap of soja), black-seeded soybeans
are used. In addition, the beans are boiled, beaten into flat
cakes, and inoculated with a particular type of mold to obtain
tempeh (tempe), which is very much liked in Java.” Address:
in Leven; Oud-Resident van Ternate en van Riouw [former
resident of Ternate and of Riouw].
275. Dekker, J. 1909. Voedermiddelen [Feedstuffs].
Teysmannia (Batavia [Jakarta]) 20(93):632-42. See p. 641.
[Dut]
• Summary: “Also the straw of the soybean (katjang kadeleh
[glycine soja]) is a highly appreciated feedstuff, as are the
leaves of the cow-pea (Vigna Catjang).” Address: Dr.
276. Heyne, K. 1909. Kedelee op de Europeesche markt
[Soybeans in the European market]. Teysmannia (Batavia
[Jakarta]) 20:687-91. [Dut]
277. Walters, J.D. 1909. History of the Kansas State
Agricultural College. Manhattan, Kansas: Printed by Printing
Dep. of the Kansas State Agricultural College. 226 p. Illust.
25 cm.
• Summary: This fascinating book is really a fifth revised
and enlarged edition of an historic monograph first published
in 1881. Contains biographical sketches of Charles. C.
Georgeson and George Fairchild.
Contents: 1. The rise and growth of agricultural
education: Agricultural societies, agricultural fairs,
agricultural publications, the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
the agricultural college idea, the pioneer agricultural college
(Michigan Agricultural College, Lansing, started in 1857),
thousands of students and many methods, the experiment
stations, the farmers’ institute, the growth of science. 2.
Bluemont Central College (near Manhattan, Kansas). 3. The
Morrill Act and the endowment. 4. The Agricultural College
in 1863: From 1863 to 1873, state appropriations and
permanent improvements during the first decade. 5. President
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 137
Denison and his collaborators: Mudge, Goodnow, Hougham,
Gale.
6. The reorganization of 1873: Effect of the Grange
Movement, John A. Anderson elected president, Anderson’s
maxims, the new education (reduction of purely literary
branches of instruction, abolishing all instruction in
Latin, the key split–for or against Latin, study of practical
agriculture). The Industrialist (started 24 April 1875;
President Anderson a prolific and vigorous writer),
nomination of Anderson to Congress in the summer of 1878,
election of Prof. George T. Fairchild to the presidency of the
Michigan Agricultural College, an interesting testimonial,
permanent improvements from 1874 to 1879, state
appropriations.
7. President Anderson and his collaborators, character of
the man, his unflinching courage, Prof. E.M. Shelton, Prof.
Wm. K. Kedzie, Prof. M. L. Ward, Prof. J.D. Walters, Prof.
J.H. Lee, Stephen M. Wood, the Faculty.
8. From 1878 to 1879, Prof. Geo. H. Failyer, Prof. E.
Popenoe, Secy. I.D. Graham.
9. Election of Pres. Geo. T. Fairchild, a period of
progress, state appropriations from 1880 to 1897, permanent
improvements from 1880 to 1897, apparatus and library,
farmers’ institutes and agricultural experiments, The Faculty
in 1879.
10. The college-aid bill, new equipment.
11. President Fairchild and his collaborators, John E.
Hessin, Prof. C.C. Georgeson, Prof. W.A. Kellerman, Prof.
D.E. Lantz, Mrs. Nellie S. Kedzie-Jones, Prof. O.E. Olin,
Prof. A.S. Hitchcock, Prof. J.T. Willard.
12. A new political party, President Fairchild on
Populism, the legislature of 1897, the election of Pres. T.E.
Will, the new Board, the new Faculty and its work, growth
and improvements, the Silly bequest, the College in the
Spanish war, special session of the legislature, a Republican
Board, the Faculty in 1897.
Continues to Chapter 19.
Page 9: During the colonial days, life “was a constant
struggle for mere existence. Up to the middle of the
eighteenth century iron and shaping tools had to be imported
from England, and Indian corn, milk, pork, beef, game and
fish were the common food. There was little commerce and
communication away from the coast. Agricultural education
was not thought of.” “It was not until the beginning of the
last century [1800s] that farmers, as a class, commenced to
recognize the importance of comparing methods of work,
seeds, stock, and other interests, and began to feel the need
of more information for themselves and better schools for
their children.
“Agricultural societies: Among the earliest contributors
to agricultural education and rural interests must be
mentioned the agricultural and horticultural societies. Many
of these early corporations shed light for several generations,
and are still in existence. The first society for the promotion
of agriculture was established in Philadelphia, March 1,
1785. Of this society President Washington was a member.
[Note: Originally called the Philosophical Society, the
Society was founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin and
John Bartram as an offshoot of an earlier club, the Junto].
Seven years later, on March 7, the Massachusetts Society
for Promoting Agriculture was incorporated. The New York
Agricultural Society was organized the following year.”
Page 10: “Another potent factor in the development of
agriculture was the fair, or exposition. It is reported that the
Agricultural Society of Massachusetts commenced the award
of premiums for agricultural products in 1804. The first
regular stock show in New England seems to have been held
in 1807.”
Page 11: “Agricultural publications: Much credit is due
to the agricultural press. The pioneer agricultural journal,
the American Farmer, issued its first number in 1819, and
is still being published. The New England Farmer appeared
in 1822, and the Kansas Farmer was established in 1863.
Today the number of periodicals devoted to agriculture
and the kindred arts, as horticulture, floriculture, landscape
gardening, cattle, horses, swine and sheep breeding, poultry
and bee keeping, sugar, cotton and tobacco planting, etc.,
must reach the six hundred mark in America.
“The Department of Agriculture: Another motor
working for the development of farming has been the United
States Department of Agriculture, established in 1837, as a
branch of the United States patent office, afterwards as an
independent sub-department and lately as a separate cabinet.
A distribution of seeds and plants through a congressional
appropriation was begun in 1839. This continued to be a
function of the patent office until 1862, when the United
States Department of Agriculture was established. But the
greatest step in the development of agricultural art was
the establishment of agricultural schools and experiment
stations.”
“The agricultural college idea: Toward the middle of
the eighteenth century the agricultural college idea began
to appear. In the patent office report for 1847, Mr. G.L.
Fleischman published an elaborate report on agricultural
schools, which he had visited abroad, and urged the
organization (flip to Page 12) of similar schools in this
country. The writings of the great German chemist, Baron
Von Liebig, on scientific agriculture and the rich contents of
the proceedings of the Royal Agricultural Society of England
were being republished in our agricultural and scientific
periodicals. Railroads and steamships commenced to do
the work of transportation in place of the ox, the horse, the
canal-boat and the sailing vessel, and through these effective
carriers farming was drawn into the galaxy of regular
business enterprises, demanding not only hard labor, but
management, foresight, and knowledge. Progressive farmers
began to feel that the common school as it existed was
entirely inadequate for teaching the scientific and technical
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 138
education required in their work, and discussions pertaining
to the establishment of special schools of agriculture similar
to those of central Europe, especially those of Holland,
Germany and Switzerland, became more and more frequent.
The first legislative efforts in America of organizing
an agricultural college were made in Massachusetts. A bill
providing for the organization of an agricultural school and
the establishment of an experiment station passed the Senate
of that state in 1850, but was defeated in the House. The
defeat of this bill provoked much comment in agricultural
circles, and resulted in the appointment of a board of
commissioners who were to consider further steps in the
matter and report at the next session. In 1852 their report,
with an elaborate account of the organization and work
of the agricultural schools of Europe visited by Professor
Hitchcock, was made to the legislature.
“But the time was not favorable for the teaching of
practical science. No immediate action resulted from their
recommendations, except, perhaps, the establishment of a
state board of agriculture; yet the matter was not permitted
to rest. Massachusetts became a center of the agitation which
finally triumphed in Congress in the passage of the ‘Morrill
act,’ an act appropriating several millions of acres of wild
land to the different states and territories for the purpose
of founding agricultural colleges. This act became a law
in 1862.” Continued. Address: Prof. of Architecture and
Drawing, Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan,
Kansas.
278. Itie, G. 1910. Le soja: Sa culture, son avenir [Soya: Its
cultivation, its future]. Agriculture Pratique des Pays Chauds
(Bulletin du Jardin Colonial) 10(82):37-49. Jan. See also:
10(83):137-44. Feb.; 10(84):231-46. March; 10(85):305-07.
April; 10(93):485-93. Dec.; 11(94):55-61. 28 cm. [34 ref.
Fre]
• Summary: A superb series of articles by G. Itié reviewing
research and current developments with soybeans, and
especially with soybean production / culture, worldwide. The
extensive bibliography cites many early and rare works for
the first time. Interestingly, the series started one year before
Li Yu-ying wrote his equally excellent series in the same
journal. The author introduced lots of U.S. soybean research
to France, citing many U.S. Agricultural Experiment Station
publications and early work with growing soybeans in the
tropics.
Contents: Introduction. The soybean (Glycine hispida
Maxim.). Vernacular names: In China, Tonkin, Cambodia
(Sân dêk), India, Burma, Nepal, Ceylon (Bhatwan), IndoMalaysia (Katyang-kadeleh), England, USA, Germany,
Holland, France, Italy. Scientific names and synonyms.
Description of the plant. Varieties, general, and in China,
India, Hawaii, Japan, USA, Europe (varieties from Hungary,
Podolia, Etampes-France, Italy). Origin. History. Climate
and geographical area.
Concerning the early history in France: “In France it is
very certain that in 1739 missionary fathers sent the soybean
to the Jardin des Plantes, along with other plants from China.
There exists, in any case, in the Museum, a sachet having
contained seeds from the harvest of 1779, and the soybean
has been cultivated here in an almost uninterrupted fashion
since 1834.
“In France, large scale production of soybeans began
in 1821 at Champ-Rond, near Etampes, where large yields
were obtained. But above all, starting in 1855, the Society
for Acclimatization made great efforts to introduce it. They
distributed seeds and conducted tests in various regions, but
the methods of culture were not progressive (advanced), and
the soybean did not take the place in France that was hoped
for.”
A table (p. 490) shows the name, yield (in hectograms/
hectare; 1 hectogram = 100 gm), and source (a U.S.
agricultural experiment station) for the following soybean
varieties: Medium Black (12.1, Massachusetts Hatch), Very
Dwarf Brown (8.4, Indiana), Early Brown (10.54 to 13.58,
Indiana), Early Green (7.80 to 14.00, Delaware & Virginia),
Medium Green (12.10 to 36.30, Massachusetts Hatch &
Illinois), Hollybrook (8.7 to 10.0, Indiana), Guelph (5.70 to
7, Indiana), Ito San (11.4 to 28.70, Indiana & Wisconsin),
Japanese Pea (13.20, Virginia), Mammoth Yellow (7.5
to 18.20, Mississippi), Michigan Green (19.10 to 34.80,
Wisconsin), Green Samarow (11.00+, Kansas), Tokyo (7+,
Kansas), Early White (15.90 to 33.00, Massachusetts &
Illinois), Dwarf Early Yellow (11.00+, Kansas), Early Yellow
(13.10 to 22.00, Ontario, Canada), Medium Early Yellow
(8.70 to 33.00, Indiana), Yellow (11.00+, Kansas), No. 9407
(43.5, Wisconsin), No. 19.186 (28.0, Delaware).
Other tables show: (1) The chemical composition of
the stem, leaves, and pods (p. 138-39, 243). (2) Yields with
different fertilizing methods (p. 139). (3) Number of pods
and seeds in different varieties of soybeans (p. 236). (4)
Spacing at different experiment stations for 3 years that gave
the best yield (p. 239). (5) Number of plants and seeds, and
yield for 3 different brown or yellow varieties of soybeans
from China and Manchuria (p. 491). An illustration (p. 40,
line drawing by A. Berteau) shows a cultivated soybean plant
and its different parts, including leaves, pods, and flowers.
The leaves of the wild soybean, Glycine angustifolia (Miq.),
are also shown.
Note: The Jardin Colonial (Colonial Garden) is located
in Paris, France. Address: Ingenieur d’Agriculture coloniale.
279. Times of India (The) (Bombay). 1910. Trade of Bombay.
A great export season. April 4. p. 10.
• Summary: “These oilseeds have held their own in spite of
the large supplies of soya beans from Manchuria, but that
competition is effected by the import duties of Continental
countries, which cause the whole soya trade to flow into
England. Half a million tons were imported by England last
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 139
year. So great, however, is the demand, by the great crushing
countries–Germany, France and Belgium–for seeds yielding
edible oils that even castor seed is now imported for the
purpose.”
280. USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Inventory. 1910.
Seeds and plants imported during the period from July 1 to
September 30, 1909. Nos. 25718 to 26047. No. 20. 34 p.
April 23.
• Summary: Soy bean introductions: Glycine hispida
(Moench) Maxim.
“25778-81. From Buitenzorg, Java. Presented by Dr. M.
Treub, director, Department of Agriculture. Received July
19, 1909. Seeds of the following:
“25778. Black.
“25779. Yellow.
“25780. Yellow.
“25781. Brown.”
“25913/25920. From Hangchow, China. Presented by
Rev. W.S. Sweet, Wayland Academy, Baptist Missionary
Union, Eastern China Mission. Received August 2, 1909.
Seeds of the following; notes by Mr. Sweet.
“25919-20.
“25919. Yellow. Vine 1 foot high; ripe from November
to December. The cheese made from this bean forms a
large element of food here; if adapted to American tastes a
profitable business could be established in the States.
“25920. Black. Ripe from June to August; used the same
as No. 25919.” Address: Washington, DC.
281. Brenier, Henri. 1910. La question du soja [The soya
question]. Bulletin Economique de l’Indochine (Hanoi)
13(83):105-28. March/April. Series 2. [22 ref. Fre]
• Summary: This is an in-depth look at the relevance of
the soybean to France, both now and in the future. It is
prompted by the rapid growth of soybean imports to Europe
from Manchuria. The author has a good knowledge of the
literature on soybeans and a familiarity with the crop in the
field in French Indochina and China.
Contents: 1. Soybean cultivation: Species and varieties,
major soybean producing countries (China, Japan, Korea,
Indochina), other countries (Java and the Dutch East
Indies, France, USA. The Imperial Institute of London is
conducting trials in the Cape of Good Hope and Natal [South
Africa], in British West Africa, and in Gambia), methods of
cultivation and yield. 2. Commerce: Exports of soybeans
and soybean cake (beancake, tourteaux de soja) from China
and especially Manchuria (Newchwang, Dairen/Dalny,
Antung, Ta tung kow, Suifenho (Suifenhe / Sui-fen-ho)),
importing countries in 1908 in descending order of amount
imported (Russian ports on the Pacific [Vladivostok, for
re-export to Europe], Great Britain, France, Holland, Italy,
Belgium, Germany), prices. 3. Soybean utilization: Chemical
composition, use as a forage plant and for improving the soil,
use in human foods (tofu, shoyu, Worcestershire sauce, tuong
[Annamite soy sauce], miso, natto, soymilk), the soybean
as an oilseed (yield of oil from various oilseeds), soybean
cakes. Conclusions.
Page 109 discusses soybeans in Indochina, according
to information received from M. Crevost, Curator of the
Agricultural and Commercial Museum of Hanoi, and from
the article by Bui-quang-Chiêu (Dec. 1905). The names of
the soybean are different in the various parts of Indochina.
In Cochin China (especially in the provinces of Chaudoc
and Baria), in Annam (sporadically), and in Tonkin it is
called dau-nanh or dau-tuong (Tuong is a sauce made with
soybeans, described later under “Uses”). In Cambodia
(Cambodge) it is called sandek sieng. The variety most
widely cultivated in Indochina seems to be one with a
yellowish-white color, more oblong than round, a little
flattened (soja platycarpa of Harz [1880, 1885] (?)), different
therefore from the fine (belle) varieties of Manchuria and
Japan that are well rounded and pure yellow.
A table (p. 112) shows soy bean grain exports (in
1,000 metric tons) from different Manchurian ports for the
years 1905-1908. The author notes that Indochina could be
exporting soybeans to France. One factor that stimulated the
large exports of soybeans from Manchuria in 1908 (besides
an excellent harvest in 1907) was a program to suppress the
cultivation of opium by expansion of soybean acreage (p.
113). The author uses the scientific name Phaseolus radiatus
to refer to the petit haricot vert (probably mung bean). He
observed soybeans planted in mixed culture in Szechuan.
Page 116 notes that the rise of soybeans in Manchuria
is due in part to the power of the Japanese commercial
house Mitsui Bussan Kaisha and the large English oil mills,
which joined to develop an industry that had not previously
existed. At the end of 1906, Mitsui, which had a dominant
commercial role in Southern Manchuria, sent one or two
trial shipments of soybeans to England. Mitsui was followed
mainly by the British trading houses (Samuel & Samuel,
Jardine, Matheson), then by the Germans (Otto Reimers,
Arnhold Karberg), and the Russians. Continued suppression
of opium growing led to further expansion of soybean
cultivation.
A table (p. 117) gives the price of soybeans (per picul
of 300 catties = 180 kg), soybean cake (per 10 cakes of 53
catties each or 318 kg for the 10), and soybean oil (per picul
of 100 catties = 60 kg) in New chwang [Newchwang] taels
and in French francs in the average year from 1882-1891,
and in the year 1897. Prices were up in 1897.
Page 124 states: “A factory was recently founded near
Paris (at Saint Germain en Laye), with Chinese capital, for
the preparation of a series of products derived from soya:
milk, “caséo-sojaïne,” cheese [tofu], sauce, and sweet soya
preserves (confiture (?) de soja).” A footnote states: “I owe
this curious piece of information to the amicability of the
secretary of Ecole française d’Extrême-Orient, Mr. Ch.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 140
Maybon, who pointed it out in the January 1910 issue of the
Bulletin de l’Association amicale franco-chinoise.
A table (p. 125) shows that the soybean gives the lowest
yield of oil of all major oilseeds: copra (from coconut) yields
67-70% oil, sesame seeds 50-56%, poppy seed (pavot) 4350%, castor oil plant 42-50%, rapeseed (colza) 42-45%,
linseed 43%, peanuts 35-47%, cottonseed 21-26%, soybeans
from Manchuria 16-18%.
Note: This is the earliest document seen (March 2000)
that describes caséo-sojaïne as a product. Yet this may well
be a mistake since its source of information is given as
Bulletin de l’Association Amicale Franco-Chinoise (Jan.
1910)–which uses the term to refer to a business name.
Address: Inspecteur-Conseil des Services Agricoles et
Commerciaux de l’Indochine.
282. Chicago Daily Tribune. 1910. News and gossip of
Board of Trade. July 26. p. 11.
• Summary: “High prices for meats and lard have played
havoc with the European trade in those commodities.”
“In Holland a compound product of vegetable oils is
superseding lard among the poorer classes... The Dutch are
making a product of cocoa oil, cocoa butter, and soja beans
[oil?] which is proving acceptable as a substitute for lard and
is selling in large quantities.”
283. Bulletin van het Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem.
1910. Inlichtingen, correspondentie, enz. [Information,
correspondence, etc.]. No. 45. p. 118-69. July. See p. 128-33.
[Dut]
• Summary: On pages 128-33 is a section titled “The
soybean” (De sojaboon), which consists mostly of long
passages translated into Dutch or excerpted from other
publications, especially: (1) Edie, E.S. 1909. “Cultivation
and uses of soya beans.” Liverpool University, Institute of
Commercial Research in the Tropics, Bulletin 1(1):1-7. Oct.
8. (2) Heyne, K. 1909. Kedelee op de Europeesche markt
[“Soybeans in the European market”]. Teysmannia 20:68791.
284. Ott de Vries, J.J. 1910. Der Milchertrag
und die Beschaffenheit von Butter und Kaese
bei Sojakuchenfuetterung im Vergleich zur
Leinkuchenfuetterung [A comparison of the effects of
soybean cake and linseed cake rations on the yield of milk
and the properties of butter and cheese]. Molkerei-Zeitung
(Berlin) 20(35):409-10. Aug. 27; 20(36):421-22. Sept. 3.
English-language summary in Experiment Station Report, p.
581. [Ger]
Address: Horn Society for Experimental Dairy Farm
Operation, Netherlands.
285. Takahashi, Teizô. 1910. Kikkoman Shoyu Jozosho (The
“Kikkoman” brand soy brewery.) Main office: Noda, Chiba
Prefecture (Document part). In: Japan’s Industries: And
Who’s Who in Japan. 1910. Osaka, Japan: Industrial Japan.
vi, iii, 687 p., iv p. See p. 163-65. Undated. Translated from
unpublished Japanese manuscripts. 29 cm. [Eng]
• Summary: “History: The origin of the brewing of the
‘Kikkôman’ brand of soy, reputed to be the leader among
the best varieties, dates back about 120 years [i.e. to
about 1790]. Ever since the honoured founder of the firm
inaugurated the brewing of soy, the succeeding proprietors
have all been men of great ability, who have succeeded in
extending the business generation by generation, as well
as improving the quality of the product. In the year 1838,
when Mr. Saheiji Mogi, fifth of the line, was the head of the
firm, it was appointed by special warrant purveyor to the
Household of the Tokugawa Shoguns, having been ordered
to supply the Household and the Heir-Apparent every year
with a large quantity of soy, a custom which was continued
until the overthrow of the Shogunate in 1868. Very few
firms or individuals were honoured by being appointed
special contractors to the Court of the Shogun, and this fact
must be considered as a very high tribute to the excellence
of the firm’s products, the quantity to be supplied being
subsequently doubled.
“The chief point worthy of special mention in regard
to the ‘Kikkoman’ firm is the fact of its having been
chiefly instrumental in making Japanese soy known and
appreciated in foreign countries, more than half the total
amount of soy exported to foreign countries at present being
the ‘Kikkoman’ brand. Mr. Saheiji Mogi, the grandfather
of the present proprietor, was a remarkable able businessman. He was most assiduous and energetic in endeavouring
to effect improvements in the process of brewing as well
the extension of the business. On the occasion of the
International Exhibition held in Vienna, Austria, in 1873,
when the Japanese Government participated for the first time
in such an undertakings, the ‘Kikkoman’ soy was among
the exhibits. Being deemed by the judges far superior both
in regard to taste and colour to the sauce usually used as a
condiment, the ‘Kikkoman’ soy was awarded the gold of
honour.
“Afterwards, when the name of ‘Kikkoman’ soy
gradually came to be known in Europe and its exportation
increased, many spurious articles appeared on the market,
bearing the same brand, This proved very detrimental to
the reputation of the genuine ‘Kikkoman’ soy, so that, the
firm, in order to protect itself against fraudulent imitations,
ordered a very elaborate design for a trade-mark to be
made for them in Paris, which they had registered, this
being, in fact, the very first instance of a trade-mark being
registered for soy and most probably in advance of any other
commodity. In January, 1905, the above trade-mark was
registered at the United States Patent Office. In June 1909
the United States Government issued a certificate regarding
‘Kikkoman’ soy, to the effect that it is of very superior
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 141
quality, containing no admixture of saccharine or any other
chemicals and being very suitable as a condiment.
“The services which this firm have rendered in the
cause of the soy industry, principally for its exportation to
foreign countries, are very remarkable. Whenever there was
an exhibition abroad, tiny sample bottles of the soy were
distributed, and no opportunity was lost and no difficulty
seemed too great to be overcome by the firm in order to
popularise Japanese soy in foreign countries.
“On the occasion of the Japan-British Exhibition held
in London in 1910, ‘Kikkoman’ soy as well as the other
best varieties of Japanese soy, is being exhibited. Thus, the
English public will be given full opportunity to test this best
quality of Japanese food condiment.
“Present conditions: The ‘Kikkoman’ firm owns
at present six soy breweries, with the total number of
4,200 hands and eight sets of boilers and steam engines.
The yearly output is about 11,800,000 gallons, of which
2,880,000 gallons are exported to foreign countries, the
principal destinations being Honolulu [Hawaii], Portland
[Oregon], San Francisco [California], Seattle [Washington],
Los Angeles [California], Tacoma [Washington], Denver
[Colorado], Chicago [Illinois], London [England], Paris
[France], Berlin [Germany], Vienna [Austria-Hungary], and
China ports.
“Honours awarded: The ‘Kikkoman’ firm has had
conferred upon it the honour of being special contractors
to the Imperial Household Department, a special brewery
being devoted exclusively for the brewing of soy supplied to
the Imperial table. An entirely new plant, with the capacity
of turning out 20,000 gallons per annum has been newly
installed, which is under the strict surveillance of experts
specially appointed for the purpose. The utmost cleanliness
is carefully observed and the brewing is carried out on up-todate and hygienic principles.
“The most principal medals and prizes awarded to the
firm at the various exhibitions are as follows: International
Exhibition at Vienna, 1873. Gold Medal. National Industrial
Exhibitions (First to the Fifth inclusive). First Prize.
International Exhibition at Amsterdam (Netherlands), 1883.
Gold Medal. St. Louis [Missouri] International Exposition,
1904. Grand Prix of Highest Honour. Seattle International
Exposition, 1909. Grand Prix of Honour.
“Proprietor: Mr. Saheiji Mogi, the father of the present
proprietor and eighth of the line, was a man of very
progressive ideas. He studied at Cambridge University, and
after a stay in England extending for several years, returned
to Japan and devoted himself to the extension of the business
of the firm, when he was unfortunately attacked by a sudden
illness to which he succumbed. His son succeeded to the
head of the business and being ably and faithfully is assisted
by the guardian, Mr. Keizaburo Mogi, and the Manager, Mr.
Kyujiro Uchida, the business has progressed and is at present
in a very prosperous condition.
A photo (p. 164) shows the Kikkoman brand soy
brewery next to a river. Smoke is rising from a tall
smokestack and boats are docked along the river.
Note: This is the earliest document seen (April 2012)
that contains industry or market statistics for soy sauce
production by a particular manufacturer. Address: PhD in
Agriculture (Nogakuhakushi), Prof. at Tokyo Imperial Univ.,
Japan.
286. Mayer, Adolf. 1910. Fuetterungsversuche mit Soja- und
Leinkuchen in Holland [Feeding trials with soya cake and
linseed cake in Holland]. Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche
Presse 37(78):848-49. Oct. 1. [Ger]
• Summary: An experiment by Hoorn showed that feeding 3
kg of soy bean cake to milk cows instead of linseed cake had
a good influence on milk production.
287. Tropical Agriculturist, Supplement (Ceylon). 1910. East
Asiatic Co. and the soya bean industry. Soya cake factory
erected at Copenhagen. 35(4):368. Oct. 15. Also titled
Supplement to the Tropical Agriculturist and Magazine of the
Ceylon Agricultural Society. [1 ref]
• Summary: A factory “has been erected there with capital
provided by the East Asiatic Company at a cost of about
1,000,000 kr. (£55,500). It is estimated that as at present
arranged 100 tons of soya beans can be pressed in 24 hours,
and that, if necessary, the output could be increased. The
factory appears to be well equipped and fitted with the latest
improvements. The East Asiatic Company’s own vessels
are likely to largely contribute to the activity of the factory
by bringing the beans from the East for pressing, though a
quantity of soya beans has already been shipped from the
United Kingdom [to Copenhagen]. It is anticipated that by
establishing this, and in the course of time other oil cake
factories, Denmark may be able to obtain a more effectual
control over the price of butter than has been the case
hitherto, and avoid the enormous fluctuations of price which
of late have been so much in evidence.”
“A French agency states that Mr. Li Yu Jin [sic, Li Yuying], who established the first soya bean industry in Paris,
has returned from China after consulting Chinese capital of
F. 1,500,000 for developing this enterprise in Europe. The
soya will be worked at Paris, Brussels, London, and Berlin,
and will be consumed in the form of milk, sauce, soup,
vegetable, jam, cheese, flour, and bread.–L. & C. [London
and China] Express, Aug. 19.”
Note 1. It is not clear whether soybeans have arrived yet
in Denmark for processing by this new oil mill. Note 2. This
is the earliest English-language document seen (March 2000)
with the term “Soya cake” in the title.
288. Board of Trade Journal (London). 1910. Foreign trade
of China in 1909. 71:20-25. Oct. 16. See p. 23-24. [1 ref]
• Summary: “The following article on the foreign trade of
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 142
China in 1909 is based on the ‘Abstract of Statistics and
Report on the Foreign Trade of China’ for 1909, recently
published by order of the Inspector-General of the Chinese
Imperial Customs...
“Apart from tea, silk, and two or three other articles,
a marked general increase occurred in the leading exports
to foreign countries; but the rise of a great export trade in
beans is the fact which overshadows all others. From the
earliest days of the Foreign Customs beans and beancake
have been the principal exports from Newchwang, but for
many years the trade was exclusively domestic. About the
year 1890 a beginning was made with shipments to Japan,
and the traffic soon rose into importance, Japan being
practically the only foreign buyer of these products until
1908. During the eight years 1900-7 the average annual
value of the beans exported abroad was 4.37 million taels
[a unit of currency. The average value of the Haikwan tael
is 2s. 7.19d. in 1909, 100 Haikwan taels = 111.40 Shanghai
taels, for which exchange quotations are made]. In 1908 the
total export of beans abroad rose to 4,770,000 piculs [1 picul
weighs 133.33 lb], valued at 9 million taels, and in 1909 to
no less than 14,438,000 piculs, valued at 32.78 million taels.
The soya bean thus took at a bound a position equal to that
of tea in the list of exports, and if to the shipments of beans
be added those of beancake, giving a combined value of 52
million taels, even the position of silk at the top of the list is
challenged. Of the beancake exported (10,088,359 piculs),
all but an inappreciable quantity was of Manchurian origin;
and of the beans, 10,915,000 piculs were sent out from
Manchurian ports, 1,173,000 piculs from Hankow, 1,737,000
piculs from Chinkiang and Shanghai, and 600,000 piculs
from Amoy [Xiamen] and Kwangtung [province in southeast
China] ports. The ultimate destinations of the consignments
of beans are less easy to determine with accuracy. There
went directly to Japan 4,945,000 piculs; to Great Britain,
1,158,600 piculs; to Hongkong, 2,010,800 piculs; to Port
Said (‘for orders’), 2,021,600 piculs; and to Vladivostock
[Vladivostok] through Suifenho [Suifenhe], 3,842,000
piculs. The statement, on good authority, that 400,000 tons
of beans were shipped to the United Kingdom in 1909 may
be accepted as not far from the mark, and would account for
6,800,000 piculs. Add the shipments to Japan and 460,000
piculs declared as for the Straits, Dutch Indies, and European
countries, and there still remains a balance of over 2,000,000
piculs of which the destination is uncertain.”
Tables show the net imports of foreign and native goods,
and exports for the years 1907-09 of: Manchuria (p. 21).
China (p. 22).
Note: This is the earliest document seen (March 2010)
that gives soybean trade statistics for Southeast Asia (imports
to Dutch Indies).
289. Mene, Edouard. 1910. La Chine a l’Exposition de
Bruxelles [China at the Brussels Exposition]. Bulletin de
l’Association Amicale Franco-Chinoise 2(4):336-46. Oct.
See p. 340-43, 346. [Fre]
• Summary: 1. The Chinese pavilion: In the beautiful and
grandiose Universal Exposition of 1910, that a frightful
fire partially destroyed, the Chinese section merits special
mention. It is not an official exposition organized through the
care of the Chinese administration. Rather, it is an exposition
organized by five Chinese merchants The last one, Mr. Tsu
represents both soya and the ideal kite (soja et cerf-volant
idéal).
Note: The meaning of cerf-volant idéal is unclear. The
Chinese have long been known for their beautiful and welldesigned kites, some with long, flowing tails. However, if
Mr. Tsu was exhibiting kites, he would have used the plural
form of the noun. Is he saying that soy is like a high-flying
kite?
These exhibitors have gathered a certain amount of
indigenous and modern objects, commercial and artistic in a
pavilion located in the section reserved to foreign countries
(start of p. 339).
In the back of the room, to the right are displayed by
Mr. Tsu, the different products extracted from one of most
utilized plants in China: Soja hispida, Houang-teou, the
soybean of the leguminous family.
One can observe plates filled with soybean seeds
(graines), looking like little round (broad) beans (fèves), and
some dehulled soya beans; jars filled with white soya cheese,
looking like quark [tofu], cheese in round boxes, looking like
Camembert [fermented tofu]; a jar with the skin of the soya
cheese [yuba]; a vial with soya casein [soy protein].
A display case is filled with jars of different types
of yellow, green, and black soybeans, of soya flour, of
semolina, of a brownish soya coffee in bean and powder
form, of bottles of soymilk, of soy oil, and of Soy [sauce],
this condiment so utilized in Chinese cuisine. On a table
are displayed soya pastries resembling in their shape, the
Commercy madeleines [small sponge cakes shaped like
sea shells], some noodles, macaroni and soya bread that is
prescribed to diabetics as well as a gruel of soya flour. On the
floor are placed several square soybean cakes (tourteaux),
residue of the soya oil production, of a grey-yellow color,
to be used as fertilizer. A brochure on soya-based food
products, excerpted from the book The Soybean (Le Soja) by
Mr. Li Yu-ying is being handed out through the care of the
exhibitor, Mr. Tsu.
This brochure, titled: ‘Soya based Food Products’
(Produits alimentaires à base de Soja), Caseo-Sojaine, rue
Denis-Papin, les Vallées (Seine), describes these products
and their preparation: soya milk, liquid or in powder form,
derived from the grinding of the beans, after immersion,
in water, for several hours. The grain content consisting of
legumin or vegetable casein, is placed under a grindstone:
one derives an homogenous, nutritive and digestible milk
product. Fermented and powdered milk is produced, soya
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 143
casein, extracted from the soya milk, with uses in food and in
industry; soya flour, obtained by the grinding of the dehulled
beans, completely deprived of their seed coat to lessen
the proportion of cellulose and increase its digestibility. It
does not contain any starch; soya bread, well utilized to
feed diabetics; by perfecting fermentation, one makes a
rather light bread, one that reminds one of rye bread; pasta
/ noodles; cookies, pastries, white- and pink-tinted pasta
prepared with soya flour, soy sauce (Soy) with a bouquet
that reminds one of burned onion that is used to enhance
fish and vegetables; soya jam (confiture de Soja), similar
in appearance and taste to chestnut cream (à la crème de
marrons), soya oil for food use; green vegetable soybeans
(légumes de Soja), whose sprouts may be used as a salad. As
for the soybean cakes (tourteaux), these are used for animal
feed and fertilizer.
In China, the Soja hispida (the soybean), with hairy
pods, with yellow, reddish, black, green, white, variegated
beans, whose taste echoes the green bean, the lentil, the pea,
and that has a high content of culinary oil, is grown, on a
large scale, in Mongolia, in Manchuria, and in the provinces
of Henan, Zhejiang, Jiangxi (Ho-nan, Tchokiang, Chan-si et
Chang-tong). It is one of the most utilized plants from the
culinary and industrial point of views.
Soy sauce, called Soy in English and in Chinese Tsiangyeou, is a greatly-appreciated condiment that is prepared with
yellow soybeans named Houang-teou and that one flavors
with star anise, green anise, and grated orange rind. It is a
blackish liquid, lightly syrup-like used to enhance the flavor
of fish, meat, and vegetables. Another Chinese condiment
[fermented black soybeans] is made with soybeans mixed
with salt and ginger. In Canton, Kiu-tsu [jiuzi, Cantonese
wine starter, a ferment] is made with soybeans, red rice,
and leaves of Glycosmis citrifolia. As for soya cheese, it is
made as follows (see footnote): Soak the soybeans in water
for 24 hours to make them swell; drain off the water, grind
while adding fresh water to form a slurry that is run through
a filter. Stir it by hand, then pour it into a caldron, where it
undergoes a slow cooking. Let it cool in a tub and remove
the foam with a big spoon.
A thick film [yuba] is formed on the surface. It is lifted
off with a round wooden stick shaped like a long chopstick
(baguette) and it is allowed to dry on thin ropes. This skin is
called skin of soya cheese [yuba]. To the remaining soymilk,
add a little water mixed with calcium sulfate (plâtre) and
several drops of nigari, which is magnesium chloride derived
from the salt in salt beds.
Footnote at the end of page 342: See (1) Bulletin of the
Society for Acclimatation, second series, volume 13, page
562, 1866, “On The production of tofu in China,” by Paul
Champion.
Stir in the liquid coagulant which will cause the casein
in the soymilk to coagulate. Pour the warm mass into in
a wooden frame or box lined internally with a fine cloth
through which the liquid whey will seep. Atop the frame or
box place a board loaded with weights to press the cheese
which is of a grayish white color, looks like quark, and has a
pea-pod taste (à goût de pois); with the addition of salt, this
cheese will keep; without this precaution, it spoils. It is used
to feed the impoverished portion of the population: often,
it is fried in soya oil. Soya cheese [tofu] is manufactured
on a large scale near Peking and in most of the sea ports
of Southern China. It is mostly the town of Ning-po that is
the center of this production. Each year, thousands of junks
(jonques) loaded exclusively with soya cheeses leave this
town’s harbor to reach other Chinese harbors.
Besides cheese [tofu], the most important soya product
is the oil that is extracted from its beans, mostly the yellow
beans called Houang-teou. This yellow oil, which is
siccative / drying, has a special smell and a pea-pod taste.
At Kaifeng (K’ai-fong) in Henan (Ho-nan) province, at Tsinan in the Chan-tong, and at T’ai-yuan in the Chan-si, are
located important soya oil manufacturing plants. But it is
mostly Ningpo in the Tcho-kiang, that is the center for the
production and the centralizing of soya oil. Much is also
produced in Newchwang [Nieou-tchouang], and in Chefoo
/ Tantai (Tche-fou) in Shantung province. The soybean
cakes (tourteaux), the by-products of soya oil processing,
are a major export out of Newchwang and Chefoo; they are
shipped to Swatow and Amoy to be used as fertilizer in sugar
cane plantations.
These soybean cakes (tourteaux) are sought after as
much as the beans themselves, and are to feed cattle, as are
the pods, the stems and the foliage of the plant. The beans of
Hei-teou, the black soya bean, mixed with cut up straw, are
given as feed to horses and mules in Northern China and in
Manchuria.
Note: This periodical was established to promote
understanding and friendship among the people of France
and China. Soja is mentioned on pages 341, 342, 343, and
346. Address: Dr.
290. Atlanta Constitution (Georgia). 1910. Cotton oil
movement toward lower level. Nov. 20. p. C8.
• Summary: “Importations of cotton oil from England have
increased. Among the late arrivals were 186 drums and 1,000
barrels. Importations of soja bean oil included 2,500 barrels
and 175 casks, all from England. Heavy arrivals of peanut
oil were also noted from Marseilles [France] and Rotterdam”
[Netherlands].
291. Product Name: [Drying Soya Bean Oil].
Manufacturer’s Name: Chemische en Veraffabrick de
Vecht.
Manufacturer’s Address: Loenen-a.-d.-Vecht, Holland.
Date of Introduction: 1910 November.
New Product–Documentation: Oil and Colourman’s
Journal [Oil and Colour Trades Journal; Paint, Oil & Colour
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 144
Journal]. 1910. Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter. 1910. Dec. 19.
p. 25-26.
292. Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter. 1910. Drying soya bean
oil. 78(25):25-26. Dec. 19. [1 ref]
• Summary: “The Chemische en Veraffabrick de Vecht of
Loenen-a.-d.-Vecht, Holland, have supplied us, by request,
with a few particulars concerning their ‘Drying Soya Bean
Oil,’ which constitutes an important adaptation of a valuable
new material, says a recent issue of the Oil and Colourman’s
Journal. They say: It has often been attempted to use soya
bean oil as a drying oil, but without a marked success till
now.”
293. Wall Street Journal. 1910. Manchurian soya crop.
Quantity of beans available for export about 450,000 tons–
Germany large buyer. Dec. 19. p. 3.
• Summary: “At a conference of beans and grain products
held at Harbin, Manchuria, recently, it was estimated that
the quantity of soya beans available for export from North
Manchuria would be from 390,000 to 450,000 tons out of a
total crop of 775,000 tons. The Chinese Railway is said to
be prepared to provide five trains daily, each 30 cars of 15
tons capacity to handle the beans. In the Antwerp [Belgium]
market the oil is scarce. Spots according to Dornbusch are
hardly obtainable, and a very active business is being done
in futures. Dealers are asking 83½ francs for immediate
shipment.
“The suspension of the duty on soya beans in Germany
has resulted in a great expansion of imports. Between Jan.
1 and Oct. 31, of this year Germany’s imports aggregated
28,100 tons, compared with nothing a year ago.”
294. Natal Agricultural Journal. 1910. Feed value of soybean cake. 15(6):690-91. Dec.
• Summary: A summary of an article from The American
Hay, Flour and Feed Journal, based on a Dutch report on
feeding soybean cake to cows.
295. Caséo Sojaine booth at the Universal Exposition at
Brussels in 1910 (Photograph). 1910.
• Summary: On a long table with the words “Caséo Sojaine”
in front of it is an elaborate, tall pile of soymilk bottles. A
young Chinese man, wearing in a Western suit, is seated on a
chair to the right, holding a book, with his legs high-crossed.
Across the top of the photo, in red letters, is written: A
l’Exposition Universelle de Bruxelles 1918.
296. Ott de Vries, J.J. 1910. Recherches sur la valeur
des tourteaux de soya pour l’alimentation des vaches à
lait exécutées à la ferme laitière expérimentale à Hoorn
(Hollande) [Research on the value of feeding soybean cake
the milk cows at the experimental dairy farm at Hoorn
(Holland)]. In: Congrès International de l’Élevage et de
l’Alimentation (1eme), Rapports. Bruxelles, Belgium. 524 +
63 p. See p. 92-98. Illust. 26 cm. [Fre]*
• Summary: A long-term experiment (80 days) was
conducted on two equivalent lots of cows, each containing
not less than ten cows. The first lot received in its ration 3
kg of linseed cake per head per day, while the second lot
received 3 kg of soybean cake per head per day, containing
40.8% crude protein and 7.9% oils and fats (matières
grasses). The cows fed soybean cake produced a little more
milk (about 40 gm per head per day) than those fed linseed
cake, however this milk had a slightly lower content of oils
and fats (about 2 gm per liter). Address: Horn Society for
Experimental Dairy Farm Operation, Netherlands.
297. Ott de Vries, J.J. 1910. Voederproef met sojakoek bij
melkvee [Experiment feeding soybean cake the milk cows].
Vereeniging tot Exploitatie eener Proefzuivelboerderij
te Hoorn, Verslag. p. 14-39. For the year 1909. Englishlanguage summary in Experiment Station Report, p. 581. [1
ref. Dut]
• Summary: This experiment compares the effect of soybean
cake and linseed cake rations on the yield of milk and the
properties of butter and cheese. During the main feeding
period, in Holland, the average production of milk was
practically equal with the two oilseed cakes, but in the
average production of butterfat the linseed cake gave larger
returns. The refractive index of butter produced during
the soybean cake feeding period was slightly lower and
the percentage of volatile acids was slightly higher than
that of butter made during the linseed ration period. When
scored by good judges, there was no appreciable difference
in the quality of the butter. The properties of cheese were
unaffected. The soybean ration produced no unfavorable
effect on the health of the cows, and in all respects was
considered to be a valuable feed.
Note: This is one of the earliest European trials in
which soybean cake is used for milk production. Address:
Horn Society for Experimental Dairy Farm Operation,
Netherlands.
298. Tijdschrift voor Economische Geographie. 1910.
De sojaboonen, een nieuw artikel voor den wereldhandel
[Soybeans, a new article for international trade]. 1:435-36. [1
ref. Dut]
299. Clerget, Pierre. 1911. La question du Soja [The question
of the soy bean]. Revue Generale des Sciences (Pures et
Appliquees) 22(3):100-01. Feb. 15. (Chem. Abst. 5:1637). [2
ref. Fre]
• Summary: Contains a brief description of the soybean
and discusses its commercial importance, distribution,
soil requirements, the value of the oil and its uses, and the
composition and commercial value of the cake. During the
past 2 years, the large amounts of soybeans exported from
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 145
Manchuria to Europe have called attention to this plant. It is
cultivated all over China, but especially in Manchuria (in the
Liao Valley, where it is the second most important crop after
sorghum), Japan, Korea, and Indo-China. In China it is often
cultivated with maize; it demands a great of work, care, and
good soil. The main exports come from the Manchurian ports
of Newchwang and Dairen, and from Vladivostok. In 1908
some 859,200 tonnes of soybean and cake were exported
from Manchurian ports, up from only 88,900 tonnes in 1905.
Until 1908, Japan was the principal outlet for Manchurian
soybeans (615,900 tonnes), but at the start of that year,
exports to Europe began: 69,200 tonnes to Great Britain,
21,390 tonnes to France, 7,290 tonnes to Holland, etc.–for a
total of 204,440 tonnes.
According to chemical analyses made at the Colonial
garden of Nogent-sur-Marne, Manchurian soybean seeds
contain 17.64% oil and 33.5% protein; yellow varieties
contain more oil than black varieties. The soybean is used
as a forage plant and for soil improvement, but its most
important role in China and Japan is as a human food among
people who consume little meat. According to Bloch (1908),
it is most widely used in making a sauce [soy sauce] and a
cheese [tofu]. It is also used to make numerous pastes and a
sort of soymilk (lait de soja).
It also has industrial uses, thanks to its oil content of
16-18%. Indigenous mills can obtain only 8-10% oil, but
modern hydraulic presses can obtain 12-14%. The oil and
cake have made the soybean rise so rapidly on European
markets. The oil, which has an agreeable smell and taste,
is widely employed for culinary purposes in Manchuria.
In England, as in France, it is used in making soap and
margarine. It is more drying that cottonseed oil and can
likewise be used in making paints. Soybean cakes (Les
torteaux de soja) would give the same results as cottonseed
cakes in terms of milk yield from dairy cows. As a fertilizer,
they are used throughout Japan and on the sugarcane
plantations of southern China.
The soybean could be introduced to Indo-China where,
even if it has to compete against Manchurian soybeans, it
could be service locally for soil improvement in the rice
fields and as a food in the densely populated districts where
there is hardly any room for animals, or where the animals
have been decimated by disease. Address: Professeur à
l’Ecole supérieure de Commerce (Graduate School of
Commerce) de Lyon [France].
300. Quintus Bosz, J.E. 1911. De samenstelling van Indische
voedingsmiddelen [The composition of Indonesian foods].
Bulletin van het Kolonial Museum te Haarlem No. 46. 261 p.
March. Also published in Amsterdam by J.H. de Bussy as a
book. [8 ref. Dut]
• Summary: The nutritional composition and the source of
information is given in a table for the following: Soybean
seeds (p. 74-77). Soybean oil (sojaboonen-olie) (p. 76-
77). Soybean flour or meal (p. 154-55). Soybean biscuit
(Beschuit, 170-71). Japanese soy sauce and soybean tempeh
(Japansche soja, Tempé kedeleh p. 242-43). Indonesian
soy sauce (Ketjap, Bataviasche soja p. 244-45). Firm tofu
(Tao-koan, 79.8% water. p. 244-45). Address: Dr., naar
onderzoekingen in het Laboratorium van het Koloniaal
Museum verricht onder leiding van Dr. M. Greshoff.
301. Bontoux, Emile. 1911. Le Soja et ses dérivés [The
soybean and its products]. Matieres Grasses (Les)
(Paris) 4(36):2195-99. April 25; 4(37):2239-43. May 25;
4(39):2326-29. July 25; 4(40):2364-66. Aug. 25; 4(41):240507. Sept. 25. [48 ref. Fre]
• Summary: Contents. Introduction. The plant: origin and
history, species and varieties, culture, and production: USA,
Japan, Manchuria, France, England, China, Korea, Indochina
(it is cultivated for the needs of the population in Cochin
China {especially in the provinces of Chaudoc and Baria},
Annam, Tonkin, Cambodia), Formosa, Java, India, Africa.
The soybean–a food plant: The plant, the seed, large table
showing many analyses from many countries of the chemical
composition of many soybean seed varieties.
Introduction to food products made from soybeans in
East Asia. Shoyu [soy sauce] (and koji). Miso. Natto (from
Japan). Le Tao-yu (a Chinese condiment also widely used
in Japan. It is a thick, clear liquid [sometimes] made from
black-seeded soybeans) Tao-tjiung (doujiang, from China).
Tuong (from Annam). Tofu. Li Yu-ying. Table showing
composition of powdered soymilk, fresh tofu, and soy flour.
The soybean–an oilseed plant. The soybean as an
oilseed in the Far East. Table showing exports of soybean
cake and oil from various Manchurian and Chinese ports in
1908 and 1909. The soybean as an oilseed in Europe and
the United States. Table showing imports of soybeans to
various British ports in 1909 and 1910 (the leading port by
far is Hull, followed in 1909 by Liverpool, London, Bristol
Channel, Scotland, and Other ports {Rochester, etc.}). Table
showing exports of soy oil from Great Britain in 1910: To
Germany, Austria, Australia, USA, Belgium, Denmark,
Egypt, France, Holland, Italy, the Indies (Indes), Norway,
Russia, Sweden, other, total (115,372 barrels, each weighing
175 kg). Discussion of soy oil and cake in most of the above
countries.
Trade in soybean seeds: Mitsui Bussan, Manchuria,
England, China, Japan. Soybean cake.
Soy oil: Physical and chemical properties. Applications
and uses as food and in industry: Margarine, for illumination,
soaps, as a drying oil, paints and varnishes, linoleum,
artificial rubber. An extensive bibliography is at the end of
the last article in the series.
Note: This is the earliest document seen (May 2010)
concerning the cultivation of soybeans in Cambodia. This
document contains the earliest date seen for the cultivation
of soybeans in Cambodia (April 1911). Earlier documents
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 146
imply that soybeans were being cultivated in Cambodia by
1900, and it is highly likely that they were being cultivated
for at least a century before that time. Address: Ingénieurchimiste E.C.I.L., France.
302. Meyer, Frank N. 1911. Re: Soybean cake and oil. In:
Letters of Frank N. Meyer. 4 vols. 1902-1918. Compiled by
Bureau of Plant Introduction, USDA. 2444 p. See p. 1402,
1405. Letter of 22 July 1911 from Omsk, Siberia, to David
Fairchild of USDA.
• Summary: “I see you obtained some good soy beans from
Mr. E.C. Parker in Mukden [Manchuria]. In connection
therewith I enclose a clipping from the ‘Peterburger Herold’
in which it is stated that in one case the butter coming from
cows fed with soybean cake had a decided oil taste. Please
turn this clipping over to the specialist in charge of these
problems. I also read somewhere that in Marseilles [France]
they have made some very good soap from soybean oil.”
A subsequent letter of 21 Aug. 1911 (p. 1424) states:
“I am also enclosing a number of clippings. Some are quite
interesting, although old in years. There is one on Soy bean
oil manufacture in Odessa [Ukraine], for the specialist on soy
beans” [William Morse].
Note: This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Sept. 2006) that contains the term “Soybean oil.” But it
is a letter written by a man whose native tongue is Dutch, not
English–although he speaks and writes good English.
Location: University of California at Davis, Special
Collections SB108 A7M49. Address: USDA Plant Explorer.
303. Waerden, Herman van der. 1911. De sojaboon [The
soybean]. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad voor Nederland
48(32):889-96. Aug. 12. (Chem. Abst. 5:3737). [6 ref. Dut]
• Summary: “Review of the literature in regard to the
soybean, as food for man and animals and technical value of
the fat, with some new analysis of the soybean showing high
protein (35.4%) and fat (17%) content; physical constants
of the oil and of the fatty acids; analysis of the meal left
after oil extraction; protein (40.5%), fat (5.8-6.25%). Its
ash has a high phosphoric anhydride (P205, phosphoric
acid, anhydrous) value (29-36%).” Address: Scheikundig
Ingenieur, Laboratorium Koloniaal Museum.
304. Williamson, A.A. 1911. Commerce of the Liaotung
Peninsula. Daily Consular and Trade Reports (U.S. Bureau
of Manufactures, Department of Commerce and Labor)
14(255):535-40. Oct. 31.
• Summary: “The Dalny (Manchuria) consular district
comprises the entire territory held under lease by Japan from
China, lying at the extreme southern end of the Liaotung
Peninsula, and is known and officially designated by the
Japanese as the Kwantung Province. Its area is given as 205
square ‘ri,’ or 1,220.57 square miles, and it has a population
of 462,399 or 379 persons per square mile.
“The country is very hilly in the southern part of the
Province, the elevation, however, seldom reaching over 900
feet above the sea. Toward the north the surface gradually
becomes more level and partakes of the nature of the flat
bean fields of north Manchuria.”
“Dalny, the chief city and port of Kwantung Province,
is said to have the finest wharves in the Far East, vessels
drawing up to 28 feet being moored alongside the quay.
Goods can be discharged from a ship and placed aboard
the freight cars, which run out onto the wharves, in one
operation. While ice forms in the protected parts of the bay
at Dalny, it never becomes sufficiently thick to interfere
with navigation, so that the port is open the year round and,
Dalny being the southern terminus of the main line of the
South Manchuria Railway, the advantages offered are at once
evident.”
The export returns for 1910 “show a decided decrease
in shipments of beans and bean cake. The causes of this
are undoubtedly the (for the farmers) favorable preceding
year and the outbreak of plague with which the country
was smitten during the export season. The first caused the
farmers to sell rapidly in 1909 and to hold back in 1910; the
latter, because of isolation and segregation measures, brought
measures, brought traffic to a standstill. Undoubtedly the
bean season will, in the end, show no falling off, as the
estimates of production which have been obtainable show a
considerable increase in cultivation.”
The section titled “The export trade” states that “the
Chinaman” has a strong hold upon the trade passing
through Dalny; a high percentage of the imports came in
the shape of native products and “the export trade with
native products showed the greatest increase, over 90 per
cent.” A table shows “the principal articles exported through
the Maritime Customs at Dalny during 1909 and 1910
by steamer and by junk.” For 1909 and 1910 by steamer:
Bean cake 615,252,933 / 526,030,267 pounds. [Soya]
beans 981,274,267 / 713,489,867 pounds. [Soya] bean oil
19,021,067 / 31,642,267 pounds. For 1909 and 1910 by junk:
Bean cake 22,398,000 / 28,863,733 pounds. [Soya] beans
43,657,007 / 13,827,333 pounds. [Soya] bean oil 2,679,000 /
2,864,133 pounds.
Under “Soya-bean trade,” another table shows the
destination of these three products (in pounds) during 1910
from the Dairen customs district, as given in the Imperial
Chinese Maritime returns: Bean cake: Japan (incl. Formosa)
443,406,267 (99.9% of overseas total). Korea 307,333. Total
overseas 443,730134. Chinese ports 111,163,866 (20.0% of
grand total). Grand total 554,894,000.
[Soya] beans: Egypt 302,240,800 (#1). Japan
192,499,733 (#2). United Kingdom 59,455,867 (#3). Other:
Denmark, Hongkong, Netherlands, Straits Settlements
[today’s Singapore]. Total overseas 603,120,800. Chinese
ports 124,196,400 (17.1% of grand total). Grand total
727,317,200.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 147
Bean oil: Japan 17,208,133 (#1). Belgium 6,097,200
(#2). Other: Denmark, Egypt, Hongkong, Netherlands,
Straits Settlements. Total overseas 27,829,333. Chinese ports
9,677,067 (25.8% of grand total). Grand total 37,506,400.
A 3rd table shows prices of the three products month by
month in 1910 in U.S. currency as reported by the Manshu
Juyo Bussan Yushutsu Kumiai (Manchurian Staple Products
Export Association). For bean cake, the price is per 61.33 lb.
For soya beans and oil per 133.33 lb.
“There are still no American export and import houses
in this district, and until some thoroughly American house
opens here, trade with the United States will necessarily
remain half-hearted, being in the hands of natural
competitors.” The main export from this district to the USA
is soya bean oil, of which $93,974 was exported in 1910;
only $8,532 worth of soya-bean cake was exported. Address:
Vice Consul, Dalny, Manchuria.
305. Kent, William P. 1911. Manchurian trade and
commerce: Newchwang. Daily Consular and Trade Reports
(U.S. Bureau of Manufactures, Department of Commerce and
Labor) 14(271):888-93. Nov. 18.
• Summary: Table 2 (p. 891) shows that significant
“decreases occurred in the 1910 [soy] bean, [soy] bean-oil,
and [soy] bean-cake shipments through the Newchwang
customs. Beans were exported to Japan, Hongkong, and
Samarang [Semarang, a port city on the north coast of the
island of Java]; bean oil to Japan, the United Kingdom,
Samarang, and Belgium; while Japan imported all the
bean cake not consumed locally. All units for these three
commodities are in piculs; A picul is equivalent to 133.33
pounds.
“The soya bean and its products... continue to grow
in importance throughout Manchuria and to furnish the
principal articles of commercial activity at Newchwang.
When it is recalled how recently the soya bean and
its extensive uses have come to the knowledge of the
commercial world and how rapidly it has taken its place as
an article of commerce, it must be regarded as a marvel of
agricultural transformation, comparable alone in modern
times to the discovery of Indian corn, tobacco, and the
potato. The average price for 1910 of beans, bean cake, and
bean oil, laid down at Newchwang, was: Beans, $4.90 per
400 pounds; bean cake, $5.55 per 687 pounds; and bean oil,
$5.75 per 133.33 pounds.
“One of the by-products of the soya bean whose
manufacture is increasing is soy sauce, a condiment much
used in Japan and other parts of the East. The Japanese
established a factory at Newchwang in 1903 for the
manufacture of soy [sauce], starting with a small capital.
It has been so successfully conducted that from the profits
the plant is being englarged by an expenditure of $30,000.
Some prominent Chinese capitalists from the south of China
propose erecting two additional factories at Newchwang
during the coming season.
“The most important and profitable adjustment of the
bean trade is bean milling, and during the 1909-10 season
great progress was made in the substitution of modern
machinery for the old type of press, in which a system
of wooden wedges was used. Up to December, 1910, the
number of bean mills in operation at Newchwang was
as follows: Seven steam mills with an average capacity
of 5,000,000 pieces of bean cake and 21,000,000 catties
(catty=1.33 pounds) of oil per annum; 7 smaller ones with
an average annual capacity of 1,800,000 pieces of cake and
7,900,000 catties of oil; and 3 others with an average annual
output of 300,000 pieces of cake and 1,300,000 catties of
oil. One of steam mills employs hydraulic power on the
mold presses; all the others utilize steam and oil engines
simply to crush the beans preparatory to their being placed
in the molds, which are worked by hand on a cog and screw
system.
“What is desired is a machine similar to a cottonseed
press, meeting certain requirements peculiar to the bean.
This suggestion implies a matter of great importance to the
first devisers of a machine meeting the approval of local
bean-mill owners. To accomplish this end will require a
personal investigation to acquire a close knowledge of the
minor details of the industry. Descriptions and details are
of no avail, owing to the probable omission of some item
overlooked by an inexpert investigator.
“Declared exports–shipping: Beans have not as yet been
shipped direct from Newchwang to the United States. A
small shipment of bean oil was sent on trial to a New York
firm, and should this prove satisfactory larger returns may
confidently be expected.” Address: Consul, Newchwang.
306. Ott de Vries, J.J. 1911. Fuetterungsversuch mit
Sojakuchen bei Milchvieh [Experiment feeding soybean cake
the milk cows (Abstract)]. Biedermann’s Zentralblatt fuer
Agrikulturchemie 40:842-44. Dec. [1 ref. Ger]
• Summary: A German-language summary of the following
Dutch-language article: Ott de Vries, J.J. 1910. “Voederproef
met sojakoek bij melkvee [Experiment feeding soybean
cake the milk cows].” Vereeniging tot Exploitatie eener
Proefzuivelboerderij te Hoorn, Verslag. p. 14-39. For the
year 1909. Address: Horn Society for Experimental Dairy
Farm Operation, Netherlands.
307. Backer, Cornelis Andries. 1911. Schoolflora voor Java
[The flora of Java–a textbook]. Weltevreden: Visser & Co.
clxxix + 676 p. See p. 357-58. 24 cm. [Dut]
• Summary: A botanist, he lived 1874-. This is a botany of
Java. Three members of the genus Glycine are described on
pages 357-58: Glycine soja (the soybean), G. javanica, (the
wild soybean), and G. Koordersii. Address: Assistent aan het
Herbarium te Buitenzorg [Bogor, Java].
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 148
308. Wicherley, William. 1911. The whole art of rubbergrowing. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J.B. Lippincott Co.; or
London: The West Strand Publishing Co., Ltd. 154 p. See p.
146-51.
• Summary: In Chapter 16, titled “The soya bean” (p. 14651), the author is encouraging the cultivation of soya beans
in Ceylon. “Early last year the authorities in the Malay States
embarked upon a scheme of raising soya on a large scale, but
the latest reports point to an all-round failure, first as to yield,
and again as to the possible profitable exploitation of the
plant. The same thing happened two years ago in Java, and
also in the Philippines, where great things were prophesied
for the soya by the already optimistic and enthusiastic
American colonists. In each case–and generally the same
may be said in every instance where, given the proper soil
and climate, the soya bean fails to yield profitably–the fault
was wholly due to a want of practical knowledge of its
cultivation.”
“Now, it is extremely doubtful whether there are
more than half-a-dozen Europeans who have a practical
acquaintance with the successful growing of the soya bean,
since the Chinese, always jealous of the secrets of a craft
in which they have no rivals throughout the universe, have
carefully avoided every attempt by outsiders to become
acquainted with the system under which they produce
the bean in such enormous quantities, and in so perfect a
condition for export to Europe and elsewhere.”
“I present the secret, therefore, to the reader of these
pages with the greatest confidence and pleasure.” He then
explains that the key is proper inoculation of the soil. To
accomplish this, soybeans are planted in any light, sandy
friable soil without inoculation, broadcasting 4-5 bu/acre of
seed. Six weeks after the plants have emerged and begun
to branch, the crop is plowed under. The ground is again
leveled, and the crop proper at once drilled in, the rows being
6 inches apart with 4 inches between plants in each row.
“Under this system the soil is thoroughly and effectively
inoculated, and the crop, other things being equal, will
mature in 8 or 9 weeks from the time of sowing.”
“During the past year eminent millers both in England
and on the Continent turned their attention to this residue
material [defatted soy flour, produced at Hull {England} and
Antwerp {Belgium}], and have discovered in it properties,
hitherto unsuspected, of immense value to the milling
industry. In short, they find that soya flour ranks nearly
highest in the scale of high-class products of this nature, and
Messrs. Ranks, Ltd., among others, are now putting on the
market a soya flour of great nutritious value as human food.
A most delicious biscuit is also being manufactured from the
flour by Messrs. Carr, of Carlisle. There seems, in fact, no
end to the commercial possibilities of this truly wonderful
legume.”
Note: The Malay States were the native states of the
Malay Peninsula, especially those formerly under British
protection, located in the central and north part of the
peninsula. These semi-independent states were inhabited by
Malays and governed by Malay rulers. Address: F.R.H.S.
309. Mallèvre, A. 1912. Les expériences danoises concernant
la valeur des tourteaux de soja pour l’alimentation des vaches
laitières et l’influence qu’ils exercent sur la qualité du beurre
[Danish experiments concerning the value of soybean cake
as a food for dairy cows and its influence on the quality of
the butter]. Annales de la Science Agronomique Francaise et
Etrangere 29(1):81-100. Jan.; 29(2):226-28. Feb. 4th Series,
29th year. [12 ref. Fre]
• Summary: Contents: 1. Introduction: The work of Nils
Hansson in Sweden (1910), Ott de Vries in Holland (1910),
Gilchrist (1909) and the Royal College of Agriculture
(1909), both in England, Rosengren in Sweden (1910),
Malpeaux & Lefort in France (1910), three conclusions.
2. Danish research: Veterinary and Agricultural College
of Copenhagen (1911), A–Influence of soybean cake on
the yield of milk and the fat content of milk (research of
Bregentved, Rosenfeldt, Sanderumgaard & Rosvang on 80
cows), B–Influence of soybean cake on the quality of butter
(research of Wedellsborg and of Poeregaard-Tranekjoer).
The three conclusions in Part 1 are:
“(1) All the experiments, with one exception, show that
soybean residues, cakes and powders (les résidus de soja,
tourteaux et poudres) exert an influence on the yield of
dairy milk as favorable or more favorable than the cakes of
decorticated cottonseed, linseed, or sunflower (tournesol).
“(2) The results are less clear with respect to the fat
content of the milk. In the two soy products, it seems
increase at some times but more often to decrease. There
remains one point to clarify. Elsewhere, in the majority of
cases, the action of the soybean cakes (résidus) upon the
butyric acid content of the milk is very weak and, from then
on, without practical importance” Note: Butyric acid has an
unpleasant odor.
“(3) The feeding of milk cows with the aid of soybean
cakes or powders of good quality does not jeopardize the
quality of butter, nor (in particular) its taste.”
Extensive experiments with a large number of cows
have been carried out in Denmark with regard to the effect
of soy bean cake on the yield and fat content of the milk of
dairy cows and on the quality of the butter.
In its influence on the yield and fat content of milk, the
soy bean cake was found to be in no way superior to the
mixture of other concentrated foods against which it was
tested, viz., decorticated cotton cake, earth nut [groundnut]
cake, and sunflower seed cake. As regards the quality of the
butter, the soy bean cake had no effect on the aroma and
flavor, but produced butter of a firmer consistency than the
other cakes tried. It is concluded that soy bean cake may
be added with advantage to a mixture of such concentrated
foods as produce a soft butter, but that beets should not be
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 149
given in too large quantities along with soy bean cake, as the
former also produce hard butter. Address: Professor, Institut
National Agronomique.
310. Fuller, Stuart J. 1912. New soya-bean mill in
Sweden. Daily Consular and Trade Reports (U.S. Bureau
of Manufactures, Department of Commerce and Labor)
15(55):950. March 6.
• Summary: The Aktiebolaget Goteborgs Ris- och Valskvarn
(Gothenburg Rice & Roller Mill Co.) is installing a plant to
process soya beans from Manchuria. “The establishment of
such a plant at Gothenburg has been discussed for several
years.
“The plant will be the first of its kind in Sweden. Soyabean oil, oil cake, and meal have hitherto been imported
from Hull, England, and from Copenhagen. This oil has
in the past four or five years become a strong competitor
of other vegetable oils, many of which are imported from
America, while the bean cake and meal have been most
successful in competing with American cottonseed cakes and
meal.
“The new enterprise is allied to the Swedish and
Danish East Asiatic companies and with similar plants at
Copenhagen and Stettin [Sczcecin, the largest seaport in
Poland {as of May 2015} on the Baltic Sea and the Oder
River], and Danish money forms part of the capital. The two
East Asiatic companies referred to operate a joint steamship
service to the Far East [East Asia], and the problem of return
cargo for the ships that go out with paper, pulp, timber, and
iron is important. This explains their interest in developing
uses for Manchurian [soya] beans.
“It is planned to expend 1,500,000 crowns ($402,000)
in a plant capable of handling 30,000 tons of beans annually,
and so designed that it can easily be enlarged to 50,000 tons
capacity.” Address: Consul, Gothenburg.
311. Waerden, Herman van der. 1912. De sojaboon [The
soybean]. Indische Mercuur (De) (Amsterdam) 35(12):25152. March 19. [6 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This article is reprinted from Pharmaceutisch
Weekblad, 12 Aug. 1911. 48(32):889-96. Address:
Scheikundig Ingenieur, Dir. Laboratorium Koloniaal
Museum.
312. Christian Science Monitor. 1912. Soy bean’s
possibilities as bearing on the cost of living: Manchurian
product already used in connection with farming life of
America as well as in Europe. Food for cattle. April 27. p.
25.
• Summary: The soy bean may gradually help to lower the
cost of living in the USA. Few things give greater concern
to most people than high prices and “how to get the most for
the money.”
“The entrance of the soy bean on the western
agricultural horizon may be considered as a prospective
factor in American farming... This leguminous native of the
far east is likely to settle down permanently in American
soil” and may come to mean much to American “consumers
of met and vegetable food.”
Already as a feed for cattle, “this bean is beginning to
influence the produce market.”
“It is due to Japanese energy that the soy bean has
become one of the chief articles for export from Manchuria...
In Europe... they are now finding other uses for the bean
besides feeding it to cattle. Refined soy bean oil is being
mixed with other oils for a salad dressing; bean flour is being
mixed with wheat or rye flour for making bread or biscuits.
Soap manufacturers are discovering in it one of the best
ingredients for their products, and in the manufacture of
paints and lubricating and illuminating oils it is beginning to
play a conspicuous part.
“The fact remains, however, that the chief value of
the soy bean is in the form of beancake for cattle, and the
American department of agriculture [USDA] in Washington
[DC] has directed its experiments principally in that
direction.
“There may be a lesson to American farmers in the
experience of Denmark and Holland with the soy bean as
animal food. At first there was some hesitance about using
it because of apprehension that it might affect the quality
of the butter. But all such thoughts proved baseless and the
Manchurian bean now goes to these great dairy countries in
ever increasing quantities.
“As recently as five years ago, B.T. Galloway, chief of
the bureau of plant industry of the department of agriculture,
wrote to secretary Wilson as follows: ‘Soy beans have
become an important crop in only a few localities in the
United States, but in the cases where farmers have learned
how to utilize them to the best advantage they have proved
to be a crop of high value. They are especially valuable for
mixing with corn for silage, for the production of hay and for
pasture use, especially for hogs. They possess an advantage
over cow peas in that the growth is erect and they are,
therefore, easily harvested. Some of the taller sort may be
harvested with an ordinary grain binder.
“’One reason why soy beans have not become more
prominent in American agriculture has been the impossibility
of securing seeds of a particular variety.’
“Made bean study: To remedy this defect, Carlton
R. Ball, agronomist of the department of agriculture,
was charged with the task of finding ways and means for
introducing the right varieties in the United States. Mr. Ball’s
investigations covered a period of more than four years.
At the end of that time he prepared a report [published in
May 1907] which was considered the last word in soy bean
literature.” A good summary of the report is given. “The best
known soy bean [variety] on the market is Ito San.
“One of the grievances of the American farmer in recent
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 150
years has been that it cost so much to feed his stock.” The
soy bean may help to ease or to solve this problem.
313. Tropical Life (England). 1912. Coco-nut products, &c.
[prices given for “soya oil”]. 8(6):115-16. June. [1 ref]
• Summary: “According to the London Public Ledger, prices
on June 14th for the undermentioned ruled as follows: “Soya Oil Beans dull. Harbin parcels, spot, £8 10s.; Hull
afloat, £8 10s.; June-July, £8 11s. 3d.; July-August, £8 10s;
August-September, £8 12s. 6d. Cargoes May-June, £8 12s.
6d. June-July, £8 12s. 6d.
“Of oils, Cotton is quiet... Soya Oil, present price,
London, for barrels spot, £30. Hull: Spot crushed, £27 10s.,
forward, £27 5s., spot extracted, £26 2s. 6d. Oriental dull
and lower (in cases), March-April, £24 10s. c.i.f.; April-May,
£24 7s. 6d. c.i.f.; May-June, after £24 12s. 6d. accepted
c.i.f., Antwerp closed £24 7s. 6d. c.i.f.; June-July, after £24
15s. accepted c.i.f. Antwerp closed £24 12s. 6d. c.i.f.; JulyAugust, £24 15s. c.i.f. Antwerp.
Note: Starting with this issue, prices are given for
“soya oil” under the heading shown above, and later under
“Vegetable oil notes.”
Also gives prices for coprah [copra], linseed cakes,
cotton cakes, cotton oil, and coco-nut oil.
314. Fremery, F. de. 1912. Mededeelingen uit de practijk.
No. 1. Soja en katoen als voorvrucht [Notes from practice
No. 1. Soybeans and cotton as preparatory crops (for
tobacco)]. Mededeelingen van het Deli Proefstation te
Medan (Sumatra) 7(1):57-58. July. [Dut]
• Summary: This paper explores the results of experiments
with soybeans and cotton as a preparatory crop for tobacco.
315. Li, Yu-ying; Grandvoinnet, L. 1912. Le soja: Sa
culture. Ses usages alimentaires, thérapeutiques, agricoles et
industriels [The soybean: Its culture. Its food, therapeutic,
agricultural, and industrial uses]. Paris: Augustin Challamel
(Rue Jacob 17). 150 p. Illust. Index. 25 cm. Translated into
French and expanded from the Chinese edition, published
by la Societé Biologique d’Extréme-Orient (1910). [151 ref.
Fre]
• Summary: One of the earliest, most important, influential,
creative, interesting, and carefully researched books ever
written about soybeans and soyfoods. Its bibliography on
soy is larger than any published prior to that time. It was first
published as a series of eight articles in Agriculture Pratique
des Pays Chauds (Bulletin du Jardin Colonial) from
September 1911 to April 1912. Before being published as a
book, it was revised slightly by adding a table of contents at
the back, dividing the material into 5 parts with 19 chapters,
and adding several photos (p. 16-17), a world map showing
the distribution of soybean cultivation (p. 21), and an
interesting 2-page table (p. 66-67).
Contents: The soybean: Origin and history. Part I:
Soybean culture. 1. Species and varieties of soybeans:
Botanical characteristics, species, varieties (Chinese,
Japanese, Indian, Indochinese, Hawaiian, USA, European).
2. Needs of the soybean: Climatic, geographical area of
the soybean by region worldwide, agrological/soil needs,
fertilizers, soil preparation, the place of the soybean in crop
rotations. 3. Soybean seeds: Study of seeds (by weight,
by germination rate, selection of seeds), time of planting,
plant spacing, depth of seeding, rate of seeding per hectare,
method of seeding (broadcasting, in rows, in mounds).
4. The soybean during its vegetative stage: Germination,
transplanting, types of care (e.g., second dressings),
irrigation, flowering and fruiting, enemies of the soybean
(e.g., insects). 5. Harvest of soybeans: Time for harvest
(forage or grain), methods of harvesting (forage or grain;
mechanical mower), threshing (use of machine), yields of
soybeans (forage and grain in various countries, ratio of
seeds harvested to straw is about 1 to 2, yield of nutrients).
6. Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by soybeans, and
improvement of the soil. 7. The soybean in mixed cultures
and alternate rows: With corn, cowpeas, rice, sweet sorghum,
or millet.
Part II: Chemical composition of the soybean. 1.
Composition of the plant: Minerals in the leaves and
total plant. 2. Study of the seed: Composition, chemical
composition, microscopic comparisons, table of analyses by
28 previous researchers, albumins, sugars, starch, dextrin or
dextrine, diastase, lipids, ash/minerals.
Part III: The soybean as human food and animal feed.
1. The soybean as feed for animals: Green forage and hay.
2. The soybean in human feeding: From the viewpoints of
physiology, economy, and gastronomy. The role of soya in
special diets: Vegetarianism, remineralization, diabetic, and
lactose intolerant.
Part IV: Food products based on soya. 1. Soymilk and
its derivatives: Soymilk (Methods of manufacture, Chinese
and modern at l’Usine de la Caséo-Sojaïne, nature and
properties [physical and chemical] and composition of the
milk, action of ferments and diastases (enzymes) on the
milk, uses of the milk, the residue from the soy dairy [okara],
condensed soymilk, powdered soymilk, fermented soymilk
(kefir, yogurt, etc.)), tofu (called Caséo-Sojaïne, or fromage
de soya; methods of production, coagulants, yield of tofu,
storing tofu, composition and comparison with various
meats, digestibility, culinary preparations made from tofu
(smoked tofu, tofu pâté, tofu sausages)), Soy casein (food
and industrial uses). 2. Soy flour and its derivatives: Soy
flour, soy bread, wholemeal bread, other products based
on soy flour (as biscuits and cakes for diabetic diets). 3.
Soy oil and its by-products: Soy oil, physical and chemical
properties, usage, residue of the oil mill: the cake, price,
uses. 4. Use of the soybean as a legume: Whole soybeans
(composition and digestibility), soy sprouts (germes de soja),
green vegetable soybeans (le soja frais). 5. Fermented soy
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 151
condiments: Solid condiments from Japan: Tokyo natto (Le
Tokio-Natto) and Ping-Ming natto or tao-tche (Le Ping-mingNatto; fermented black soybeans with salt, ginger, orange
rind, etc. A similar product is made in China and called taotche). Paste condiments: Miso (four types and composition),
tao-tjung (Chinese miso). Sauces: Shoyu (its production,
varieties, properties, composition), chiang-yu (tsiang-yeou),
ketjap [kechap, from Java], tuong (from Annam, with rice or
corn), tao-yu (widely used in China and Japan, described by
Prinsen Geerligs). 6. Confectionery products: Comparison
with chestnuts, roasted soy flour to replace chocolate. 7. Soy
coffee (with analysis by Kornauth). 8. Special fermented
products: Kiu-tsee (a special commercial ferment from
Canton described by Thiersant), fermented soymilks.
Part V: Industrial uses of soybeans. Oil based: soap,
wax candles (bougie), and paint oils. Protein based: sojalithe
or soy stone which corresponds to lactite, insulators for
electrical apparatus, glue, etc. Conclusion. Addendum
(Complément) to Part III, Chapter 1: Soybean straw and
stems. Composition of various seeds, including soybeans.
Soy flour. The cakes from oil mills. Soymilk and the cake
from soy dairies (tourteau de laiterie, okara).
A very interesting table (p. 66-67, which does not appear
in the original 8 articles) shows earlier nutritional analyses
of the composition of soybeans by Steuf (from Hungary,
Mongolia and China), Schroeder, Caplan, Pellet (from China,
Hungary, Etampes), Muntz, Nikitin (black soybeans from
Russia, 2 samples), Lipski [Lipskii] (yellow, from Russia),
Giljaranski (yellow from Russia, China and Japan; black
from China and Japan; green), König (Hispida platycarpa
black, Tumida yellow, brown and black), Prinsen (white from
Java and China), Goessmann, Kellner, USDA, Chemiker
Zeitung (white from Java and China, 29 Jan. 1896), Scuff
(misomame; miso soybeans), Zulkovski (yellow from China,
reddish brown from Mongolia), Institut Agr. de Vienne
(Austria; yellow from Vienna, reddish brown from Tirol),
Ecole Imp. et Roy d’Ag. Hong (yellow from Mongolia and
China, reddish brown from China), Chez M. Olivier Lecq
(from Moravia), Lechartier (Etampes and black), Joulie
(yellow), Stingl and Morawski, Bloch (yellow, green, and
black), Balland, Cavendish Evelyn Liardet (yellow, brown,
green, black, and white), Jardin Colonial (Laos, Tonkin,
China), Aufray (Tonkin, Yun-nan), Homes Laboratory (black
from China, or white). Photos and illustrations are the same
as those referenced in individual sections of the book, except
for the following: A field of soybeans (p. 16). A soybean
plant growing in Europe (p. 17). Color illustrations appear
facing pages 12, 22, and 64. Address: Li is from Societe
Biologique d’Extreme-Orient (Chine). Grandvoinnet is from
Ingenieur Agricole (G.).
316. Ruijter de Wildt, J.C. de. 1912. Het suikergehalte van
sojamelassekoek [The sugar content of soybean molasses
cake]. Cultura–Orgaan van het Nederlandsch Institut van
Landbouwkundigen 24(290):409-11. Oct. [Dut]
• Summary: This cake is made by mixing molasses (a byproduct of refining cane sugar) with soybean cake. Tables
show: (1) The chemical composition of soybean molasses
cake (Sojamelassekoek). (2) The chemical composition of
soybean cake (Sojakoek). Address: PhD, Rice Agricultural
Experiment Station at Goes (Rijkslandbouwproefstation
Goes).
317. Kuijper, J. 1912. Soja [Soya]. Departement van den
Landbouw, Suriname, Bulletin No. 29. p. 24-29. Nov. [Dut]
• Summary: In recent years, since 1908, soya has become
a product of great importance on the world market. There
are few products whose exports have risen so dramatically
in just a few years. The reason for the great expansion of
trade in soya can be found in the great demand by industry
for oilseeds. For more than 30 years, experiments have been
conducted on growing soybeans in Europe, but the results
have not been very promising. Some people have suggested
that soya might be able to be grown in Suriname. It is grown
in many tropical countries, including Siam, British India, and
Java. Requirements for cultivation and yields are discussed.
Japan reports the highest yields, 2,500 kg/ha, compared with
1,000 to 1,400 kg/ha from the USA. Soybeans produce more
protein and oil per unit area of land than any other farm crop.
The seed is used mainly for human consumption but the
plant also yields, fresh or dried, an excellent livestock feed,
which is why so much research on it is now being conducted
in Australia and America. It is important for Suriname that
soya can be used as a green fodder, for example interplanted
and fed with corn.
From soya one can make numerous products such as
soymilk (soyamelk), soy cheese [tofu] (soyakaas, whose
food value is higher than that of meat), soy flour, soy bread
(soyabrood), oil (olie), various sauces (soya sauce, Worcester
sauce, etc.), and various substitutes for coffee and chocolate,
etc. (surrogaten voor koffie en chocolade enz.).
In Suriname soya is cultivated on a small scale by the
Javanese, for example in Lelydorp and in the settlements
of Johan and Margaretha. Many experiments with Soya
have already been conducted in the experimental garden
(Cultuurtuin). Seeds imported from America did not give
good results; the plants remained small, yielded few fruits,
and died quickly thereafter. It is a common occurrence that
plants from temperate or subtropical regions do not grow
well in the warm tropics in the rainy season. Of the seeds
cultivated in Suriname, two varieties give good results.
Those cultivated by the Javanese give hardy plants and a
lot of seed though exact yield figures are not available; the
planted area is still quite small. But the yield is about 1,000
kg/ha. Apparently the necessary bacteria are present in the
soil, for the roots show nodulation.
In the experimental garden two beds of soya were
planted on May 24. The first seeds ripened after 3 months
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 152
and within 4 months all was harvested. Thus the plants
developed during the rainy season, and they probably got
too much water. The results would probably be better if
this season could be avoided. Soya is sold in Suriname for
hfl 30 per bag, a considerably higher price than that paid in
Europe. On the plantations Peperpot and Jaglust experiments
with soya have also been conducted. The European seed that
was used gave very limited results. The experiments will be
conducted again using Suriname seeds.
With the market price at hfl 10 per bag, it seems very
unlikely that the cultivation of soya in Suriname will ever be
profitable, unless high yields can be obtained. As mentioned
above, this seems unlikely. Small scale cultivation for sale in
Suriname, however, seems advantageous at present, while in
areas where cattle are raised the use of soya as a green feed
to replace more expensive secondary feeds will likely give
good results.
Note 1 This is the earliest document seen (Aug. 2015)
concerning soybeans in Suriname, or the cultivation of
soybeans in Suriname.
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Nov. 2012) that uses the term surrogaten voor koffie to
refer to soy coffee.
Note 3. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Aug. 2013) that uses the term soyamelk to refer to
soymilk.
Note 4. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (April 2013) that uses the term soyakaas to refer to tofu.
Address: Surinam.
318. Fairchild, David. 1912. Plant introduction for the plant
breeder. Yearbook of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. p.
411-22. For the year 1911. See p. 416.
• Summary: The article begins: “It is now nearly two
centuries since the first successful attempt to hybridize plants
was made by an English gardener.”
The section titled “Extent of the work of the Office of
Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction” states: “To stimulate
this research and make it possible for a growing number of
enthusiasts to breed plants with intelligence, the Office of
Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction has been importing from
various parts of the world the wild relatives of our cultivated
plants and such promising wild forms as seem to offer a
chance for domestication.
“When one canvasses the whole world for the varieties
of one of our cultivated plants it is surprising to find how
many forms there are. In 1907, for example, when the
systematic work of bringing in soybean varieties for the
Office of Forage-Crop Investigations first began, there were
known in this country only 23 varieties. In a recent bulletin
of the Bureau of Plant Industry 300 are mentioned as having
been tested (Footnote: Piper & Morse. 1910. “The soy
bean: history, varieties, and field studies.” USDA Bureau of
Plant Industry, Bulletin No. 197. See p. 24). These forms
have been gathered since 1907 from the bazaars of oriental
villages or bought from peasants in Japan, India, China,
Siberia, Chosen (Korea), and the Dutch East Indies by
trained explorers, American consuls, missionaries, or special
correspondents.” Address: Agricultural Explorer in Charge of
Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction.
319. Jong, A.W.K. de. 1912. Wetenschappelijke proefvelden.
Verslag over het jaar 1911 [Scientific experiment fields.
Report of the year 1911]. Mededeelingen van het Agricultuur
Chemisch Laboratorium (Departement van Landbouw,
Nijverheid en Handel) (Batavia, Dutch East Indies) No. 1. 40
p. See p. 36-40. [Dut]
• Summary: The last of the seven parts in this report (p. 3640) is titled Bemestingsproef met soja hispida (“Fertilizer
trials with soybeans”). On 11 Oct. 1911 a field was divided
into 64 equal plots. Various fertilizers and combinations of
fertilizers were applied to non-adjacent plots and the seed
yield recorded as follows: 1. Potassium chloride (Chloorkali)
(830 gm). 2. Potassium chloride and stable manure (1,300
gm). 3. Superphosphate (1,169 gm). 4. Superphosphate
and stable manure (826 gm). 5. Potassium chloride and
super phosphate (1,249 gm). 6. Potassium chloride, super
phosphate, and stable manure (1,372 gm). (7) No fertilizer
(992 gm). 8. Stable manure (1,297 gm). Ninety plants were
sown on each plot; 5 rows of 18 plants in each row. On Nov.
18 the flowers were visible and on Nov. 27 the seeds. They
were harvested on Dec. 25.
Conclusions: Combination no. 6, Potassium chloride,
superphosphate, and stable manure, gave the best yields
(1,372 gm). Combination no. 2 gives the second best results.
Address: Dr.
320. Koorders, Sijfert Hendrik. 1912. Exkursionsflora
von Java umfassend die Bluetenpflanzen mit besonderer
Beruecksichtigung der im hochgebirge wildwachsenden
Arten. Vol. II. [A flora of Java for excursions, including the
flowering plants with special attention given to species living
wild in high mountains. Vol. II.]. Jena, Germany: Verlag von
Gustav Fischer. 742 p. See p. 399-400. [1 ref. Ger]
• Summary: In this 4-volume work, volume II is
dicotyledons (archichlamydeae). The author reports 2 species
of Glycine (G. javanica Linn. and in G. soja Bth. [Bentham])
in Java. A botanical description of each is given. G. Javanica
grows in bushes/shrubbery (Im Gebuesch) on the plains and
in the mountains.
G. soja is an herbaceous plant that grows ½ meter tall,
with 3 leaves and long hairs. The small flowers are white or
violet and grow in clusters. The pods are 3-4½ by 8-10 cm,
with long hairs. In Java, it is often cultivated on the plains.
Its indigenous name (Einh. Name) is “Dekeman, Jav. Kr. D.”
[Note: We have been unable to decipher the meaning of this
sentence. It is apparently NOT a citation.]
Note: The author lived 1863-1919. On pages 402-03 of
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this volume 2 he reports Pueraria phaseoloides. On 409-10
he reports five species of Dolichos: D. lablab, D. biflorus, D.
Junghuhnianus, D. truncatus, and D. falcatus. Address: Dr.,
Niederlaendischen Kolonialministeriums (Dutch Colonial
Ministry).
321. Malpeaux, L. 1913. Les tourteaux dans l’alimentation
des vaches laitières [Cakes as feed for dairy cows]. Vie
Agricole et Rurale (Paris) No. 5. p. 123-26. Jan. 4. Englishlanguage summary in Experiment Station Report, p. 673.
[Fre]
• Summary: Discusses the nutritive value of linseed,
cottonseed, sesame, peanut, poppy, copra, and soy-bean
cakes. Soybean cake (le tourteau de soja) has only recently
come to be used in France. Its use expanded first in England,
then in Germany, Holland, and northern France. A first set of
tests did not show it to be advantageous as a feed for dairy
cows producing milk and butter. More tests are now being
conducted. “Compared to cottonseed cake in equivalent
rations, we have obtained a little less milk, 0.22 liters/head/
day, and it had a little higher fat content. The resulting butter
is white, firm, of average taste, and it rancidifies easily. Its
proportion of casein is also elevated relative to that made
with cottonseed cake, which surpasses all other cakes on this
point.”
Peanut cake (le tourteau d’arachide) appears to be
one of the best concentrated feeds, used to enrich livestock
rations with nitrogen. Address: Directeur de l’École
d’agriculture du Pas-de-Calais.
322. Neuville, A. de. 1913. Les nouveaux aliments artificiels
[The new artificial foods]. Revue (La) (Paris) 100(3):384-89.
Feb. 1. 24th year. 6th Series. For translations see Literary
Digest (8 March 1913, p. 509-510) and American Review of
Reviews, April 1913 (p. 500-01). [Fre]
• Summary: Contents: Introduction. 1. Soymilk (Le lait
de soya). 2. Meat alternatives (La viandine) developed by
Belgian chemist M. Effront. 3. Miracle wheat. Note: The
soybean is mentioned only in the section on soymilk.
By modifying the albuminoid and protein substances
found in soy (Soya hispida, or Chinese pea), and extracting
their proteids, we may obtain a milk that is similar to the
milks secreted by the mammary glands of mammals. Soy is
rich in nitrogen and in fatty matter. Made into flour it serves
to make a bread that is prescribed for diabetes. A synthetic
milk has been extracted from the beans, by a process that
is still kept secret; it has the same nutritive effect as natural
milk. “The invention was introduced into Germany and
France almost at the same time. The parts of the plant are
broken up mechanically, then chemically triturated and
reduced to a lactescent substance that is cheaper than the
product of the cow and may replace it perfectly.”
A farmer can get six times as much milk from the same
piece of land by planting it to soy beans, than by growing
grass and letting a milch cow eat the grass. “The economy
realized is considerable. A cow requires nearly a acre of
pasturage. She turns only 53 per cent. of it into effective
nutriment and about 5 per cent. into milk... Two milkings a
day give on an average 15 quarts, varying with the breed.
Soy grown on a field of one-sixth an acre yields the same
quantity of artificial milk. The expense is far less.
“This soy milk presents other advantages over natural
milk. It is not exposed to contact with impurities, as so often
happens in farm stables and dairies... Besides, cows are not
exempt from bacillary infections... Artificial milk is not
exposed to these dangers. It is made with apparatus kept so
scrupulously clean that there can be no question of microbial
infection.”
Soy “is a very nourishing food, but of an oily taste that
makes it disagreeable to Europeans. Made into milk the
soy has none of these disagreeable qualities. It is digestible,
pleasant to the palate, and leaves no taste in the mouth. Being
a complete food like natural milk, it is suited to children and
invalids and all who are following a diet.” Address: Dr.
323. Ruijter de Wildt, J.C. de. 1913. Die Zuckergehalt
von Sojamelassekuchen [The sugar content of soybean
molasses cake (Abstract)]. Biedermann’s Zentralblatt fuer
Agrikulturchemie 42:202-05. March. [1 ref. Ger]
• Summary: A German-language summary of the following
Dutch-language article. Ruijter de Wildt, J.C. de. 1912.
“Het suikergehalte van sojamelassekoek [The sugar content
of soybean molasses cake].” Cultura–Orgaan van het
Nederlandsch Institut van Landbouwkundigen 24(290):40911. Oct.
Note: The term Sojamelasse (literally “soya
molasses”) is used, apparently as an abbreviation for
Sojamelassenkuchen (“soya molasses cake”). Address:
Netherlands.
324. American Review of Reviews. 1913. Vegetable milk and
vegetable meat (Abstract). 47(4):500-01. April. [1 ref]
• Summary: An English-language summary of the following
French-language article: Neuville, A. de. 1913. “Les
nouveaux aliments artificiels” [The new artificial foods].
Revue (La) (Paris) 100(3):384-89. Feb. 1. 24th year. 6th
Series.
This summary begins: “In most families the two
heaviest items in the cost of food are the expenditures for
milk and milk-products and for meat. Moreover, milk and
meat are the most difficult foods to procure, to preserve, and
to transport in a pure and wholesome condition. And it is this
difficulty, coupled with modern standards of hygiene and
sanitation, that has helped to make their cost mount steadily
higher year by year. All of us, must be warmly interested in
the successful efforts of certain foreign chemists to produce
synthetically both milk and meat from vegetable sources,
since it claimed that the ‘near-milk’ and ‘near-meat’ are not
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 154
only as nutritious as their prototypes, but far freer from dirt
and disease-germs, as well as very much cheaper.”
The new artificial milk is made from the seed of the soy
bean or the Chinese pea.
“From other sources we learn the interesting fact, not
mentioned in La Revue, that an excellent cheese [tofu] can be
made from this milk, which widens its usefulness materially.
The Belgian chemist, M. Effront, has proposed using
the refuse from breweries to make a palatable and nutritious
[non-soy] substitute for meat.
325. Literary Digest. 1913. Artificial meat. 46(21): May 24.
Whole No. 1205.
• Summary: Excerpt from an article titled “The New
Artificial Foods” in Minerva (Rome, April 1913) which
begins by discussing soy milk, then states that a Belgian
chemist named Effront has found a way to use spent brewers’
yeast (from brewing beer) to make “Viandine,” which he
considers to be a complete substitute for meat–but one which
is much less expensive. Experiments on both a man and on
rats show that it has the same physiological effect on the
digestive organs as real meat, and promotes growth as well
or better than lean beef.
326. Houyet, A. 1913. La fève de soya [The soybean].
Bulletin de la Societe Belge d’Etudes Coloniales 20(5):36790. May. [Fre]
• Summary: “The notes which follow have as their object
the study of a commercial plant of East Asia which produces
soybeans; it is interesting from the local point of view as a
food plant and more specifically from the world viewpoint as
an industrial plant.
“It appears useful to us to precede them with a
geographic survey of the place of production of the plant,
as well as some data on the population living there. After
having studied the plant itself and the conditions of its
agriculture, we will examine its uses, its commerce, and the
possibilities for its development.”
This is largely a discussion of soybean production
and trade in Manchuria. But pages 378-80 contain a brief
discussion of the many ways of using soybeans including
in soy sauce, margarine, soap, as meal for livestock feed, as
flour for fortifying biscuits, as soymilk, and (in Germany) as
artificial rubber. “A Chinese manufacturer [Li Yu-ying] has
established a factory near Paris that makes food products
from the soybean” (produits alimentaires à base de fève de
soya).
Concerning margarine: “Refined [soybean] oil can be
used for the manufacture of margarine and as a salad oil”
(L’huile raffinée peut étre employée à la fabrication de la
margarine et comme huile de salade). Note: This is the
earliest French-language document seen that uses the term
margarine to refer to margarine.
327. Curtice, Raymond S. 1913. Dairen. Daily Consular and
Trade Reports (U.S. Bureau of Manufactures, Department
of Commerce and Labor) 16(177):597-608. July 31. See p.
604-05.
• Summary: This is part of a larger article on “Commerce
and industries of southern Manchuria” (p. 593+). The section
on Dairen begins: “The Dairen (Dalny) consular district
compromises the southern end of the peninsula of Liaotung,
the southernmost part of Manchuria, and embraces the whole
of the Kwantung Leased Territory, which was originally
leased to Russia by China in 1898. The unexpired term of the
lease was ceded to Japan by Russia at the close of the RussoJapanese War.”
The section titled “Bean trade” (p. 604) notes that there
has been a marked decrease in the trade of soybeans and
products from Dalny. The reasons for this have already been
given. A table shows exports for the calendar year 1912 of
bean cake, [soy] beans, and bean oil (in tons of 2,000 lb)
to various countries. Most of the bean cake (302,402 tons)
is sent to Japan. Most of the [soy] beans are also exported
to Japan (101,903), followed by Hong Kong (9,694), Great
Britain (5,700), Dutch Indies [today’s Indonesia] (2,829),
and Netherlands (1,108). The largest amount of [soy] bean
oil is sent to Belgium (13,550), followed by Japan (7,636),
and Great Britain (1,116). Small amounts of beans and/or
products are exported to: United States (oil only), Singapore
/ Straits, etc., Sweden, Germany, France, Russia (Pacific
ports), and Chosen (Korea). For bean cake: Total to foreign
countries 302,551. Total to Chinese ports 76,172. Grand
total (1912) 378,723. For [soy] beans: Total to foreign
countries 121,3241. Total to Chinese ports 61,304. Grand
total (1912) 182,629. For [soy] bean oil: Total to foreign
countries 23,493. Total to Chinese ports 13,973. Grand total
(1912) 37,467. Corresponding totals are given for 1910 and
1911. “The fact that the share taken by the Chinese ports
was so much greater proportionally in 1912, in all three
items, was due to the lessening of the European demand.”
“It is expected that a new factor in the export trade of bean
cake will be introduced when the new chemical process of
extracting the oil is put into operation, for the residue, now
in the form of bean cake, will be in a powder, and will be
capable of shipment through the tropics without decaying.
This should open up profitable markets in America and
Europe for this article.”
The section titled “Bean milling the chief industry”
(p. 605) begins: “The industries of this consular district
center around the [soy] bean trade and the South Manchuria
Railway Co. Gives statistics by bean mills on production
of bean cake and oil in 1910, 1911, and 1912. The Chinese
have 40 [soy] bean mills in operation with a combined
capital investment of $528,500, while the Japanese with
their six mills of most modern construction total $1,687,000.
Although most of the Chinese mills are operated by crude
methods, still it is significant that their combined output
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 155
during the season just past (October–April) was $8,308,098.
The output of five modern Japanese mills (one having been
destroyed by fire) during the same period was $2,360,170.”
Address: Vice consul.
328. Derniere Heure (La) (Brussels, Belgium). 1913.
Huile de soya, de pression [Soybean oil, pressed]. Aug. 28.
Business section (la mercuriale). [Fre]*
• Summary: The price is understood to be, for 100 kg
net, barrels / containers included, on board the wagon at
Antwerp / Anvers, total weight checked at Antwerp, tare
[weight of the container] of origin, to be paid within 30 days
and discounted at the rate of the National Bank, rate for
discounted drafts. Commission to be paid by the seller. 25
cents (centimes). Japanese: available 71 francs 50 cents.
Note: These are the terms of a contract to buy pressed
soybean oil. This price is higher than that of linseed oil and
almost as high as that of colza / rapeseed oil.
329. Boidin, August; Effront, Jean. 1913. Verfahren
zur Verarbeitung von staerkehaltigen Rohstoffen unter
Verwendung von staerkeverfluessigende Enzyme
enthaltenden Bakterien [Process for processing raw materials
containing starch using bacteria containing starch-liquefying
enzymes]. German Patent 320,572. Oct. 29. 5 p. Issued 20
April 1920. [Ger]
Address: 1. Seclin, France; 2. Brussels.
330. Lemairé, Charles François Alexandre. 1913-1914.
Belgique et Congo: Pour lutter contre la vie chère [Belgium
and the Congo: Countering the high price of living].
Derniere Heure (La) (Brussels, Belgium). March 1913–April
1914. [3 ref. Fre]*
• Summary: Dr. F. de Selliers (1981) says of this article:
In 1889, Cmd. Lemaire, who at that time was Lieutenant,
received beans from the local population of the Belgian
Congo (Lemaire 1894). He planted those beans at
Coquilhatville and Equateurville and called them “Haricots
of the Falls.” But it was not until 1923 that Cmd. Lemaire
realized that the seeds which he had received might have
been a variety of soya beans. He could never check his
assumption because the “Haricots of the Falls,” which he had
planted 34 years earlier, had died.
Reprinted in 1921 as a 64-page book titled Au
Congo: Pour lutter contre la vie chère par l’utilisation
des ressources indigènes [Countering high prices in the
Congo by using indigenous resources]. (Anvers (Antwerp),
Belgium: Les Presses du “Neptune”). The author was born in
1863.
Note: This may be the earliest document seen
concerning soybeans in the Belgian Congo (renamed Zaire in
Oct. 1971), or the cultivation of soybeans in the Congo.
331. Heyne, K. 1913-1917. De nuttige planten van
Nederlandsch-Indië, tevens synthetische catalogus der
verzamelingen van het Museum voor Technische- en
Handelsbotanie te Buitenzorg [The useful plants of the
Netherlands Indies. 4 vols.]. Batavia [Jakarta]: Printed by
Ruygrok & Co. Vol. 1, 250 + xxvii p. Vol. 2, 349 + xxxix p.
Vol. 3, 402 + xlviii p. See vol. 2, p. 242-43, 316-22. See also
2nd ed. 1927 and 3rd ed. 1950. 24 cm. [12+ ref. Dut]
• Summary: Contains detailed information on soybeans
in Indonesia, including various local names, soybean
production in Indonesia by province from 1918-1925 (the
top producers in 1925 were Madoera and Madioen; total
production grew from 222,426 to 260,125), soybean culture,
imports, exports, tempeh, tofu (tao hoe), tao koan, tao tjo
(Indonesian miso), and soy sauce (ketjap). Also discusses
ontjom and dagé made from peanuts.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (May 2010)
that gives soybean production or area statistics for the Dutch
East Indies (later Indonesia).
Note. This is the earliest document seen (April 2001)
that contains the term tao koan. Address: Chef van het
Museum voor economische botanie te Buitenzorg (Bogor).
332. Jong, A.W.K. de. 1913. Bemestingsproef met
soja hispida [Fertilizer experiment with soybeans].
Mededeelingen van het Agricultuur Chemisch Laboratorium
(Dutch East Indies, Departement van Landbouw, Nijverheid
en Handel) No. 3. p. 22-25. [Dut]
Address: Wetenschappelijke Proefvelden.
333. Paerels, J.J. 1913. Tweede Gewassen [Second crops].
Oost-Indische Cultures (Dr. K.W. van Gorkom’s) 3:276-88.
[11 ref. Dut]
• Summary: See Prinsen Geerligs (1913, vol. 3, p. 276-88).
Address: Indonesia or Netherlands.
334. Prinsen Geerligs, H.C. ed. 1913. Dr. K.W. van
Gorkom’s Oost-Indische Cultures, opnieuw uitgegeven onder
redactie van H.C. Prinsen Geerligs. Compleet in drie deelen
[Dr. K.W. van Gorkom’s East-Indian crops. New edition. 3
vols.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: J.H. de Bussy. See vol. 3, p.
276-88. Illust. Index. 27 cm. [7 ref. Dut]
• Summary: In vol. 3 is a section on “Second crops (Tweede
Gewassen)” (p. 243-91). Chapter 4 (Hoofdstuk IV) of that
section is titled “Soybeans (Soja)” (p. 276-88). Contents:
Origin and native land. The soybean plant: Botanical
description (flowers, seeds, fertilization, germination),
types and varieties, geographical distribution. Cultivation
of soybeans: General instructions for growing, planting,
manuring, diseases and pests. Production, trade, and use of
soybeans: Tofu (Tao-Hoe), Chinese soy sauce (Tao-Yoe),
soybean paste (Tao-Tjiong), Tempeh, composition and
nutritive value (samenstelling en voedingswaarde).
Note: This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2009) that
contains the term Tao-Tjiong, a term, and perhaps a product,
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that appears to be between doujiang (Chinese-style miso)
and tao-tjo (Indonesian-style miso).
Photos show: (1) A soybean plant that bears blackseeded varieties (p. 277). A soybean plant that bears whiteseeded varieties (p. 278).
Also discusses (in vol. 2): Peanuts (p. 227-41). Sesame
seeds (p. 247-51).
Reprinted in Van Gorkom 1918, p. 839-51. Karel
Wessel van Gorkom lived 1835-1919. Address: Amsterdam,
Netherlands.
335. Taverne, Nicolaas Jacobus Aloysius. 1913. De
oxydatie en de polymerisatie van sojaolie [Oxidation and
polymerization of soy oil]. Leiden, Netherlands: Eduard Ijdo.
120 p. [33 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Review of the literature.
Experimental investigation: Determination of the constants
of the altered oil. The oxidation of soybean oil (sojaolie): At
room temperature in the air, at 70ºC in oxygen, at 150ºC in
the air, under the influence of ultraviolet light. The influence
of a catalyst on the oxidation. The polymerization of soy oil.
Discussion of the results. Conclusions.
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(Sept. 2006) that uses the word sojaolie to refer to soybean
oil. Address: Leiden.
336. Thompson, Erwin W. 1914. Cottonseed products and
their competitors in Northern Europe. I. Cake and meal.
Special Agents Series (U.S. Bureau of Manufactures,
Department of Commerce and Labor) No. 84. 93 p. [1 ref]
• Summary: Contents: Letter of submittal. Introduction.
Germany: The need of more protein, Germany as a
customer, future competition of Egyptian cake, suggestions
for increasing American exports, competing feedstuffs
(incl. soya-bean meal and schrot), theoretical valuation of
feedstuffs, prevalent methods of feeding, adulteration of
feedstuffs, methods of purchase and sale, list of addresses.
United Kingdom: Oil-cake feeding (incl. soya beans),
theoretical valuation of feedstuffs, list of addresses (incl.
Lever Bros. [Liverpool], J. Bibby & Sons [Liverpool],
and Liverpool Seed Oil & Cake Trade Association [A.
Grenville Turner, secretary, Liverpool]). The Netherlands:
Promoting cottonseed cake, oil-mill methods, succulent
feeds, experiment stations. Denmark: Sunflower cake,
Russian transportation, purchase and sale, bulk cake, cake
versus meal, valuation and choice of cake, ordinary cattle
rations, cooperative societies, government supervision, list
of addresses [p. 86, incl. “Dansk Sojakage Fabrik [Dansk
Sojakagefabrik], Islands Brygge: Soya-bean oil mill; belongs
to East Asiatic Co...; Hofmann Bang: Director Agricultural
Experiment Laboratory.”] Sweden: Prof. Hansson’s
experiments, feeding in the Skane district, competition of
other feedstuffs, list of addresses. Norway: List of addresses.
“No nation excels Germany in the application of science
to agriculture and in the dissemination of practical scientific
information to the remote and small farms. The yield per
acre in Germany of the principal food crops is now two to
three times that of the United States, though 20 to 50 percent
below that of Belgium, which is the highest in the world” (p.
9).
A table (p. 15) shows the kinds of oil cakes and meals
consumed in Germany in 1912. Of the 1,417,920 metric tons
(MT) consumed, 332,839 were cotton seed cake, 275,000
rape and similar cake, 200,000 linseed cake, 150,000 sesame
cake, 150,000 poppy and sunflower cake, 120,000 palm
kernel cake, 100,000 peanut cake, 50,000 soya cake, 30,000
copra cake, and 10,081 other. Thus soya cake is only 3.5% of
the total.
A section titled “Soya-Bean Meal and Schrot” (p. 30)
states that in Germany “Soya-bean cake is a product that
has sprung into prominence within the past five years...
Some of the first cake imported from Manchuria was moldy
and contained too much oil, but now the principal imports
are from England, where the oil is well extracted and there
is not enough moisture to cause molding during the short
journey. However, there is a general feeling that even small
quantities of soya oil is [sic, are] not good for cattle, and so
the preference is growing for the flakes, or ‘schrot,’ resulting
from the treatment of the beans by the extraction process.
This product contains only 1 or 2 per cent oil and is fast
becoming popular. Some is imported from England, but more
and more of it is being made in Germany.”
Dr. “Kellner is the leading authority on feeds in
Germany... The foundation stone on which most of the
valuation theories are built is his celebrated feed unit
‘Staerkewert,’ which may be translated ‘starch equivalent’...”
A table (p. 35) shows the German feed units, or starch
equivalents, of the constituents of 23 feedstuffs. Corn has the
highest value at 81.5 starch equivalent, followed by sesame
(79.4), copra (76.5), peanut (75.7), then soya (74.7). Another
table (p. 36-37) shows that soya cake is one of the least
expensive feedstuffs per feed unit.
In the UK, the main oilseed crushed is cottonseed (about
50% of the total), followed by linseed. A table (p. 50) shows
the imports, exports, and production of various seeds, oils
and cakes for 1912 for the UK. An illustration (p. 69) shows
a pair of large “edgestones” and the beveled gears which turn
them. Called “kallergang” on the European continent, these
stones are used for crushing cottonseed in most parts of the
world except the United States. They grind the cottonseed
hulls more finely and greatly improve the appearance of the
cake and meal. “SoyaBeans:... At one time it was predicted
that soya beans would predominate the crush [in the U.K.],
but they reached their maximum in 1910 with 413,267 tons
and have been declining ever since, the receipts [imports]
for 1913 being only 76,452 tons. Reasons assigned for this
decrease are: The increase in freight rates, the increase
in crushing in China and Japan, the growing competition
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from Denmark and from Germany (whose import duty was
lately removed from these beans), and the slow demand for
the cakes among English feeders. This last seems the most
important reason, and it is involved with some of the others.
“Denmark (p. 74): Producers of oil cake the world
over owe a debt of gratitude to Denmark for demonstrating
the superlative value of this product [cottonseed cake] for
making butter. This strictly agricultural country has been
continuously concentrating its energy on those products that
could be exported at the highest prices.” The main export
is butter, followed by milk, cream, and cured meats [i.e.
value-added products]. In 1912 butter, valued at $40 million,
accounted for nearly one-third of the country’s exports.
In Sweden, within the past 5 years the Swedish
Agricultural Department has been giving great attention to
cattle breeding and feeding. “This experimental department
is under the direction of Prof. Nils Hansson, a student of the
celebrated German Kellner. Prof. Hansson has been making
some extensive experimental studies in dairy-cattle breeding
and feeding.” Kellner’s theories were mainly formulated
for feeding cattle for beef. Prof. Hansson has clearly
demonstrated that the Kellner valuation for nitrogen is too
low when applied to milk production.
Norway’s principal exports are fish and fish products
(worth $27.8 million in 1912), followed by lumber, wood
pulp, paper, and other forest products ($23,000,000).
Address: Special Agent, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce.
337. Hanson, George C. 1914. Commerce and industries
of Kwantung. Daily Consular and Trade Reports (U.S.
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of
Commerce) 17(153):7-17. July 1. See p. 11-12, 15-16.
• Summary: “The Dairen (Dalny) consular district embraces
the Kwantung Leased Territory (Japanese), comprising
the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula and the islands adjacent
thereto... Its area is 1,221 square miles and its population
in 1913 was 517,147, of whom 469,651 were Chinese
[90.82%], 47,381 Japanese [9.16%], and 115 foreigners.”
A table (p. 8) of “Foreign trade by countries” shows that
the lion’s share of its imports (71.5% of gross value) come
from Japan, followed by Germany, UK, Belgium, and USA.
A table (p. 11) shows “Shipments from Manchuria into
Kwantung during 1912 and 1913, including: Bean cake
103,787 / 127,690 tons. [Soy] beans 553,438 / 622,205 tons.
Beans (small=azuki) 16,794 / 16,297. Sauce, bean and soy
50 / 78 pounds.
The export trade in soybeans and products expanded.
A table (p. 12) shows the “native exports” (to within China;
quantity and value), including bean cake, [soy] beans, and
bean oil.
The section titled “Last year’s improvement in bean
trade–unfavourable outlook” includes a table which shows
exports (incl. reexports) of [soy] beans and bean oil “in 1913,
by countries of destination. Exports of bean cake to foreign
countries increased in 1913 to 527,507 short tons, of which
520,947 tons went to Japan and the remainder to Chosen
[Korea]. The amount shipped to Chinese ports was 38,629
tons in 1913, as against 76,172 in 1912.” “A large proportion
of the bean oil shipped to Japan is transshipped to the United
States.” Address: Vice Consul, Dalny (Dairen), Japanese
Leased Territory.
338. Boidin, Auguste; Effront, Jean. 1914. Verfahren zur
Gewinnung von Enzymen und Toxinen mit Hilfe von
Bakterien [Process for recovering enzymes and toxins with
the help of bacteria]. German Patent 320,571. July 11. 6 p.
Issued 26 April 1920. 1 drawing. [Ger]
Address: 1. Seclin, France; 2. Brussels.
339. Thompson, Erwin W. 1914. Cottonseed products and
their competitors in Northern Europe. II. Edible oils. Special
Agents Series (U.S. Bureau of Manufactures, Department of
Commerce and Labor) No. 89. 31 p. [1 ref]
• Summary: Contents: Letter of submittal. Introduction. The
margarin industry: Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom,
Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Ingredients of margarin: Soft
fats (sesame oil, colza and rape oils, soya-bean oil, peanut
oil, cottonseed oil), hard fats (copra oil, palm oil and palmkernel oil, shea-nut oil, summary of hard fats), artificially
hardened fats (linseed oil, fish oils, soya-bean oil, peanut and
cottonseed oils). Addresses.
Denmark (p. 11-12) “is one of the few countries where
exact statistics are kept of the margarine made and the
ingredients used. The Danes claim to make and export the
best butter in the world, and they take every precaution to
render it impossible in any way to adulterate or falsify it...
All margarine must contain enough sesame oil to insure the
prescribed color reaction.” The main three “soft fats” used in
Danish margarine (in descending order of importance, 19101912) are sesame oil, American cottonseed oil, and peanut
oil; soya-bean oil is not mentioned. Margarine production
grew from 34,320 metric tons (tonnes) in 1910 to 39,620
tonnes in 1912.
Ingredients of margarine: Soya-bean oil. A table (p. 15)
shows the approximate net import and crush of soybeans in
the United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, and Denmark
from 1908 to 1913. The U.K. first imported soybeans in
1908 (40,600 tonnes). Germany first imported soybeans
in 1909 (8,000 tonnes). The Netherlands first imported
soybeans in 1911 (14,400 tonnes). Denmark first imported
soybeans in 1911 (20,000 tonnes), rising to 36,900 tonnes in
1912 and 45,000 in 1913. The total soybean crush in these
four countries peaked at 355,100 tonnes in 1912, falling to
246,300 tonnes in 1913. “The decline of the [soya-bean]
industry in Europe is attributed to the advance in freight
rates, to the difficulty of selling the cakes, especially in
the United Kingdom, and to the resumption of normal oil
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 158
milling in Manchuria since the close of the Russo-Japanese
War. In Germany and Denmark the cake is growing in favor,
especially the [solvent] extracted kind, which contains very
little oil. The crush will probably continue to increase in
those countries, and to decrease in the United Kingdom,
where the cake is not liked. Meanwhile there is a disposition
to import [soya-bean] oil from Japan and Manchuria. The
United Kingdom imported 3,000 tons of oil in March, 1914.
China exports to all countries about 100,000 tons of oil
every year. In Denmark and Germany this oil is chiefly used
for soap, but latterly in Germany, and even more so in the
United Kingdom, it is being deodorized and exported to the
Mediterranean to blend for salad oil. Margarin makers are
taking it sparingly (not over 6,000 tons altogether). Perhaps
the refiners may learn how to prepare it to suit them; but its
most logical use seems to be as a salad oil as it is a natural
winter oil containing oily 10 to 15 per cent stearin compared
with 20 to 25 per cent for cottonseed oil.”
“Peanut oil (p. 16): “Peanut oils vary greatly in quality,
the best grades being made in Bordeaux, France, and Delft,
Netherlands, from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) that arrive
in the shell from West and Southwest Africa, and to some
extent from shelled nuts from China. The lowest grades are
made in Marseille [Marseilles], France, from shelled peanuts
shipped from the Coromandel, or east, coast of India.” The
present European supply of peanut oil is 184,000 tonnes, of
which 135,000 tonnes (73.3%) are made in France.
Pages 26-27 discuss “Artificially hardened oils.” “The
combined capacity of the hydrogenating plants of Europe
is estimated for 1914 at 250,000 tons (1,375,000 barrels),
which is two or three times as much as has ever been treated.
These plants are in England, Norway, Germany, and France,
and are engaged at present chiefly on fats for soap and
candles. They are hardening linseed, whale, soya-bean, and
cottonseed oils.
Note: This is the earliest document seen (Dec. 2005)
indicating hydrogenation of soya-bean oil to make candles.
“Edible oils: The great increase in the demand for
margarin in Europe, for compound lard in the United States
and for hard soap all over the civilized world has resulted in
closely crowding the supply of natural hard fats, while liquid
oils are relatively abundant.”
Pages 30-31 give addresses of major edible oil
processors and margarine manufacturers in Germany (incl.
Berliner Pflanzen Butter Margarine Fabrik), Denmark (incl.
Otto Monsted of Copenhagen, margarin), Norway, Sweden,
Netherlands (incl. Van den Berg Margarin Works, Jurgens
Margarin Works), and the United Kingdom (incl. Maypole
Dairy Co.–affiliated with Otto Monsted of Copenhagen–
makes margarin; Lever Bros. of Liverpool–oil mill, soap
works, hardeners of oils; Crossfields [sic, Crosfield] Ltd.
of Warrington–oil mill, soap works, hardeners of oils).
Tables show: Total production of edible oils in the European
countries (p. 7). Imports and exports for various countries
and oils.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Sept. 2007)
stating that soybean oil is used as a salad oil in the Western
world. Address: Commercial Agent, Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce.
340. Dietz, P.A. 1914. Het katjang-vlindertje (het vermeende
toa-toh-motje) [The little katjang butterfly; the so-called little
toa-toh moth]. Mededeelingen van het Deli Proefstation te
Medan (Sumatra) 8(8):273-76. [Dut]
341. Fruwirth, C. 1915. Die Sojabohne [The soybean].
Fuehlings Landwirtschaftliche Zeitung 64(3/4):65-96. Feb. 1
and 15. [65 ref. Ger]
• Summary: Contents: Introduction (work in East Asia
and Europe from 1905-10). History. Botanical aspects.
Varieties. Breeding. Needs of the plant (incl. “heat units,”
Wärmesumme). Utilization (incl. in German Tofu, Miso,
Chiang, Schoyu or Sojatunke (shoyu, p. 83), Natto,
vegetabilische Milch (soymilk), soy sprouts). Measures
and precautions in cultivating soybeans (incl. yields). The
soybean as a crop in central Europe. Conclusion.
Note 1. On p. 83 the term “Sojas” is used to refer to
soybeans
Note 2. This is the earliest German-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term Sojatunke to refer to soy
sauce.
In 1905 the Japanese made the first attempt to import
soybeans from Manchuria to Europe, but it failed because
they did not arrive in good condition. The repetition of the
attempt in 1908, however, gave good results. Then imports
of soybeans grew, followed by imports of soybean cake
(Sojabohnenkuchen). Major importers today are England,
France, Germany, Denmark, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands,
Sweden. The high import duty hinders imports to AustriaHungary.
Toward the end of the 1800s in Russia, Owinsky took
early-ripening soybean varieties from China and Japan and
requested the expansion of soybean cultivation. In 1899
in Kiev, Owinsky wrote the name of the soybean as Soja
hispida praecox (p. 67). Owinsky in Derajne [Derazhne?]
grew Podolie soybeans (p. 77). Sempolowsky in Derebzin,
Russian Poland, also grew soybeans. European Russia gets
soybeans overland (probably from Manchuria). Russia
was one of the first countries to take an interest in growing
soybeans after 1908. Russia now grows large amounts of
soybeans in Podolia. In Germany, Prof. Kallo in Wiesbaden
was a pioneer who recommended soybeans as an inexpensive
food for the people. North America first started to import lots
of soybeans as a source of oil because of a bad cottonseed
harvest.
“Since the start of my teaching activities, I have had
an interest in the soybean plant and have carried on my
own investigations.” In 1900 the author received 7 soybean
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 159
varieties from L.V. Jurdiewicz from Deraznia in Podolia;
these had been imported by Owinsky. In 1901 at Hohenheim
he began to study the time needed for soybeans to mature;
He found it ranged from 141 to 163 days. He continued this
research at Hohenheim from 1901 to 1903, getting soybean
seed yields of up to 1,560 kg/ha. From 1910 to 1914 he
continued at Waldhof-Amstetten, with 5 varieties. The
maturity range there was 112-166 days and the yields were
up to 1,500 kg/ha (about 23 bushels/acre), but the yields of
many varieties were low, about 300 to 500 kg/ha (4.5 to 7.5
bu/acre). Yields of soybean straw, however, were up to 3,600
kg/ha. Fruwirth uses three terms to refer to soybeans: (1) Die
Sojabohne; (2) Die Soja; and (3) Sojas, as “Zuechtung von
Sojas” or “Sojas, meist gemahlte.” There is now a proposal
to establish a joint stock company for growing soybeans in
central Europe (probably in Germany), using big money. But
it may not succeed because soybean yields in Germany and
Austria are low. Seedsmen who sell soybeans commercially
in 1915 include: Haage and Schmidt (Erfurt, Germany),
Vilmorin Andrieux (Paris, France), Dammann & Co. (St.
Giovanni at Tedaccio, near Naples, Italy), and Wood and Son
(Richmond, Virginia, USA). The main soybean varieties sold
by each of these companies are described in detail (p. 73-74).
Utilization (p. 82): Since soybeans are rich in protein
and fat, they can be used as a good meat substitute. In
Europe the use of soybeans for food is still very small.
“In Europe, the first foods from soybeans were made in
France, at Vallées near Asnieres: Flour, bread, and cakes for
diabetics, and cheese. In Germany not long ago the SoyamaWorks at Frankfurt am Main likewise began the production
of such foods. Similar foods were also made in Romania.
Soybeans sprouted in the dark yield a bitter-tasting salad.
Production of vegetable milk started in France at ‘Caséo
Sojaine’ at Vallées (Seine); and is now being studied by the
Synthetic Milk Syndicate in England. Using the process
developed by Fritz Goessel, this Syndicate made 100 liters
of soymilk from 10 kg of ground soybeans at a factory at
Liverpool.” “It is in no way certain that soybeans will ever
be widely used in human foods.”
A fairly large amount of soybeans are ground for use
as fodder. The main use is for oil extraction. Yet Haberlandt
considered that since the soybean contained only about 18%
fat (range: 13-22%), its use as a source of oil would not be
economical. The main use of soy oil is in soaps, for which it
is highly prized. It is also used in making paints as a partial
substitute for linseed oil. The best quality may be used as
food. In England soy oil is used for margarine production.
Conclusion: The soybean originated in central Asia and
is now widely cultivated in China, Japan, Manchuria, and
India. Its seeds are rich in protein and, unlike most other
legumes, also rich in fat. The plant is used in its homeland
mostly as a source of human foods and seasonings, made
by fermentation; the oil is used mostly for industrial nonfood purposes. In recent years soybean production has
expanded significantly in the southern part of the United
States. There it is used mainly as green fodder, hay, silage,
and soil building. The main expansion of soybean cultivation
in Europe has been in Italy, southern France, Hungary, and
southern Russia. Good early varieties give yields of 1,100
to 1,300 kg/ha. A large expansion of soybean production
in central Europe is possible only in southern Austria and
Hungary, and maybe in a few other places where it is warm.
But late-maturing soybeans may be grown for forage and
silage in the cooler parts of Germany and Austria. Address:
Prof., Dr., Wien (Vienna).
342. Boidin, Auguste; Effront, Jean. 1915. Verfahren, um
Textilfasern aller Art von ihren staerkeartigen, gummiartigen,
gelatineartigen und fetten, von der Appretur oder Versteifung
u. dgl. herstammenden Stoffen mit Hilfe von Bakterien zu
befreien [Process for ridding textile fibers of all types of
their starchy, gummy, gelatinous and fats, of the finish or
stiffening and the like, or resulting materials with the help
of bacteria]. German Patent 349,655. Feb. 7. 3 p. Issued 6
March 1922. [1 ref. Ger]
• Summary: Mentions soybean oil cake (Sojaölkuchen) and
uses these interesting phrases: to obtain with pure soy (mit
reiner Soja zu erhalten); To take 10 to 20 percent rye on 80
to 90 percent soy (10 bis 20 Prozent Roggen auf 80 bis 90
Prozent Soja zu nehmen). Address: 1. Seclin (Nord), France;
2. Brussels.
343. Morton, William. 1915. Soya bean situation in North
Manchuria. Commerce Reports [USA] (Daily Consular and
Trade Reports, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Department of Commerce) 18(48):809. Feb. 27.
• Summary: “The soya bean crop of North Manchuria in
1914 was estimated to be 15 per cent larger than that of
the preceding year. The total exports of beans from North
Manchuria from November 1, 1913, to November 1, 1914,
amounted to 415,000 tons, of which about 33,000 tons were
exported via the Sungari and Amur Rivers, 100,000 tons to
Dalny and Japan, and the remainder to England, Germany,
the Netherlands, and Denmark.
“Shortly after the outbreak of war in Europe the
transportation of Russian troops over the Chinese Eastern
and Trans-Siberian Railways began, and so interfered with
the shipment of commercial freight that not more than onethird of the bean cargoes have reached Vladivostok, the
remainder being stored at the various stations of the Chinese
Eastern Railway. Now that the transportation of troops has
ended it is expected that there will soon be enough freight
cars for carrying the beans to Vladivostok. [The names of
Harbin firms engaged in the soya-bean trade may be had
from Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce or its
branch offices.]
“Modern and Native Mills–Oil Containers:
“There are three small modern bean-oil mills in North
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 160
Manchuria, one of which belongs to a Japanese and the
other two to Chinese. The full capacity of these mills is
about six short tons of oil daily. Besides these three mills,
a large modern mill (oil) has been built by the AngloChinese Trading Co. at Harbin, but it is not working yet,
as its machinery is not complete. There are numerous
small Chinese oil mills operated either by hand or by horse
power scattered throughout the town and villages of North
Manchuria, but no statistics are available as to the total
output from these mills.
“Baskets are used for transporting oil from the
surrounding country to Harbin, but wooden boxes and tins
packed in wooden boxes are used for containing oil for
export abroad. One wooden box contains about 252 pounds
of oil and one tin contains about 36 pounds of oil, two tins
being packed in one box. The tins and boxes are of local
manufacture. No empty tins were imported into North
Manchuria in 1914.” Address: Deputy Consul, Harbin.
344. Hathaway, Charles M., Jr. 1915. Oil, seed, and
cake trade of Hull [England]. Commerce Reports [USA]
(Daily Consular and Trade Reports, Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce)
18(107):629. May 7.
• Summary: The section titled “Shipments of soy beans”
(p. 630) contains a table which gives (based on statistics
from the Hull Chamber of Commerce), total shipments of
soya beans, Hull arrivals, and total United Kingdom imports
for the years 1910 to 1914. The three figures (in tons; 1 ton
= 2,240 lb) in 1910 were 492,000 / 245,829 / 421,539. So
about 58% of the imports to the UK arrived at Hull. In 1912,
the three figures were considerably lower: 288,000 / 147,317
/ 188,760 tons. In 1914, in part because of the outbreak of
World War I, the figures fell to their lowest level for the five
years: 195,000 / 64,511 / 76,644 tons. “Most of the beans in
1914, as in 193, were used by extractors, not crushers. The
price has varied from $39.54 to $43.80 spot per long ton.”
The section titled “Soya and rape oil” includes the prices
of “Soya-bean oil” during 1914; they started at $6.57 (per
hundredweight of 112 lb) in January and closed at $6.63 in
December. “Soya cakes” opened the year at $40.73 per ton
and closed at $45.60 in December.
The section titled “Trade statistics” contains a table
showing “Oils and destinations” by country for the years
1912 to 1914. Total exports of “soya oil” (in long tons) from
Hull were 13,405 in 1912, 6,761 in 1913, and 5,277 in 1914.
The main recipient countries (in approximate descending
order of amounts received) were Italy, Netherlands, Austria,
Germany, America, France, Sweden, and Belgium. Note:
Sweden imported 995 long tons of soya-bean oil from Hull
in 1912. Address: Consul, Hull, England.
345. Taverne, N.J.A. 1915. Die oxydation und
polymerisation des Sojabohnenoels [Oxidation and
polymerization of soybean oils]. Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte
Chemie 28(I):249-51. May 25. Aufsatzteil (Chem. Abst.
9:2716). [7 ref. Ger]
• Summary: This article is based on the author’s dissertation,
De oxydatie en de polymerisatie van sojaolie, accepted Nov.
1913, at the Technischen Hochschule, Delft [Netherlands].
Address: Dr., Technischen Hochschule, Delft [Netherlands].
346. Labberté, K.R. 1915. Onderzoekingen over urease, een
enzym uit soyaboonen [Investigations on urease, an enzyme
present in soy beans]. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad voor
Nederland 52(37):1428-40. Sept. 11. (Chem. Abst. 10:1359).
[9 ref. Dut]
• Summary: The author obtained the active form of urease
by shaking powdered soybeans with ten times the weight
of water for 1 hour, centrifuging, and filtering. The action
of this enzyme extract on urea solutions was studied. The
decomposition of urea is not a monomolecular reaction. The
reaction can be used for the accurate determination of urea.
347. Williamson, A.A. 1915. Marketing the new soya
bean crop in Manchuria. Commerce Reports [USA]
(Daily Consular and Trade Reports, Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce)
18(260):518. Nov. 5.
• Summary: “Cooperative selling–Fall shipments: At
Kaiyuan a produce dealers’ association and trust company
has been formed, modeled after that at Dairen. Kaiyuan is a
promising bean center. It is likely that an exchange will be
established at Changchun also.
“North Manchuria beans, which are considered superior
to those grown in South Manchuria, have been brought
to Dairen in considerable quantities both by train and by
steamer...
“Nevertheless the export of beans to Europe, notably
Holland, has kept up remarkably, considering conditions
there. These shipments have to be covered by documents
guaranteeing their ultimate consumption in order to avoid
capture at sea by belligerent cruisers.
“At present, the local trade is depressed, as Japan, the
principal market, is suffering from overproduction of rice, as
noted above, and European markets are not what they were,
despite some shipments that have gone there. A few mills
have begun work, but only in a small way. One of the largest
was driven to making peanut oil during the summer.”
“More crushing mills: The experimental mill built by
the South Manchurian Railway Co. at Dairen, which uses the
chemical extraction process, has been sold to Messrs. Suzuki
& Co., of Kobe, the seller stipulating that the purchaser
should enlarge the mill to double its capacity. Suzuki & Co.
will spend about 200,000 yen (about $100,000) on the mill;
but it is said the railway will aid the new owners financially.
The fatty acid factory attached to the mill will also be
operated by Suzuki & Co. This firm intends to establish
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 161
two more mills, using the same benzine extraction process,
at Kobe and Moji, in all probability. The fatty acid and
glycerine factory is only used when the price of bean oil is
too low for profit.”
Note: This is the earliest document seen (Jan. 2014)
concerning the work of Suzuki & Co. with soybeans. The
Japanese company, which built the first solvent extraction
mill for soybeans in Manchuria (Dairen), later became
Hohnen Oil Co. Address: Consul, Dairen, Manchuria.
348. Backer, H.J. 1915. Molecuulgewichtsbepalingen van
eenige plantaardige oliën [Determination of the molecular
weight of some vegetable oils]. Chemisch Weekblad
12(47):1034-40. Nov. 20. [5 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Molecular weights of the following vegetable
oils were determined: Coconut, cohune, groundnut,
cottonseed, hardened cottonseed, linseed, corn, mustard seed,
olive, palm kernel, rapeseed, castor, sesame, and soya. Many
constants for each oil were also recorded. Address: Lab. of
the Dep. of Finance, Amsterdam (Lab. van her Depart. van
Financien, Amsterdam).
349. Mestdagh, Mr. 1915. Note sur la culture du Soja hispida
à Lusambo, (Sankuru) [Note on the culture of soybeans at
Lusambo (Sankuru), Belgium Congo]. Bulletin Agricole du
Congo Belge 6(3-4):272-81. Sept/Dec. English-language
summary in the Bulletin of the Imperial Institute. 1916.
14:293. [Fre]
• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Description of the plant.
Varieties cultivated. Choice of ground. Preparation of the
ground. Choice of seeds. Planting. Germination and duration
of the vegetative stage/time to maturity. Crop management
(cultural care). The soybean as a plant for soil improvement.
Harvest. Preparation and storage. Yields. Enemies of the
soybean (insects).
Yellow soy beans grown in the Congo gave a yield of
seeds of about 1,310 lb/acre [21.8 bu/acre], and black soy
beans gave about 1,590 lb/acre. The plants
were found to do best when planted at the
start of the rainy season. Yellow soybeans
took 85-101 days to mature, and black
soybeans took 87-90 days. No dates are
mentioned in the article.
Photos (all by Mestdagh) show: (1) A
young soy bean plant. (2) A field of black
soybeans under several palm trees with
a person standing in the field. (3) A man
standing in a field of yellow soybeans. (3)
Three glass jars containing 100 seeds of
three different sizes and types of soybeans.
(4) Soy bean pods, containing from 1 to
4 seeds per pod. (5) The roots of soybean
plants with nodules on them. (6) Insects
(mounted) that attack the soybean.
Note: This is the earliest document seen
(Aug. 2009) concerning soybeans in the
Belgian Congo (renamed Zaire in Oct.
1971), or the cultivation of soybeans in the
Congo. This document contains the earliest clear date seen
for the cultivation of soybeans in the Belgian Congo (1915).
The source of these soybeans is unknown. Address: Sous
chef culture 1ere classe.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 162
350. Backer, H.J. 1916. Molekulargewichtsbestimmung
einiger pflanzlichen Oele [Determination of the molecular
weight of some vegetable oils (Abstract)]. Chemisches
Zentralblatt. I(9):395-96. March 1. [1 ref. Ger]
• Summary: A German-language summary of the
following Dutch-language article: Backer, H.J. 1915.
“Molecuulgewichtsbepalingen van eenige plantaardige
oliën.” Chemisch Weekblad 12:1034-40. 20/11. Contains a
large table.
351. Graaff, W.C. de; Zande, J.E. van der. 1916. De urease
der Soya-boonen [The urease of soya beans]. Chemisch
Weekblad 13(10):258-64. March 4. (Chem. Abst. 10:1660).
[4 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Results of investigations led the authors to
conclude that although bacteria may be present in soybeans,
this is not invariably the case. Urabacillus pasteurii could
not be isolated. The strong ureolytic action of the soybean
cannot be attributed solely to bacteria, since sterilized
beans still possess a very strong urea-splitting power,
and, therefore, a urease must be present. Address: Leiden,
Pharmaceut Labor. der Rijks-Universiteit.
352. Groll, J. Temminck. 1916. Over de aanwezigheid van
urease in soja-boonen [The presence of urease in soybeans].
Chemisch Weekblad 13(10):254-55. March 4. (Chem. Abst.
10:1660). [2 ref. Dut]
Address: Amsterdam, Physiologisch Laboratorium der
Universiteit.
353. Mom, C.P. 1916. Ureumbepaling door middel van
urease [Determination of urea using urease]. Chemisch
Weekblad 13(10):255-57. March 4. (Chem. Abst. 10:1660).
[3 ref. Dut]
Address: Delft [Netherlands].
354. Meyer, Frank N. 1916. Re: Autobiographical sketch
and resumé of work as a plant explorer for USDA–to be
considered for membership in the Botanical Society of
Washington, DC. In: Letters of Frank N. Meyer. 4 vols.
1902-1918. Compiled by Bureau of Plant Introduction,
USDA. 2444 p. See p. 2176-77. Letter of 15 March 1916 to
Mr. Stephen Stuntz, David Fairchild’s botanical assistant.
• Summary: “Born in Amsterdam, Holland, November 29,
1875.
“Had an ordinary public school education; at the age
of 14 entered the Botanical Garden of the University of
Amsterdam as a pupil in Botanical Gardening; after two
years entered the Experimental Garden of Professor Hugo
de Vries, became his assistant; later had private and public
tuition from 16 until 20 years of age in various subjects, such
as French, English, German, landscape gardening, technical
drawing, botany, physics, chemistry, etc.
“Became a student of botany and horticulture in the
University of Groningen, Holland, for six months; returned
to Amsterdam, had charge of the experimental work of
Prof. de Vries, followed his lectures on Plant Breeding and
Botanical Physiology for several years; botanized in Holland
for several summers; accumulated a large herbarium of
plants of the Netherlands.
“Resigned from the University of Amsterdam in March,
1899. Spent two and one-half years in travelling in Holland,
England, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Switzerland.
“Immigrated to the United States of America in October,
1901. Found employment with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture;
resigned in September, 1902. Went to California, found
employment again with the Department at the Plant
Introduction Garden at Santa Ana; resigned again in March,
1903. Was in the florist business in Santa Barbara, California,
from April, 1903 to March, 1904.
“Left California for Mexico in April, 1904. Walked
across Mexico from San Blas to Vera Cruz; went to Cuba,
also to the southern United States. In August, 1904, entered
the employ of the Shaw Botanical Garden at St. Louis
[Missouri]; was a member of the jury on Forestry at the
World’s Fair in 1904. Resigned in July, 1905, from the
Shaw Botanical Garden to enter service of the Department
of Agriculture as an Agricultural Explorer. Collected and
travelled in China, Japan, Korea, Siberia, Russia, Central
Asia, etc. for c.a. nine years–am still at it.
“Wrote a bulletin on Agricultural Explorations in the
Fruit and Nut Orchards of China, Chinese Plant Names, also
many minor papers.
“Intentions are to roam for many more years, primarily
in China.”
Note: Stephen Stuntz was David Fairchild’s botanical
assistant.
Location: University of California at Davis, Special
Collections SB108 A7M49. Address: USDA Plant Explorer.
355. Beijerinck, M.W. 1916. Het voorkommen van urease bij
hoogere planten [The occurrence of urease in higher plants].
Chemisch Weekblad 13(16):443-44. April 15. [3 ref. Dut]
356. Groll, T.M. 1916. Presence of urease in soya beans.
Analyst (London) 41:140. May. [1 ref]
• Summary: This is an English-language summary of a
Dutch-language article. “(Chem. Weekblad, 1916, 13, 254255.)–Soya beans were immersed for five minutes in 1 per
cent. mercuric chloride solution, and then washed and freed
from husks [hulls], rinsed with sterile water, and cut up. On
mixing 150 mgrms. of the material with water, adding 10
c.c. of 1 per cent. urea solution at 25º C, and maintaining the
mixture at that temperature for thirty minutes, the amount
of ammonia liberated required 10 c.c. of n/10 acid for
neutralisation.”
357. Wester, D.H. 1916. Over de oorzaak van de ureolytische
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 163
werking der sojaboonen [On the cause of ureolytic action
of soybeans]. Chemisch Weekblad 13(24):663-77. June 10.
(Chem. Abst. 10:2352). [13 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Concludes from the results of a study that the
ureolytic action of soybeans is not due to bacterial action.
358. Bulletin of the Imperial Institute (London). 1916.
Recent progress in agriculture and the development of
natural resources. 14(2):288-311. See p. 293-94. [2 ref]
• Summary: In the section on “Oils and oil seeds,” a
subsection titled “Soy beans” (p. 293-94) contains a
summary of articles about cultivation of soy beans in the
Belgian Congo (1915) and England (1916).
359. Moser, Charles K. 1916. China: Harbin. Supplement
to Commerce Reports [USA] (Daily Consular and Trade
Reports, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Department of Commerce) No. 52c. p. 32-43. Aug. 16.
• Summary: The section titled “Soya beans the leading
export” (p. 40) notes that soya beans are by far the leading
export from northern Manchuria. “From Nov. 1, 1914, to
Nov. 1, 1915, the close of the beans season, the quantity
exported amounted to 512,236 tons.” The total annual
production is about one millions tons. “The balance is
retained by the growers and the local market for domestic
purposes.
“Of the exports, 411,236 tons were sent through the
ports of Vladivostok and Nikolaiefsk (via the Sungari and
Amur Rivers), and 101,000 tons by way of Changchun and
Dairen. The whole of the shipments through Changchun
and Dairen went to Japan, as well as 209,236 tons of the
beans shipped by way of Nikolaiefsk and Vladivostok. The
remainder, 202,000 tons, went to England, Denmark, and the
Netherlands. The striking feature of the year’s trade was the
great share taken by Japan as compared with former years,
when Japan bought but a small share of the exports through
Changchun and no part of the other shipments. But in 1915,
on account of the extraordinarily high freight rates to Europe,
Japan was able to buy the beans at a much cheaper rate than
Europe and to resell them to considerable advantage.”
The next section, titled “Bean prices and freights–
Uncertain prospects” (p. 40-41) begins: “At the beginning of
1915 the bean business was almost paralyzed, owing to the
closing of certain European markets, the congestion of the
local railway lines with war materials, and the uncertainties
of ocean freights. Prices dropped to the lowest level known
in the local market, and a period of great deprivation
threatened the Chinese population. Then conditions changed
for the better.”
The “outlook for 1916 is considered very uncertain
in view of the high freights, the scarcity of transportation
facilities, and the difficulty of securing sufficient labor to
handle shipments.”
Note: This is the earliest document see (Jan. 2009) that
gives general information about the transportation of mature
soybeans to market within a particular country or region.
Address: Consul, Harbin, Manchuria.
360. Wolk, P.C. van der. 1916. Onderzoekingen over een
onverwachte bacterieziekte in de Soja-plant, in annsluiting
met een onderzoek naar het wezen der wortelknolletjes
van Glycine Soja en Arachis hypogaea [Investigations
on an unexpected bacterial disease in the soybean plant,
in conjunction with an investigation on the nature of root
nodules of Glycine Soja (soybeans) and Arachis hypogaea
(peanuts)]. Cultura, Oficieel Orgaan van het Nederlandsch
Genootschap voor Landbouwwetenschap (Wageningen)
28(336):268-85. Aug.; 28(377):300-319. Sept. [2 ref. Dut]
• Summary: The disease first appears as an etiolated
condition and may result in the death of the plant. It was
considered to be caused by the activities of the bacterium,
Rhizobium beijerinckii, associated with root nodules, which
are here compared with plant galls. Address: Laboratorium
der Selectie- en Zaadtuinen te Buitenzorg (Bogor), Java.
361. Naamlooze Vennootschap Industrieele Maatschappij
v.h. Noury & van der Lande. 1916. Verfahren zum Bleichen,
Haltbarmachen und Erhoehen der Backfaehigkeit von Mehl
und anderen Muellereiprodukten [Process for bleaching,
preserving and increasing the baking quality of flour and
other milled products] German Patent 325,031. Nov. 30. 3 p.
Issued 6 Sept. 1920. [1 ref. Ger]
Address: Deventer, Netherlands.
362. Piper, C.V.; Morse, W.J. 1916. The soy bean, with
special reference to its utilization for oil, cake, and other
products. USDA Bulletin No. 439. 20 p. Dec. 22. [9 ref]
• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Soy beans in
Manchuria. Soy beans in Japan. Soy beans in Europe. Soy
beans in the United States. Methods of oil extraction. Soybean meal as human food. Soy-bean meal as stock feed.
Soy-bean meal as fertilizer. Uses of soy-bean oil. Analysis of
important varieties of soy beans. Possibility of developing a
manufacturing industry with American-grown soy beans.
“Analyses of important varieties of soy beans (p.
16-17):... In determining the range in the oil and protein
contents of over 500 varieties grown in the variety tests at
Arlington Farm, Virginia, the percentage of oil was found
to range from 11.8 to 22.5 [Tokyo had 20.7% and Biloxi
had 20.3% oil] and of protein from 31 to 46.9 [Chiquita had
46.9% protein]... At the present time the Mammoth Yellow
variety is the most generally grown throughout the South and
is the one used in the production of oil. The yellow-seeded
varieties, which are most suitable for the production of oil
and meal, contain the highest percentage of oil.
“Environment has been found to be a potent factor
in the percentage of oil in the same variety. Considerable
differences occur in oil content when soybeans are grown
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 164
in different localities. The Haberlandt variety grown in
Mississippi, North Carolina, Missouri, Virginia, and Ohio
gave the following percentages of oil, respectively: 25.4,
22.8, 19.8, 18.3, 17.5; while the Mammoth Yellow variety
grown in Alabama, South Carolina, Tennessee, North
Carolina, and Virginia gave, respectively, 21.2, 19.6, 19.5,
18.4, and 18.8. Variety tests conducted in various parts of
the country indicate a higher percentage of oil with the same
variety for southern-grown seed. Similar results have been
obtained in Manchuria, the North Manchurian beans showing
an oil content of 15 to 17 percent and the South Manchurian
beans from 18 to 20 percent.”
Photos (both by Frank N. Meyer) show: (1) A fleet of
junks carrying soy beans to Newchwang, Manchuria.
(2) Coolies at Newchwang, carrying loads of soy beans
from junks to big stacks.
An outline map of the USA (p. 8) shows the area to
which the soy bean is especially adapted for growing for
oil production. The area of double hatching shows that it
is especially well suited to the Deep South. The northern
boundary of the area where it is “less certain of profitable
production” includes the southern one-third of Ohio, Indiana,
and Illinois, and most of Missouri. On the west, the “less
certain” area includes the eastern one-third of Nebraska,
Oklahoma, and Texas.
Tables show: (1) “Exports of soy beans, bean cake,
and bean oil from the principal ports of South Manchuria
(Antung, Dairen, Newchwang), 1909 to 1913, inclusive.” (2)
“Quantity and value of exports of soy beans and soy-bean
oil from Japan to foreign countries, 1913 and 1914.” The
countries are: China, United Kingdom, France, Germany,
Belgium, United States, Hawaii, British America, Australia,
other countries. (3) “Quantity of imports of soy beans, soybean cake, and soy-bean oil from Dairen, Manchuria, into
Japan, 1911 to 1914, inclusive. The greatest imports were
of soy-bean cake, followed by soy beans, with only small
amounts of oil.
(4) “Quantity and value of imports of soy beans, bean
cake, and bean oil by European countries, 1912 to 1914,
inclusive.” The countries are: Austria, Belgium, France,
Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, United
Kingdom. In 1912, the UK imported the most soy beans,
while Netherlands imported the most cake and oil. (5)
“Quantity and value of imports of soy beans, soy-bean cake
(Footnote: Includes bean cake [perhaps fermented tofu or
canned regular tofu], or bean stick [probably dried yuba
sticks], miso, or similar products, with duty, 40 per cent) and
soy-bean oil into the United States, 1910 to 1915, inclusive.”
The quantity of soy bean imports was greatest in 1915 with
3.837 million lb. The quantity of soy-bean cake imports was
greatest in 1913 with 7.005 million lb. The quantity of soybean oil imports was greatest in 1911 with 41.106 million lb.
“Prior to 1914 soy beans were not classified separately in the
customs returns” (p. 9). (6) “Composition of soy-bean flour
in comparison with wheat flour, corn meal, rye flour, Graham
flour, and whole-wheat flour.”
(7) “Value of a short ton of soy-bean cake and other oil
cakes in the principal European countries” (Incl. cottonseed,
linseed, peanut {Rufisque}). Countries: Germany, United
Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden. (8) “Analyses
[nutritional composition] of soy-bean meal and other
important oil meals.” (Incl. Cottonseed, linseed (old and
new processes), peanut (decorticated), sunflower seed). (9)
“Fertilizing constituents [nitrogen, ammonia, phosphoric
acid, potash] of soy beans, soy-bean meal, and cottonseed
meal.”
(10) Analyses for protein and oil of important varieties
of soy beans grown at Arlington Farm (Virginia), Newark
(Delaware), and Agricultural College (Mississippi). The
varieties are: Mammoth, Hollybrook, Manchu, Haberlandt,
Medium Yellow, Ito San, Chiquita, Tokyo, Lexington,
Guelph, Black Eyebrow, Shanghai, Peking, Wilson,
Biloxi, Barchet, Virginia. Note 1. “At the present time,
the Mammoth Yellow variety is most generally grown
throughout the South and is the one used in the production
of oil” (p. 16). (11) “Acreage, production, and value per
ton of cottonseed in the boll-weevil states.” “Since the boll
weevil first entered Texas in 1892,” it has steadily decreased
production of cottonseed. The soy beans offers a good
replacement. (12) “Comparative prices per ton of cottonseed
and soy beans on the European market, 1911 to 1914,
inclusive.” Soy beans are usually slightly more expensive.
Note 2. This is the earliest published document seen that
contains soy-related photos by Frank. N. Meyer.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen in which
William Morse describes soy milk, or mentions natto, or
correctly mentions tofu.
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (Aug. 2013)
that mentions the soybean variety Lexington. Address: 1.
Agrostologist in Charge; 2. Scientific Asst. Forage-Crop
Investigations, USDA, Washington, DC.
363. Piper, C.V.; Morse, W.J. 1916. The soy bean, with
special reference to its utilization for oil, cake, and other
products: Soy-bean meal as human food (Document part).
USDA Bulletin No. 439. 20 p. Dec. 22. See p. 11-13. [2 ref]
• Summary: “The meal remaining after the oil is extracted
from Mammoth soy beans is bright yellow in color when
fresh and has a sweet, nutty flavor. The use of the meal as
flour for human food has become an important factor in
several European countries during the last few years and to
some extent in America as a food of low starch content.”
“In England, manufacturers have placed on the market
a so-called ‘soya flour,’ which is 25% soy-bean meal
and 75% wheat flour. This soya flour is being used by
bakers in making a soy bread which is very palatable and
may be found on the market. A similar product has been
manufactured in Amsterdam [Netherlands] for 25 years.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 165
‘Soya biscuits’ are also manufactured from this flour and
constitute an article of export from England. German millers
have been experimenting to some extent with soy meal in
making brown bread by mixing with rye flour... Soy-bean
flour enters largely as a constituent in many of the so-called
diabetic breads, biscuits, and crackers manufactured as food
specialties.
“As a human food, soy-bean flour has been used
principally in the U.S. as a special article of diet and is sold
by a number of food companies manufacturing special foods.
Extensive tests are being conducted by the USDA with soybean flour in the making of bread. The flour or meal can be
successfully used as a constituent for muffins, bread, and
biscuits in much the same way as corn meal. In these various
food products about ¼ soy flour and 3/4 wheat flour have
been found to be the proper proportions.” Note: This is the
earliest document seen (Sept. 2004) which clearly states that
soy-bean flour has been used to make bread in the USA.
“Although soy-bean milk has been used in both the fresh
and condensed form and in the manufacture of cheese [tofu]
in Japan and China for centuries, it only recently has been
considered of possible importance in the United States. Soybean milk, owing to its food value and for sanitary reasons,
is said to be of the greatest importance for cooking purposes
and can be used by bakers, confectioners, and chocolate
manufacturers. In Asiatic countries the whole bean is utilized
in the manufacture of the milk, but quite recently it has been
discovered that soy-bean meal, after the oil is extracted, is
fully as useful for milk purposes as the whole bean.
“If the milk from the soy bean is used in the
manufacture of products as a substitute for milk, the labels of
such products should indicate that the substitution has been
made, otherwise it would constitute adulteration under the
food and drugs act.
“In addition to its uses for flour and milk, the soy bean
can be prepared as human food in numerous ways. The green
bean, when from three-fourths to full grown, has been found
to compare favorably with the butter or Lima bean... The soy
bean has been utilized not only in the U.S. but in European
countries as a substitute for the coffee bean. When roasted
and prepared, it makes an excellent substitute for coffee.”
Address: 1. Agrostologist in Charge; 2. Scientific Asst.
Forage-Crop Investigations, USDA, Washington, DC.
364. Fuerstenberg, Maurice. 1916. Die Einfuehrung der Soja,
eine Umwaelzung der Volksernaehrung [The introduction
of the soybean, a revolution in the people’s nutrition
(Continued–Document part IV)]. Berlin: Paul Parey. 30 p.
Foreword by Dr. Gottlieb Haberlandt, Director of the Plant
Physiology Institute, Univ. of Berlin. [5 ref. Ger]
• Summary: Continued: Page 16: In the agronomic trials that
were conducted in 1877, 118 people already participated.
This time, the trials extended to all of the provinces of
Austria as well as to Hungary, Croatia, Germany, Holland,
Switzerland, and Russian Poland (Russisch-Polen). In
consideration of the extremely unfavorable weather–a late,
chilly, and damp spring, a summer that was only hot in brief
periods with a dry period that lasted all the longer, a cold,
rainy autumn, which brought the unusually premature early
frosts which substantially damaged the sensitive plants or
completely destroyed them–the result of these agronomic
trials can also be called a satisfying one. Indeed, many
participants in this year’s agronomic trials felt themselves
to be obliged to very specially emphasize in their reports to
Haberlandt the resistance of the soybean to drought and to
frost.
Instead of quoting the various reports, the wish is to list
here the conclusions that were summarized by Haberlandt in
fifteen points which he obtained from the agronomic trials
that were conducted during three years as well as from the
chemical studies:
I. The acclimatization of the early-maturing soybeans
can be indicated as completely successful in Central Europe.
II. Out of all of the varieties that achieved cultivation on
an experimental basis over the three years, the yellow-seeded
variety, and possibly also the reddish-brown-seeded variety,
served as the decidedly preferable ones.
III. The yellow variety as the earliest maturing variety
noticeably exceeded the northern distribution boundary for
the corn plant, competing with regard to its capability for
distribution at minimum with the earliest maturing corn
varieties.
IV. With the continued cultivation of the soybean, there
is reason to fear a degeneration of it in the sense that, for
instance, the anatomical-physiological qualities of the seeds
and the chemical properties that are associated with them
could experience a substantial change.
V. On the other hand, it is [verb missing–possessed?]
of an extraordinary capacity for adaptation, both to the soil
and to the climate of an area. As is expressed in the height of
its growth, in the number and size of its leaves, in the stiffly
upright or sarmentous (raukend) growth of the stem, in the
denser or sparser hair covering of the leaves
Page 17: and in the longer-lasting beginning of the
blossoming or an interruption of it that occurs early.
VI. It resists frost far better than corn or green beans, its
seeds do not freeze, even if they winter over in frozen soil
or are intentionally left to freeze. Likewise, the sprouts are
also less sensitive than green bean plants which, like soaked
green beans, are certainly destroyed by frost. As a result of
this greater hardiness of soybeans, it is already possible to
move their cultivation to the second half of April, as long
as it is not pushed past May 1. VII. It is capable of resisting
summer drought to a greater degree than the other legumes,
and in fact in that respect it hardly meets its match among
our local cultivated plants, perhaps only with corn, sorghum
(Moorhirse), and foxtail millet (Mohar).
VIII. Corresponding to its wealth of blossoms is always,
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 166
with almost absolute certainty, an extraordinarily rich
setting of pods which is emphasized with praise by all trial
participants and which can be designated as incomparable.
At the same time, the pods keep the seeds well and almost
never let them drop on their own.
IX. Both the seeds and the straw of the soybeans have
an excellent nutritional value. As a green fodder plant, there
is no other that is comparable to it with regard to nutritional
value. With the high content of its seeds in the most precious
components, no seed of any other food plant of the temperate
zones can even distantly be compared with it.
X. Not only do the products of the soy plant
(Soyapflanze) have a very high nutritional value, with dishes
that are prepared from the seeds also pleasing the palates of
people, the straw and the green plant are eagerly eaten by
every type of livestock.
XI. For the plant farmer, it has the special advantage
that it can be planted in almost any soil, even if it equally
flourishes superbly on all types of light soils and specifically
matures earlier. The planting
Page 18: smaller stock of seed, its care requires a little
trouble and cost, it shades the soil in an excellent manner,
it does not allow any weeds to develop, and it can be left in
the fields in stooks/shocks (Puppen) to dry in the autumn
without risk, as long as there is no fear of it being eaten by
mice.
XII. One decisive advantage of the soybean in
comparison with all other legumes consists of the fact that
with respect to all of the parasitic fungi (Schmarotzerpilze), it
enjoys an infallible immunity, as has been the case thus far.
XIII. But the soybean is not simply an extraordinarily
important acquisition for the farmer, it will also achieve a
great significance for industry.
XIV. In the end, the soy plant will also form a valuable
subject for plant physiologists for the purposes of numerous
studies, since prior experiments have shown that it can
also easily be used in nutrient solutions for complete
development.
XV. It will prove itself to be one of the most suitable
plants for the study of the influence with the formation of
new varieties, and it will do so not simply for the household
of people, but it will also be of great service for scientific
research.
In his book, Haberlandt prophesied that soy (Soja)
“will one day play a great role in the huts of the poor, it will
mean more to potatoes than salt, with its fat it will be like
drippings, and with its protein it will provide energy. As
flour, though, it will also gain its entry into the palaces of the
wealthy, and in fact the soy sauce that is currently imported
from India and China will form a constant item in their
cakes.” Haberlandt closes out his study about the merits of
cultivation of soy by saying, “Farmers will therefore only be
taking their own interests into consideration if they include
this miraculous stranger within the circle of their protection
and, in so doing, along with their own advantage and the
general good of the people, they also promote the well-being
of the Fatherland.”
Many will thus pose the question: where does it come
from that the soybean, if it has such outstanding properties,
Page 19: will find its further dissemination? If
Haberlandt had not unfortunately been torn away from the
midst of his publicity activity–he died in 1878, right when
his book The Soybean (Die Sojabohne) had been published in
which he set down the results of the studies and trials about
the merits of the cultivation of the soybean–then the soybean
would have already taken on first place long ago among the
cultivated plants of Europe. Haberlandt was in fact mistaken
about one thing: namely, in his view that the soybean
“will achieve general recognition only as a consequence
of the advantages which are associated with its cultivation
and which would be the only thing capable of dispelling
mistrust which every newly recommended useful plant
encounters in the all too often shrewd circles of practical
farmers.” Haberlandt was certainly not incorrect when he
indicated that the praise which he wrote and spoke extolling
the soybean in those days would have died away without
a sound and would have remained completely unnoticed if
it had not recommended itself through its advantages to all
those who thus far have become acquainted with it. But no
new cultivated plant can be disseminated without publicity.
It was possible for the potato to be introduced in part only
through force and cunning. In Prussia, after the Seven Years’
War [1754-1763], Frederick the Great [ruled 1740-1786]
had it required of every tenant farmer to till one fifteenth of
the field with potatoes, clover, and caraway. In France, the
famous pharmacist and agronomist Parmentier could once
again only introduce the potato into his fatherland by means
of a ruse. Namely, he made it known that any farmer who
dug up the tubers would be subjected to severe punishment.
The forbidden fruits are the ones that always taste the best:
the potatoes were stolen and planted and in this way acquired
their civil rights in France.
Things went completely differently for the soybean.
Farmers showed the greatest interest in it from the very
beginning. And thus Haberlandt was able to say that he was
aware of no case in the history of crop farming in which a
cultivated plant that was to be newly introduced had won for
itself the general interest and the participation of farmers in
so few years at such a high degree as that which the soybean
had succeeded in doing in recent years. In this year, 1877, it
was already possible for 148 farmers to carry out agronomic
trials, most of them appreciatively emphasized the great
fertility of the new bean, and Haberlandt was bombarded
from all sides with requests. After the death of Haberlandt,
the great advocate and champion for the introduction of the
soybean, the movement which he initiated with indeed such
great enthusiasm waned, and in fact the soybean sank...
Continued. Address: Frohnleiten, Steiermark [Austria].
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 167
365. Klinkert, Hillebrandus C. 1916. Nieuw MaleischNederlandsch woordenboek met arabisch karakter. Derde
verbeterde en vermeerde druk [New Malay-Dutch dictionary
with Arabic characters. 3rd improved and expanded ed.].
Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. viii + 1047 p. 23 cm. [Dut;
Ara]
• Summary: The soybean is mentioned under katjang (p.
744) and is written k. kedelai. It also appears under kedelai
(p. 769). Indonesian-style miso [tauco] appears under taötjo
(p. 247).
Also discusses: bidjam (sesamum indicum, p. 224). ragi
(yeast, p. 484).
Note: This book is hard to use since the order of words
follows the Malay alphabet. H.C. Klinkert lived 1829-1913.
Address: Leiden [Netherlands].
366. Roepke, W. 1916. Verslag over het jaar 1915/1916,
betreffende de technische werkzaamheden van het
Proefstation Midden-Java, uitgebracht door den Directeur
[Report about the year 1915/1916, concerning the technical
activities of the Central Java Experiment Station, by the
Director]. Mededeelingen van het Proefstation Midden-Java
No. 23. p. 13-29. See p. 24-25. [Dut]
• Summary: Discusses Araecerus fasciulatus which feeds on
kedele (Soja hispida). Address: Java.
367. Chemisch Weekblad. 1917. Algemeene vergadering de
Nederlandsche Chemische Vereeniging te ‘s-Gravenhage
op 28 December 1916 [General assembly of the Dutch
Chemical Union at the Hague on 28 Dec. 1916]. 14(1):4-15.
Jan. 6. [Dut]
• Summary: Includes the paper “Ueber die Anwendung von
Enzymwirkungen in der Ostasiatischen Hausindustrie [On
the application of enzymes in East Asian cottage industries”],
by H.C. Prinsen Geerligs, followed by a long discussion.
368. Erslev, Knud. 1917. Verfahren zur Herstellung von
Kunstmilch [Process for the manufacture of artificial milk].
German Patent 319,985. Jan. 13. 3 p. Issued 8 April 1920.
[Ger]
• Summary: See the 4 steps described in the U.S. patent.
Address: Nijmegen, Netherlands.
369. International Review of the Science and Practice of
Agriculture (International Institute of Agriculture, Rome).
1917. International trade in feeding stuffs: Annual Review
No. 3. 8(4):489-551. April 1. See p. 490-91, 502-05, 535-43.
[29 ref]
• Summary: The Introduction begins: “This third Annual
Review gives the International Trade in Feeding Stuffs up
the end of 1916 as far as the present conditions allow, and
according to the scheme established in the send Review (1).
“Two new headings have been introduced: soya and
soya-cake, brewing residues; for these are given, under
the heading coefficients, the factors used to calculate the
production of concentrates on the basis of the available
supply of raw materials.”
The section titled “Production of concentrated foods for
livestock,” under coefficients (p. 491), states: “Soya cakes–
For countries importing soya, the production of cakes has
been estimated at the rate of 80% of the net importation.”
Three tables (p. 502-04) give figures in metric tons
for 1912 to 1916. The first table, titled “Trade in soya
[soybeans]” (p. 502) gives figures as follows: (a) Producing
countries: China (exports), Korea (exports), and Japan
(production, imports, exports). (b) Importing countries:
Germany, Belgium, Denmark, United States, France,
Netherlands (imports and exports), United Kingdom (imports
and re-exports), Russia, and Sweden. The largest exporter
of soybeans in 1912 is China (661,004 tonnes), followed
by Korea (98,674). The largest importer in 1912 is United
Kingdom, followed by Germany, Netherlands, Denmark.
The second table, titled “Trade in soya cake” (p. 503)
follows the same format with the same countries as the first
table. The largest exporter of soya cake in 1912 is China
(493,477 tonnes), followed by Korea (1,063). The largest
importer is Japan (518,056), followed by Netherlands
(23,852).
The third table, titled “Production of soya cake in
importing countries” (p. 504) gives estimated figures for
Germany, Belgium, Denmark, United States, France,
Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Russia. The largest
producer in 1912 was the United Kingdom (143,431 tonnes),
followed by Germany (77,014) and Denmark (27,185).
370. Li, Yu-ying. 1917. Procédés et dispositifs pour la
transformation intégrale du soya [Processes and technology
for the transformation of whole soybeans]. Chemisch
Weekblad 14(15):348-51. April 14. Included within a longer
paper in this journal by de Waal, p. 344-56. [Fre; dut]
• Summary: This lecture, delivered in French on 11 Nov.
1911, includes a description of and an interesting, complex
diagram showing the basic processes by which the many
food and industrial uses of the soybean are created. “In the
soybean industry, it is not only the whole seed / bean which
constitutes the usable raw material, but also its derivatives
such as soy flour, milk, etc., and even the by-products
(cakes), which can, themselves, serve as the basis for a
large number of products.” A table (p. 349) shows these
raw materials in five degrees: 1st. Whole soybeans. 2nd.
Dehulled soybeans, cellulose/fiber, cakes, oil-rubber, milk,
cakes. 3rd. Flour, cakes, oil, milk, cakes. 4th. Flour, milk,
cakes, casein (caséine), flour. 5th. Casein, flour. “These
five groups are composed of 19 products which can be
considered as the raw materials which derive from a series of
transformations leading up to the complete utilization of the
bean.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 168
“The course of operations to obtain the announced
products comprises the following phases which are
represented in figure 1.
“Dehulling of the beans. Grinding of the dehulled
product, of oilcakes (tourteau d’huilerie), cakes for [soy]
dairy production (tourteaux de laiterie), of casein.
“Pressing to obtain oil, or to obtain sojalithe (an
industrial soy casein resembling ivory or horn).
“Drying of the casein, of the soymilk cake [okara]
(tourteaux de lait), of the powder for preserves (confiture)
[such as chestnut cream (crème de marron)].
“Cooking for the production of preserves, or for making
sauce.
“Roasting / grilling for the manufacture of [soy]
chocolate or [soy] coffee.
“Wet-grinding to obtain milk [from soybeans], or to
obtain milk from okara (lait provenant de tourteaux).
“Fermentation for the manufacture of sauce [jiang or soy
sauce], cooked soybeans, or milk.
“Concentration for the manufacture of milk, [okara]
(torteaux de lait), or sauce.
“Desiccation / drying to obtain powdered [soy] milk,
powdered [soy] milk cake [okara] (poudre de lait de
tourteaux), powdered soy sauce.
A chart (fig. 2, p. 350) describes the progress and
combination of different necessary operations to obtain these
products.
“You can see that the soybean is first dehulled so that it
can be cooked or ground either dry or with the addition of
water. The dry-ground products, made into flour, are used for
baking, pastry-making, and the fabrication of pasta (pâtes
alimentaires).
“Dehulled soybeans treated by wet-grinding yield
soymilk, which can itself be transformed into fermented
milk, concentrated milk, powdered milk, or it can serve for
the production of fresh or fermented cheeses, of [soy] sauce
(by fermentation), as well as to obtain casein that can be
dried or powdered; by pressing casein one obtains ‘sojalithe.’
The oilcakes [okara] resulting from the fabrication of milk
are pressed and ground and can be used to make casein.
“Soybeans are pressed to obtain oil which can itself
serve as a base to make candles, soaps, paint, artificial
rubber, etc. Oilcakes remaining as by-products can be ground
to make milk or pulverized to obtain flour.
“Cooked soybeans are also used to make condiments,
fermented [soy] sauce, liquid sauce, solid [sauce], [sauce]
concentrated into a paste or in dry powder. Cooked soybeans
are also used to make pasty preserves (confitures pâteuses) or
in powder.
“Cooked and grilled soybeans again serve to make [soy]
coffee and chocolate.” Address: Seine, France.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 169
371. Waal, A.J.C. de. 1917. Over soja-producten [On soy
products]. Chemisch Weekblad 14(15):344-56. April 14.
(Chem. Abst. 11:2001). [22 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Describes the work done by men in different
countries on various soybean preparations and includes
a paper by Li Yu Ying (cited separately) titled “Procédés
et Dispositifs pour la Transformation Intégrale du Soya,”
including food and industrial uses of soybeans. A complex,
full-page French-language diagram (p. 350) shows the basic
processes by which the many food and industrial products
that can be derived from the soy bean, and summarizes
patents related to many of these. By milling and baking:
soya meal (soja-meel) and soy bread (soja brood). Soya milk
(soja-melk) and Western-style cheeses. Coffee and chocolate
substitutes: Soy coffee (soja-koffie) and soy chocolate (sojachocolade). Pork-butcher products, incl. soy sausages (sojaworst) in which one can use soy cheese (soja-kaas). Soy
protein (soja-eiwit). Worcestershire sauce (Worcestershiresaus). Li is a resident of Seine France. This paper was
presented on 11 Nov. 1911, and published on 20 Jan. 1912.
Note 1. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (March 2001) that used the term soja-koffie to refer to
soy coffee.
Note 2. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Aug. 2013) that uses the term soja-melk to refer to
soymilk.
Note 3. This is the earliest Dutch-language document
seen (Nov. 2014) that mentions a meat alternative, which it
calls soja worst (soy sausages). Address: s’ Gravenhage (The
Hague), Netherlands.
372. Prinsen Geerligs, H.C. 1917. Ueber die Anwendung von
Enzymwirkungen in der Ostasiatischen Hausindustrie [On
the application of enzymes in East Asian cottage industries].
Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Chemie, Wirtschaftlicher Teil
30(3):256-57. May 8. [Ger]
• Summary: Paper read before the Niederlaendische
Chemische Vereinigung (Dutch Chemical Union), General
session in The Hague, December 28, 1916.
This paper is on the domestic application of enzyme
actions in Eastern countries, and describes, among other
things, the making of fermented and non-fermented soybean
food products. “To make soymilk (Milchersatz), only white
soybeans are used, softened in water for 3 hours until they
have swollen to 3 times their original size. Then, while
water is added continuously, they are milled between two
hard stones and fall through a hole in the bottom stone into
a pail. A very small amount of the thin soybean slurry is
set aside; through the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria
it quickly becomes so sour that after several hours that
lactic acid content has risen to 1.5%. The above mass is
cooked in a large pan. The now pasteurized liquid is filtered
through a large sieve to remove the hulls and hard pieces.
The filtered milk-white liquid has, in appearance and
chemical composition, the greatest similarity with animal
milk. A sample contains 6.9% total solids, 3.13% proteins,
and 1.89% fat. It gives an alkaline reaction and contains a
solution of legumin bound to potassium phosphate, while the
fat is emulsified in the thick protein solution. Unfortunately
this soymilk (Bohnenmilch) tastes very much like raw
French-beans (Schneidebohnen), so that people who are
accustomed to cow’s milk do not enjoy it much. But infants
should be very content with it.
“If cheese is to be made from this milk, a small amount
of the slurry soured with lactic acid is added to it. Thereby,
the legumin (protein) is dissolved from the potassium
phosphate and coagulated, then settles out with the fat with
which it is emulsified. When the milk, through several hours
mixing with the coagulation liquid, has become fully firm, it
is packed in cloths and pressed between boards, in order to
remove any excess water. Then the cakes are cut into square
pieces; if they are to be eaten raw, it must be done quickly,
lest they continuing souring and spoil. In order to impart a
pleasant color to the cakes, they may be placed for several
moments in a Curcuma [turmeric] decoction. Mostly the
cakes of cheese (Kaesekuchen) are dried in the sun or fried
(gebraten). They then keep better and acquire a pleasant
flavor.”
“Of much greater significance is the preparation of
the most popular and prevalent soybean preparation, soy
sauce (der Soja), which in East Asia is an indispensable
seasoning for a variety of dishes, and is produced and used
in unbelievably large quantities. There are various types,
some of which contain wheat flour. But here we will consider
only the type that is made [in the Dutch East Indies] with
soybeans plus some added ingredients to improve the flavor.
Note: This is the earliest German-language document
seen (April 2012) that uses the term der Soja to refer to soy
sauce.
For the preparation of soy sauce, brown or black
soybeans are cooked for several hours. After pouring off the
cooking water, the beans are placed in flat trays (Hürden
[tampah]) of woven bamboo and dried for half a day in
the sun, then cooled in the shade. When they are cooled,
the beans are covered with leaves of Hibiscus tiliaceus,
a species of mallow, and they are soon covered with a
layer of Aspergillus mold, which is usually found on the
tiny hairs or cilia on the underside of the hibiscus leaves
and so is transferred to the beans. The mold filaments or
hyphae penetrate between the tough and thick cell walls,
dissolve these through hydrolysis, and thus make the cell
contents accessible to the influence of the molds. The mold
is allowed to work until it forms spores (Fruchtstaende).
The beans then appear to be covered with a brownish green
felt. The beans are then dried in the sun and placed in a
strong, cold salt solution. The mixture is placed in the sun
for several days and then cooked. The brine solution, which
contains the soybean extract, is poured off and the beans
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 170
are cooked several more times until they have lost their
salty taste. The various cooking extracts are mixed, filtered
through a fine sieve, then mixed with palm sugar, aniseed
[Pimpinella anisum], and an herb extract, which one can buy
at a druggist’s shop, and finally cooked until salt crystals
appear. The soy sauce (Soja), which is now ready to use, is
a dark brown, thick, very salty liquid, in which a viscous
sediment forms. By diluting with water, it becomes turbid.
But the solution again becomes clear with the addition of
salt. This thorough investigation has shown that the mold
hyphae branch out into the cell walls, hydrolyze and dissolve
the pectin substances, and likewise break down the protein
content of the cells to leucine, tyrosine, asparagine, and other
decomposition products of legumes.
“But this action and result is of secondary importance.
The main point is the dissolution of the cell walls, whereby
the protein becomes free and can be dissolved in the
concentrated salt solution. The composition of soy sauce,
except for the salt content, is very similar to that of meat
extract, so that it can completely replace meat in the largely
vegetarian diets of the people of the East.
“In a similar way, various other foods are obtained,
whereby a mold dissolves the cell wall and so fulfills the
function otherwise accomplished by cooking. We mention
here only the bean paste (Bohnenbrei) [tao-tjo], for the
preparation of which, dehulled white soybeans are cooked
and then mixed with rice flour and glutinous rice flour
(Kleereismehl). The mixture is placed in a small basket that
is lined with the same hibiscus leaves mentioned above, and
the Aspergillus molds growing on the leaves are allowed to
develop. This saccharifies the rice starch flour and dissolves
the bean cell walls. Thereby, the mixture becomes sticky
and glutinous, and tastes sweet. It is dried and placed in
a pot with saltwater. There it remains until each bean is
permeated with salt and a sample tastes salty. Palm sugar
is added to taste and it is ready for use without further
cooking. Microscopic analysis showed that the cell walls
were completely dissolved and the contents lay free, so that
the mold growth had greatly improved the digestibility of the
beans.
“In Java, soybeans are also cooked and made into flat
cakes on a flat bamboo lattice. A small piece of an old cake
is added and the mass is covered with banana leaves. One
soon observes a rise in temperature and the development
of moisture. The mass is penetrated by hyphae of Rhizopus
Oryzae, which again dissolves the cell walls and frees
their contents. The cake [tempeh, though the term is not
mentioned] with its covering of mold, is consumed without
further processing, raw or fried (gebraten).
Also discusses the preparation of onchom from peanut
press-cake. Address: PhD, Netherlands.
373. Poverty Bay Herald (Gisborne, New Zealand). 1917.
Neutrals [Neutral nations in Europe during World War I].
June 27. p. 2.
• Summary: “The action of the United States government
in taking authority from Congress to regulate the export
of merchandise to neutral countries is one of significance.
It means a tightening of the blockade which is slowly but
surely strangulating Germany.
“Britain by placing a restriction on the export to
Holland, Norway, Sweden and other countries contiguous
to Germany and bargaining with those countries that they
shall take from her only what is required for their immediate
use has greatly reduced the amount of produce that has got
through to the Central Empires.”
“Before the war England received 5,700 tons of Dutch
eggs; last year she obtained a miserable total of 790 tons,
whilst Germany’s supply rose from 15,000 to 30,000 tons.
Britain needs potatoes badly. Yet last year her supply
from Holland fell from 132,000 tons to 5,000 tons, while
Germany’s fell from only 154,000 to 122,000 tons. The
inference from these figures is obvious: Holland favors the
enemy,...”
“Denmark, it is declared, is little better than Holland,
Soya beans are valuable for making cattle cake and also
probably for the oil that they contain, and Denmark is
importing 150 per cent. more than she did before the war.
Denmark is fattening cattle for German consumption, and
whilst we are allowing ships to carry the feeding stuff, the
Dane is sending fattened cattle into Germany–as many as
8,000 a week.”
374. Prinsen Geerligs, H.C. 1917. Domestic application of
enzyme actions in Eastern countries (Abstract). J. of the
Society of Chemical Industry (London) 36(12):662-63. June
30. [1 ref]
• Summary: A summary of a paper read before the
Niederlaendische Chemische Vereinigung (Dec. 28, 1916)
and published in the Zeitschrift für Angewandte Chemie,
Wirtschaftlicher Teil 30(3):256-57 (1917, May 8).
“A milk-like product produced by grinding soya beans
with water contains 6.9% of total solids, 3.13% of proteins,
and 1.89% of fat; this product, unless boiled, rapidly
undergoes lactic acid fermentation, and a cheese may be
obtained by the addition of a quantity of the fermented
liquid to a larger volume of the normal liquid. To prepare
an extract [soy sauce] resembling meat extract, the cooked
beans are subjected to the action of fungi which are found
on the leaves of a species of mallow (Hibiscus tiliaceus), the
mass is then extracted with salt solution, spices are added
to the extract, and this is then concentrated to a thick syrup.
A similar product is prepared from a mixture of soya beans
and rice by the action of fungi. Another food [tempeh] is
obtained by submitting soya bean cakes to the action of
fungi found on banana leaves, etc. The fungi found in rice
meal and rice straw are utilised for converting rice meal into
alcohol; rice meal may be saccharified by treatment with the
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 171
fungi occurring on banana leaves and the liquid obtained
is subsequently converted into rice wine. One of the most
important results of enzyme action is the production of
sugar in the palm; the stem of the latter is free from sugar
but contains large quantities of starch; the conversion of
the starch into sucrose proceeds in the tree, but laboratory
experiments with the separated enzyme resulted in the
formation of dextrose alone.”
Note: This early English-language document describes
tempeh, although the term is not actually mentioned.
375. Bussy, L.P. de. 1917. Lasioderma in Deli en zijn
bestrijding [Lasioderma in Deli and methods for controlling
it]. Mededeelingen van het Deli Proefstation te Medan
(Sumatra) 10(6):129-60. July. See p. 134, 137. [Dut]
• Summary: Discusses Lasioderma serricorne, its life
cycle, life history and habits, environmental factors, and
fumigation. This insect attacks soybeans (kedelé, soja.
Glycine soja). Address: Medan, Sumatra.
376. Goessel, Fritz. 1917. Werkwijze voor de bereiding van
kunstmelk uit sojaboonen of dergelijke zaden of mengsels
daarvan [Method for the preparation of artificial milk from
soya beans or similar seeds or mixtures thereof]. Dutch
Patent 2,122. Sept. 5. 3 p. Application filed 4 Dec. 1912.
Opened to the public 15 July 1914. [Dut]
• Summary: This milk can be made from soybeans, sesame
seeds, peanuts, nuts, etc. For example, finely ground
soybeans are mixed with cold water and small quantities of
alkali phosphate. The mixture is heated to boiling for a short
time, cooled, and then pressed. The resulting liquid is then
emulsified with edible fats and table salt (NaCl) or sodium
sulfate (Na2So4).
Note: This is the earliest Dutch-language document seen
(Aug. 2013) that uses the term kunstmelk uit sojaboonen or
melk uit sojaboonen to refer to soymilk. Address: Stockheim
in Oberhessen, Germany.
377. Davies, W.J. 1917. Oil industry of Japan. Board of
Trade Journal (London) 99(1,100):675-80. Dec. 27.
• Summary: Since the outbreak of the war, “the trade in
coconut oil has expanded tremendously. The export of [soy]
bean oil and rape oil has also developed,...”
Before the war, the oil industry in Japan was not
considered a lucrative one, and only the very largest
factories, which processed several types of oilseeds, were
able to make a profit. The increase has taken place despite
the loss of the German market; before the war, Germany
imported large quantities of oil from Japan.
“The main reason for the former unprosperous
condition of the Japanese oil trade was due to the existence
of innumerable small oil companies struggling against
each other with old-fashioned and non-efficient methods.”
Moreover, most of the oilseeds had to be imported and
processors situated at or near a port had a strong advantage.
Kobe and Osaka emerged as the key port cities for Japanese
oil mills.
“While the soap industry was in its infancy in Japan,
there was not much opening for the use of vegetable or
animal oils at home. Now, however, the industry is in
a flourishing condition; large quantities of soap being
exported annually to China, there is a more extensive home
consumption of oils than was formerly the case. The residue,
too, finds a wider home market.”
There are now in Japan 10 companies with a capital of
£10,000 and over; they are located in Nagoya (3), Osaka
(2), Otaru (2), and Kobe (2). Several new oil companies
are being planned. One, founded in Osaka with a £50,000,
will build a new factory at Fukai Bay to make coconut
and soya bean oils, and [soy] bean cake. Plans are also in
process to establish a company with £100,000 to harden
[hydrogenate] oil, to manufacture candles for export. “In
Dairen experiments in connection with the hardening of bean
oil have been so successful that a company has been formed
to exploit the discovery on a commercial scale.” It could be
used as a substitute for tallow in the manufacture of soap and
candles, or for making margarine and other food products.
“Methods of oil expression–In Japan the primitive
wedge press is fast giving way to the more up-to-date
hydraulic press which is to be found installed in all the
large mills in the Osaka and Kobe districts. Even in the
smaller mills the circular press, which is merely a more
efficient modification of the wedge-press, is to be found. Hot
expression is generally used.
“Vegetable oils: The vegetable oils produced in Japan
in their natural classification according to properties are:–
Drying: Linseed, perilla, hempseed, tung. Semi-drying: [Soy]
bean, rape (or Colza), cotton seed, sesame. Non-drying:
Coconut, peanut, camellia, castor. There follows a long
discussion of most of these.
“Soya bean oil.–There was a great increase in the export
from Japan of bean oil during 1916.
“The present prosperous condition of the soya bean oil
trade owes a great deal, of course, to the general shortage
abroad of fats of all descriptions, especially in the soapboiling trade, and, in addition, the failure of the cotton crop
in the United States in 1915 caused a brisk demand from that
country for bean oil. The chief buyer had been, of course, the
United Kingdom, but a remarkable feature of the oil trade of
Dairen during the last three years has been the growth of the
exports to the Netherlands. As showing the developments
referred to, the following figures for the export of soya bean
oil from Dairen may be given:–To the United Kingdom, 204
tons in 1913; 8,495 tons in 1914; and 16,498 tons in 1915. To
the Netherlands, 211 tons in 1913; 1,064 tons in 1914; and
9,600 tons in 1915.
“Most of the factories in Japan which are engaged in the
expression of oil from seeds include the manufacture of bean
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 172
oil in their operations, whilst many soap factories express the
oil for their own purposes.
“In Dairen their are two large mills, one with a capacity
of 6,000 cakes daily, and the other of 4,000 cakes capacity. In
addition there are 40 or so native mills producing over 5,000
cakes daily. These mills are primarily intended for cake
manufacture and the oil is shipped to Japan for transhipment
[transshipment] to Europe. The cake is also shipped to Japan.
As a fertiliser bean-cake enjoys a great vogue, and it is also
occasionally fed to horses on account of its muscle-forming
properties. The cake is also, after pounding, treated in Japan
by solvent methods for the extraction of the residue of oil.
“The following figures show the enormous increase in
the export of bean-oil from Japanese ports during the last
three years:–1914, 236,797 yen; 1915, 255,655 yen; and
1916, 921,292 yen.”
Also discusses vegetable wax (obtained from the berry
of the “Haze” tree, and widely used to make candles for
Japan), fish oil, whale oil, glycerine (sold to arsenals) from
fish oil, and tallow (though there are few live stock in Japan).
Address: H.M. [British] Consular Service in Japan.
378. Goot, P. van der. 1917. Het Tephrosia kevertje [The
small Tephrosia beetle]. Mededeelingen van het Proefstation
Midden-Java No. 26. 36 p. 2 plates. [4* ref. Dut]
• Summary: Pages 11-12 state that the soybean (locally
named Kedelé) is attacked by the Tephrosia beetle
[Araecerus fasciulatus]. Discusses: Behavior, biology,
environmental factors, generations, host plant range, host
records and distribution, host selection, humidity, Java,
leguminosae, life cycle, life history and habits, oviposition,
pod, races, seed, and seed in storage. Address: Salatiga.
379. Merrill, Elmer Drew. 1917. An interpretation of
Rumphius’s Herbarium Amboinense. Manila, Philippines:
Bureau of Printing. 595 p. See p. 274-75. Maps. Index. 25
cm. Also listed as Philippine Islands, Bureau of Science,
Publications No. 9. [8 ref]
• Summary: Glycine Linnaeus
Glycine max (Linn.) comb nov.
Phaseolus max Linn. Sp. Pl. (1753) p. 725.
Dolichos soja Linn. Sp. Pl. (1753) p. 725.
Soja hispida Moench. Meth. (1794) p. 153.
Glycine hispida Maxim. in Bull. Acad. Pétersb. 18
(1873) p. 398.
Glycine soja S. & Z. in Abh. Akad. Muench. 4 (1843) p.
119.
Glycine ussuriensis Regel & Maack Tent. Fl. Ussur.
(1861) p. 50.
Soja max Piper in Journ. Am. Soc. Agron. 6 (1914) p.
84.
Cadelium Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: p. 388, t. 140.
“This species is not represented in our Amboina
collections, but the Rumphian figure is an excellent
representation of the widely cultivated and well-known soy
bean. It was originally reduced by Linnaeus to Phaseolus
max, in Stickman Herb. Amb. (1754) p. 23, Amoen. Acad.
4 (1759) p. 132, Syst. ed. 10 (1759) p. 1162, Sp. Pl. ed.
2 (1763) p. 1018, in which he was followed by Burman
f., Willdenow, Persoon, Poiret, Don, and other authors.
Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. (1790) p. 441, correctly referred it
to Dolichos soja Linn., which is a synonym of Phaseolus
max Linn. = Glycine max (Linn.) Merr. By Henschel and
by Pritzel it has been also correctly referred to Soja hispida
Moench., another synonym of Glycine max Merr. Miguel,
Fl. Ind. Bat. 1 (1855) p. 197, erroneously referred it to
Phaseolus radiatus Linn.
“Phaseolus max Linn. has been considered a true
Phaseolus and a synonym of P. radiatus Linn. by nearly
all recent authors. It is clearly the soy bean, identical with
Glycine hispida Maxim., and the specific name max should
be maintained for the soy bean, whether Glycine or Soja be
recognized as its generic name. Piper has declared in favor of
the genus Soja, chiefly for the reason that of the eight species
originally described by Linnaeus in Glycine, but a single
one, G. javanica Linn., now remains in the genus, the other
seven having been removed by subsequent authors to Apios,
Kraunhia, Abrus, Rhynchosia, Amphicarpaea, and Fagelia,
respectively. However, I am content to determine the type
of the genus Glycine by elimination, which well [sic, will?]
maintain Glycine in its generally accepted sense with G.
javanica Linn. as its type.
“Prof. C.V. Piper has cleared up the synonymy of this
commonly cultivated species; and with the aid of extensive
data, supplied by Sir David Prain, he has clearly shown
that Phaseolus max Linn. is identical with the commonly
cultivated and well-known soy bean.”
The section titled “Rumphius and his work” (p. 15-21)
gives a brief biography of this pioneering naturalist. “George
Everhard Rumphius, as the family name Rumpf or Rumph is
Latinized, well named ‘the Pliny of the Indies,’ was born in
1627, apparently in Hanau, Hesse Cassel, Germany, and died
in Amboina, June 15, 1702, at the age of 75 years. Detailed
accounts of his life and work are available in the writings of
numerous authors so that it is unnecessary to enumerate here
more than the most important facts in connection with the
preparation and publication of his most renowned work, the
Herbarium Amboinense.
“Rumphius entered the service of the Dutch East India
Company as a young man, proceeded to Batavia, Java, in
1653, and in the latter part of the same year to Amboina,
where he resided for the remainder of his life... It is evident
that he commenced the preparation of the Herbarium
Amboinense shortly after his arrival in Ambonia, his active
work being continued practically until his death, in spite of
the great handicap of blindness after the year 1670... His
published works are manifestly based largely on observations
made by him between 1653 and 1670. The handicap of
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 173
blindness was somewhat lessened by aid given him by his
wife and by assistants assigned to him by the Dutch East
India Company... In the following year, however, his wife
and eldest child were killed in the great earthquake of that
year, and subsequent to that date he had less other assistance,
some of it of little real value. The original illustrations
for the Herbarium Amboinense were apparently made by
Rumphius himself, but on January 11, 1687, Amboina was
visited by a disastrous fire, in which Rumphius’s house was
destroyed, including his library, many of his manuscripts,
and the plates of the Herbarium Amboinense. Undaunted by
this last catastrophe, he replaced the destroyed illustrations
by new drawings, some made by his son, P.A. Rumphius,
others made by various assistants supplied by the East India
Company. Thus in attempting to interpret Rumphian species
the fact must be constantly kept in mind that the illustrations
were not made from the actual specimens on which the
corresponding descriptions were based.”
“In 1690 the manuscript of the first six books was
delivered to the Dutch East India company, the remaining
parts being delivered in 1695. The manuscript of the first
six books was forwarded to Holland from Batavia, Java,
in 1692 on the Waterland. This ship was destroyed by
the French in transit, and the manuscript was lost with
the ship. Fortunately a copy had been retained, and thus
the fruit of Rumphius’s many years of labor was not lost.
A copy of these six books was finally sent to Holland in
1696, the manuscript of the remaining six books was sent
the following year. The manuscript of the ‘Auctuarium,’
completed by Rumphius in 1701, a few months before his
death was copied at Batavia and sent to Holland in 1704.
This important manuscript remained in the archives of the
Dutch East India Company until 1736, when the company
granted permission to Professor J. Burman to prepare it for
printing, the six volumes appearing between 1741 and 1750
and volume seven, the ‘Auctuarium,’ in 1755.”
The section titled “Psophocarpus–Necker” (p. 286)
discusses “Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (Linn.) DC
Prodr. [De Candolle, Prodromus] 2 (1825) p. 403. Dolichos
tetragonolobus Linn. in Stickman Herb. Amb. (1754) 23,
Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 132, Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1162, Sp. Pl.
ed. 2 (1763) 1020 (type!).
“Botor tetragonoloba O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. Pl. 1 (1891)
162.
“Lobus quadrangularis Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: 374,
t. 133. This well-known species [the winged bean] is not
represented in our Amboina collections, but is doubtless still
cultivated there as it is in most parts of the Indo-Malayan
region. The Rumphian figure and description are the whole
basis of Dolichos tetragonolobus Linn., and it has been
consistently cited by all authors under that name or its
modern equivalent. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus DC.”
Note 1. This work first gave the soybean its present
scientific name, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. Merrill was an
American who was Dean of the University of California
College of Agriculture, Berkeley, during the late 1920s.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Aug.
2003) in which the winged bean has the species name
tetragonoloba, or the scientific name Botor tetragonoloba.
380. Middleton, Evan P. ed. 1917. History of Champaign
County, Ohio: Its people, industries and institutions:
With biographical sketches of representative citizens and
genealogical records of many of the old families. Vol II.
Indianapolis, Indiana: B.F. Bowen & Company, Inc. 1067 p.
Illust. 28 cm.
• Summary: Biographies and portrait photos of three
members of the Wing family of Mechanicsburg, Ohio are
given on the following pages. All are active members of the
Episcopal church at Mechanicsburg. (1) Charles B. Wing (p.
482-84). President of the Wing Seed Co. of Mechanicsburg,
he was born on 8 April 1878 at Mechanicsburg, the fifth
child of William H. and Jennie (Bullard) Wing. In 1915,
following the death of Joseph E. Wing, Charles B. Wing
became president of the Wing Seed Co. “When the Wing
brothers incorporated their company they started with a
capitalization of thirty thousand dollars, which capitalization
has since been increased to one hundred thousand dollars.
The Wing Seed Company not only handles seeds gathered
from all parts of the United States, but also imports largely
from Europe, drawing extensive supplies from England,
France, Holland, and Denmark, handling now about 700
varieties of flower seeds. The company made its reputation
as alfalfa specialists, the Wing Brothers being recognized
as the pioneer alfalfa growers of Ohio, but in later lines has
made an equally secure reputation, the tested seed corn,
soy beans and garden and flower seeds distributed from the
extensive plant of this company at Mechanicsburg being in
wide demand throughout the country.”
“The story of the beginning of the Wing Seed Co. is as
interesting as a romance.” On 4 May 1905 Charles Wing
was united in marriage to Jeanette Monce; they had three
children: Marguerite May Wing, Gardner Bullard Wing, and
Charles Winston Wing.
Willis O. Wing (p. 690-92). A member of the Wing Seed
Co., he was born on 14 May 1871 at Woodland Farm, the
fourth child of William H. and Jennie (Bullard) Wing. “The
Wings now control about 565 acres of excellent land in this
county and 745 acres in the neighboring county of Madison,
and their seed-supply station at Mechanicsburg has grown
from its humble beginning in 1909 to its present extensive
proportions.” On 21 Oct. 1908 Willis O. Wing was united
in marriage to Eva M. Guy, daughter of W.H. and Sarah
(Oyler) Guy, and to this union three children have been
born: William Guy Wing, James Guy Wing, and Phyllis May
Wing. Mr. Wing is also a Mason and a member of the local
Grange.
Joseph E. Wing (p. 944-47). The first president of the
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Wing Seed Co., he was born on 14 Sept. 1861 in New York
state, the second child of William H. and Jennie (Bullard)
Wing. In 1866 he came with his parents to Ohio, where they
settled on an 80-acre farm near Mechanicsburg, in Goshen
township, Champaign county. As a young man he took a trip
West and in Utah, while acting as foreman on a large cattle
ranch, he grew acquainted with alfalfa–which soon became
his life’s work. Mr. Wing was the author of four books. He
wrote extensively for the Breeder’s Gazette, and came to be
known as “the poet farmer of Ohio.” He was an inspiring
and captivating speaker. Over the years Woodland Farm
grew to be 340 acres. Joseph Wing died on 10 Sept. 1915
and was widely mourned. On 19 Sept. 1890 Joseph E. Wing
was united in marriage to Florence E. Staley, who was born
at Mechanicsburg in September 1865, daughter of Stephen
S. and Emily (Rathbun) Staley, both also natives of this
county and members of pioneer families. To this union were
born three sons: Andrew S. Wing (26 Aug. 1892), David
G. Wing (17 March 1896; he is now a student at the Ohio
State University), and William C. Wing (4 Feb. 1902). While
Joe Wing’s first interest was alfalfa culture, he also took
an active interest in sheep breeding. “The first great alfalfa
picnic was held at Joseph E. Wing’s home, ‘Woodland Farm,’
in 1911 and thirty-five hundred people were in attendance.
These alfalfa picnics were held annually at one or another
of the various well-known alfalfa farms in the state and
the interests of alfalfa culture have been greatly advanced
at these interesting annual meetings of those particularly
interested in the propagation of this valuable forage crop.”
Address: Judge, Ohio.
381. Roepke, W. 1917. Verslag over het jaar 1916/17,
betreffende de technische werkzaamheden van het
Proefstation Midden-Java, uitgebracht door den Directeur
[Report about the year 1916/17, concerning the technical
activities of the Central Java Experiment Station, by the
Director]. Mededeelingen van het Proefstation Midden-Java
(Batavia) No. 28. p. 10-33. See p. 30. [Dut]
• Summary: Discusses Pachymerus chinensis (now named
Callosobruchus chinensis), which is known to feed on
soybeans (kedelé or Glycine soja). Address: Java.
382. Hall, C.J.J. van. 1918. Ziekten en plagen der
cultuurgewasen in Nederlandsch-Indië in 1917 [Diseases and
pests of cultivated plants in the Dutch East Indies in 1917].
Mededelingen van het Laboratorium voor Plantenziekten
(Indonesia) No. 33. 42 p. Jan. See p. 15. [Dut]
• Summary: The section titled “Soybeans” (Kedelee)
contains three entries: (1) Residency of Yogyakarta and
Surakarta (Residentie Djoejakarta en Soerakarta): In the
residency of Yogyakarta [Pron: Jogjakarta], the soybean was
injured by the bean-borer (Agromyza) and by caterpillars.
(2) Residency of Rembang: The soybean plant was injured
by lots of rain, just like the tobacco plant. (3) Residency of
Kediri: The soybean suffered much injury from the rains and
was injured by the bean-borer (Agromyza)
Also mentions Ophiomyia. The introduction states that
owing to the wet east monsoon [dry season] of 1916 and the
prolonged rains during the west monsoon of 1917, insect
injury was less than in previous years.
Note: As of 2003, the first two residencies are in the
Indonesian province of Central Java, and the last is in East
Java. Address: Dr., Institut voor Plantenziekten en Cultures,
Departement van Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel [Dutch
East Indies].
383. Fairchild, David. 1918. Obituary: Frank N. Meyer.
Plant Immigrants No. 142. (Feb.) p. 1282-87.
• Summary: Frank Meyer, agricultural explorer of the
USDA, had been trapped in the city of Ichang (I-ch’ang or
Yichang), China, behind lines of soldiers for a long time. On
2 June 1918 he disappeared from a steamer en route from
Hankow to Shanghai, in the Nanking consular district. Walter
T. Swingle was requested to come to Nanking to assist in the
search. On about June 9, Meyer’s body was found about 30
miles above Wuhu. There follows a very fine obituary and
life of Meyer by Fairchild. Meyer was born in Amsterdam,
Holland. He came into the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant
Introduction in July 1905 and was sent almost immediately
to China, where he spent 3 years. During his 3 trips to Asia
he introduced over 2,000 species and varieties of plants
to America. At the end is Meyer’s last letter to the USDA
[written on 18 May 1918 from Hankow]. He mentions soy
beans in two paragraphs: “Concerning Chinese substitutes
for dairy products, well, the 101 different manufactures of
the soy bean supply this protein, but I must admit that it will
take some time for the white races to acquire a taste for the
very large majority of these products.”
Note: David Fairchild, an agricultural explorer, was born
on 7 April 1869 in Lansing, Michigan. In 1903 he organized
the Office of Plant Introduction, and was in charge of it from
1904-1928. He died on 2 Aug. 1954. This is the earliest
publication seen written by Fairchild related to soybeans.
384. Trabut, Louis. 1918. Le Soja: Soja Max (L.) Soja
hispida Savi [The soybean]. Algerie, Service Botanique,
Informations Agricoles. Bulletin No. 55. 16 p. April. [7 ref.
Fre]
• Summary: One cannot say that the soybean has been
introduced to the Western world only relatively recently;
it has been cultivated at the Jardin des Plantes since 1779.
There the soybean has always produced seeds, which have
been distributed to botanical gardens and amateurs interested
in plants. It would be unjust to say that for 138 years no one
has been involved in the utilization of soya in Europe. In
fact, there have been a number of fervent popularizers and
propagators of the plant. A history of this work is given,
including the Vienna Exposition of 1873, the work of Prof.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 175
Haberlandt in Austria disseminating and testing soybeans
and his remarkable book on the soybean published in 1878,
the work of the Society for Acclimatization in France from
1855 (they made the vegetable cheese, tofu [To-fou]), and
exports from Manchuria to Europe.
Since 1898, Manchuria, which can no longer cultivate
the opium poppy, has greatly expanded its cultivation of
soybeans and has looked for outlets in European markets. In
1909 Manchuria exported 410,000 tonnes of soya, a figure
which rose to 650,000 tonnes in 1912.
A that time, according to Mr. Brenier, Director General
of the Chamber of Commerce at Marseilles, the industry of
Marseilles, confronted with a influx of new oilseeds, tried to
obtain soya but ran into customs problems. It wasn’t clear
whether soya should be classified as a legume (because
it is a bean) or as an oilseed (graine oléagineuse). While
the matter was being debated, all the available beans had
been purchased by Hull, England, and Hamburg, Germany
(Académie d’Agriculture de France, 1917, p. 189).
“As the Director of the Chamber of Commerce of
Marseilles informs us, in England, Germany, and the
Netherlands, the industrial use of the soybean has been
growing in importance for several years. In Germany there
even existed an important manufacture of soymilk.
“A Chinese factory [run by Li Yu-ying] was installed
a few years ago near Paris to enable the soybean to realize
its full potential and to introduce various commercial food
products made from this seed. In 1912 Messrs. Li Yuying and Grandvoinnet published a work on the soybean,
recommending its cultivation in France.
“In 1917 Mr. Balland notified the Academy of Sciences
of the utilization of soya in war bread, biscuits, etc. All these
products, said the knowledgeable chemist, can contribute to a
good diet because of their rich nutrient content.
“The Swiss, who consume many coffee substitutes, roast
the soybean seeds to make a coffee.
In Algeria, starting in 1894, soybean agronomic trials
were started at the botanical station of Rouïba. The results
were communicated to the other French colonies in 1898 [by
Louis Trabut] in Bulletin No. 16 of the Botanical Service.”
The results of these and subsequent trials in 1896 and 1897
in Algeria are summarized.
In 1896 a soybean with a green seed coat yielded 2,980
kg/ha of soybeans.
Pages 7-11 include discussions of the nutritional value
of soybeans, their use in diabetic diets, the fact that soybeans
are rarely consumed as such but are almost always processed
into more sophisticated foods (including fermented foods).
Following these trials, that were focused on a very important
collection (80 soybeans in number) received [in France]
from a missionary in China through the intermediary of Mr.
H. de Vilmorin, the seeds were distributed and the results of
their cultivation were generally good. There follows a letter
from a person in Bou-Medfa [Bou Medfaa, Algeria]. Also
discusses the availability, benefits, and method of producing
soybean milk which the Chinese prefer to animal milks,
and which is free of bacteria that can cause tuberculosis.
In Algeria, soybean yields range from 12 to 30 quintals
per hectare. Note: 1 quintal = 100 kg. The Arabs consume
soybeans boiled in salted water. In England a Soya Flour
is sold which contains 75% wheat flour and 25% soy flour.
This flour is used commercially to make a soy bread. A Soja
Biscuit is made in the Netherlands.
Pages 12-14 list 26 soybean varieties in order of their
earliness. Synonyms and characteristics are also given:
Soja très hatif à grain noir (Extra Early Black; Vilmorin
or Ogema [Ogemaw] of Michigan. Matures in 80-90
days). Brun précoce (Early Brown from Indiana). Vireo
(Tokyo). Chernie (Khabarovsk, Siberia; black seed). Auburn
(American selection). Merko (Mekoechofka of Siberia;
brown seed). Elton (Khabarovsk, Siberia; yellow seed).
Chestnut (American selection 1907; brown seeds). Jaune
d’Etampes (Yellow Etampes, or Ito San in America; One
of the earliest varieties introduced to Europe and America).
Vert de Samarow (Green Samarow, or Guelph in America;
green seeds, matures in 120 days). Butterball (or Jaune
géant {Yellow Giant} from Dammann, from Tokyo; yellow
seeds. Matures in 110 days). Soja noir de Podolie (Black
Podolia [Podolia is in today’s Ukraine], or Buckshot in
America; black seeds). Wilson Black (Manchuria). Meyer.
Austin. Haberlandt. Huang-Tou (Yellow Bean, from
Ningouta {Ninguta, see Ning’an}). Bhetmas (from India;
seed chocolate and yellow). Medium Yellow. Shingto (From
Tieling {T’ieh-ling or Tiehling, Liaoning prov.}, Manchuria).
Swan (from Canton). Soja tigré (Striped, spotted, or speckled
soybean from Peking; seeds are grilled and eaten like
peanuts). Brooks (Manchuria and China). Maculata gigantea
(Large spotted, sold under this name by Dammann; probably
the same as the American variety Meyer). Mammoth
(American selection). Riceland (From China).
The importance of inoculation with bacteria is
emphasized. Soybeans can be cultivated with cowpeas for
forage. An illustration (line drawing) on the cover shows the
soy bean plant, with a close-up of the pods.
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Oct. 2004)
that mentions the soybean variety Wilson Black. Address:
Director of the Botanical Service for the Government of
Algeria.
385. Bean-Bag (The) (St. Louis, Missouri). 1918. Soya bean
flour. 1(3):33. Aug.
• Summary: “F. Behrend, of New York, dealer in various
kinds of flour, is very enthusiastic over the possibilities of
Soya Bean Flour, which he claims is superior, in many ways,
to wheat flour.
“’The Department of Agriculture, in 1916,
recommended the use of 25 per cent soya bean flour and 75
per cent wheat flour,’ says Mr. Behrend, ‘and what was good
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 176
then is surely welcome now.’”
“The flour can be successfully used as a constituent for
bread, muffins, and biscuits. In England a so-called soya
bean flour and 75 per cent of wheat flour is placed on the
market, and it is said to make a very palatable bread. In
Holland a similar product has been manufactured for 25
years.
“At the present time, when we are called upon to use
as little wheat flour as possible, should give bean flour
advocates an excellent opportunity to show the merits of
their product, and introduce it thoroughly as a breadstuff.
“The composition of soya bean flour compares with
other flours as follows:”
A large table compares the nutritional composition of
6 different kinds of flour: Soya bean, wheat, corn meal, rye,
Graham, and whole wheat. For each its gives the percentage
of water, ash, fat, fiber, protein, and carbohydrate. Soya bean
flour contains by far the most ash (6.20%), fat (4.50%), fiber
(2.05%), protein (47.30%) and by far the least carbohydrate
(33.85%).
386. Smith, Erwin F. 1918. Frank N. Meyer. Science
48(1240):335-36. Oct. 4.
• Summary: A brief biography of the great American
agricultural explorer. A footnote to the title states: “Drowned
in the Yang-tsze-kiang, June 1, 1918, and buried in Shanghai, China.” “Meyer was one of the most friendly men I
have ever known and one of the most interesting. He was
also a just and upright man. His knowledge of plants was
phenomenal and especially of conditions suited to their
growth, but he was interested in everything pertaining to
the countries he visited–climate, topography, fauna, flora,
geology, ethnology, art, archeology, religion. He was an
entertaining public speaker, as many can testify, a good
conversationalist and a copious and fascinating letter writer.
A published volume of his letters would be as interesting as
a novel, more interesting than most novels. He had also a gift
for linguistics, being most at home in Dutch, German and
English, but knowing also something of French, Spanish,
Italian, Russian, and Chinese.”
He disliked too much city life–”The sky is too near”–
and soon longed for the free air of the wilderness. “Grand
mountain scenery in particular appealed to him strongly.
Early in life he spent a year in a Dutch social colony, a
kind of second ‘Brooke Farm,’ founded by the poet Dr.
Frederik van Eeden, but the serpent of selfishness was there
also, he told me. In philosophy Meyer was a follower of
Schopenhauer; in politics a Marxian Socialist; in religion a
Buddhist. It is not known how he met his death.”
Note: In an excellent book-length biography of Meyer,
Isabel Cunningham (1984, p. 255-56) disagrees with three of
Smith’s characterization’s of Meyer’s philosophy, politics,
and religion: “Meyer never alluded to Schopenhauer and
pessimism after 1901, he showed only a general interest in
Far Eastern religions, and his acceptance of some utopian
aspects of socialistic theory in the period preceding World
War I did not constitute an endorsement of the application
of socialist theories thereafter.” David Fairchild, who knew
Meyer as well as anyone, also wrote (in 1920) that “Meyer
was not a socialist.” Cunningham continues: “No one else
who knew Meyer ever suggested that he was a Buddhist.
Meyer always identified himself as a Protestant.”
387. International Institute of Agriculture, Bureau of
Statistics (Rome), Review. 1918. International trade in
concentrated cattle foods. No. 4. 72 p. Nov. [1 ref]
• Summary: This is the IIA’s fourth review on concentrated
cattle foods. “The first three reviews were published in
the International Review of the Science and Practice of
Agriculture, in the numbers of April 1915, 1916, and 1917.”
This publication is divided into six chapters. In Chapter 4,
titled “Oil seeds and oilcake” the section on “Soya beans and
soya cake” contains statistics on three subjects: Production,
trade, and prices. Tables show: (1) “Produce in soya cake
in the importing countries (estimated on the basis of the
quantities of soya beans available) (p. 51). Figures are
given in quintals for the years 1913-1917 for the following
countries: Denmark, Great Britain and Ireland, Netherlands,
Russia (including Asiatic provinces), China, Formosa, Japan,
Dutch India (Java and Madura), and New Zealand. The top 3
countries in 1917 are: Japan 727,418. Denmark 284,000, and
Great Britain and Ireland 223,969. However in 1915 Great
Britain and Ireland produced 1,513,059. Note: 1 quintal =
100 kg.
(2) “Foreign trade in soya cake” (p. 51). Statistics are
given in quintals for the years 1913-1917. Import figures are
given for Denmark, Canada (incl. soya beans), Formosa, and
Japan. Japan was by far the biggest importer, with 9,912,850
quintals in 1917. Export figures are given for Denmark,
Great Britain, and China. China was by far the biggest
exporter with 7,034,459 quintals in 1916.
Canadian imports of soya cake (including soya beans)
was as follows (in quintals) for each financial year (p. 51):
2.345 in 1913. 2.412 in 1914. 1.121 in 1915. 1.358 in 1916.
4.730 in 1917. Note: This is the earliest document seen (Jan.
2010) that gives Canadian trade statistics for soybeans or
soy products. This document contains the earliest date seen
(1913) for trade of such products to or from Canada.
(3) “Foreign trade in soya beans” (p. 51). Statistics are
given in quintals for the years 1913-1917. Import figures are
given for Denmark, Great Britain and Ireland, Netherlands,
Russia (incl. Asiatic provinces), Sweden, Formosa,
Japan, and Dutch India (both Java and Madura, and Other
possessions). The biggest importers in 1917 were: Japan
841,942, and Great Britain and Ireland 254,510. Export
figures are given for Netherlands, China, Formosa, and
Japan. China was by far the biggest exporter with 5,315,324
quintals in 1916.
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(4) Foreign trade in sundry and unspecified oilcakes
(p. 62). Gives imports statistics for soya cake by Roumania
[Romania]: 79,378 quintals in 1913, 36,650 quintals in 1914,
5,554 quintals in 1915. Gives export statistics for soya cake
by Russia: 54 quintals in 1913.
(5) “Prices of sundry oilcakes at the close of each
week” (p. 55-56). For soya cake, the prices are given at
Copenhagen, Denmark, for 1917 and 1918 in gold francs.
The price rose by about 41% between Jan. 1917 and Jan.
1918 from 46.47 to 62.16 gold francs.
(6) “Other vegetable products” (p. 71). In 1913 Denmark
exported 1,390 quintals of soya meal.
This document also contains extensive information on
groundnuts and groundnut cake, sesamum and sesamum
cake, etc.
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Aug. 2000) that contains the word “oilcakes.” Note
2. This is the earliest English-language document seen
(Jan. 2001) that uses the word “quintals” (or “quintal”) in
connection with soybeans. Address: Rome, Italy.
388. Commerce Reports [USA] (Daily Consular and Trade
Reports, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Department of Commerce). 1918. The Dutch East Indies as a
market for American goods. 21(282):838-42. Dec. 2.
• Summary: The section titled “Industrial development
offers machinery market” states (p. 841): “The vegetable
oil industry has developed into one of the most important
industries in the [Dutch] colonies in the past 10 years.
Started in an almost primitive way in 1907, the two oil mills
of the Van Heel Co. imported modern hydraulic presses
from Europe in 1910 with such success that the industry
experienced a quick expansion. There are now 20 oil mills
with hydraulic machinery in the archipelago, with a joint
crush of 135,000 tons of copra, besides a great number of
native hand presses. Up to the present time the oil has been
marketed almost exclusively in the islands, but both the oil
and the cake are now being exported. Besides copra, peanuts,
kapok seeds, castor seeds, sesamum seeds, and soya beans
are being crushed.”
“Besides copra, Java produces 10,000 tons of peanuts a
year,... 68,730 tons of soya beans, practically none of which
are crushed at present; and about 2,500 tons of sesamum
seeds, all but a few tons of which are consumed or exported
without crushing.”
389. Streefland, B. 1918. De oleinindustrie (Plantaardige)
in Nederlandsch-Indie [The vegetable oil industry in the
Netherlands Indies]. Mededeelingen van de Commissie van
Fabricksnijverheid in Nederlandse-Indie (Buitenzorg/Bogor)
No. 4. p. 54. [Dut]*
390. Congrès d’Agriculture Coloniale, 21-25 Mai 1918.
Compte rendu des travaux. 4 vols. [Congress of colonial
agriculture, 21-25 May 1918. Conference proceedings. 4
vols.]. 1918. Paris: Augustin Challamel (Libraire Maritime et
Coloniale). [Fre]
• Summary: The four volumes (published under the direction
of Mr. J. Chailley, president of the congress) are: (1) General
Report (Rapport Géneral), 574 p. (2) Section on oil-bearing
materials (Section de Oléagineux), 639 p. Contents of Vol.
2. Africa: A. French West Africa. Senegal, Upper-NigerSenegal, French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Dahomey. B. French
Equatorial Africa: Gabon, Middle Congo (Moyen-Congo),
Oubangi-Chari, Chad, Cameroon, Belgian Congo. C.
Madagascar and dependencies (Mayotte, Comoros). Asia: D.
India and French establishments in India (Pondicherry). E.
Indochina: Cochin China, Tonkin. Oceania: F. Oceania and
the New Hebrides. Mediterranean Region: Morocco, North
Africa, Tunisia. United States (cotton). Various papers were
presented concerning each country or region.
(3) Coffee, cacao, sugar cane, rice, tea, tobacco, rubber,
cotton, silks (Café, cacao, canne à sucre, riz, thé, tabac,
caoutchouc, coton, soies), 568 p. (4) Indigenous agriculture
(Agriculture indigène), 726 p.
Many of the papers in these volumes, especially those
about peanuts in Africa, are each cited separately. There are
several references to the soybean (See Roux 1918).
391. Newton, Arthur Percival. ed. and comp. 1918. The
staple trades of the empire, by various writers. London &
Toronto: J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd. v + 184 p. No index. 19 cm.
Imperial Studies Series.
• Summary: The lectures in this book were delivered during
World War I within the University of London at the London
School of Economics and Political Science in the spring
of 1917. Following the introduction by Newton, the first
chapter, titled “Oils and Fats in the British Empire,” by Sir
A.D. Steel-Maitland, Bart. [Baronet], M.P. [Member of
Parliament], His Majesty’s Under-Secretary of State for
the Colonies. Only vegetable and animal oils and fats are
included–no petroleum.
Contents: Introduction. The principal oil nuts, etc.
The process of crushing, etc. The process of splitting,
refining and hydrogenation. Special uses of different oils.
Consumption of oils in different countries. Map showing
production of different oils and fats in the British Empire.
Position of Germany during the war. Future demand and
supply. The economic position of the British Empire.
Soya beans and soya oil are discussed at length. Page
17: Linseed oil is the main oil used in “the paint and varnish
trades (except that the former also uses a certain quantity of
soya oil).”
Page 18: A table shows which oils are used for various
purposes. The oils are linseed oil, cotton-seed oil, soya oil,
rape oil, coconut oil, palm-kernel oil, ground-nut oil, palm
oil, fish oil and tallow. The uses are burning [illumination],
lubricating, edible, paint, varnish, linoleum, and soap. Soya
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 178
oil is used for burning, edible, paint, and soap.
Page 20: A full-page table shows the imports for
consumption of certain oil-seeds into various countries in
1913. The countries are Germany, France, Netherlands,
Belgium, Denmark*, Sweden, Norway*, Russia, Finland*,
United States*, and United Kingdom*. For countries
followed by an asterisk (*), total imports are given. For all
countries but the United States and the United Kingdom,
imports are given in metric tons; for the latter two countries
imports are given in tons of 2240 lbs. The oil-seeds are
palm kernels, ground nuts, copra, soya beans, cotton seed,
linseed, rape seed, and sesame. Germany was by far the
largest importer of soya beans in 1913 (125,750 metric tons),
followed by Denmark (48,069), United Kingdom (76,452
tons), and Denmark (48,069).
Page 29: “Soya beans are a product of the Far East,
China. Manchuria and Japan. But their popularity in Europe
has decreased, and imports, therefore, have diminished from
over 400,000 tons in 1910 to a much lower figure.”
Soya is mentioned in passing on p. 12. Address: Lecturer
on Colonial History in the Univ. of London, Univ. and King’s
Colleges [England].
of artificial milk. U.S. Patent 1,297,668. March 18. 3 p.
Application filed 3 Jan.
• Summary: This process involves four basic steps: (1)
“Soya bean flour” is treated with a fat solvent so as to
completely remove the fat content. The preferred solvent is
benzin, benzene, or benzol, which may be distilled off and
removed. The inventor has found that the unpleasant flavors
in artificial milks “are largely produced by the presence of
products dissolved in the fat, which products themselves,
such as esters, aldehydes, and ketones, and not the fats,
possess disagreeable odors.” (2) The residue from the fat
extraction is extracted with alcohol, and the alcohol distilled
off for re-use. This dissolves and removes lecithin, sugars,
and bitter principles. (3) The residue which has not been
dissolved in either the fat solvent or alcohol is treated with
a weak alkaline solution, whereby protein is dissolved. (4)
The alcohol extract from step (2) is purified to remove bitter
substances from it, then this purified alcohol extract is added
to the protein solution from step (3), and a suitable amount
of fatty material is added and emulsified in. Address: 268
Groesbeekscheweg, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Citizen of
Denmark.
392. Paerels, J.J. 1918. Soja [Soya]. In: Dr. K.W. Van
Gorkom’s Oost-Indische Cultures. 1918. Amsterdam: J.H. de
Bussy. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Edited by Dr. H.C. Prinsen Geerligs.
See p. 839-51. Figs. 285-86. [8 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This is a reprint of Paerels 1913. Contents:
Origin and native land. The soybean plant: Botanical
description (flowers, seeds, fertilization, germination),
types and varieties, geographical distribution. Cultivation
of soybeans: General instructions for growing, planting,
manuring, diseases and pests. Production, trade, and use:
Tofu (Tao-Hoe), Chinese soy sauce (Tao-Yoe), soybean
paste (Tao-Tjiong [a term, and perhaps a product, between
doujiang and tao-tjo, Indonesian-style miso]), composition
of the seeds and nutritive value (samenstelling en
voedingswaarde). Photos show: Plants of a black variety
(p. 840), and a white variety of soybeans (p. 841). Address:
Netherlands.
395. Algemeen Landbouw-Weekblad voor NederlandschIndie. 1919. Sojaboonen (kedele) in Vereenigde Staten
van Amerika [Soybeans in the United States of America].
4(15):519. Oct. 10. [2 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This half-page article, which includes a brief
history of the soybean in the USA, is a summary of an article
from Teysmannia. It includes a graph from the Bulletin of the
Imperial Institute.
393. Hall, C.J.J. van. 1919. Ziekten en plagen der
cultuurgewasen in Nederlandsch-Indië in 1918 [Diseases and
pests of cultivated plants in the Dutch East Indies in 1918].
Mededelingen van het Laboratorium voor Plantenziekten
(Indonesia) No. 36. 49 p. Feb. See p. 21. [Dut]*
• Summary: On the whole, insect injury was not
considerable in 1918. On one estate in West Java, Kedelé
[Glycine soja] was attacked by Agromyzid borers
[Agromyza], 70% of the crop being lost in one case, and by
Epilachna sp., which has not been recorded hitherto from
this plant. Address: Dr.
394. Erslev, Knud. 1919. Process for the manufacture
396. Chemische Umschau auf dem Gebiete der Fette, Oele,
Wachse und Harze (Germany). 1919. Marktberichte [Market
report]. 26(14):183-84. Oct. 25. [Ger]
• Summary: The prices of oils and fats in Europe have
generally decreased again. Price of soybeans: England 60
shillings. Prices of soybean oil: England: 172-180 shillings.
Holland: 105-120 florin. Belgium: 355-360 francs. Also
gives prices for peanut oil. Note: No indication of the units
of measure for the prices is given.
397. Redfield, Arthur H. 1919. Export trade of the
Netherlands for first six months of 1919. Commerce
Reports [USA] (Daily Consular and Trade Reports, Bureau
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of
Commerce) 22(265):826-33. Nov. 11.
• Summary: The section titled “Decrease in vegetable-oil
exports” states (p. 828): “Striking decreases were shown in
the export of vegetable oils, due principally to the lack of
raw materials [during World War I]... Of the soya-bean oil,
89.1 per cent went to Germany and 10.9 per cent to Belgium.
A table (p. 832-33) shows exports (in metric tons) of the
more important commodities for the first semesters (Jan. to
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 179
June) of 1914, 1918, and 1919. Under vegetable oils, soya
bean oil was 1,229 in 1914, zero in 1915, and 1,452 in 1919.
Address: Trade Commissioner.
398. Wester, D.H. 1919. Bijdrage tot de biochemie van
het sojaboonen-enzym (urease) [Contribution to the
biochemistry of the soybean enzyme (urease)]. Chemisch
Weekblad 16(47):1442-54. Nov. 22. (Chem. Abst. 15:549). [9
ref. Dut]
• Summary: The author has investigated the factors
which influence the conversion of urea into ammonium
carbonate by means of urease. The urea solution must
always be freshly prepared; but urease solutions retain
their activity on keeping. The concentration of the urea
does not influence the process, nor do decomposition
products formed act deleteriously. Glycerin may be added
to the medium used for extracting urease from soya beans
(soyaboonen, soyaboonenextract) up to 50% of its volume;
larger quantities reduce the urease content, and addition of
glycerin to the urease-urea mixture retards enzymic action.
The extract of canavalia beans (canavalia-boonen) [jack
beans] is in some respects similar to that obtained from soya
beans. Address: Scheikundig Laboratorium der Hoogere
Krijgsschool, ‘s-Gravenhage (The Hague).
399. Wester, D.H. 1919. Over het eigenaardige verloop van
het ureolytische vermogen van een soyaboonenextract door
verwarming bij 37º [Peculiarity of soybean extract (urease)
on heating at 37ºC]. Chemisch Weekblad 16(48):1461-63.
Nov. 29. (Chem. Abst. 14:549). [5 ref. Dut]
• Summary: If the extract is heated for 3 days at 37ºC,
its urease-activity is reduced. Further treatment at this
temperature does not uniformly reduce its enzymic action,
the graph representing the urea equivalents after various
periods of heating being a zigzag. Address: Scheikundig
Laboratorium der Hoogere Krijgsschool, ‘s-Gravenhage (The
Hague).
400. Algemeen Landbouwweekblad voor NederlandschIndie. 1919. Verbeterde Soyaboonen [Improved soybeans].
No. 25. p. 871. Dec. 19. [1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This one-sixth-page article, which is a summary
of an article from Oliëen en Vetten, discusses improved
soybean varieties from Manchuria and Japan.
401. Wester, D.H. 1919. Onderzoek naar het ureasegehalte
van indlandsche zaden [Examination of the urease content of
domestic seeds]. Chemisch Weekblad 16(51):1548-51. Dec.
20. (Chem. Abst. 14:757). [3 ref. Dut]
• Summary: A table shows that soybeans and canavalia
beans (canavalia-boonen) [jack beans] have about the same
urease content, which is much higher than that of any of
the 49 seeds tested. Address: ‘s-Gravenhage, Scheikundig
laboratorium der Hoogere Krijgsschool.
402. Wester, D.H. 1919. Onderzoek naar het ureasegehalte
van verschillende soorten soyaboonen [Investigations on the
urease content of different varieties of soybeans]. Chemisch
Weekblad 16(51):1552-56. Dec. 20. [3 ref. Dut]
• Summary: One table (p. 1553) shows the results of urease
tests on 31 different varieties of soybeans. For each variety
is given: Variety name, number of seeds tested, average
weight per bean in milligrams, urea generated after 2, 4, and
24 hours. The author found that all of the beans, whether
old or fresh, possessed strong enzyme action. The varieties
are: Cheribon, Siam, Butterball, Guelph, Nuttall, Ogeman
[sic, Ogema], Buckshot, Haberlandt, Yosho, Soya boonen,
Shanghai, Hollybrook, Baird, Ebony, Samarow, Kedoe,
Tokyo, Riceland, Amherst, Barchet, Mammoth, Ito San,
Cloud, Brindle, Manhattan, Brownie, Meyer, Flat King, Eda,
Kingston.
A second table (p. 1555) shows similar tests on 19 more
soybean varieties. Only a few of these have English-language
varietal names: Swan, Haberlandt, Cloud, and Pingsu.
These four were obtained from the Cameroon agricultural
experiment station in 1914. Most of the other varieties have
German or Chinese varietal names. Address: Scheikundig
Laboratorium der Hoogere Krijgsschool.
403. Redfield, Arthur H. 1919. Market for oilseeds and
vegetable oils in the Netherlands. Commerce Reports [USA]
(Daily Consular and Trade Reports, Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce)
22(304):1780-91. Dec. 29.
• Summary: “The trade in oilseeds and vegetable oils in
the Netherlands occupies a position of the first rank.” The
country both imports and exports large quantities of oilseeds
and vegetable oils. “Needless to say, the war played havoc
with this trade. Among the principal raw materials consumed
are imported “peanuts, and soy beans... The principal oils
entering into Dutch trade are coconut oil, cottonseed oil,
linseed oil, olive oil, palm-kernel oil, patent oil, peanut oil,
rapeseed oil, sesame oil, and soy-bean oil.”
“Rotterdam is the principal port of entry for oilseeds and
vegetable oils [into the Netherlands], receiving in 1917 about
85 per cent of the total...” “The United States plays and has
played a relatively small part” in this Dutch trade.
A table (p. 1781) shows the quantities of various
oilseeds imported into the Netherlands during each calendar
year from 1912 to 1918. The largest imports are of linseed
(286,035 MT = metric tons in 1913) followed by copra
(100,635 MT in 1913). Imports of soy beans (in metric tons)
are: 1912–43,053. 1913–27,554. 1914–19,619. 1915–16,551.
1916–4,389. 1917–3,954. 1918–No data. Address: Trade
Commissioner.
404. Dammerman, Karel Willem. 1919. Landbouwdierkunde
van Oost-Indië: De schadelijke en nuttige dieren voor land,
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 180
tuin- en boschbouw in Oost-Indië [Agricultural zoology of
the Dutch East Indies]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: J.H. de
Bussy. x + 368 p. See p. 81, 340, 346. Illust. Index. 27 cm. [1
soy ref. Dut]
• Summary: In Chapter 4, titled “Stem- and stalk-borers,”
Section 3, about “Flies, Diptera” contains a 2-page
subsection on the family Agromyzidae including Agromyza
sojae Zehnt. (p. 81-82). This is the soybean borer (kedelehboorder), an insect pest which attacks soybean plants (sojaplanten), peanuts (katjang tanah), and other legumes. Plate
14, facing p. 82, contains a black-and-white illustration of
three views of this fly: (2a) greatly enlarged, (2b) natural
size, and (2c) a root with two pupae, greatly enlarged.
This book also contains many beautiful full-page color
illustrations of insects.
The chapter titled “List of crops with the pests that
injure them which are discussed in this book” (p. 333-48)
contains an entry (p. 346) which reads: “Soja hispida (soja).
See Leguminosen A.”
When we look at “Leguminosen A. (pulse and green
manures)” (p. 340), the first type of legume is peanuts
(Arachis, aardnoot). The different parts of the plant damaged
by insects are then listed. Under borers is listed a type of fly,
Agroymza sojae For details, see p. 81. Address: Zoologist
at the Department of Agriculture, Industry and Trade,
Buitenzorg [later Bogor], Java [Dutch East Indies] (Zoöloog
aan het Departement van Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel te
Buitenzorg, Java.
405. Fitzner, Rudolf. 1919. Die Weltwirtschaft der Fettstoffe
[World commerce in oils and fats. 3 vols.]. Berlin: Carl
Heymanns Verlag. [Ger]*
• Summary: Vol. 1: Die Oelindustrie Englands [The Oil
Industry of England]. Vol. 2: Niederländisch-Indien [The
Dutch East Indies]. Vol. 3. Brasilien, Guyana, Venezuela
[Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela].
Page 171-72 states: The cultivation of soybeans would
seem to have a bright future. In 1918 already some 350,000
tonnes are said to have been harvested.
Note: The figure 350,000 tonnes seems much too large
for 1918. Address: Prof. Dr.
406. Heurn, F.C. van. 1919. Verslag van den Directeur, 1 Juli
1918–30 Juni 1919 [Report of the Director, 1 July 1918–30
June 1919]. Mededelingen van het Algemeen Proefstation
der A.V.R.O.S. Algemeene Series (Indonesia) No. 7. 66 p. See
p. 60. [Dut]
• Summary: This report is issued by the acting director
in Dr. Rutger’s absence. In the chapter on entomological
investigations (p. 50-60) is a section titled “Food crops”
(Voedings-gewassen) which states (p. 60) that Adoratus
species and Apogonia destructor were found on kedele
[Glycine soja].
Note: A.V.R.O.S. stands for Algemeene Vereen v.
Rubberplanters Oostkust van Sumatra [General Union of
Rubber Planters of the East Coast of Sumatra]. Address: Ir.,
Jhr., den waarnemend [acting] Directeur van het Algemeen
Proefstation der A.V.R.O.S.
407. Rouest, Léon. 1919. Contribution à l’Étude sur le soja
[Contribution to the study of the soybean]. Genie Rural (Le)
11(99-100):23-26. (New Series Nos. 39-40). Continued: See
Rouest 1920. [Fre]
• Summary: Gives a brief overview of the history of the
soybean in Europe and France, starting at the top left of
page 24: It was introduced into Europe, where it has been
cultivated at the Museum of Natural History since 1779.
In 1855 M. de Montigny sent, from China, several
soybean varieties to the National Society for Acclimatization
(France), which used them for trials in various localities in
France.
At the Vienna World Exposition of 1873 there were
soybeans from Japan, China, and Mongolia.
In 1874 soybean cultivation was undertaken at Etampes.
In 1875, and during the following years, agronomic
trials with its culture were conducted in Austria.
In 1888 it was introduced into the United States and
adopted as a forage crop in the southern states. From 1880
to 1896 it was discussed in many agricultural bulletins in the
USA. The soybean was also studied in Russia.
In 1905 Mr. Li Yu-ying foresaw the use of soya in
France as a commercial food. He established a laboratory
and a factory named La Caséo-sojaine was established at
Colombes (Seine).
Also discusses: Dr. Bloch, the Soyanna [sic, Soyama]
Werke near Bockenheim, Messrs. Paillieux, Sagot, Raoul,
and Jumelle, and the various soyfoods from China and
Japan that they describe (Miso, shoyu {Shoyua}, tofu
{Tofou}, dried frozen tofu {Kouri Tofou}, yuba {Uba}), and
the potential threat of soya to the French cheese industry.
“Finally in 1910-11 numerous soy products were presented
at the expositions in Brussels [Belgium], Turin [France], and
Dresden [Germany].”
Describes work on the Ferme Expérimentale de
Néoculture du Sud-Est, at Villardonnel, Aude. Mr. Semichon,
Director of the wine station at Aude, sent this experimental
farm some soybean seeds which he received from the
USDA accompanied by a bulletin written by William
Morse (probably “The soy bean: Its culture and uses,”
1918). Rouest translates the Bulletin into French (p. 25-26).
The most important varieties mentioned are: Mammoth,
Hollybrook, Ito San, Guelph, Haberlandt, Medium Yellow,
Wilson, Peking, Tokio, Manchu, Black Eyebrow, Barchet.
Note: This is the earliest document seen (Nov. 2014) by
Léon Rouest about soybeans. In earlier years he had been a
journalist in the French colonies of North Africa (Tunisia,
Algeria, etc.).
Rouest was born on 11 Nov. 1872 in Paris; he died on 27
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 181
Feb. 1938 in Chartres, France. Illustrations (line drawings,
both non-original) show: (1) Soja hispida plant, with closeup of a cluster of pods. (2) Soja Hato [Hahto] soybean plant.
Address: Director, Ferme Expérimentale de Néoculture du
Sud-Est, at Villardonnel (Aude), France.
408. Pool, J.F.A. 1920. Opsporing van ureum [Detection of
urea]. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad voor Nederland 57(7):17879. Feb. 14. (Chem. Abst. 14:1692). [2 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Discusses the enzyme urease and soybeans.
Address: PhD, Batavia [Dutch East Indies].
409. Erslev, Knud. 1920. Process and apparatus for adapting
oil cakes and the like for human food. British Patent
128,216. April 22. 7 p. Application filed 11 June 1919. 2
drawings. [1 ref]
• Summary: See above and next page. “Meal for oil cakes
of soya beans, ground nuts, cocoa nuts, copra and the like
is distinguished by its high percentage of albumen.” From
this, a bland flour can be obtained by extraction with alcohol,
in several steps, in a continuous counter-current process,
followed by distillation. This flour is “absolutely tasteless
and odourless and therefore does not show a trace of the
unpleasant properties of the raw material. The nutritive
value may of course be very great, as all the albumen is still
present in the product. It is, e.g., adapted to being mixed
with flour of wheat in order to increase the nutritive value
thereof.” Among the useful by-products are fat, “lecithine”
[lecithin], etc. Address: Chemist and Bacteriologist, 268,
Groesbeekscheweg, Nijmegen, Kingdom of the Netherlands.
410. Wester, D.H. 1920. Ueber den merkwuerdigen Verlauf
der Ureasewirkung eines Soyabohnenextraktes beim
Erwaermen auf 37º [On the noteworthy development of
the working of urease of a soybean extract when warmed
to 37ºC]. Pharmazeutische Zentralhalle fuer Deutschland
61(22):293-95. May 27. (Chem. Abst. 14:2937). [9 ref. Ger]
• Summary: In 1916 Wester began a series of investigations
on the enzyme urease. The action of urease on soybean
extract changes considerably when kept at 37ºC. The urea
number (Harnstoffzahl, i.e., the number of mg of urea
converted by the urease solution) which was 126 on the first
day, was measured roughly every 7 days for the next 35 days.
A graph shows the results. After standing for 7 days it had
been reduced to 47 and after 14 days to 38.2–the lowest point
on the graph. Then after 21 days it rose to 90, then slowly
fell–after 26 days to 85 and after 25 days to 60.3. Address:
Haag (Netherlands) Chemisches Laboratorium der Haagere
Krygsschool.
411. Pynaert, L. 1920. Le soja [Soya]. Bulletin Agricole du
Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 11(1/2):151-86. March/
June. [Fre]
• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Botanical description
and habitat. Varieties: yellow, greenish, black, brown,
green, white. Cultivation/culture of soybeans: Necessary
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 182
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 183
conditions, cultural practices used in the USA, quantities
of seeds planted per acre, inoculation, harvesting soybeans:
Harvesting for the seeds, threshing, yield of soybeans/
seeds, harvesting as forage. Chemical composition of
the plant and seeds in various forms (forage, hay, seeds,
silage, etc.), digestibility. Value and use of the harvest:
Seeds, hay, preparation of hay, pole curing frames for the
preparation of hay. Reconstitution of the soil (by adding
nitrogen). Fertilizing value: Green forage, forage for
silage. Value of the seeds for feeding (a tables shows the
chemical composition; they are rich in protein). Soya for
pasture (in mixed culture with other crops). Necessary
fertilizers. The feed value of soya: For sheep, for dairy
cows, for pigs, comparison of soybean seeds and cottonseed
flour, comparison of soya with other oilseeds (tables show
chemical composition). Soy oil. Comparison between
the soybean and the cowpea. Storage of soybean seeds.
Conclusions (13 points). Culture of soya in West Africa.
“Following many satisfactory experiments, the culture
of soya has been introduced in West Africa... Soya can
be grown as the principal crop, intercropped, or used in
rotations with cotton an corn. The harvest of the last two
will be greatly improved by the introduction of soya in the
rotation.
“Dr. E.S. Edie, M.A., B.Sc. of the University of
Liverpool, Institute of Commercial Research in the Tropics,
has published the following report. ‘I am sending you
some analyses of soya cultivated in West Africa; they can
be compared with those from the Orient. The composition
of oil is as follows: Southern Nigeria 19.62 p.c. (%), Gold
Coast 21.29%, Sierra Leone 23.20%. The Bathurst Trading
Company (Gambia) [Note 1. Bathurst, later renamed Banjul,
is the capital of Gambia] likewise submitted the following
report: The seeds were shipped from Liverpool [England]
at the end of Sept. 1909 and samples of the harvest were
sent from Bathurst on 20 Jan. 1910. Analyses showed they
contained 17½% oil and we believe that this level would be
higher if the culture had been undertaken in the surrounding
countryside and not in the city which is nothing but a
sandbank.
The late Sir Alfred Jones had distributed numerous
works concerning soya in West Africa.
A footnote states that this work had been drafted
primarily with the aid of a brochure edited by Lever Brothers
Ltd., titled Soya Beans, Cultivation and Uses.
Illustrations (non-original) show: (1) The soybean plant,
with close-ups of flower and pods (p. 151). (2) Soybean
plant with leaves, pods, and roots with nodules (p. 153).
(3) Yellow variety of soybean plant (p. 157). (4) A young
soybean plant (p. 160). (5) Soybean plant with pods. Inset
of pods included (p. 167). (6) Pole curing frame (p. 171). (7)
Stack of soybeans with horse nearby (p. 172). (8) Soybean
roots with nodules (p. 174). Photos show pods and beans
of: Seven varieties of soybeans (p. 156). Six varieties of
soybeans (p. 163).
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Aug. 2009)
concerning soybeans in connection with (but not yet in)
Ruanda-Urundi (divided into Rwanda and Burundi in 1962).
Note 3. This document contains the earliest date seen
for soybeans in Gambia, or the cultivation of soybeans in
Gambia (about Oct. 1909; one of three documents).
412. Wester, D.H. 1920. Ureasegehalt von hollaendischen
Samen und von verschiedenen Arten Soyabohnen [Urease
content of Dutch seeds and of different varieties of
soybeans]. Pharmazeutische Zentralhalle fuer Deutschland
61(28):377-82. July 8. (Chem. Abst. 14:3264). [7 ref. Ger]
• Summary: Forty eight soy bean varieties were tested and
all showed a uniform high urease content. Several soy bean
samples varying in age from 17 to 44 years had as high a
content as fresh samples.
The action of urease on soybean extract changes
considerably when kept at 37ºC. The urea number (i.e.
the number of milligrams of urea converted by the urease
solution) was 126 on the first day, but after 7 days standing
it had been reduced to 47, and after 14 days to 38.2. Then
it increased after 21 days to 90, decreasing after 26 days to
85, and after 35 days to 60.3. Address: Haag (Netherlands)
Chemisches Laboratorium der Hoogere Krygsschool.
413. Algemeen Landbouwweekblad voor NederlandschIndie. 1920. De Chineesche productie en uitvoer van
Sojaboonen-olie en-koeken [Chinese production and
exportation of soybean oil and cakes (Abstract)]. 5(2):27778. July 9. [1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: A Dutch-language summary of an article
said to be from Die Weltwirtschaft. Discusses exports of
soybeans and soybean cake from 1901-1917, the Dairen
Staple Exchange, the Dairen Trust & Guaranty Company,
soybean oil mills in Harbin, Dairen, Newchwang, Antung,
and Mukden, the Bean Cake and Bean Oil Factory in Dairen
(South Manchuria), owned by Suzuki & Company of Kobe,
Japan, soybean oil exports from 1911 to 1919, Mitsui & Co.
Note: We have been unable (Oct. 1999) to find the
original article in any of the following: (1) Weltwirtschaft
(1918-1920). (2) Weltwirtschaftliches Zeitung (July
1919 to June 1920) (3) Weltwirtschaftliche Nachrichten
(Looked through 1919 and the first half of 1920). (4)
Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv (Kiel) (two issues).
414. Hall, C.J.J. van. 1920. Ziekten en plagen der
cultuurgewasen in Nederlandsch-Indie in 1919 [Diseases and
pests of cultivated plants in the Dutch East Indies in 1919].
Mededelingen van het Laboratorium voor Plantenziekten
(Indonesia) No. 39. 50 p. [Dut]*
• Summary: Kedelé [Glycine soja] suffered considerable
injury from the pod borer (Etiella zinckenella), the stem
borer (Agromyza sojae, later renamed Melanagromyza
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 184
sojae), and the catjang borer (A. phaseoli, later renamed
Ophiomia phaseoli). The last-named fly seems more
injurious at certain times; on one estate where planting was
done on five separate dates with 15-day intervals, it was only
the fifth lot that was badly attacked. A Coccinellid Epilachna
sp., another beetle Araccerus sp., and caterpillars–including
those of Heliothis–also infested G. soja.
415. Page, Thomas Walker; Lewis, D.J.; Culbertson, W.S.;
Costigan, E.P. 1920. Survey of the American soya-bean
oil industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing
Office. Prepared by the United States Tariff Commission and
printed for use of Committee on Ways and Means, House of
Representatives. 22 p. 24 cm.
• Summary: Across the top of almost every page is printed
“Tariff information survey.”
Contents: Summary. Summary table. General
information: Description, uses, methods of production
(domestic production and consumption), domestic exports,
foreign production and international trade, imports, prices,
competitive conditions, and tariff history. Production in the
United States (alternative). Imports by country. Imports
for consumption (soya bean oil cake). Domestic exports.
Prices: Soya bean oil (Dairen, Manchuria), soya bean oil
(New York), soya bean oil cake (Dairen). Rates of duty.
Miscellaneous.
Tables show: (1) Domestic soya-bean oil production,
imports for consumption, domestic exports and value of
imports for consumption for the calendar years 1910-1920
(p. 8). (2) Soya-bean oil production in the United States in
pounds, 1914, 1916-1919 (p. 16). (3) Soya-bean oil imports
by countries 1912-1920. Statistics on quantity and value of
imports to the USA from Belgium, England, China, Japan,
Canada, Manchuria, all others (p. 16). (4) Revenue on soyabean oil imports for consumption, 1910-1920 (p. 17). (5)
Revenue on soya bean oil cake imports for consumption,
1912-1919. (6) Quantity and value of domestic exports of
soya bean oil for 6 months ending Dec. 31, 1919. Exported
to: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany,
Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, all
other (p. 17). The largest amount was exported to the United
Kingdom. (7) Spot prices of wholesale soya-bean oil at
Dairen, Manchuria, 1918 and 1919. (8) Prices of Manchurian
soya-bean oil in New York, 1913-1919. Data from War
Industries Price Bulletin No. 49. (9) Prices of soya-bean
cake in Dairen, 1918-1919. Data from Manchuria Daily
News. (10) Rates of duty on soya-bean oil, 1883-1913 (p.
18). (11) Consumption of fats and oils by the lard-substitute
industry, 1912, 1914, 1916, 1917. Includes soya-bean oil and
peanut oil. (12) Consumption of fats and oils by the soap
industry, 1912, 1914, 1916, 1917. Includes soya-bean oil and
peanut oil (p. 19-20). (13) Consumption of fats and oils by
the oleomargarine industry, 1912, 1914, 1916-1918. Includes
soya-bean oil and peanut oil (p. 20). (14) Approximate net
import and crush of soya beans in Europe, 1908-1913. Incl.
United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Denmark. (15)
Exports of soya beans (international trade), 1911-1918. (16)
Imports of soya beans (international trade), 1911-1919. (17)
Exports of soya bean oil (international trade) 1911-1919. (18)
Imports of soya bean oil (international trade), 1911-1919 (p.
21). (19) Foreign exports of soya bean oil from the United
States, 1912-1919. Gives quantity and value exported to
Canada, Mexico, British West Indies, Belgium, Netherlands,
Sweden, France, England, Austria-Hungary (p. 22). In 1919,
2,060 pounds worth $258 were exported to Mexico. Note:
This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2009) that gives
statistics for trade (imports or exports) of soybeans, soy oil,
or soybean meal to Mexico or Central America. Address:
Chairman, U.S. Tariff Commission, Washington, DC.
416. Wester, D.H. 1920. Beitrag zur Biochemie des
Sojabohnen-Enzyms (Urease) [Contribution to the
biochemistry of the soybean enzyme (urease)]. Berichte
der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft 30:163-75.
(Chem. Abst. 14:2803). [6 ref. Ger]
Address: Aus dem Chemischen Laboratorium der Hoeheren
Kriegsschule, den Haag, Holland.
417. Olien en Vetten. 1921. De waarde van de sojaboon voor
de Europeesche cultuur [The value of the soybean seed for
European agriculture (Abstract)]. No. 30. p. 332-33. Jan. 20.
[1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: This is largely a Dutch-language summary
of the following German-language article: Heinze, B.
1918. “Der Anbau der Oelbohne oder Sojabohne und seine
Bedeutung für die deutsche Land- und Volkswirtschaft
[Soybean culture and its significance for Germany’s
agriculture and economy”]. Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbuecher
51:747-78.
418. Effront, Jean. 1921. Verfahren zur Herstellung von
Presshefe [Process for the manufacture of compressed yeast].
German Patent 357,708. Feb. 9. 3 p. Issued 17 May 1923.
[Ger]
Address: PhD, Brussels [Belgium].
419. Olien en Vetten. 1921. Directe identificatie van soyaolie [Direct identification of soybean oil (Abstract)]. No. 34.
p. 373. Feb. 17. [1 ref. Dut]
• Summary: A Dutch-language summary of the following
English-language article: Newhall, Charles A. 1920. “The
direct identification of soy-bean oil.” J. of Industrial and
Engineering Chemistry 12(12):1174-75. Dec. Newhall
resides in Seattle, Washington.
420. Commerce Reports [USA] (Daily Consular and Trade
Reports, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Department of Commerce). 1921. Japanese trade and
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 185
economic notes. 24(84):252-53. April 12.
• Summary: “Export of beans and bean products from
Dairen during 1920:” A table shows the exports (in piculs)
of [soya] beans, bean cake, and bean by destination. The
three leading destinations are Japan, England, and Egypt.
Others are Hongkong, Dutch East Indies, Sweden, Denmark,
Holland, France, Korea, United States.
421. Olien en Vetten. 1921. Sojaboonen en -olie in de Ver.
Staten [Soybeans and soybean oil in the United States]. No.
50. p. 536. June 9. [Dut]
• Summary: For the fiscal year that ended on 30 June 1920,
almost 196 million lb of soybean oil (sojaolie), worth $25
million, were imported into the USA. Imports of soybean
cake (sojakoeken) were 16 million lb, worth $400,000, and
imports of soybeans (sojaboonen) were 4 million lb, worth
$213,000.
422. Goslings, Nicolaas. 1921. Verfahren zur Entsaeuern von
Fetten und Oelen [Process for deacidifying fats and oils].
German Patent 358,627. June 18. 2 p. Issued 12 Sept. 1922.
[Ger]
Address: PhD, Nijmegen, Holland.
423. Wester, D.H. 1921. [Culture tests with soybeans.
Occurrence of urease in parts of the plants other than
the seeds]. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad voor Nederland
58(34):1113-19. Aug. 20. (Chem. Abst. 15:3505). [Dut]*
424. Grinenco, Ivan; Capone, Giorgio. eds. 1921. Produits
oléagineux et huiles végétales: Etude statistique sur leur
production et leur movement commercial [Oleaginous
products and vegetable oils: Statistical study on their
production and trade]. Rome, Italy: Institute Internationale
d’Agriculture, Service de la Statistique Générale. xxxii +
421p. See p. XX-XXI, 140-41, 144-47, 442-43, 480-81. Sept.
15. Index in front. [Fre]
• Summary: In Sept. 1921 the IIA (Institute Internationale
d’Agriculture) published this monograph in French. Two
years later, by popular demand, an updated English-language
edition was published. Contents: Introduction. Northern
hemisphere: Europe, America, Asia, Africa, Oceania
(Hawaii, Guam). Southern hemisphere: America, Asia,
Africa, Oceania. Recapitulative tables of commerce, 191019. Note 1. All import and export statistics are given in
quintals. 1 quintal = 100 kg.
The soybean (introductory information, p. xxii-xxiii,
xxxii). Northern hemisphere–Europe. Germany (imports of
soybean and soy oil 1910-14, p. 4). Denmark (production
of soy oil in 1917, p. 17; imports and exports of soybeans
and soy oil 1910-19, p. 18-20). France (imports and exports
of soybeans and soy oil 1910-19, p. 28-31). Great Britain
and Ireland (treated as one country; imports, exports, and
reexports of soybeans and soy oil 1910-19, p. 32-35).
Norway (imports of soybeans 1910-19, p. 47). Netherlands
(Pays-Bas, imports and exports of soybeans and soy oil
1910-19, p. 49-52). Romania (In 1915 production of
soybeans on 3 hectares was 3,600 liters). Russia (in Europe
and Asia, imports of soy oil 1909-17, p. 70-71). Sweden
(imports and exports of soybeans and soy oil 1910-19, p. 7476).
Note 2. This is the earliest document seen (Jan. 2009)
that gives soybean production or area statistics for Eastern
Europe.
America: Canada (imports of coconut, palm, and soy
oil {combined} for the production of soap {in hectoliters}
1915-19, p. 88-89). Cuba (various attempts have been made
to introduce the soybean, p. 94).
United States (area and production in 1909 {659 ha},
then from 1917-1920, p. 97-98). An overview of soybeans
in the USA (p. 103, 105) states that the soybean, known
in the USA since 1804, has become of great economic
importance during the past few years. It is becoming
popular mainly as a forage plant, but also for its seeds, for
extraction of oil, and for making other products. Statistics
have been published regularly since 1917. The census for
1909 showed 659 hectares cultivated in soybeans. During
the years from 1917 to 1919 the cultivated area surpassed
60,000 ha. The three main states for soybean cultivation are
North Carolina, Virginia, and Mississippi, which in 1919
cultivated respectively 33,185, 12,141, and 3,238 hectares;
this was almost 75% of the total cultivated to soybeans in the
USA. In 1910, the seeds were used for the extraction of oil
in the USA, and for the first time the seeds were imported
from Manchuria. In 1915, domestically grown soybean were
used as a source of oil. This industry is developing rapidly,
because the extraction of the oil is easily adapted to existing
facilities that press oil from cottonseed and linseed. A table
(p. 106) shows production of 16 vegetable oils in the USA
from 1912 to 1917. Soybean oil production (in quintals) has
increased from 12,537 in 1914, to 44,996 in 1916, to 190,843
in 1917. Figures are also given for peanut oil, sesame oil,
etc. Other tables (p. 108-10) show imports, exports, and
reexports of soybeans and soy oil from 1910 to 1919.
Asia: China (exports of soybeans and soy oil 1910-19,
p. 161-62). French Indo-China (overview, esp. Cambodia
and Tonkin, p. 187). Japan (area planted and production of
soybeans 1877-1919, p. 190; overview, p. 191; production
of soy oil 1909-18, p. 192; imports and exports of soybeans
and soy oil 1910-19, p. 192-93). Korea (area planted and
production of soybeans 1909-1918, p. 194; imports and
exports of soybeans and soy oil 1909-11, p. 195). Formosa
[Taiwan] (area planted and production of soybeans 1901-06,
p. 196; imports and exports of soybeans and soy oil 190917, p. 197. In 1901 10,888 ha produced 8,056,400 liters of
soybeans. In 1904 21,960 ha produced 24,401,700 liters of
soybeans). Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (Jan.
2005) that gives soybean production or area statistics for
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 186
Formosa (Taiwan; ceded to Japan in 1895 after Japan won
the Sino-Japanese War).
Kwantung [Kwantung Leased Territory in Manchuria]
(area planted and production of soybeans 1911-17, p. 198. In
1911 14,627 ha of soybeans produced 102,112 quintals. In
1916 29,902 ha produced 153,995 quintals of soybeans).
Africa: Algeria (in recent years, trials have been made to
introduce soybean culture to Algeria, p. 238). Egypt (imports
of soy oil 1919, p. 244-47).
Southern hemisphere–America: (Note 4. Soy is
not mentioned at Argentina, Brazil, or any other South
American country). Asia: Netherlands Indies. (A) In Java
and Madura, the area planted to soybeans was 162,800 ha
in 1916, 175,696 ha in 1917, and 157,844 ha in 1918. Gives
imports of soy oil (1,085 quintals in 1914) and exports of
soybeans (46 quintals in 1913) (p. 297-98). (B) In outlying
territories, gives imports of soybeans from 1913 to 1919 (p.
299). Africa: Southern Rhodesia (attempts have been made
to introduce soybeans and several other oil plants from
temperate climates, p. 317). Oceania: Soy is not mentioned
at Australia, New Zealand, British New Guinea, former
German New Guinea [later Papua New Guinea], or any
other country in southern Oceania. (p. 297). Recapitulative
tables–Imports and exports from 1910-1919. Soybeans, p.
368-69. Peanuts, p. 370-75. Sesame seeds, p. 376-79. Palm
fruits (Amandes de palme, from which palm oil is obtained),
p. 392-93. Peanut oil, p. 414-17. Corn oil, p. 416-17. Sesame
oil, p. 418-19. Soy oil, p. 420-21. Other oils covered in detail
by this book are: Cottonseed, hempseed, linseed, rapeseed
(colza and navette), poppy (pavot or oeilette), castor, olive,
coconut, palm, and other–non-specified. Address: 1. Doctor
of Agronomics; 2. Doctor of Economics. Both: IIA, Rome,
Italy.
425. Wester, D.H. 1921. Kultur-Versuche mit Soja-Bohnen.
II. Vorkommen von Urease in anderen Pflanzenteilen als in
Samen [Culture trials with soybeans. Occurrence of urease
in parts of the plant other than the seeds]. Biochemische
Zeitschrift 122:188-92. Sept. [6 ref. Ger]
Address: den Haag, Holland.
426. Boidin, Auguste; Effront, Jean. 1921. Verfahren
zur gleichzeitigen Gewinnung von mineralstofffreien
staerkehaltigen Stoffen und von abgebauten
stickstoffhaltigen Naehrmitteln aus Koerner- oder
Knollenfruechten [Process for the simultaneous extraction of
mineral substances and free starchy materials of organized
nitrogenous nutrients from grain or nodules]. German Patent
385,284. Oct. 26. 3 p. Issued 22 Nov. 1923. [1 ref. Ger]
• Summary: The soybean (die Sojabohne) is mentioned only
once on page 3, line 23: In the case of soybeans one must use
approximately twice as much water as with regular beans.
Address: 1. Seclin (Nord), France; 2. Brussels.
427. Commerce Reports (U.S. Dep. of Commerce). 1921.
Bean-oil shipments from Dairen. 24(10):583. Nov. 7.
• Summary: “Consul Max D. Kirjasoff, at Dairen, reports
that for the first six months of the current year there was a
total of 61,839,000 pounds of bean oil shipped from that
post. Of this amount, the United States received 15,507,000
pounds; the Netherlands, 12,516,000 pounds; the United
Kingdom, 6,336,000 pounds; Belgium, 5,136,000 pounds;
and Japan, 5,051,000 pounds.”
428. Olien, Vetten en Oliezaden (Amsterdam). 1921.
De fabrikage van plantaardige oliën in Hankow [The
manufacture of vegetable oils in Hankow, China]. 6(22):254.
Nov. 22 or 26. [Dut]
• Summary: The Bulletin Commercial reports that a major
industry has grown up in Hankow during the past 15 years.
A brief description is given of each of the following oils (in
descending order of value produced in Hankow): Wood oil,
sesame oil, soyabean oil (Sojaolie), cottonseed oil, rapeseed
oil, groundnut oil, castor oil (ricin), and tea oil. A table then
shows the value (in taels) of the production of these oils
(but not the amount produced) each year from 1917 to 1919,
inclusive. The value of wood oil increased from 6.8 million
to 8.9 million taels during this period. The value of soybean
oil decreased from 212,774 taels to 65,094 tales.
429. Olien, Vetten en Oliezaden (Amsterdam). 1921.
Wereldproductie van Sojaboonen [World production of
soybeans]. 6(22):254. Nov. 26. [Dut]
• Summary: The most recent [1920] annual statistics for
world production of soybeans are (in metric tons): China
3,352,400. Japan 430,933. Korea 348,000. United States
58,000. Total 4,189,333 tons.
In 1918, Japan absorbed 77% of the Chinese production,
American and Europe 7%, and China itself 16%.
During the last 10 years the amount of soya oil exported
from China has risen from 25,000 tons to about 400,000
tons. Before the World War, this oil was sent to England, the
United States, Belgium, Japan, and Russia. During this same
decade, exports of soya-cake have increased from 400-500
tons to over 1 million tons.
430. Oil and Colour Trades Journal (London). 1921.
The soya bean industry of S. Manchuria: Consular news.
60(1207):2080. Dec. 3.
• Summary: “The annual production of soya beans in
Manchuria is estimated at 2,500,000 tons, of which about
three-fourths is exported, 30 per cent. in the form of beans,
and the balance in the form of bean cake or bean oil.” A table
shows the weight (in piculs) of these three products exported
in 1919 and 1920. For 1920: Beans 10,224,437. Bean cake
21,479,033. Bean oil 1,805,107. The total value of exports in
1920 was approximately 92,350,000 taels.
Until the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 [soya] beans
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 187
were only exported from South Manchuria in the form of
bean cake and bean oil, and the sole market for them was
in China, the cake being used as a fertiliser in the sugarcane fields of the Canton and Fukien [Fujian] Provinces,
and the oil chiefly as a food and an illuminant. The valuable
properties of bean cake as a fertiliser were then discovered
in Japan, to which the market for the product extended, the
demand from Japan soon exceeding that from China. In 1908
a trial shipment of beans to England also opened the eyes of
British oil-seed manufacturers to the value of the soya bean
for the same purposes for which cotton and linseed oil were
used, with the result that in that year 400,000 tons of beans
were shipped to England. Since then the trade has never
looked back. The demand soon extended to the Continent of
Europe, and finally to America, which for a time became the
chief market for bean oil, though the exports to that country
have laterally declined.”
A second table shows the destination and amounts
of beans, bean cake, and bean oil exported from South
Manchuria in 1920. The destinations (listed alphabetically)
are: Denmark, Dutch Indies, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain,
Hong Kong, Japan and Korea, Netherlands, United States,
Chinese ports, other countries. The top four importers (in
piculs) of soya beans are Japan and Korea (5,637,882),
Chinese ports (2,490,727), Denmark (682,297), and Dutch
Indies (546,186). The top four importers (in piculs) of bean
cake are Japan and Korea (17,781,698), Chinese ports
(3,430,483), United States (182,669), and Denmark (83,285).
The top four importers (in piculs) of soya bean oil are
Netherlands (616,204), United States (460,379), Japan and
Korea (279,823), and Chinese ports (167,598).
This “table includes the exports by steamer from Dairen,
Newchwang, and Antung and across the Korean frontier
through Antung, Hunchun, and Lungchingtsun, but excludes
those by native jung which were also considerable and went
almost entirely to South China. All the exports to Europe and
America and the bulk of those to Japan were shipped from
Dairen, while Newchwang was the chief port of shipment
for the exports to Chinese ports. The export of bean oil to
the Netherlands is a new trade. It is possible that the ultimate
destination of the bulk of the oil was Germany.”
Source: British Consular Report.
431. Hall, C.J.J. van. 1921. Ziekten en plagen der
cultuurgewasen in Nederlandsch-Indië in 1920 [Diseases and
pests of cultivated plants in the Dutch East Indies in 1920].
Mededelingen van het Laboratorium voor Plantenziekten
(Indonesia) No. 46. 50 p. See p. 20-21. [Dut]
• Summary: Discusses Chrysomelidae, Epilachna, Etiella
zinckenella, Melanagromyza sojae. These pests were
observed on soybeans (kedelee) at the following locations:
Cheribon, Kedoe, Djokjakarta (Yogyakarta), Madioen,
Kediri, Soerabaja, Besoeki, and Menado. Address:
Netherlands Indies.
432. Hall, C.J.J. van. 1921. Ziekten en plagen der
cultuurgewasen in Nederlandsch-Indië in 1921 [Diseases
and pests of cultivated plants in the Dutch East Indies during
1921]. Mededeelingen van het Instituut voor Plantenziekten
(Buitenzorg) No. 53. 46 p. See p. 6, 19-21. [Dut]
• Summary: Discusses Aproaerema modicella,
Chrysomelidae, Etiella zinckenella, Melanagromyza sojae,
Noctuidae, Sphingdae. A bacterium (=pseudomonas)
solanacearum was isolated from soybeans. These pests were
observed at the following locations: Cheribon, Djokjakarta
(Yogyakarta), Soerakarta, Semarang [Central Java],
Madioen, Kediri, Soerabaja, and Besoeki.
433. Lemairé, Charles François Alexandre. 1921. Au Congo:
Pour lutter contre la vie chère par l’utilisation des ressources
indigènes [Countering high prices in the Congo by using
indigenous resources]. Anvers (Antwerp), Belgium: Les
Presses du “Neptune.” 64 p. See p. 29-32. 28 cm. Reprinted
in 1923 (65 p.). [3 ref. Fre]
• Summary: The section titled “Soja hispida” (p. 29-32)
begins: In the course of my first stay in the Congo, being
a commissioner of the district of The Equateur, I had
the opportunity to see, from the hands of the “liberated”
[meaning unclear, unless it means in indigenous people]
arriving from the region of Stanley-Falls [later renamed
Boyoma Falls] a legume that was new to me. It was a sort of
very small green pea (une sort de tout petit pois vert), very
dark, flattened like our “Victoria Marrow” pea, very hard,
to which we gave the name “Haricot of the Falls” (“haricot
des Falls”). Note: Today, Boyoma Falls is on the upper
Congo River just upstream from Kisangani [formerly named
Stanleyville] in the north central Democratic Republic of the
Congo.
Having planted the few seeds that I was able to procure,
we obtained nice bushes covered with thin green pods, which
could be used at first like green haricots (haricots verts), or
in a purée after they matured.
After I left The Equateur district, the “Haricot of the
Falls” disappeared very quickly from the various crops that I
had introduce at Coquilhat-Ville and at Equateur-Ville;...
Later I rediscovered the so-called “Haricot of the Falls”
on the right bank of the Yé-Yi River (a direct tributary of the
Nile River) at 6º north latitude.
The late professor C. Laisant, who happened to be
visiting me, told me that he had visited the factory that a
Chinese industrialist [Li Yu-ying] had established in Paris;
there he had tasted many diverse products, even “puddings,”
which were not all that bad (pas méprisables).
From all of the above, one can think that the
development of the soja hispida crop in the Congo would not
be a bad idea.”
Dr. F. de Selliers (1981) says of this article: In 1889,
Cmd. Lemaire, who at that time was Lieutenant, received
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 188
beans from the local population of the Belgian Congo
(Lemaire 1894). He planted those beans at Coquilhatville
and Equateurville and called them “Haricots of the Falls.”
But it was not until 1923 that Cmd. Lemaire realized that the
seeds which he had received might have been a variety of
soya beans. He could never check his assumption because
the “Haricots of the Falls” which he had planted 34 years
earlier had died.
First published as a series of articles titled “Belgique et
Congo: Pour lutter contre la vie chère” in Dernière Heure,
from March 1913 to April 1914. The author was born in
1863. Address: Commandant (Commander).
434. Rouest, Leon. 1921. L’étude et l’acclimatation du Soja
deviennent générales [The study and acclimatization of soya
becomes general (Document part)]. In: Leon Rouest. 1921.
Le Soja et Son Lait Végétal [The Soybean and Its Vegetable
Milk]. Carcassone (Aude), France: Lucie-Grazaille. 157 p.
See p. 22-24. [Fre]
• Summary: From 1880 to 1896 frequent communications
were published in agricultural bulletins from the United
States.
The soybean was studied in Russia by Nikitin.
In 1905, Li Yu Ying, councillor 1st class at the Ministry
of Agriculture in China, had the idea of soymilk in Europe.
In 1906 he created a laboratory in Paris. This laboratory grew
into the factory Caséo-Sojaïne, which made all the products
derived from the soybean (produits dérivés du Soja).
In 1910-11 presentations of soy products (produits de
Soja) at the expositions at Brussels, Turin, and Dresden.
Mr. Lechartier conducted cultural trials in Bretagne and
in the Haute-Vienne, and gave the results of his chemical
analyses of the plant.
Dr. J. Le Goff, in the Gazette des Hôpitaux, called new
attention of hygienic doctors to the use of soya in diabetic
diets.
In 1913 it seems to have been imported into Germany
for the following note was published in several Frankfurt
journals:
An institute has been founded under the name of
Soyama-Werke for the purpose of making soymilk (lait
artificiel de graines de Soja) and other soy products. Soya
furnishes to Bockenheim the most important quantity, if
not all of the artificial product. Some 5,000 liters per day
will be sold on the market in Frankfurt, when the factory is
in full swing. The head of this enterprise is a deputy of the
Reichstag. The Society Soyama-Werke also makes cream,
butter, and cheese. Samples of soymilk have already been
used by various bakers in Bockenheim.
This note indicates that in 1913 soybeans had not yet
been cultivated in Germany. Dairy farmers were said to fear
competition from soymilk. Thus, no doubt, they tried the
same thing in Germany that was tried in France, for during
the same period a factory, “La Caséo-Sojaïne,” installed
at Vallées near Asnières (Seine), conducted rather original
publicity in favor of soy products. The soybeans processed
in the Chinese factory were imported from China and it was
realized in advance that the soyfoods, made from a plant
absolutely unknown to the public, would not have its favor.
In 1910 Vilmorin had in its catalog Early Podolie
soybeans [from Russia; in today’s Ukraine]; they had black
seeds. But Early Podolie is still too late for the south of
France (midi).
Dr. Le Goff published new medical articles about
soy and tried cultivating it in the area around Paris. He
introduced a rather early black-seeded variety (Tokio) that
matured in this region.
Messrs. Boulanger and Dausse cultivated this variety
at Etrechy (Seine-et-Oise, near Paris) in order to prepare
conserves to be packed in boxes for diabetic diets.
Finally in 1918 Mr. Rouest, Director of the Experimental
Farm of Neoculture, receive some soybean samples from
the United States, via Messrs. Brioux and Semichon. He
cultivated them, isolated the mutations, created hybrids,
and tested the new varieties that had already been cultivated
by Mr. Carles of Carbonnière / Carbonniere in the Tarn.
Address: Directeur des Fermes Expérimentales de
Néoculture, Carcassonne (Aude), France.
435. Rouest, Leon. 1921. Le soja et son lait végétal:
Applications agricoles et industrielles [The soybean and its
vegetable milk: Agricultural and industrial applications].
Carcassone (Aude), France: Lucie-Grazaille. 157 p. Illust.
No index. 25 cm. [42 ref. Fre]
• Summary: Contents: Preface, by Louis Forest.
Introduction–What is soya? 1. History of the dissemination
of soya: In 1712 the naturalist Kaempfer introduced soya,
introduction of soya to France and Europe, soya is cultivated
in Austria in 1875 by Prof. Haberlandt, soya is the object
of many trials in France from 1876 to 1881, the study and
acclimatization of soya becomes widespread, the causes of
setbacks in the cultivation of soya.
2. Cultivation of soya: Botanical characteristics of soya,
the varieties of soya, Chinese varieties and soya in China,
Japanese varieties and soya in Japan, American varieties
and soya in America (varieties: Mammoth, Hollybrook, Ito
San, Guelph, Haberlandt, Medium Yellow, Wilson, Peking,
Tokio, Mandchu [Manchu], Black Eyebrow, Barchet), soya
in Europe–France and Italy, seven varieties of soya tested
in France, soya in the experimental farms for new crops
(les Fermes Expérimentales de Néoculture; Many varieties
from the USA were tested, including Manchu, Wilson Five,
Haberlandt, Tokio, Virginia, Hato [Hahto], Early Medium
Green), the cultural and geographical appearance of soya, its
production worldwide, planting soybeans, heat units (degré
thermique) and the germination of soya, the importance
of spacing between plants, number of seeds per hectare,
soya during its vegetative stage, the vegetation of soya
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 189
compared with that of the haricot at high altitudes, rolling
the seeds and types of crop maintenance, growth of the plant,
acclimatization, the enemies of soya.
3. Composition of the soybean plant. 4. Soya forage:
Green soya forage, soya hay, soya as a plant for soil
improvement. 5. Harvesting soybean seeds: Maturity of the
seed, harvesting soya, the food value and composition of
soya seeds. 6. Soya as an oil plant: Richness in oil, defatted
soybean cake, imports and exports of soya cake from 1915 to
1919 (Imports to: Sweden, Canada, Korea, Japan, Formosa.
Exports from: England, China, Korea), production of soya
cake from 1915 to 1919 (Denmark, Great Britain and
Ireland, Netherlands, Sweden, USA, Japan, Formosa, Korea,
Java and Madura).
7. Soymilk: Its manufacture (in 1910-1913 Li Yu-ying
installed a factory named “La Caséo-Sojaïne” at Vallées
{Asnière-Seine} near Paris. Rouest visited this factory and
saw them make soymilk, which was filtered using a filterpress resembling those used in sugar refineries), its properties
and composition, composition compared to other types of
milk, powdered soymilk, soymilk in the nursing and feeding
of animals, soymilk related to tuberculosis in animals and
in humans, soymilk would allow the milk and butter from
animals to be reserved exclusively for human foods and
could be used for raising many piglets, manufacture of nondairy milk in Canada (a factory is now under construction).
8. Soya in Industry: Soymilk and soy casein, Sojalithe (like
Galalithe).
9. Soya in human nutrition: Soy flour and its
applications (incl. Li Yu-ying’s usine de la Caséo-Sojaïne,
and bread made of soya and wheat), soya compared to dry
legumes (such as lentils, haricots, peas, beans), soya used as
a legume (whole soybeans), the food value of soy sprouts,
preserves and confections made from soya, soya chocolate
and coffee, the amount of nutrients produced by soya and
other crops from a unit of land, a meal of soya served in
France (prepared and served some years ago by Li Yu-ying’s
soyfoods plant La Caséo-Sojaïne for the major print media,
the medical press, the National Society for Acclimatization,
etc.; it consisted of 2 soups {one with ‘soya meat’ and one
with soymilk}, 2 entrees {an omelet with smoked soya ham,
and fritters stuffed with soy meat}, soy [actually mung bean,
lüdou] sprouts in a salad and sauteed, 3 desserts {soya cake,
biscuits, and confection}, and soy coffee; a recipe for each is
given; soya meat is smoked tofu).
10. Use of soya in East Asia: Tofu (fromage végétal),
soy-based condiments (such as natto {Ping ming Natto and
Tokio-Natto}, miso, Chinese miso or tao-tjiung [doujiang],
and shoyu {Soyou or Schozou}), making soy sauce in
Kwantung, China (from Groff).
11. The opinions of several authors concerning
soya (from the French medical and hygienic press):
Introduction–E. Maurel. Soya and soy bread in diabetic
diets–Dr. Dujardin-Beaumetz, Dr. Bloch, Dr. J. Le Goff, L.
Beille, M. Gautier. Soya used as a bean–M. Gautier. Soy
sauce used in place of meat extracts. The state of cheese. The
popularization of soya in Europe–A. Paillieux.
Conclusions: The influence of cultural technology
on variation. Appendix: Advice to experimenters on the
acclimatization of soya in France. Other methods of
obtaining early-maturing soybeans.
The author concludes (p. 140): We must make every
effort to acclimatize soya in France. We must develop the
will and learn from past mistakes. Most soybean varieties
now available in France are too late. We must get varieties
from Manchuria, whose climate is similar to that of
southeastern France, and from the northeastern USA. It is
urgent that, in the near future, we start a Soybean Experiment
Station to take responsibility for this work. The setbacks
since 1830 can be overcome by present science and genetics.
The first step is to introduce better varieties.
On the last page is a full-page advertisement for various
seeds sold by Mr. Rouest, including 30 varieties of soybeans
(Soja hispida); the names of the individual varieties are not
given.
Illustrations show: (1) A soy bean plant with many pods
(title page). (2) Flowers and pods of the soy bean plant (p.
29). (3) Soy pods and beans (p. 30). (4) A soy bean plant
drawn by a Chinese artist (p. 32, from Li Yu-ying). (5)
Pods of the Hato [Hahto] variety of soy bean (p. 51). (6)
Germinating soy bean seeds (p. 54, from Li Yu-ying). (7)
Soy bean roots with nodules (from a photo by Dr. Le Goff; p.
73). (8) Soy bean pods, opened to show 3 beans in each (p.
82).
Tables show: (1) Production of soybeans by color
in China in 1916 and 1917 (p. 35, in quintals, from the
International Yearbook of Rome, Vol. 1, 1919): In 1917:
Yellow 4,069,822. Other 953,012. Green 181,190. White
71,234. Black 40,066. Total: 5,315,324.
(2) Percentage composition of various oilseed cakes (p.
95, from Kellner). (3) Imports and exports of soybean cake,
by country, from 1915 to 1919 (in quintals, p. 96). Imports
are given for Sweden, Canada, Korea (from 1916), Japan,
and Formosa [Taiwan]. Exports are given for England (6
quintals in 1915), China (including Manchuria, by far the
biggest exporter, from 1916), and Korea (from 1916).
(4) Production of soybean cakes, by country, from
1915 to 1919 (p. 97, in quintals, based on statistics from
the International Bureau of Agriculture, Rome, 1919). In
descending order of production in 1915 (in quintals): Japan
5,439,337. Korea 3,209,238. Great Britain and Ireland:
1,513,059. Denmark 921,782. Java and Madura 503,025.
Note that China is not listed. Netherlands 144,523. Formosa
[Taiwan] 62,131. Sweden 1,733. USA 0, but 501,822 in
1916.
Note 1. When Alsace was occupied by the Germans
during World War I, the Rouest family moved from Alsace to
Paris. Mr. Rouest brought soybeans from Africa and adapted
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 190
them to France. He paid for the publication of this book.
Note 2. On the title page of this particular book is
the signature “L. Rouest” following the inscription “A M.
Meuninier, Hommages de l’auteur.” Address: Directeur des
Fermes Expérimentales de Néoculture, Carcassonne (Aude),
France.
436. Rouest, Leon. 1921. Le soja et son lait végétal:
Applications agricoles et industrielles [The soybean and its
vegetable milk. Agricultural and industrial applications].
Carcassone (Aude), France: Lucie-Grazaille. 157 p. Illust.
No index. 25 cm. [42 ref. Fre]
• Summary: This is a summary of interesting points
throughout this book. The main early use of soy in Europe
was more therapeutic than nutritional (p. 3); it was used
mainly in diabetic diets.
Nothing remains of the early trials conducted 20 years
ago in France and Austria. The reasons for the crop’s failure
were lack of understanding of the laws of acclimatization
and genetics, and the fact that soya (soja) was introduced as
a new food legume, when actually it can only be utilized as
a forage plant and industrially (for oil, cakes, and casein).
Later, when the plant has been adapted, when it is understood
that soya is not being propagated to competed with other
dry legumes, that it is not being cultivated to extract from
the seeds a vegetable milk for people, but simply as a forage
plant–and the most remarkable one that exists (p. 3).
The English are trying to acclimatize soya to their
colonies, especially those in southern Africa. In 1908 some
200,000 tonnes (metric tons) of soybeans were exported
from China [including Manchuria] to Europe, followed
by 500,000 tonnes in 1909. One can extract from soybean
seeds a vegetable milk (lait végétal) which has the same
value as animal milk for use in raising young animals. Its
seeds and forage are also fine for raising farm animals and
for industrial products. The author thanks all those who
have helped him to acclimatize the soybean to France and to
create new varieties of soya in France (p. 4).
Introduction of the soybean to France and to Europe (p.
6-7): A good but brief review of the literature on this subject.
In 1739 Buffon was made director of the Jardin des Plants
in Paris. Shortly thereafter, Christian missionaries in China
sent him specimens of seeds and plants. The soybean must
have been among them. The soybean has very probably been
cultivated at the Museum since 1779, certainly in 1779 and
later from 1834 to 1880. In 1855 Baron de Montigny was
charged by the Society for Acclimatization to distribute five
varieties of soya sent from China by Mr. Montigny; these
were from northern China. The plants first bore seeds in
France in 1854; their acclimatization is assured. In 1857 Mr.
Lachaume transmitted to the Society for Acclimatization
details of the success he obtained at Vitry-sur-Seine with
soy culture. The seeds were planted in 1856. In 1858 a
report to the Society for Acclimatization indicated that the
acclimatization of the soybean was complete. In 1859 Mr.
de Vilmorin reported on cultural trials sent from China by
Mr. Perny. The varieties matured too late. The same year Dr.
Turrel harvested soybeans at Toulon. In 1862 the Society
for Acclimatization received seeds from Mr. Guillemin;
the yellow soybean was said to be used for making tofu.
Following the events of 1870, the cultivation of the soybean
in France was apparently discontinued. Note 1. The brief
war of 1870 between France and Bismark’s Germany ended
in France’s defeat and the ceding to Germany of AlsaceLorraine.
In the long section on Prof. Haberlandt’s work with
soya, starting with his cultivation of it there in 1875, is
a quotation from him: “I don’t know, in this history of
cultivation, any example of a plant which has, in so few
years and to such a high degree, excited such general
interest” (p. 8).
From 1876 to 1881, the soybean was the object of
numerous trials in France by the Society of Horticulture
at Etampes (Seine-et-Oise). During this same period, one
Dr. H. failed with varieties sent from Japan but succeeded
in cultivating a yellow soybean sent from China, and used
the latter to make his own tofu (fromage végétal) for use at
home. In 1880 Messrs. Vilmorin-Andrieux introduced in
their catalog a species cultivated in Austria-Hungary (p. 1718).
In 1878, Japan, China, and the Indies (les Indes)
presented all the varieties of Soya at the Universal
Exposition, and their seeds filled more than 20 boxes. In
1880 the National Society for Acclimatization was able
to distribute soy in France and tests were conducted in 24
regions; they were largely successful, especially in central
and southern France (p. 19-22).
Tests were then abandoned from this time until about
1888, when the soybean started to grow in the southern states
of the USA. That same year Messrs. Lecerf and DujardinBeaumetz first had the idea of using soy bread in diabetic
diets (p. 22).
Causes of setbacks in soybean culture (p. 24-27): First,
the varieties used matured too late and were not acclimatized
in a progressive manner. We must choose varieties from
northern China and adapt them to the south of France (le
Midi) [which is on the same latitude as Toronto, central
Wisconsin, or southern Minnesota]. From these, we must
develop hybrids, and gradually move them northward.
The soybean has been ostracized in France. Major
commercial, financial, and social interests have viewed
with terror the production of an inexpensive food and have
retreated into the egotistical “Malthusian agriculture.” This is
the truth! (p. 26).
Soy cheese is even feared by the cheese industry in
France. They ask if they should abandon their excellent
cheeses in order to adopt a vegetal cheese (fromage végétal).
A long quotation from the Chinese Imperial
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 191
Encyclopedia of Agriculture (p. 34) gives the various colors
of soybeans, including black, white, grey, and even some
speckled / mottled with blue. The black ones can be used
for medicine. And they are used as an ingredient in the
condiment called fermented black soybeans (Chi [douchi]),
made of soybeans, ginger, and salt.
In 1910-1913 a factory named “La Caséo-Sojaïne” was
installed near Paris. I (Rouest) visited this factory in which
were installed all the modern conveniences (tout le confort
moderne), and presented the best guarantees of hygiene. The
milk was filtered using a filter press similar to those used in
sugar factories (p. 99).
Note 2. Rouest has borrowed a great deal of material
from earlier publications by Li Yu-ying, usually without
acknowledgment and often arriving at very different
conclusions, especially on the question of using soya to make
human foods (Li) vs. foods and milk for animals (Rouest).
Rouest strongly recommends the use of soymilk to
feed young domesticated animals. For us, soy will not
replace green beans, milk or cheese. During World War
I, the Germans were actively involved with the study of
soymilk. A translation of an article from the Schweizerische
Milchzeitung (Nov. 1918) tells how to make soymilk
and tofu (p. 102). By using soymilk, there is no fear of
transmitting tuberculosis. Address: Directeur des Fermes
Expérimentales de Néoculture, Carcassonne (Aude), France.
437. Bean-Bag (The) (Lansing, Michigan). 1922. Growth of
soya bean industry. 4(9):16. Feb.
• Summary: “Ten years ago the exports of bean cakes from
Manchuria totaled 400,000 to 500,000 tons, but the latest
reports show that these figures have been increased to over
1,000,000 tons.
“Bean oil exports totaled 20,000 to 30,000 tons a decade
ago, but of late they have been increased to 400,000. Prior
to the outbreak of the war Great Britain, America, Belgium,
Japan and Russia divided the exports, but now America and
Japan are the only two foreign buyers.
“The following table of the last annual production of
soya beans in the world is given by the Bankers’ Weekly
(Chinese): 1918 (in piculs)–China 50,286,000. Japan
6,464,000. Korea 5,220,000. United States of America
870,000. Total 62,640,000.
“According to the 1918 figures, Japan absorbed 77
per cent of the Chinese soya beans available for export,
American and European markets took 7 per cent and the
remaining 16 per cent were distributed throughout the
various provinces of China.”
438. Trans-Pacific. 1922. C.E.R. [Chinese Eastern Railway]
competes again for bean business: Railroad reported to be
taking all possible steps to facilitate shipments–New storage
tanks erected at Vladivostok. 6:88-89. Feb.
• Summary: “Harbin, one of the main soya bean purchasing
centers and an important point for manufacture of bean oil
and cake, has seldom witnessed as great a depression as that
which has prevailed during the last few months.”
“The situation in respect to bean oil presents quite
a severe crisis... Export to the United States has been
practically done away with owing to the high duty charged
under the provisions of the Emergency Tariff, which remains
effective.”
“While exports to the United States have thus practically
ceased since the end of the war, those to Europe, particularly
such points as Genoa [Italy], Rotterdam [Netherlands],
Hamburg [Germany] and London [England], suffer from
lack of tank steamers.”
“An interesting situation is being created by the revival
of competition in the bean and bean products transportation
business between the Chinese Eastern and the South
Manchuria railways. Until recently most of the freight was
shipped to Dairen, few caring to employ the Vladivostok
route owing to the unsettled political conditions prevailing in
the districts through which it passes.” Address: Tokyo.
439. Bollmann, Hermann. 1922. Extraction of fat and oil
from raw materials. U.S. Patent 1,411,154. March 28. 4 p.
Application filed 22 June 1920. 2 drawings. [9 ref]
• Summary: This patent for countercurrent solvent extraction
corresponds to H. Bollmann’s earliest German patent (No.
303,846) for solvent extraction.
(“I have filed applications in Germany Sept. 17, 1916;
Germany May 29, 1918; Germany Aug. 9, 1918; Belgium
June 7, 1919; Netherlands April 17, 1919; Hungary April
19, 1919; Denmark April 25, 1919; Norway June 13, 1919;
Austria April 18, 1919; Sweden May 3, 1919; Switzerland
April 17, 1919; Czechoslovakia April 28, 1919,) of which the
following is a specification.
“This invention relates to a process by means of which
fat or oil may be gradually recovered from raw materials
such as seed embryos, or resins from vegetable substances,
Montan wax from brown coal or other substances from
raw materials and in which for this purpose the solvent
is conveyed through the materials under extraction in
countercurrent.
“In the known processes of this kind the raw material is
subjected in a closed chamber to one single treatment with
the solvent, and the solvent is conveyed by way of piping
successively through separate closed receptacles containing
the raw material. It has also been proposed in methods for
fractional sweating out, of melting substances from raw
material with the aid of heated air, to convey this in open
receptacles into a closed apparatus in opposition to the air
current.
“In contra-distinction to these known methods, the
present invention consists in conveying the raw material
as separated batches in receptacles provided with sievelike
bottoms and open at the top within the closed chamber in
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 192
one direction, and to cause the solvent to travel freely in
the opposite direction consecutively through all receptacles
whereby the fat content of the solvent is progressively
increased. This has the advantage of enabling loss of solvent
to be avoided more efficiently and the passage thereof
through the material under extraction to be effected within
the closed chamber from which the solvent vapours may be
recovered and after condensation may again be utilized.”
Note: Although soybeans are not mentioned in this
patent (nor are any other oilseeds), they are implied.
Likewise, no specific solvents are mentioned. Address:
Hamburg, Germany.
440. Dupuis, R. 1922. Caséine animale, caséine végétale
[Animal casein, vegetable casein]. Annales de Gembloux
28:149-56. May. [Fre]
• Summary: After discussing the properties of casein from
cow’s milk, the author notes that the demand for casein
for industrial uses is growing rapidly, and threatens to
outstrip the supply. But it has long been known that there
is an alternative–vegetable casein, especially that extracted
from the soybean. The author then reviews the literature on
soybeans, soybean casein, and its production, drawing on
authors such as Beltzer, Osborne & Clapp, etc. In France, soy
casein can be extracted from soybean cakes (produced at oil
mills), sheets of casein imported from the Orient, or directly
from soybean seeds. The latter is the most economical.
Note: The Institut agronomique de Gembloux was
founded in Belgium on 1 Nov. 1860. Its first course began on
8 Jan. 1861. Address: Ingénieur (A. I. Gx.) [Belgium].
441. Guillaumin, A. 1922. Les variétés de soya d’ExtrèmeOrient: Origine probable du soya [The varieties of soybeans
in East Asia: The probable origin of the soybean]. Revue de
Botanique Appliquee & d’Agriculture Coloniale 2(10):25458. June 30. [10 ref. Fre]
• Summary: “The soybean (Le Soya; Glycine Soja Sieb. et
Zucc., Dolichos Soja L, Soja hispida Moench, S. angustifolio
Miq.) has been cultivated in the Far East since antiquity.
Shen-Nung (le Shénon), written up by Houandi in about
3,000 to 3,500 years before Jesus-Christ, already mentioned
the soybean. Since then, its culture has expanded to
Indochina, India, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Africa.
“Long ago, in Austria and in France, varieties such
as Soja d’Etampes, were selected for their high yield. In
America, efforts have long been made to obtain, for the
diverse climates, both forage varieties and seed varieties.
And the U.S. Department of Agriculture has assembled in
its test fields more than 500 varieties, of which about 20 are
currently in commerce. Among the forage varieties are (Ball
1907): Early Brown, Black Eye Brown, Peking, Wilson Five,
Virginia, Barchet, Biloxi, Laredo, Atoo San [sic, Ito San?],
Tarheel Black, and Wisconsin Early Black. Among those
grown for their seeds are: Ito San, Manchu, Elton, Medium
Yellow, Mikado, Hollybrook, Haberlandt, Mammoth, Tokyo,
Guelph, Austin, Easy Cook, Morse, Hahto, Early Medium
Green, Mandarin, and Chiquita.
Note 1. This is the earliest document seen (Aug.
2013) that mentions the soybean variety Black Eye Brown.
However, it does not appear in Ball (1907) as stated, nor
does any name even vaguely resembling it appear. The Black
Eye Brown variety is mentioned in only 3 known documents,
all published in France in 1922.
“Note that the forage varieties all have black- or darkcolored seeds, whereas the seed varieties have yellow or
greenish seeds.
“In Turkestan it seems that the only varieties are ovoid
(5.7 x 3.7 mm), brilliant yellow, with brown hilum and
traversed longitudinally by a bright line.” Note 2. Turkistan
or Turkestan is an historical region of Central Asia, usually
thought to comprise Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan,
Tajikistan, southern Kazakhstan, western China, and
northeast Afghanistan.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (April 2008)
concerning soybeans in Turkestan, or the cultivation of
soybeans in Turkestan (not including Chinese Turkestan).
This document contains the earliest date seen for soybeans
in Turkestan, or the cultivation of soybeans in Turkestan (not
including Chinese Turkestan) (1922). The source of these
soybeans is unknown. Unfortunately, it is not clear in which
part of Turkestan the soybeans were grown.
“In India, soybeans are cultivated in the United
Provinces and at the foot of the Hamalayas from Kashmir
to Darjeeling.” David Hooper (1912) distinguished five
different soybean races in India.
“In Cambodia, the only known variety is ovoid (6.3 x
4.2 cm), dull yellow, brown hilum, with a long, clear white
line, known as Sandek sieng in Cambodian and dau nanh
in Annamite. It is cultivated along the steep banks of the
Mekong River.
“In Cochin China, the soybean is cultivated only on the
red soils of the provinces of Chau-doc, Baria, and Bien-Hoa;
in the western provinces, cultivation is insignificant and the
seeds come from Cambodia. It seems that there is only one
variety, closely related to that of Cambodia, called dau nanh
or dau-xa, but it is not well established / widely grown, for it
bears black or brown seeds.
“In the province of Baria one can obtain two harvests in
a wet year–one in September, the other in December-January.
In the province of Bien-Hoa, there is only harvest.
“In Annam, there is one variety similar to that cultivated
in the lower parts of the provinces of Bin-dinh, Thua-hien,
Dong-hoï, and Tanh-hoa.
In Tonkin, the soybean is known as dau tuong; in
the [Mekong] delta, one can distinguish a small, ovoid
variety (5.1 x 3 mm), with a yellow seed coat and a hilum
surrounded by a brownish black aura that sometimes
overflows the sides. In the region of Lang-son, on the
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 193
plateaus 100-500 meters in height, it is replaced by a larger
variety, ovoid (7.1 x 5 mm), dull yellow, and a hilum that is
uncolored [pale] or brownish; one variety is also cultivated at
Lao-kay.
“In Laos, the soybean is known as Mok toua kon and
Ta tone, according to Dr. Spire, but precise information is
lacking.
In the territory of Kwang-cho-wan (French: Kouangtchéou-wan, in southeast China) the soybean is cultivated
in the region of Taï ping, at an altitude of 30 meters. It is
planted in the spring and harvested in the summer. One can
distinguish two varieties here. One is very elongated (8
mm x 4.6 mm), dull yellow with a very clear brown hilum,
called Wong tao or Wong tao tsaï in Cantonese. The other
is small, flat (6.4 mm x 3.7 mm), dull black, with a large
hilum, called Hat tao in Cantonese; it is absolutely the same
as the variety Nigra cultivated at the botanical gardens of
Cluz (Romania), and in Trieste (Italy), but different from that
which is cultivated under this name at the botanical gardens
of Cracow / Krakow (French: Cracovie) (Poland), Tabor
(Czechoslovakia), and Delft (Netherlands), which is fatter,
more round (7 mm x 4.8 mm) and of a velvety black color.
Note 4. This is the earliest document seen (Feb. 2005)
concerning the cultivation of soybeans in Czechoslovakia
(which became a country in 1918). This document contains
the earliest date seen for the cultivation of soybeans in
Czechoslovakia (June 1922). The source of these soybeans is
unknown.
“In China, in Szechwan, only the yellow and green
varieties are known. In the region of Shanghai, R.P. Courtois,
of the Museum of Zi-ka-wei, has assembled an important
collection of soybean varieties. Descriptions are given of
varieties with the following colors and names: (1) Yellow:
Ta hoang téou (large, yellow, almost round), Kiu hoang
téou (ovoid, brilliant yellow). (2) Green: Tsing pi téou
(roundish, 7.1 x 5.5 mm, clear green with clear hilum). (3)
Brown: Large, ovoid (9.1 x 6.4 mm), reddish brown, with
a slightly clearer hilum; no name given. (4) Black: Many
varieties. (4A) Large ovoid seeds (9 x 4.3 mm), with large
hilum; indigenous name unknown; (4B) A little smaller and
bulging (8.3 x 5.4 mm), with ornate hilum and a longitudinal
white line, named Ta hé téou; (4C) Ovoid (8.1 x 4.7 mm)
with a wide hilum traversed by a white line, called Hé téou;
(4D) Small (6.7 x 3.1 mm) and brownish black named Siao
hé téou; (4E) And finally a very small, flat (6 x 2.7 mm),
brownish black named Ni téou. By their shape, form, and
color, the seeds of these last appear very similar to the
American variety Laredo.”
“In Europe, soya has its apostles, but it will never
amount to anything more here than a small-time vegetable.
Despite the Caséosojaïne at Vallées near Paris, France (Li
Yu-ying, 1911) and the Soyama Werke at Bockenheim,
Germany (1914), the milk, cream, butter, and cheese [tofu]
made from soya will never be more than ersatz. The “soy
bread” is only good for diabetics and the “soy ham” (jambon
de Soja) in nothing but a weak imitation of pork. Soybeans
themselves are indigestible and require a very long time
to cook–even the yellow or white varieties. Soy sprouts
(germes de Soja), which enjoyed some popularity before the
war and deserved it, for they are a nice hors d’oeuvre, are
actually nothing but mung bean sprouts.”
Based on other sources (most of which are cited), the
writer also discusses the soybean varieties of Manchuria
(Hosie 1901), and Japan (Lemarié 1910), and discusses
soybeans briefly in Korea, Philippines, Netherlands Indies.
In Europe, the soybean has its apostles: Caséosojaïne at
Vallé near Paris (1911), and Soyama werke at Bockenheim
(Germany) (1914). The latter makes milk, cream, butter
and cheese (le fromage de Soja [tofu]), which are nothing
but imitations. Soy bread has a good taste, especially for
diabetics. Soy ham (jambon de Soja) is but a vague imitation
of the pork product. The seeds, themselves, are hard to digest
and take a very long time to cook, even the yellow or white
varieties. As for the soy sprouts (germes de Soja), which
enjoyed some popularity before the war, which they deserved
as an agreeable hors d’oeuvre, they are nothing but young
mung bean sprouts (de jeunes germinations du Haricot
Mungo).
Also mentions foods such as soy sauce, fermented tofu,
and tofu, made from soybeans in India, Indo-China, China,
and Japan. Tofu is known as dau phu in Annamite, tao fou
in, Cantonese, téou fou in Chinese, and to fou in Japanese.
A significant amount was being exported from China before
the war. In Manchuria soybeans occupy 1/5 of the cultivated
land. Speculates on the origin of the soybean. Address: Asst.
to the Crop Service, Museum of Natural History (Assistant
du Service de culture au Muséum d’histoire naturelle).
442. Oudendijk, Gezant. 1922. De handel in sojaboonen
en produkten daarvan te Dairen [Trade in soybeans and
products thereof in Dairen, Manchuria]. Korte Berichten
voor Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel (Buitenzorg/Jakarta)
12(42):333. Oct. 19. [Dut]*
Address: Dutch “Gesandter” in Peking.
443. Algemeene Norit Maatschappij. 1922. Veredelung
aktiver Kohle [Finishing active coal]. German Patent
454,407. Nov. 12. 2 p. Issued 27 Jan. 1925. [Ger]
• Summary: Page 1, line 37: It has been surprisingly found
that the carbon thus treated has an exceptionally strong
decoloring effect with respect to many oils and fats, e.g.,
beet, soybean (Soja-), olive and other oils and vegetable and
animal fats. Address: Amsterdam [Netherlands].
444. Bois, D. 1922. Essais de culture de variétés de Soja,
en 1921, en divers points de la France [Cultivation trials of
varieties of soybeans in 1921 at various points in France].
Revue d’Histoire Naturelle Appliquee 3(11):348-60. Nov.;
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 194
3(12):379-84. Dec. [Fre]
• Summary: Following an introduction, Part A concerns
trials made in the region of Paris, and Part B trials made in
the south (Midi) of France.
In May 1921 the National Society for Acclimatization
sent to the Museum of Natural History (Div. of Crops;
Culture) 23 varieties of soybeans that had been procured
from the USDA Bureau of Plant Industry. These were
likewise given to other members of the Society to test at
various places in French territory. The name of the varieties,
the place tested, and the results are given in tables. Places
included the area around Paris, Dep. of la Seine, Tabor
(Czechoslovakia), Delft (Netherlands), in Verrières (Seine-etOise) at MM. Vilmorin-Andrieux & Co. by M. Meunissier.
The varieties of greatest interest in the region around Paris
were Ito San, Manchu, Peking, Guelph, Black Eye Brown,
and Early Brown. Other varieties are Haberlandt, Mammoth,
Chiquita, Easy Cook, Austin, Morse, Tokyo, Hahto,
Shanghai (Synonym: Tarheel Black), Wilson Five, Otootan,
Laredo, Peking, Virginia, Biloxi, Barchet, and Wisconsin
Early Black; these all came from the USA and their names
are written in English. Address: Professeur au Museum
national d’Histoire naturelle [France].
445. Bois, D.; Gérôme, J. 1922. Essais de culture de
quelques variétés de Soja au jardin d’experiences du
Muséum, en 1921 [Culture trials with some varieties of
soybeans in the experimental garden of the Museum of
Natural History, Paris, in 1921]. Bulletin du Museum
National d’Histoire Naturelle 28(4):322-28. [1 ref. Fre]
• Summary: The soybean was cultivated at the Museum
of Natural History (Paris) in 1779, and perhaps as early as
1740. In recent years, the soybean has come to be grown
quite widely, even in the United States. Therefore the authors
wish to re-evaluate this plant, especially as a crop with
non-food industrial uses, and to find its real economic and
agricultural value for France. In the spring of 1921 France’s
National Society for Acclimatization received 23 highly
regarded soybean varieties from the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Some of these were sent to the Museum, where
they were cultivated in the experimental garden, being sown
on May 12 and June 1, 1921. They were also sown in other
parts of France. The early varieties did best, especially at
more southerly latitudes. Tables (p. 325-26) give data on
the following varieties grown at the Museum: Black Eye
Brown. Early Brown. Guelph. Ito San. Manchu. Mandarin.
Wisconsin Early Black. Also tested at the Museum in 1921
were soybean varieties from Delft (Netherlands), and Tabor
(Czechoslovakia) (See table p. 328). Other varieties tested
in other places: Haberlandt. Hahto. Tokyo. Virginia. Wilson
Five.
446. Hall, C.J.J. van. 1922. De gezondheidstoestand van
onze cultuurgewassen in de jaren 1920 en 1921 [The health
of our cultivated plants in 1920 and 1921]. Teysmannia
(Batavia [Jakarta]) 33(1-2):15-23. See p. 19. [4 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Soybeans were attacked by Etiella zinckenella
(peuboorder), and Melanagromyza sojae (stengelboorder).
Address: Instituut vor Plantenziekten.
447. Meijere, J.C.H. de. 1922. Zur Kenntnis javanischer
agromyzinen [Toward a knowledge of the agromyzids of
Java]. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (Netherlands) 22:17-24. [3
soy ref. Dut]
• Summary: The section titled “Melanagromyza sojae
Zehntn.” (p. 18-19) discusses various insect pests of
soybeans: Agromyza, Melanagromyza, M. dolichostigma, M.
sojae, Ophiomyia, O. phaseoli. An illustration (line drawing)
shows the larva of Melanagromyza sojae and various parts of
its body. Address: Amsterdam, Netherlands.
448. U.S. Tariff Commission. 1922. Summary of
tariff information, 1921, relative to the bill H.R. 7456.
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. 1625 p. See p.
152, 786-87, 802-03.
• Summary: “The principal sources of information have
been the commodity surveys and reports of the Tariff
Commission, especially the ‘Summary of Tariff Information,
1920.’ The material in the latter has been amplified and
brought up to date.”
Soybeans are more specifically dealt with in the 1920
Summary. Soybean oil, however, is considered in H.R. 7456.
The section titled “Soya-bean oil” (p. 152-53) states:
“Description and uses... This oil “is a semi-drying oil used
in paint either as a substitute for or mixed with linseed oil.
Its greatest use is in soap making, for which it has largely
replace cottonseed oil, but the purified oil is edible. After the
oil is expressed the cake becomes a feed for dairy cattle or a
fertilizer.
“Production of soya beans has increased greatly, but
only a small portion of the crop is used for oil. In 1915
approximately 100,000 bushels of American-grown beans
were pressed for oil. The domestic output of oil (inedible
and edible) increased from 2, 764,000 pounds in 1914 to
42,074,000 pounds in 1917 and 79,861,000 pounds in 1918.
Reports of the Bureau of the Census show that no crude
soya-bean oil has been produced either from domestic or
imported beans in this country from 1919 to September 30,
1921, inclusive. The oil is imported in the crude state and
refined in this country.
“Imports have increased from 16,360,452 pounds in
1914 to 336,824,646 pounds in 1918, the great bulk coming
from China and Japan. Imports since 1917, almost wholly
from Kwangtung, China proper, and Japan, have been as
follows:”
A table shows that imports fell rapidly after 1918 (and
the end of World War I) to 195.8 million lb in 1919, 112.5
million lb in 1920, and only 16.3 million lb in the first 9
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 195
months of 1921. The value per pound plunged from $0.11 in
1918 to $0.04 in 1921.
Exports since 1918 have been chiefly to Italy, France,
and Austria. A table shows the quantities: 27.7 million lb in
the last 6 months of 1919, 43.5 million lb in 1920, but only
1.93 million lb in the first 9 months of 1921.
“Important changes in classification.–Soya-bean oil
was exempt from duty under the Act of 1913 (par. 561); it is
dutiable under the emergency tariff act of 1921 (par. 11).”
The next section, titled “Hempseed oil” (p. 152) states
that this oil is obtained from the seeds of the hemp plant,
cultivated in France, Belgium, Germany, southern Italy,
Turkey, Algeria, North America, India, Manchuria, and
Japan. It is used mainly in paint as a drying oil.
Soya beans are also mentioned under “Beans” (p. 786).
Under “Beans, prepared or preserved” (p. 787) we read:
“Soya beans are also made into various food preparations,
especially for use by orientals.” A table shows that imports
of such soya beans increased from 1.43 million lb in 1918 to
3.4 million lb in the first 9 months of 1921.
The section on “Vegetables prepared or preserved” (p.
802-03) states: “Bean stick [probably dried yuba sticks] or
bean cake is an oriental food product made from ground
and fermented soya beans. Miso is a cooked and fermented
combination of rice and soya beans, generally used in
making soup.” “Imports of bean stick or bean cake and miso
were valued at $73,097 in 1914, soya bean cake constituting
about 40%. Edible bean cake and miso are imported to meet
the demand of the oriental population.” A table shows that
there was a 25% duty on such products and imports and
value dropped from 1918 to 1921. Address: Washington, DC.
449. Piper, Charles V.; Morse, William J. 1923. The soybean.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. xv + 329
p. Feb. Illust. Index. 24 cm. Reprinted unrevised in 1943 by
Peter Smith Publishers, New York. [563 ref]
• Summary: This is the first comprehensive book about the
soybean written in English, and the most important book
on soybeans and soyfoods written in its time. Contains an
excellent review of the world literature on soybeans and
soyfoods with a bibliography on soy that is larger than
any published prior to that time (563 references), a good
description of the present status of the soybean worldwide
based on the authors’ extensive contacts, and a great deal
of original information. It quickly became a key source
for people and organizations working with soybeans and
soyfoods in all countries, and a major factor in the expansion
of the soybean in the western world. Because of its scope
and influence, Soyfoods Center considers the year of its
publication to mark the end of the “Early Years” of the
soybean worldwide. It remained in print until about 1986.
Contents: Preface. 1. Introduction: Name of the plant,
origin, literature, use by the Chinese and Japanese, present
importance, future prospects in the U.S., recognition
of the possibilities. 2. The commercial status of the
soybean: Manchuria and China, Japan, Europe, U.S., other
countries, summary of imports and exports of soybeans and
soybean oil. 3. Botanical history of the soybean: History
prior to Linnaeus’ “Species Plantarum” 1753, Linnaeus’
misunderstandings of the soybean, Prain’s elucidation, other
and the correct botanical name.
4. Agricultural history of the soybean: Vernacular
names of the soybean, China, Korea, and Japan, India and
neighboring regions, Cochin China, Malayan region, early
introduction into the United States, later U.S. introductions,
the early introduced varieties (grown in the USA by
1898–Ito San, Mammoth, Buckshot, Guelph or Medium
Green, Butterball, Kingston, Samarow, Eda, Ogemaw or
Ogema), soybean in Europe, varieties grown in Europe
and identification, Hawaiian Islands, Australia, Africa,
Argentina (p. 50), Canada (“Soybeans are grown in very
small quantities in Canada and then usually as a forage
crop”), Philippines, Egypt, Cuba (p. 52), British Guiana,
Mauritius (p. 53), present culture distribution. 5. Culture of
the soybean: Climatic adaptations, soil preferences, water
requirement, preparation of seed bed, time of planting,
methods and rate of seeding, seeding for pasturage, depth
of seeding, inoculation, fertilizer reactions, cultivation,
soybeans in mixtures (with cowpeas, sorghums, Sudan grass,
Johnson grass, millet, corn, or sunflowers and corn).
6. Harvesting and storage of soybeans: harvesting
soybeans for hay, silage, for the seed, seed yields, proportion
of straw to seed, storing seed, separation of cracked from
whole soybean seed, viability of soybean seed, pedigreed,
inspected, registered, and certified seed. 7. Composition
of the soybean: Proportions of stems, leaves and pods,
composition of plant and seed, nutritive and mineral
constituents, forms of nitrogen in soybean nodules, factors
affecting oil content of seed. 8. Utilization of the soybean:
Diversity of uses (a chart, p. 129, shows 59 products that can
be made from soybean seeds, and 6 more that can be made
from soybean plants), soybeans for green manure, pasturage,
soiling, ensilage, hay, straw.
9. Varieties: Japanese classification of varieties,
classification of varieties in Manchuria (3 yellow, 2 green,
3 black), botanical classifications, vital characteristics,
descriptions of important varieties (43 varieties and
7 synonyms), key for identification, breeding and
improvement, genetic behavior, oil content.
10. Structure of soybean seeds. 11. Soybean oil:
Methods of extraction [Manchurian, and solvent], American
oil mills, methods of shipping and marketing, prices,
utilization in soap manufacture, food, paint manufacture,
miscellaneous. 12. Soybean cake or meal: Feeding value,
composition, use for feeding for dairy cows, cattle, swine,
sheep, poultry, digestibility, injurious effects, fertilizer.
13. Soybean products for human food: Food value of the
soybean, digestibility of the soybean and its products, mature
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 196
or dry soybeans, immature or green soybeans (a “nutritious
green vegetable”), soybean flour, digestibility of soybean
flour, soybean bran (p. 225-26), soybean sprouts, soybean
coffee, soybean or vegetable milk [soymilk] (preparation,
composition, residue from the manufacture of vegetable
milk [okara], utilization of soybean milk, condensed
vegetable milk, vegetable milk powder, fermented vegetable
milk), vegetable casein, tofu or soybean curd (names and
brief history, method of manufacture, coagulating agents,
manufacturing yields, digestibility, utilization of bean curd
and manufactured products, bean curd brains or tofu nao, dry
bean curd or tofu khan, thousand folds {chien chang tofu},
fried bean curd {tza tofu}, Fragrant dry bean curd {hsiang
khan}, frozen tofu {kori tofu}, Chinese preparation, various
dishes), natto, hamananatto [hamanatto], yuba, miso, shoyu
[soy sauce], confections. 14. Table dishes of soybeans and
soybean products: mature or dry beans, flour, tofu, sprouts
(86 recipes). 15. Enemies of the soybean: bacterial, mosaic,
fungous [fungus], and nematode diseases, insects, rodents.
This last chapter is a comprehensive review of the literature
on soybean diseases and insects published before 1922.
The Preface begins: “The soybean, also known as soya
or soja bean, has assumed great importance in recent years
and offers far-reaching possibilities of the future, particularly
in the United States. It is, therefore, desirable to bring
together in a single volume the accumulated information
concerning this crop...
“The aim has been to present the information so as
to make it useful from both agricultural and commercial
standpoints, not omitting, however, much that is mainly of
historical or botanical interest...”
The introduction begins: “There is a wide and growing
belief that the soybean is destined to become one of the
leading farm crops in the United States.”
Note 1. C.V. Piper lived 1867-1926. Note 2. This is the
earliest English-language document seen (July 2003) that
uses the term “soybean bran” to refer to soy bran.
Note 3. This is the earliest document seen (July 2003)
in which Piper or Morse describe natto, Hamananatto
[Hamanatto], yuba, or miso.
Note 4. This book was published by March 1923 (See
Ohio Farmer, 10 March 1923, p. 313).
Note: The word “Russia” appears on 3 pages of this
book in connection with soybeans: p. 18 (in 1912, 1913,
and 1914 Russia imported soybeans, soybean cake, and
soybean oil), p. 54 (cultivated in “southern Russia {Podolia,
Samarow}”), p. 227 (“In Japan and southern Russia soybean
coffee is prepared and put up in small packages for the
market”).
Note 1. The terms “Soviet Union” or “USSR” do not
appear in this book–even though the Soviet Union was
established in Dec. 1922.
Note 2. Podolia is in today’s Ukraine. Address: 1.
Agrostologist; 2. Agronomist. Both: United States Dep. of
Agriculture, Washington, DC.
450. Meunissier, A. 1923. Observations faites sur les Sojas
chez MM. Vilmorin-Andrieux à Verrières-le-Buisson (Seineet-Oise) [Observations on soybeans at MM. VilmorinAndrieux & Co. at Verrières-le-Buisson in Seine-et-Oise].
Revue d’Histoire Naturelle Appliquee 4(3):93-94. March. [1
ref. Fre]
• Summary: “In 1922, we cultivated a collection of 25
varieties of soybeans, of which 23 were received from the
USA via the National Society for Acclimatization. The
varieties which seemed the best for our climate that year
were Oto San [Ito San], Manchu, Peking, Guelf [Guelph],
Black Eyebrow, Early Brown, Mandarin, Wisconsin Early
Black, and Chiquita (provided by USDA, Washington,
DC) and Tokyo Black, a variety already cultivated in the
region of Paris. This year we received a more important
collection of 47 varieties was received as follows: 20
from last year’s harvest at Verrières of which 19 were
from USDA in Washington, DC; 2 from the agricultural
station at Wageningen, Netherlands (Yaskioka chiuriu,
and O Yachi); 3 from our correspondents in the southwest
of France (originally from America); 7 from Indochina
(Tonkin, Cochinchine, and Cambodia) via the Society for
Acclimatization (they didn’t grow); 11 from the experiment
station at Buitenzorg (Indonesia); 4 from the botanical
gardens at Montpellier (south France; Soja), Goettingen
(Germany; Soja nigra), and Amsterdam (Netherlands;
Sangora).”
451. Piper, Charles V.; Morse, William J. 1923. Introduction
of the soybean to Europe (Document part). In: Piper and
Morse. 1923. The Soybean. New York: McGraw-Hill. xv +
329 p. See p. 45-47.
• Summary: “The soybean has been grown experimentally
at least in most of the European countries but in general the
climatic conditions are not well suited to its culture. Some
measure of success has been had however in south Europe,
but the crop has never become of much importance.
“France: Paillieux (1880) has traced in detail the records
of early attempts to introduce the culture of the soybean
into France. Packets of soybean seeds from missionaries in
China were received at the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, in 1739
and at frequent later dates beginning with 1834. The plants
were very probably grown at the botanical garden since
1740, certainly so in 1779, and from 1834 to 1880 without
interruption. In 1821, an unusually warm season, a Chinese
variety had matured seed at Champ-Rond near Etampes.
Beginning with 1855 the Société d’Acclimatation distributed
numerous packets of seed, but did not succeed in establishing
a permanent culture of the plant. In 1868 M. Chauvin
cultivated several varieties at Cote d’Or, and the culture there
has since continued. In 1874 the Society of horticulture of
Etampes began experiments that continued until 1880. In
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 197
1879 a Chinese variety matured well at Marseilles. In 1880
Vilmorin-Andrieux & Company introduced into France one
of the varieties tested by Haberlandt in Austria, which variety
has proven well adapted to French conditions. This variety is
presumably that now known in France as ‘Yellow Etampes’
which is the same as that known in the United States as ‘Ito
San.’
“The soybean is now rather widely grown in France but
apparently is not an important crop. No definite statistics
of its culture seem to have been published. Presumably it
is grown more as a garden vegetable than as a field crop.
Apparently only four varieties were cultivated in France
before 1910 namely: Yellow Etampes (= Ito San); Early
Black from Podolia (= Chernie); Brown (= Ogemaw); and
Extra Early Black (= Wisconsin Black). All of these are short
season varieties, indicating that the later sorts will not mature
in France.
“Italy: The cultivation of the soybean in Italy dates from
about 1840. [Question: What is the source of this date?] At
the present time it is grown sparingly in the compartments of
Liguria, Emilia, Marches, and near Naples. In no part of Italy
does it seem to be a crop of prime importance.
“Austria and Germany: A great impetus was given to
the culture of the soybean in Europe by the experiments of
Prof. Friedrich Haberlandt (1878) of Vienna, in 1875 and
subsequent years. Haberlandt obtained seed of nineteen
varieties at the Vienna exposition in 1873. These were as
follows:” Five yellow-seeded, three black-seeded, three
green-seeded, and two brown-red-seeded varieties from
China. One yellow-seeded and three black-seeded varieties
from Japan. One black-seeded variety from Trans-Caucasia.
One green-seeded variety from Tunis.
“Of these only four varieties matured at Vienna in
1875, namely, two yellow-seeded, one black-seeded and one
brown-red-seeded, all from China. The black-seed sort was
so late that it matured but few seeds. Of the other varieties
some did not even come into bloom, while the remainder
produced blossoms or young pods too late in the fall to
mature.
“In 1876 the two yellow and the brown varieties were
tested by cooperators in Hungary, Bohemia, Steirmark
[Steiermark, Austria], Bukowina [an area divided between
Romania and the USSR after 1945], Moravia, and Silesia,
favorable results being secured in each case.
“In 1877 seeds of all four varieties were distributed to
148 cooperators, mostly in Austria-Hungary, but some in
Germany and Russian Poland, and one each in Switzerland
and Holland. Most of the tests gave promising results.
“Haberlandt (1878) published the results of his
investigations in much detail, and his results had great
influence in stimulating further investigations. All of the
varieties that Haberlandt was able to mature were short
season varieties, which in general are far less productive than
later sorts.
“England: According to Aiton (1812) the soybean
was grown as early as 1790 at the Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew, but merely as a botanical curiosity. The soybean has
apparently never been grown as a crop in England, where
indeed only the earliest varieties would be expected to
mature.
“Investigations on the adaptability of the soybean have
been carried on by Dr. J.L. North of the Royal Botanic
Gardens during recent years. Early varieties were introduced
from numerous sources. With careful selections two or three
quite promising early strains have been obtained which
mature fully and give good yields of seed under English
conditions.”
452. Piper, Charles V.; Morse, William J. 1923. Vernacular
names of the soybean (Document part). In: Piper and Morse.
1923. The Soybean. New York: McGraw-Hill. xv + 329 p.
See p. 35-36.
• Summary: Name–Locality.
An-ing–Naga Hills, Assam.
Bhat–United Provinces, India.
Bhatmas–United Provinces, India.
Bhatnas or Bhatwas–Nepal.
Bhatwan–Ceylon.
Bhatwas–United Provinces, India; Nepal.
Bhetmas–Bengal, India.
Bhut–Punjab, India.
Botumash, Bhativas or Bhatmais–Buthia, India.
Buncae–Ceylon.
Cadelee–Amboina.
Chlai–Bengal, India.
Coffee Bean–United States.
Dau nanh–Annam; Cochin China; Tonkin.
Dau tuong–Tonkin, French Indo-China.
Daidzu–Japan; Tonkin.
Disomhorac–Santhal, India.
Gari-kalai–Bengal, India.
Hoam teu–Cochin China.
Japan pea–United States.
Kajuna–Nepal.
Kajang koro–Celebes.
Katjang boelec–Java; Sunda.
Katjang-djepoen–Java; Sunda.
Khujoon–N. W. [North-West] Provinces, India.
Kije–Naga Hills, Assam.
Lasi–Kachin, Burma.
Lasi Shapre turu–Bhamo, Burma.
Lasi N’Loi–Myitkyina, Burma.
Lasi N’Hti–Myitkyina, Burma.
Mame–Japan.
Patani–India.
Patani-jokra–Assam.
Pe-kyat-pyin–Burma.
Pe-nga-pi–Burma.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 198
Pois oléagineux de Chine–France.
Ram kurthi–Bengal, India.
Ryambai-ktung–Khasi Hills, Burma.
Salyang (Selliyang)–Sikkim.
San-dek-sieng–Cambodia, French IndoChina.
Sandek an gen sar–Cambodia.
Silliangdun–Sikkim.
Soia–France; Italy.
Soja–France; United States.
Sojaboon–Holland.
Sojabohn–Germany.
Sou–China.
Soy–United States.
Soya–United States; England.
Stock pea–United States.
Sudza–Naga Hills, Assam.
Ta teou–China.
Teou–Tonkin.
Tzuda–Naga Hills, Assam.
Yeou–China.
Geographical notes: Assam: A state in
northeast India bordering to the north on Bhutan
and Arunachal Pradesh.
Bengal: A former province in northeast
British India, now a region encompassing West
Bengal (in India), and Bangladesh; the capital is
Calcutta.
United Provinces (in full United Provinces
of Agra and Oudh) are now called Uttar
Pradesh, a state in north India bordering to the north on
Nepal.
453. Piper, Charles V.; Morse, William J. 1923. The
commercial status of the soybean in Europe (Document
part). In: Piper and Morse. 1923. The Soybean. New York:
McGraw-Hill. xv + 329 p. See p. 16-19.
• Summary: “While many earlier attempts had been made
to introduce the soybean and its products into European
countries, it was not until about 1908 that the bean received
serious consideration as a product of economic importance.
About 1900, however, soybeans were imported by an English
firm as, on account of their being practically free from
starch, it was thought they would make an excellent food for
patients suffering with diabetes. Germany and Holland also
imported small amounts of soybeans for the same purpose
and many special food products were manufactured by firms
in these countries.
“Growth of the trade.–Owing to the inferior quality of
the product received, due principally to the poor shipping
conditions, the first attempts to introduce the soybean as
an oil seed were generally unsuccessful. The first large
importation of beans, 400 to 500 tons, was made in 1907
by a crusher at Liverpool, the beans being shipped from
Hankow [China] and delivered at Liverpool at a cost of
$50.00 per ton. It was found that an oil valuable to soap
manufacturers could be produced and that the by-products,
cake and meal, both high in protein, could be utilized by
manufacturers of mixed feeds.
“After 1907 importations gradually increased and the
beans were received in much better condition than those of
the first trial shipment. At this time also, impetus was given
to the manufacture of soybean products by a shortage of
cottonseed and linseed. In February 1908, a cargo of 9,000
tons of beans was received at Hull, the selling price of the
beans being $32.00 per ton, C.I.F. It was found by importing
in cargo lots, the price was lowered to $4.40 per ton. In June
1909 beans sold for $28.75 per ton but by January 1910 had
risen to $41.00 per ton.
“At first England enjoyed the monopoly of trade
in soybeans. nearly all of the first large importations of
beans were taken by England where many of the large
oil mills devoted their plants entirely to the crushing of
soybeans. Several of these mills conducted series of tests,
demonstrating the value of the cake, meal and oil.
“Utilization of the soybean as an oil seed extended
rapidly to other European countries. The fact that they were
called beans, prevented them from having a wider market at
the beginning of the large importations, since in Germany,
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 199
France and Austria, oil seeds were on the free list, but
beans were subject to a tax. These countries realizing the
importance of the bean, soon placed it on the free list and the
monopoly in the trade of soybean products was taken from
England.
“Extent of the trade.–The importations of beans from
Manchuria and Japan soon reached enormous proportions.
In 1909, 412,757 tons; in 1910, 442,669 tons; and in 1911,
321,940 tons of beans were imported by European countries.
That the soybean and its products became important
competitors of other oil seeds and their products is shown in
Table 11.
“Utilization.–The principal use of soybean oil at first
was in the manufacture of soft soaps, as it was found that the
oil did not chill easily and was difficult to handle in making
hard soap... However, some European soap manufacturers
soon claimed to have found a secret process by means of
which they could utilize the oil in the manufacture of the
best grades of hard soap. Other uses were found for the oil
and it entered largely into the manufacture of butter and lard
substitutes and edible oil.
“Soybean cake or meal in the beginning of the trade
found its largest outlet in Denmark, about 150,000 tons
having been purchased from English oil mills in 1910.
The trade in the cake or meal extended rapidly to Sweden,
Norway, Holland and the northern part of Germany. The
United Kingdom is not a large user of the bean cake. It is
however used to a considerable extent by Scotch farmers and
to a small extent by Irish [from Eire / Ireland] and English
farmers. The cake manufactured into a flour, has gradually
assumed an important place as a foodstuff and as such is
utilized in many European countries.”
454. Piper, Charles V.; Morse, William J. 1923. Soybean
flour (Document part). In: Piper and Morse. 1923. The
Soybean. New York: McGraw-Hill. xv + 329 p. See p. 22225, 266-73.
• Summary: “Soybean flour, though not as yet a common
commodity, has been used for many years in America and
Europe in invalid dietetics. This flour which is made by
grinding either the whole beans or the press cake remaining
after the oil has been removed from the bean, is becoming an
important article of food in America and European countries
as it is of high food value and can be used as one of the
ingredients of many palatable and nutritious dishes.
“Utilization and products.–”Extensive investigations
have been conducted by the United States Department of
Agriculture and Domestic Science Schools relative to the
utilization of soybean flour. It has been found that this flour
can be successfully used as a constituent for bread, muffins,
biscuits, crackers, macaroni, and in pastry. In these various
food products about one-fourth soy flour and three-fourths
wheat flour have been found to be the proper proportion. In
some of the pastry products, however, as much as one-half
soy flour can be used. It will be found that in several dishes,
as soybean mush, soy flour can be used entirely.
“In the United States soybean flour in on the market,
being put up like ordinary cereal flours; also in special
packages for invalids. In England, manufacturers have
placed on the market a so-called ‘soya flour’ which is 25 per
cent. soybean flour and 75 per cent. wheat flour. This soya
flour is being used by bakers in making a soy bread which
is very palatable and is extensively used by the English
bakers. A similar flour is said to have been manufactured
in Holland for 25 years. Soya biscuits and crackers are also
manufactured from this flour and constitute articles of export
from England.
“German millers have been experimenting to some
extent with soy flour in making brown bread by mixing with
rye flour... Soybean flour enters largely as a constituent in
many of the so-called diabetic breads, biscuits, and crackers
manufactured as food specialties. It also is utilized in the
manufacture of breakfast foods and can be used in the
preparation of vegetable milk and bean curd.
“Composition and value for invalids.–The soybean
contains at the most but a slight trace of starch, and extensive
experiments in American and Europe indicate that value of
the bean and its products as the basis of foods for persons
requiring a low starch diet.”
A table (p. 224, from the USDA Bureau of Chemistry)
compares the composition of two types of soybean flour
(made from whole soybeans, or from soybean cake), wheat
flour, corn meal, rye flour, Graham flour, and whole wheat
flour. The two types of soybean flour contain by far the most
protein (39.56% and 47.30% respectively), followed by
Graham flour (12.60%) and whole wheat flour (12.00%).
The two soybean flours also contain the least carbohydrates
(26.63% and 33.85%).
Also summarizes research on: (1): The value of soybean
flour for feeding infants and young children; (2) The nutritive
value and digestibility of soybean flour.
Thirty-one recipes for soy flour are given on pages 26673.
455. Wagenaar, M. 1923. Bijdrage tot de kennis der
localisatie van urease in sojaboonen [Contribution to
knowledge of the localization of urease in soy beans].
Pharmaceutisch Weekblad voor Nederland 61(2):535-42.
May 17. (Chem. Abst. 18:2187). [15 ref. Dut]
• Summary: Urease was found only in the embryo, chiefly in
the outer epiderm of the cotyledon. Address: Rotterdam.
456. Adam, J. 1923. Vue d’ensemble sur la production des
oléagineux dans l’Afrique du Nord, dans les Établissements
français de l’Oceanie et en Nouvelle-Calédonie [A general
view of the production of oilseeds in North Africa, in the
French territories of Oceania, and in New Caledonia].
Chimie & Industrie (Paris) Special number. p. 794-800.
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 200
Proceedings of: Congrès et Exposition International des
Combustibles Liquides. Held 4-15 Oct. 1922 in Paris,
France, at Esplanade des Invalides. 847 + [v] p. Section on
vegetable oils. [Fre]
• Summary: North Africa (olive oil, Tunisia, Morocco).
French colonies / territories in Oceania (coconut). New
Caledonia and New Hebrides. By countries: Countries
where production of oilseeds greatly surpasses consumption
(Great Britain and colonies, Malaysia, Dutch East Indies,
Philippines). Countries with large production and roughly
equal consumption (USA, Russia). By products: Coconut oil,
cottonseed oil, linseed oil, peanut oil, rapeseed and mustardseed oil (le colza, la moutarde et la navette), others (sesame,
soya {from China, Japan, etc.}, hemp, castor oil, olive).
Comparison of production in France vs. the French colonies.
How should France, with the aid of vegetable oil resources
of its colonies, consider the problem of combustible liquids?
457. USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, Inventory. 1923. Seeds
and plants imported by the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant
Introduction during the period from January 1 to March 31,
1921. Nos. 52306 to 52584. No. 66. 91 p. May.
• Summary: Soy bean introductions: Soja max (L.) Piper.
Fabaceæ. (Glycine hispida Maxim.)
“52339-52342. From Paris, France. Seeds presented by
M. Auguste Chevalier. Received January 11, 1921. Quoted
notes by M. Chevalier.
“52345-49.
“52345. ‘Witte Kedelei No. 18, a variety imported from
Formosa, which is late ripening, having a growing period of
about 120 days.’
“52346. ‘Zwarte Kedelei [Black Soybean] No. 15.
Selected Javanese variety which has a growing period of 95
to 100 days.’
“52347. ‘White Kedelei No. 18, a variety imported from
Formosa, with a growing period of 95 to 100 days.’
“52348. ‘Zwarte Kedelei No. 17a. Imported from
Formosa. This variety has a growing period of 95 to 100
days.’
“52349. ‘Zwarte Kedelei No. 27. Probably a Chinese
variety, which has a growing period of 95 to 100 days.
Peking ripens here in about 75 days.’” Address: Washington,
DC.
458. Boidin, Auguste; Effront, Jean. 1923. Verfahren zur
Herstellung konzentrierter Diastase und von Enzymen [A
process for preparing concentrated and diastase enzymes].
German Patent 470,740. July 4. 4 p. Issued 2 Feb. 1929. [1
ref. Ger]
• Summary: This patent is an improvement in the process
described in German patent 320,571. The term soy
mashes (Sojamaischen) is used in this patent: The process
based on the use of thick soy mashes is protected by the
aforementioned patent. Address: 1. Seclin, France; 2.
Brussels.
459. Juergens (Anton) Margarinefabrieken. 1923. Verfahren
zum Bleichen von Oelen, Fetten und Fettsaeuren [Process for
bleaching oils, fats and fatty acids]. German Patent 413,851.
Dec. 28. 2 p. Issued 16 May 1925. [Ger]
• Summary: 5,000 kg soybean oil (Sojabohnenöl) is used
as the main oil in the first example. Address: Nijmegen,
Holland.
460. Kikkoman. 1923-1954. [Monthly and annual soy sauce
exports from Japan (1923-54)]. Noda: Kikkoman. Statistical
tables. 22 p. [Jap; eng+]
• Summary: In 1923, some 11,720 koku of shoyu [soy
sauce], worth 799,022 yen, were exported from Japan. (Note:
1 koku = 180 liters or 47.6 gallons). Of this, 5,307 koku went
to the USA and Hawaii (3,330 koku to the USA), 709 koku
to Canada, 5,108 koku to Asia (incl. 2,311 koku to Canton
and 1,447 koku to China), and 201 koku to Europe. In 1924
total exports increased to 13,149 koku.
A table shows Kikkoman’s exports of shoyu by country
from 1938 to 1944. In 1938 Kikkoman exported 80 tonnes
(metric tons) of shoyu to Peru and Argentina. In 1939, the
peak year, 10,658 tonnes were exported; of this 4,444 tonnes
(41.7% of the total) went to the USA and Hawaii, 2,680
tonnes went to Manchuria, and 2,098 tonnes to China.
Another table shows total Japanese exports of shoyu
by country from 1938 to 1944. In 1939, the peak year,
34,838 tonnes (metric tons) were exported; of this 4,351
tonnes (12% of the total) went to the USA and Hawaii, 293
tonnes went to Canada, 50 tonnes to South America (Peru
and Argentina), 63 tonnes to Europe (Holland), and 30,081
tonnes to Asia (incl. 9,550 tonnes to Karafuto, 5,803 tonnes
to Taiwan, 4,620 tonnes to Manchuria, 4,295 tonnes to
China, and 1,336 tonnes to the Philippines).
Another table shows exports of shoyu from Japan after
World War II (1949-1954) to various countries and regions
by Kikkoman and by all Japanese shoyu makers. Roughly
85% of Japan’s exports were by Kikkoman. The total
increased from 6,066 koku in 1949 to 9,316 koku in 1954;
of the 1954 figure, 7,009 koku went to the USA and 1,476
koku to Asia. Another table shows exports of shoyu from
Japan to major cities from 1949 to 1954 by Kikkoman and
by all of Japan. In 1954, worldwide, the cities receiving the
most shoyu were: San Francisco 2,033 koku, Honolulu 1,926
koku, Los Angeles 1,504 koku, Okinawa 1,376 koku, Guam
647 koku, Vancouver (BC, Canada) 414 koku, New York 381
koku, Seattle (Washington state) 290 koku. Address: Noda,
Japan.
461. Scheltema, A.M.P.A. 1923. De statistische positie van
de Mantsjoerijsche sojaboonen [The statistical position
of Manchurian soybeans]. Economisch Weekblad voor
Nederlandsch-Indië 22. [Dut]*
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 201
• Summary: Periodical subtitle: Orgaan van het Departement
van Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel.
462. Bottari, Fulvio. 1923. La soja nella storia,
nell’agricoltura e nelle applicazioni alimentari ed industriali
[The soybean in history, in agriculture, and in food and
industrial applications]. Torino & Genova, Italy: S. Lattes &
Co. 243 p. Preface by Prof. Oreste Mattriolo (R. Università
di Torino). With 34 illust. 22 cm. [25 ref. Ita]
• Summary: This is the first major book in Italian about the
soybean.
Contents: Preface. Reason for the work; its scope
and limits. Part I: The origin and history of the soybean.
Reason for this history, the origin of the soybean and its
early dissemination, soya (including production statistics)
in Oriental countries (China, Manchuria, Japan, Formosa,
Korea, French Indochina), how the soybean was introduced
to Europe, the cultivation of soya in France, Soya in
England, Austria, Germany, Denmark, Holland, Russia,
Sweden, Alsace-Lorraine (now in northeast France), Spain,
Italy, America, Conclusion.
Part II: Cultivation of soya.
Part III: Soya in the feeding and nutrition of humans and
animals. 1. The analysis and physiology of metabolism as an
element in the study of nutrition. 2. Soybean forage in the
feeding of animals. 3. Soybeans (il grano di soja) and soy
products in the feeding of humans and animals: Commercial
and nutritional value and digestibility of the soybean, how
to prepare and cook whole soybeans, soy broth, thick soups,
salads, and meat dishes, soy purée (puré di soja), soybean
cakes (torté di soja), soybean sprouts (germi di soja), roasted
soybeans (grano di soja come frutta secca), soy coffee (caffé
di soja), soy chocolate (cioccolata di soja), soy confections
(confetture di soja), special soy sweets and chocolates for
diabetics and tuberculosis patients, the soybean as a feed for
animals.
Note 1. This is the earliest Italian-language document
seen (Nov. 2012) that mentions soy coffee, which it calls
caffé di soja.
4. Flour, pasta, and bread in feeding. 5. Soymilk (il latte
di soja) and its use in the feeding of animals and humans. 6.
Tofu (il formaggio di soja). 7. Soy oil and oil-cakes (panelli).
8. Condiments and sauces: Natto, miso, soy sauce (le salse,
called Schogon [sic] in Japan, Tsinag-Yeou [sic] or Tao-yu in
China, Ketjap in Java, and Tuong in Annam). 9. Enzymes (I
fermenti, incl. urease). 10. Conclusions.
Part IV: Industrial applications of soya.
Part V: General conclusions.
The first test of the lactation of calves with soymilk was
conducted in the winter of 1916-17 by the Bonafous Institute
in Turin. The results were splendid, and have encouraged
eminent pediatricians such as Dr. Casalini, Prof. Dr. Alberto
Muggia (teacher of clinical pediatrics at the University of
Turin), and Dr. Enrico Gasca (vice director general of infants
at Turin) to extend their experiments (p. 6).
A table (p. 31) shows soybean and cotton hectarage and
production in Korea from 1909 to 1917. Soybean hectarage
increased from 277,776 ha to a record 487,134 ha. Soybean
production grew from 1,991,126 quintals (1 quintal = 100 kg
or 0.1 metric tons) to a record 3,816,498 quintals.
Page 35: “Prof. Rouest of Luxey (Landes) in France
wrote us on 30 Nov. 1921. ‘I have finished only the period
of acclimatization of the soybean. It remains for me to
propagate it a little everywhere. The experiments of 1921
were extended in all the Departments, being viewed from an
industrial and commercial point of view. I must now study
which variety adapts among those I am cultivating. Soy flour
will not be able to be made until we have many thousands of
hectares under cultivation, and then we will be able to think
of other applications as well... Actually the firm Hendebert
de Lion sells its flour, originating in China, at 10 French
francs per kg, a prohibitive price.’”
Page 206: At the pediatric congress held in Milan in
Sept. 1922, the question of lactation (feeding children) with
vegetable milk was discussed in a favorable way, proposed
by Prof. Muggia and sustained by the illustrious Prof.
Berghius, Director of the Pediatric Clinic of the University
of Padua, and by Prof. Francioni of Bologna. We can also
add that experiments on lactation are proceeding in Italy at
the pediatric clinics of Turin, Bologna, Padua, Genoa, and
Florence, and also at the Infant’s Dispensary in Turin.
Photos and tables are discussed in a separate record.
A diagram (p. 227) compares the chemical composition
of animal casein and vegetable casein.
Note 2. Quite a bit of the historical and non-Italian
information in this book comes from Léon Rouest’s 1921
book Le soja et son lait végétal: Applications agricoles et
industrielles.
Note 3. This is the earliest Italian-language document
seen (Jan. 2012) that mentions natto, of which it says: “il
Natto in Giappone che corrisponde al Tao-Teche della Cina.”
Note 4. This is the earliest Italian-language document
seen (Jan. 2013) that mentions soy sprouts, which it calls
germi di soja. Address: Dr. of Economic and Commercial
Science, Turin [Torino], Italy.
463. Bottari, Fulvio. 1923. La soja nella storia,
nell’agricoltura e nelle applicazioni alimentari ed industriali
[The soybean in history, in agriculture, and in food and
industrial applications (Photos and tables–Document part)].
Torino & Genova, Italy: S. Lattes & Co. 243 p. Preface by
Prof. Oreste Mattriolo (R. Università di Torino). With 34
illust. 22 cm. [25 ref. Ita]
• Summary: Photos show: (0) An infant fed soymilk in Turin
in 1921, together with a table showing its weight gain from
18 July 1921 until 14 Jan. 1922 (p. 7). (Figs. 1-3) Three
different varieties of soybean plants (p. 70-71). (4) The
leaves of 3 different varieties of soybean plants (p. 72). (5)
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 202
Close-up of the stem and pods of a soybean plant (p. 73). (6)
Beans and pods of soybeans (p. 74).
(7-8) Different stages of germinating soybean seeds (p.
75). (9) Close-up of soybean roots and nodules (p. 76).
(10-12) Fields of soybeans at the “Istituto Bonafous” (p.
106, 108, 113). (13-14) Field of soybeans grown with corn
(p. 122, 123). (15-18) Cellular transverse section through a
soybean (facing p. 152).
(20-21) Soy flour and wheat flour, each in a sack and
loose (p. 177). (22) Pasta made from soy (p. 181). (2328) Bread and baguettes / breadsticks made with various
percentages of soy (Pane di soja) (p. 183-89).
(29-30) Soy bran and wheat bran, each in a sack and
loose (p. 191). (31) Two bottles of soymilk (p. 194). (32)
Two bottles of soy oil (p. 214).
Tables show: (1) Imports and exports of soybean seeds
from 1910 to 1919 by various countries, Imports into Europe
(Denmark, France, Great Britain and Ireland, Norway, the
Low Countries {Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg},
Sweden), into Asia (Netherlands Indies {today’s Indonesia},
Java & Madura, External Possessions, Japan, Formosa).
Exports from Europe (France, Great Britain and Ireland, the
Low Countries), from Asia (China, Japan, Formosa) (p. 3).
(2) Imports and exports of soybean oil from 1910 to
1919 by various countries, Imports into Europe (Denmark,
Germany, Denmark, France, Great Britain and Ireland,
the Low Countries {Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg},
Russia {both European and Asiatic} Sweden), into North
America (Canada, United States), into Asia (Netherlands
Indies {today’s Indonesia}, Java & Madura, Japan,
Formosa), into Africa (Egypt). Exports from Europe
(Denmark, France, Great Britain and Ireland {re-export},
the Low Countries, Sweden), from North America (United
states, re-export), from Asia (China, Japan) (p. 4).
(3) The weight gained by a baby fed soymilk at the
dispensary of Lattanti at Torino. The trial ran from 18 July
1921 to 14 Jan. 1922. The baby’s weight increased from
3,000 gm to 6,140 gm (p. 7).
(4) Production of soybeans in China in 1916 and 1917
by color. And production of soybean cakes and soy oil in
China in 1916 and 1917 (p. 21).
(5) Exports of soybeans and soybean cakes from
Manchuria yearly from 1905 to 1908 (data from Rouest) (p.
23).
(6) Area and production of oilseed plants (cotton,
linseed, colza/canola, peanut, and soya) in Japan from 1877
to 1920. Soy is by far the greatest, and both the area and
production of soybeans increase during this time (p. 26).
(7) Production of the principal vegetable oils (colza/
canola, sesame, cotton, linseed, soya, peanut, coconut) in
Japan from 1886 to 1918.
(8) Area and production of major oilseeds (cotton, soja)
in Korea from 1909 to 1917 (p. 31). Soybean hectarage
increased from 277,776 ha to a record 487,134 ha. Soybean
production grew from 1,991,126 quintals (1 quintal = 100 kg
or 0.1 metric tons) to a record 3,816,498 quintals.
(9) Imports of soybean oil to England from 1910 to 1919
(p. 38). (10) Imports of soybean oil to Denmark from 1910
to 1919 (p. 46). (11) Imports of oilseeds (copra, soya, peanut,
sesame, linseed, colza / canola & mustard seed) to Denmark
in 1917 (p. 46).
(12) Exports of soybean oil from Denmark from 1910
to 1919 (p. 47). (13) Imports of soybean oil to the Low
Countries from 1911 to 1919 (p. 47). (14) Imports of soybean
oil to Russia from 1909 to 1915 (p. 48). (15) Imports of
soybean oil and cottonseed oil to Sweden from 1912 to 1919
(p. 48). (16) Imports of soybean oil to Alsace Lorraine from
1913 to 1919 (p. 49). (17) Area of oilseeds and production
of oil in Italy from 1909-1920 (p. 50). The area was about
constant and the production of oil increased. (18) Median
annual production of oil in Italy from 1870-1874 to 1920
(p. 50). Production decreased. (19) Trial comparing the
nutritional value of cow’s milk and vegetal milk (soymilk).
The name of each of the 8 calves is given (p. 56-57). (20)
Area and production of soybeans in the United States from
1909, and 1917-1919.
(21) Imports of various vegetable oils (olive, palm,
coconut, soya) to the United States from 1910 to 1919 (p.
63).
(22) Cultivation of soybeans in Spain as described by
Coll. D. Santiago Felice Valderrama of Montilla. The five
columns are: (a) Classification, from 0 to 10. (b) Provenance
/ Source (China). (c) Seed color. (d) Development (large,
medium, small). (e) Maturity date (Late, semi-late, early,
etc.) (p. 85).
(23) Fertilizer tests with Soja hispida, The five columns
are: (a) Parcel number, 1-9. (b) Fertilizers used and dosage.
(c) Stems, kg per 50 square meters. (d) Production of pods,
kg per 50 square meters. (e) Grain, kg per 50 square meters
(p. 95).
(24) Chemical composition of soybeans grown in
Vienna, yellow from Mongolia, Yellow from China, reddish
brown from China. Composition is given for both the
original seed and for its progeny (p. 98).
(25) Weight of soybean stems, pods, and seeds of
soybeans grown by Prof. Manvilli of the Bonafous Institute
(p. 98).
(26-28) Effect of planting distance and pattern on the
weight of soybean stems, pods, and seeds (p. 102, 105).
(29) Effect of place of origin and variety on the time to
germination, time of flowering and formation of the pods.
The soybeans came from Tunisia, China, Ceylon, New
South Wales, Podolia and Lithuania, France, Northwestern
Italy (Piemonte, [Piedmont]), United States, Indochina
[Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Burma, Siam, Peninsular
Malaysia, Singapore], and India (p. 109).
(30-31) The effect of applying electrical voltage to
soybean plants on the yield of stems, pods, and seed (p. 110-
© Copyright Soyinfo Center 2015
HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 203
111).
(32) Ito San Soybean production per ha in Connecticut
from 1877 to 1918 (p. 120).
(33) The yield of protein and oil from common beans,
peas and soybeans (p. 121).
(34) The yield of various minerals from the stem, leaves,
pods, seeds and entire plant (p. 121).
(35) Chemical analysis of the soybean plant, on both an
“as is” and a dry basis, in the stem, foliage, pods, and entire
plant (p. 141).
(36) Composition of the soybean–various parts from
various places. entire plant, forage after the plant blooms and
sets pods, hay from Japan, hay from Massachusetts, straw
from Massachusetts (p. 142).
(37) Nutritive elements in hay from different types of
plants, both green and dry, for crude substance and digestible
portion (p. 143).
(38) Distribution of the various nutritive components
in the various parts of the soybean seed. The parts are entire
seed, cotyledons, embryo, seedcoat (scorza) (p. 145).
(39) Complex analysis of the seed of the soybean (in
parts per 100) (p. 146).
(40) Analysis of the seed of various colors of soybean by
various researchers, incl. Dr. Emil Pott, Meissl & Böcker, &
Pellet.
(41) Nutritional composition, both crude substance and
digestible portion, of various protein sources: beef, common
beans, lentils, peas, broad/fava beans, soybeans (p. 149).
(42) Protein content of various basic protein sources,
incl. meat, peas, broad beans and soya (p. 155). (43) Bar
graph. The soybean as a source of nutrients, compared with
other legumes, wheat flour, soy flour, wheat pasta, soy pasta,
75% wheat + 25% soy pasta, wheat bread, soy bread, 75%
wheat + 25% soy bread, cow’s milk, soymilk, mother’s milk
(p. 159).
(44) Chemical composition of soybean hay according to
Oscar Kellner 1885, p. 82 (p. 162).
(45)
(45) Chemical composition of soybean hay according to
Emil Pott 1907 (Vol. 2, p. 3) (p. 163).
(46) Composition of soybean straw, according to Emil
Pott (p. 165).
(47) Chemical composition of soybean pods according
to Emil Pott (p. 165).
(48) Nutritional composition of soy coffee from Tyrol
and Dalmatia (p. 171).
(49) Nutritional composition of soy jams (confetture di
soja).
(50) Nutritional composition of soy flour compared with
the flour of various cereals (p. 176).
(51) Nutritional composition of various types of soy
pasta: 100% soy, 25% soy, pasta from Naples (p. 182).
(52) Nutritional composition of soy bread, four analyses,
compared with two analyses of wheat bread (p. 185).
(53) Nutritional composition of soymilk made from
whole soybeans or soy flour (p. 195).
(54-55) Nutritional composition of soymilk, 7 analyses,
compared with mother’s milk, cow’s milk and goat’s milk (p.
200-201).
(56) Nutritional composition of okara (the residue from
making soymilk), various analyses (p. 207).
(57-58) Nutritional composition of soybean oil vs.
cottonseed oil, and according to five different analysts (p.
213).
(59) Nutritional composition of soybean cake according
to five different analysts (p. 215).
(60) A diagram compares the chemical composition of
animal casein and vegetable casein (p. 227).
(61) A table compares the chemical composition of
animal casein and vegetable casein (p. 228). Address: Dr. of
Economic and Commercial Science, Turin [Torino], Italy.
464. Capone, Giorgio; Grinenco, Ivan; Costa, Mario. eds.
1923. Oleaginous products and vegetable oils: Production
and trade. Rome, Italy: International Institute of Agriculture,
Bureau of Statistics. 545 p. See p. XX-XXI, 140-41, 144-47,
442-43, 480-81. No index. 24 cm. [Eng]
• Summary: In Sept. 1921 the IIA published a monograph
on this subject in French. By popular demand, this English
edition was published 2 years later. Contents: Introduction
(p. VII-XXXII): General scope, general survey of the 9
principal crops (including soya beans) plus others, final
points of consideration. Part I (p. 1-402) is an analysis by
region, and within each region by country, countries of
vegetable oil production and trade. Regions are Europe,
North and Central America, South America, Asia, Africa, and
Oceania.
Major countries: Denmark (p. 20-23; oil production
1916-1921, oil imports 1910-1922). France (p. 26-34).
Germany (p. 35-40). Great Britain and Ireland (p. 41-43).
Netherlands (p. 65-68). Norway (p. 69-70). Russia–European
and Asiatic (p. 84-93). Sweden (p. 100-03). Canada (p.
111-15). United States (p. 131-47). Argentina (p. 179-85;
no soy). Brazil (p. 187-90; no soy). Ceylon (p. 218-21; no
soy). China (p. 222-26). Dutch East Indies (Java & Madura,
Other islands; p. 229-33). Formosa (p. 238-39; gives soybean
production and acreage from 1900 to 1921). Japan (p. 25964; gives Japanese soybean production and acreage from
1877 to 1921, and production of soya oil from 1909 to 1920.
Japan’s leading oil produced domestically from 1895 was
rapeseed oil). Korea (Chosen, p. 265-67). Kwantung Leased
Territory (p. 268). Hawaii (p. 388; Hawaii produced 17 long
tons of soybeans on 20 acres in 1909, and 10 tons on 15
acres in 1919).
Part II (p. 403-506) is recapitulatory tables for both soya
beans and soya bean oil: Area and production by crop (19091922), Trade by crop (1909-1921). Cottonseed (p. 410-11).
Linseed (p. 414-15). Soya beans (p. 442-43, 480-81).
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 204
Pages XX-XXI state: “In the absence of data from
China, the chief grower of soya beans, it is impossible to
make even the roughest estimate of the world’s yield of
this product. Among the few countries of any moment as
producers of soya beans, we may mention: Japan, where
this crop increased rapidly between 1877 and 1887 and
then became nearly stationary at about 500,000 long tons
[2,240 lb per long ton] per annum, although in the last few
years some further increase has been noticeable; Korea,
with a continuous increase in area and yield, from 1910
onwards, (the crop of 1920 was about 600,000 long tons);
and United States, where from 1909 to 1921, the area under
soya beans increased from about 1,600 to 186,000 acres
with a production of about 70 thousand long tons. It may be
observed that the increase of this crop during the last twenty
years is supplemented by attempts already made and in
progress for its introduction into countries with a favourable
climate, especially into Africa.”
“Exports are exclusively from China and Korea. The
Chinese exports have increased very greatly during the last
thirty years. Before 1890 they were insignificant, in 1901
they had reached a total of more than 100 thousand tons, and
during the decade from 1909 to 1918 they averaged about
600 thousand tons and reached their maximum in 1919 with
about 1 million, declining in the two following years to 600
thousand long tons.
“With regard to Korea although we have not a complete
series of data for the period 1909-1918, the ever-increasing
importance of its exports of soya beans may be emphasized;
during the last few years these have been double the average
of the years 1909-1911, and in 1921 they already equalled
one third of the Chinese exports.”
“The chief importers, in Europe are Great Britain,
Denmark, and Holland, and, in Asia, Japan, and the Dutch
East Indies. To these must also be added Russia-in-Asia as
the Chinese Customs register large exports destined for the
Russian Pacific ports.”
“England, which at one time constituted the greatest
market for the soya bean, has continually reduced its
imports: these were 420 thousand long tons in 1910, 76
thousand in 1913, and about 60 thousand in the two years
1921-1922... In the Asiatic market, represented in this
case by Japan and the Dutch East Indies, imports have
continuously increased especially in the last few years of the
period under consideration.
“The trade figures of soya oil (see tables on pages 480
and 481) indicate that China is the principal exporter, having
quadrupled its shipment during the period from 1914 to
1919, attaining in the latter year a total of over 140 thousand
long tons.”
Other countries unrelated to soy (some no longer
in existence): Europe: Esthonia [Estonia], Luxemburg
[Luxembourg], Serb-Croat-Slovene State. North and Central
America: British Honduras [named Belize after about
1975]. South America: Curaçao [Curacao], Falkland Islands,
British Guiana, French Guiana. Asia: Aden [became part of
independent Yemen in 1967], Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
Bahrein Islands [Bahrain], Borneo (British Protectorates),
Dutch East Indies, Federated Malay States, Formosa,
French Settlements in India, Indo-China, Persia, Portuguese
India [annexed in 1962 by India; became Union territory
of Goa, Daman, and Diu], Protected Malay States, Russia,
Japanese Saghalin (Karafuto), Siam [later Thailand], Straits
Settlements [later Singapore], Timor and Cambing, Wei-HaiWei [Weihai, Wei-hai, or Weihaiwei; seaport in northeast
Shandong province, northeast China]. Oceania: Australia,
Fiji Islands, French Settlements in Oceania, Gilbert and
Ellice Islands, Hawaii, Island of Guam, New Caledonia,
New Hebrides, Papua, Samoan Islands (American Samoa),
Solomon Islands, Territory of New Guinea (Later German
New Guinea), Tonga, Western Samoa (Formerly German
Samoa).
Note 1. This document gives a clear definition of the
geographical region named “Oceania.”
Note 2. A “quintal” is probably 100 kg. Address: 1.
Doctor of Economics; 2. Doctor of Agronomics. Both: IIA,
Rome, Italy.
465. Capone, Giorgio; Grinenco, Ivan. 1923. Netherlands
(Document part). In: G. Capone & I. Grinenco, eds. 1923.
Oleaginous Products and Vegetable Oils: Production and
Trade. Rome, Italy: International Institute of Agriculture,
Bureau of Statistics. 545 p. See p. 65-68. [Eng]
• Summary: Crop production: Tables (p. 65-66) show the
cultivated area and production (in long tons; 1 long ton
= 2,240 lb) of oil-yielding crops in the Netherlands from
1851 to 1922. The main crops in 1851-60 were winter rape
(70,816 acres) and linseed (37,042 acres) plus small amounts
of hemp (3,870 acres). By 1871-80 linseed had become the
leading crop (45,789 acres), and it continued to be the leader
up to 1922, though total acreage in oil-yielding crops steadily
decreased. Starting in 1871 the acreage under spring rape,
spring navette (relate to rape-seed), poppy, and mustard is
also given. Small amounts of German sesamum were also
grown. Flax was cultivated as much for the seed (oil) as for
the fiber.
Imports of oleaginous products: In 1909 the main
products imported were copra (60,963 long tons), palm
kernels (39,084 tons), and rapeseed (31,941 tons). Imports
of soya beans were first recorded in 1911, when 26,002 tons
were imported, increasing to a record 42,373 tons in 1912,
then steadily decreasing to 27,119 tons in 1913, then 16,290
tons in 1915, then 3,891 tons in 1917, and zero in 1918.
Exports of oleaginous products: These were surprisingly
large, suggesting that they were probably re-exports. Soya
beans were exported from 1911 (11,805 tons) to 1915 (127
tons), with small amounts being exported in 1920-22.
Imports of vegetable oils: In 1909 the main vegetable
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 205
oils imported were palm oil (26,872 tons), cottonseed oil
(14,841 tons), and coconut oil (12,185 tons). Imports of
soya oil were first recorded in 1911, when 6,240 tons were
imported. This amount increased steadily (except during the
war years of 1917-18), reaching 30,458 tons in 1922–when
soya oil was by far the leading vegetable oil imported into
the Netherlands.
Exports of vegetable oils: Exports of soya oil began in
1911 with 29 tons, then steadily increased reaching a peak of
20,173 tons in 1921. In 1922 the leading oils exported were
coconut (81,900 tons) and linseed (70,500 tons). Address: 1.
Doctor of Economics; 2. Doctor of Agronomics. Both: IIA,
Rome, Italy.
466. Capone, Giorgio; Grinenco, Ivan. 1923. Dutch East
Indies (Document part). In: G. Capone & I. Grinenco, eds.
1923. Oleaginous Products and Vegetable Oils: Production
and Trade. Rome, Italy: International Institute of Agriculture,
Bureau of Statistics. 545 p. See p. 229-34. [Eng]
• Summary: A. Java and Madura. The principal oil-yielding
crops of Java and Madura are the coconut, the oil-palm,
groundnuts, sesamum, soya, castoroil and kapok. A table (p.
229, extracted from the Annuaire Statistique du Royaume
des Pays-Bas, Les Colonies) shows the cultivated area for
3 of these crops from 1916 to 1920 or 1921. In 1920 some
499,381 acres of groundnuts and 401,342 acres of soya
were cultivated. In 1921 some 16,556 acres of cotton were
cultivated. Acreage in Java and Madura planted to soybeans
was 402,294 in 1916, rising to 434,162 in 1917, decreasing
to 390,048 in 1918, and 391,579 in 1919.
A table (p. 230) showing area and production of oilyielding crops in 1917 indicates that coconut is the leading
oil-yielding crop (362,000 tons of copra from native
production and 3,300 tons from European production),
followed by groundnuts (173,738 tons), soya (128,369 tons),
kapok seed (47,265 tons), castor oil plant (11,131 tons), and
sesamum (3,954 tons) (all the above are native cultivation
unless otherwise indicated).
Imports of oleaginous products: The main such product
imported is soya beans, which was 49,696 tons in 1913,
decreased during World War I, then rose to 92,245 tons in
1922. Only small amounts of vegetable oils are imported,
the leading one being linseed oil (about 1,000 tons imported
each year).
Exports of oleaginous products: The main product
exported is copra, followed by kapok seed. Soya beans were
exported during the war, reaching a peak of 4,005 tons in
1916.
Exports of vegetable oils: The leader is coconut oil,
which reached a peak of 70,078 tons in 1919. Small amounts
of groundnut oil and castor oil are also exported. No soya oil
is exported.
B. Other islands. Production data exist only for coconut
(apparently the main crop), oil-palm, and cotton. Since 1910
the oil palm has been widely grown in Sumatra.
Imports of oleaginous products: The main such products
imported are coconuts (1,138,373 nuts in 1915) and soya
beans, which was 2,900 tons in 1913, increasing to 4,918
tons in 1921. Only small amounts of vegetable oils are
imported, the leading one being coconut oil (3,698 tons
in 1921). Address: 1. Doctor of Economics; 2. Doctor of
Agronomics. Both: IIA, Rome, Italy.
467. Chinese Eastern Railway, Economic Bureau. 1923. The
Chinese Eastern Railway and its zone. Harbin, Manchuria:
C.E.R. Economical Bureau. 32 p. Illust. 27 cm. [Eng]
• Summary: Section III titled “Agriculture” contains a bar
chart showing that [soy] beans comprise 20-30% of the total
cultivated area in the seven districts along the rail lines; the
30% is in the southern districts. Yellow [soy] beans yield
22.2 bushels/acre or 90.0 poods per dessiat. 39% of the total
cultivated area is taken up by marketable crops for export;
22% by soybeans and 17% by wheat; the remaining 61% is
taken up by Chinese native grains (p. 12).
About half of all soybeans exported from North
Manchuria go to Japan, where bean-cakes constitute one
of the most popular fertilizers for fields. The remaining
50% of these exported beans are either consumed in Asiatic
markets (China, Netherlands East Indies) or shipped to oil
mills in Europe (United Kingdom, Germany, Scandinavian
countries). The demand for Manchurian [soy] beans is
growing.
Flour milling is the biggest manufacturing industry
along the railway zone, followed by oil milling. “The value
of the output from oil-mills equals about 1/2 value of the
value of products of flour mills. Bean oil and bean-cakes are
in great demand on both the interior and the foreign markets.
Exports of bean oil and bean cakes are made partly to Europe
and mostly Japan.”
Two graphs (p. 27) show transportation by the railway
of [soya] “bean-oil” and [soya] “beancakes” (in 1,000 tons)
from 1913 to 1922. Transportation of oil rose rapidly to
a peak of 30,000 tons in 1919, dropped precipitously to
6,000 tons in 1921 (after the Great War [World War I]), then
jumped to 22,000 tons in 1927. Transportation of beancakes
rose rapidly to a peak of 140,000 tons in 1917, fell to 80,000
tons in 1918, then leaped to a record 230,000 tons in 1922.
Address: Harbin, Manchuria.
468. Hall, C.J.J. van. 1923. Ziekten en plagen der
cultuurgewasen in Nederlandsch-Indië in 1922 [Diseases
and pests of cultivated plants in the Dutch East Indies during
1922]. Mededeelingen van het Instituut voor Plantenziekten
(Buitenzorg) No. 58. 42 p. See p. 5, 16-17. [Dut]
• Summary: Discusses Aproaerema modicella,
Chrysomelidae, Etiella zinckenella, Melanagromyza sojae,
Noctuidae, and Sphingdae at the following locations:
Cheribon, Djokjakarta (Yogyakarta), Soerakarta, Madioen,
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 206
Kediri, Soerabaja, and Besoeki.
P. van der Goot (1930) says of this document: “In the
Indonesian literature there are casual reports of Agromyza
larvae being harmful to beans and other legumes. Further
details are rarely given. It is nearly certain that in most cases
one is dealing with Melanagromyza phaseoli.”
469. Jansen, B.C.P. 1923. On the need of anti-beri-berivitamin of the animal organism and on the amount of this
vitamin in different foodstuffs. Mededeelingen van den
Burgerlijken Geneeskundigen Dienst in Nederlandsch-Indie
p. 1-122. See p. 65-73. [60* ref. Eng]
• Summary: Eykman, who discovered the nutritional cause
of beri-beri, quickly pointed out the great importance of
determining the protective power of various substances
against beri-beri. It has been known for 25 years that living
mainly on polished rice contributes to beri-beri, “whilst
unpolished rice entirely protects against this disease.” Most
Javanese farmers still pound their own rice; when they do,
only a part of the pericarp is removed by pounding. This sort
of rice contains sufficient vitamin to protect the population
from beri-beri. Industrial workers, who have neither time nor
opportunity to pound their own rice, buy polished rice (with
the whole pericarp removed) from rice mills. Though nearly
devoid of vitamin, it is a product which “much more lasting
with regard to storage and transport, and which at the same
time by its nicely white aspect fetches a much better price
on the market.” Therefore the authors are investigating foods
that can be eaten with polished rice to help prevent beri-beri.
Section 8, titled “Katjang kedele (Soy-beans)” (p. 65-73)
begins: “This is a very important kind of beans for the native
dietary.” Soy-beans were fed to pigeons with white rice in
varying proportions. The higher the proportion of soybeans,
the better the health of the pigeons. When a large proportion
of the diet was washed and polished white rice, the birds
developed polyneuritis and often died or became paralyzed.
On page 68 the author notes that in Java, “soy-beans
are not only eaten as such, but also very much in the shape
of different native concoctions. It has been asserted (by
C.L. van den Burg, 1904) that in this way the hard-to-digest
legumins would be made easier to digest. However as far as I
know, this assertion has not been founded on any experiment.
A priori I think it as probable that by making tempé of the
beans the taste is changed to such an extent, that they may
be used continually, without being objected to. I hope some
time to find an opportunity of experimentally deciding this
question. Till at present I only examined, whether in these
concoctions the vitamin-content either has increased or
lessened... I now experimented with tempe kedele and with
tao-tjo” [Indonesian-style miso].
Tempe, purchased on the market in Batavia, was fed
in place of the soybeans. The results showed “a rather
considerable loss of vitamins may be seen to have taken
place during the preparation of tempe kedele from the soy-
beans.” Tao-tjo (Indonesian-style miso) was then used in
place of soybeans, and it too was found to be a poor source
of vitamins.
Note 1. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (Sept. 2011) that mentions tempeh, which it calls
“tempé” or “tempe” or “tempe kedele.” These terms are not
italicized in the text.
Note 2. This is the earliest English-language document
seen (March. 2009) uses the word “tao-tjo” to refer to
Indonesian-style miso. Address: Dr., Head of the Chemical
Dep., Medical Lab. at Weltevreden.
470. Kempski, Karl E. 1923. Die Sojabohne: Geschichte,
Kultur und Verwendung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung
der Verhaeltnisse in Niederlaendisch-Indien [The soybean:
History, culture and use, with special attention to the
situation in the Netherlands-Indies]. Berlin: Paul Parey. 88 p.
Illust. Index. 22 cm. [101 ref. Ger]
• Summary: Contents: Introduction. Some remarks on the
soybean’s early history (p. 8). Overproduction of soybeans
in Manchuria after the Russo-Japanese War–English oil
mills make their first trials (p. 9). Soybean production in
Manchuria (p. 10-11). Soybean production in Korea (p.
11-12). Soybean production in Japan (p. 13-15). Soybean
production in America–Soybean meal and soybean milk are
introduced (p. 16-22). Soybean production has also expanded
in Africa, British India, and the Philippines (p. 22-23). The
introduction of soybean cultivation to Europe (p. 23-25).
The many uses of the soybean in Europe (p. 25-26). The
many uses of soy oil (p. 26-27). Old and new methods of
obtaining soy oil (p. 27-31). Soybean production and use of
soybeans in the Netherlands-Indies (Niederländisch-Indien)
(p. 31-61). A table gives the production of soybeans on Java
in bouws (1 bouw = 1.7537 acres = 7096.49 square meters).
In 1921 the production was 226,186 bouws. Of this: West
Java 12,980 bouws. Central Java 162,124 bouws. East Java
61,082 bouws. Thus, Central Java produced about 71.7% of
Java’s soybeans.
Appendix: Descriptions of how the most important
soybean products are manufactured: In Java (tao-hoe
[tofu]), tempeh, ketjap [soy sauce], tao-tjiong [or tao-jiung,
a term, and perhaps a product, between doujiang and taotjo, Indonesian-style miso] (p. 62-65), in China and Japan
(soy sauce, miso, tofu, frozen tofu, natto, soymilk) (p. 6568). Supplements: I: Soybeans in Manchuria (p. 69-75). II;
Hansamuehle [Hansa Muehle] in Hamburg, Germany (p. 75).
III: The Soybean by Piper and Morse (p. 75).
Note the extensive, early bibliography. Unfortunately, it
contains many errors.
This book is largely a review of the literature, but with
some original information, especially on Indonesia and
Germany. In 1923 Java imported 150,000 to 200,000 tons
of soybeans and had a population of 35 million. The area
of soybeans planted in Java (including Madura) increased
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HISTORY OF SOY IN THE NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG (1647-2015) 207
from 157,600 ha in 1918 to 164,700 ha in 1922 (p. 32).
In 1921, 67.3% of Java’s soybean acreage was in Central
Java, 20.7% was in East Java, and only 5.7% was in West
Java. (p. 35). Large quantities of soybeans are imported to
the Netherlands-Indies from Manchuria: 35,105 metric tons
(tonnes) in 1920, rising to 95,742 tonnes in 1922. From these
and local soybeans are made tempeh [spelled like this!], tofu
(tahoe; Bohnenkäse), soy sauce (Ketjap, Sojasauce), etc. In
Java, mostly black soybeans are grown. To make tofu yellow,
it is cooked in an extract of the Curcuma root / rhizome.
Sometimes it is also sun-dried or fried/roasted (gebraten).
Tempeh is inoculated with a piece of tempeh from a previous
fermentation, and often fried in coconut oil. Detailed
descriptions are given of the production of soy sauce (ketjap;
which is made from black soybeans) and Indonesian miso
(taucho; tao-tjiong). The author (p. 64) states that ketjap
and tao-tjiung are both inoculated using Hibiscus tiliaceus
(hibiscus) leaves, called waroe in Java. Today Germany, like
America, produces fresh and dried soymilk, fresh and dried
soya cream, meat analogs, and soy sauce (p. 25).
This book contains 17 interesting, old photos.
Descriptions of those reproduced from other periodicals are
omitted. (1) A soybean field on the farm Kikai Nojo near
Sempo-Station, Korea, owned and run by Mr. Moegling
(p. 12). (2) A combine used for harvesting regular beans in
California in 1918 (p. 19). (3) Many hydraulic presses in
a modern American oil factory (p. 29). (4) The equipment
used in steaming the soybeans before they are crushed in an
American “steam mill” type oil mill (p. 31). (5) The interior
of a British oil mill (p. 33). (6) The electrical generators
in a modern oil mill (p. 34). (7) Soybeans being harvested
manually at Madioen [Madiun, in East Java], Java (p. 48).
(8) Harvested soybeans being dried on racks in a field in
Java, and carried away by one worker (p. 48). (9) Workers
dividing up the harvest in Java (p. 50). (10) Threshing
soybeans with bamboo flails in the courtyard of a small
farmer in Java (p. 51). (11) Selling soybeans in a small
market in Central Java (p. 51).
Tables show: (1) Imports of soybeans to Germany from
1910 (43,500 tonnes) to 1912 (more than 125,200 tonnes)
(p. 24). (2) Soybean acreage in Java (including Madoera)
from 1918 (157,600 ha) to 1922 (164,700 ha) (p. 32). (3)
A breakdown of soybean area in Java in 1921 (of 226,186
bouws) into West Java (12,980 bouws), Central Java
(152,154 bouws), and East Java (61,082 bouws) (p. 35).
Note: 1 bouw = 1.754 acres (Johnstone 1975). (4) Imports of
Manchurian soybeans to Java (including Madoera) and other
parts of the Dutch East Indies (mainly Sumatra) from 1920
to 1922 (p. 36). (5) Yields (average or range) of soybeans in
various countries: Germany, Italy, British Indies, Manchuria
(incl. China and Korea), Japan, America (up to 2,700 kg/ha),
Java (p. 52). (6) Comparison of the nutritional composition
of soybeans, peas, and regular beans (Phaseolus varieties) (p.
53). (7) Comparison of the nutritional composition of soya
cheese (Sojakäse, tofu), beef, and lean pork (p. 53). (8) The
prices of white and of black soybeans in Java during January
and December 1922 and the same two months of 1923 (in
Gulden) (p. 56). (9) Comparison of yields, price, costs, and
profit for peanuts (Katjang tanah) and soybeans in Java
(p. 57-58). (10) Nutritional composition of canned frozen
tofu (based on E. Senft) (p. 68). (11) Exports of soybeans
from five Manchurian ports (Dairen, Antung, Newchwang,
Suifenho [Suifenhe], and Sansing) in 1919, 1920, and 1921
(p. 70). (12) Exports and value of soybeans from all of
China to four countries (Netherlands, Russia, Japan, Dutch
East