Appendix 1 - [email protected]

Appendix 1
Frequency of life-events among groups
Frequency
LIFE -EVENTS
P
DEPESSIVE
CHD
HEALTHY
Death of spouse
1
4
4
.358
Marital Separation/Divorce
1
6
1
.041
Experimental relation of spouse
2
14
6
.004
Death of close family members
30
27
26
.806
Detention in jail of self or close family member
3
3
6
.459
Excessive alcohol or drug use by family member
3
14
10
.023
Suspension or dismissal from job
1
5
7
.106
Marital conflict
5
14
7
.060
Family conflict
13
30
12
.001
Financial loss or problems
25
36
43
.027
Lack of child.
5
8
5
.589
Illness of family members
24
37
37
.078
Marriage of daughter/depend sister
6
18
9
.019
Son or daughter leaving home
2
8
4
.124
Large loan
14
27
31
.013
Self or family member unemployed
12
36
18
.000
Major purchase or construction of house
11
18
13
.304
Failure in examination
7
13
3
.028
Property/Crops damage
8
24
19
.009
Death of friend
7
11
11
.544
Robbery or theft
4
2
3
.604
Broken engagement /love affair
2
11
6
.025
Major personal illness/injury
11
26
20
.025
Conflict with in-laws(other than dowry)
8
10
9
.885.
Retirement
7
3
12
051
Getting married /engaged
8
4
2
.124
Sexual problems
1
26
9
.000
5
6
7
.838
Trouble at work with colleagues, Superior or
subordinates
151
Break of with friend
8
18
10
.071
Change in residence
15
18
11
.375
Unfulfilled commitments
19
27
20
.332
Change in working conditions/transfer
8
12
8
.534
Conflict over dowry
1
2
7
.041
Gain a new family member
7
11
10
.598
Appearing for examination or interview
17
10
7
.073
Change in sleeping habits
25
47
26
.001.
Birth of daughter
4
7
7
589
Change or expansion of business
9
15
7
.155
Beginning or end of schooling
2
21
6
.000
Wife begins /stops work (Employment)
0
2
3
.242
Death of pet
9
8
6
.720
Pregnancy of wife
3
8
11
.091
Outstanding personal achievement
3
8
6
.307
Lack of son
9
7
13
.345
Change of social activities
10
23
10
.010
Going on a pleasure trip or pilgrimage
14
15
15
.974.
Reductions in number of family functions
12
16
8
.221
Change of eating habits
20
45
25
000
Trouble with neighbor
10
18
11
.187
Prophecy of astrologer or palmist etc
4
26
11
.000
Minor violation of law
5
6
3
.593
152
Appendix 2
PERSONAL DATA SHEET
Kindly give the following information related to you. The information will be kept
confidential
1.
Name
2.
Address
3.
Age
4.
Sex
5.
Marital Status :
1- Not Married
4 – Widowed
2- Married
3- Divorced
5. Others (Specify)
6.
History of
Smoking
1 Yes
2 No
7.
Hypertension
1 Yes
2 No
8.
Drinking
1 Yes
2 No
1- Male
2 – Female
9.
History of Heart Disease
1 Yes
2 No
10.
History Mental disease
1 Yes
2 No
11.
Religion
12.
Level of Education
Not Completed
Completed
High School :
P.U.C.
Bachelor Degree (B.A., B.Sc., B.E., M.B.B.S.) :
Post -Graduation (M.A., M.Sc., M.E., M.D., M.S., Ph.D.,)
13. Occupation
153
Appendix 3
ZUNG SELF-RATING DEPRESSION SCALE
mental and body state. Read each item carefully and place 9 mark in the appropriate
place, depending on how much you have experienced that state. Please answer ALL
the questions.
INSTRUCTIONS: You will find below a set of statements which relates to your
Sl.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
QUESTIONS
a little
of the
time
some of good
the time part of
the time
most of
the
time
I feel down-hearted and blue
Morning is when I feel the best
I have crying spells or feel like it
I have trouble sleeping at night
I eat as much as I used to
I enjoy looking at, talking to, and being with
attractive women/men
I notice that I am losing weight
I have trouble with constipation
My heart beats faster than usual
I get tired for no reason
My mind is as clear as it used to be
I find it easy to do the things I used to
I am restless and can’t keep still
I feel hopeful about the future
I am more irritable than usual
I find it easy to make decisions
I feel that I am useful and needed
My life is pretty full
I feel that others would be better off if I were
dead
I still enjoy the things I used to do
154
Appendix 4
COPES SCALES
(C.S.Carver., M.F.Cheirer & J.K.Wintraub, 1989)
In the questionnaire below there are 60 items. They are related to how people respond
when they confront difficult or stressful events in their life. There are lots of ways to
try to deal with stress. This questionnaire asks you to indicate, what you generally do
and feel when you experience stressful events. Obviously, different events bring out
somewhat different responses, but think about what usually you do when you are
under a lot of stress.
In order to help you to answer accurately four alternatives are given below:
1. I usually don’t do this at all;
3. I usually do this a medium amount;
2. I usually do this a little bit;
4. I usually do this a lot;
Read each item given below carefully and choose one of the above response
alternatives which is the most appropriate and encircle the number given in front (1, 2,
3, 4). Please remember that each item should be answered separately and there are no
Right or Wrong answers. Your responses should indicate what you do than what
most people do.
Sl.
No
.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
ITEMS
1
2
3
I try to grow as a person as a result of the experience.
I turn to work or other substitute activities to take my mind off things.
I get upset and let my emotions out.
I try to get advice from someone about what to do.
I concentrate my efforts on doing something about it.
I say to myself “this isn’t real”.
I put my trust in God.
I laugh about the situation.
I admit to myself that I can’t deal with it, and quit trying.
I restrain myself from doing anything about it until the situation
permits.
I discuss my feelings with someone.
I use alcohol or drugs to make myself feel better.
I get used to the idea that it happened.
I talk to someone to find out more about the situation.
I keep myself from getting distracted by other thoughts or activities.
I daydream about things other than this.
I get upset, and am really aware of it.
I seek God’s help.
I make a plan of action.
I make jokes about it.
I accept that this has happened and that it can’t be changed.
I hold off doing anything about it until the situation permits.
I try to get emotional support from friends or relatives.
155
4
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
I just give up trying to reach my goal.
I take additional action to try to get rid of the problem
I try to lose myself for a while by drinking alcohol or taking drugs.
I refuse to believe that it has happened
I let my feelings out.
I try to see it in a different light, to make it seem more positive.
I talk to someone who could do something concrete about the problem.
I sleep more than usual.
I try to come up with a strategy about what to do.
I focus on dealing with this problem. And if necessary let other things
slide a little.
I get sympathy and understanding from someone.
I drink alcohol or take drugs, in order to think about it less.
I kid around about it.
I give up the attempt to get what I want.
I look for something good in what is happening.
I think about how I might best handle the problem.
I pretend that it hasn’t really happened.
I make sure not to make matters worse by acting too soon.
I try hard to prevent other things from interfering with my efforts at
dealing with this.
I go to movies or watch TV, to think about it less.
I accept the reality of the fact that it happened.
I ask people who have had similar experiences what they did.
I feel a lot of emotional distress and I find myself expressing those
feelings a lot.
I take direct action to get around the problem.
I try to find comfort in my religion.
I force myself to wait for the right time to do something.
I make fun of the situation.
I reduce the amount of effort I am putting into solving the problem.
I talk to someone about how I feel.
I use alcohol or drug to help me get through it.
I learn to live with it.
I put aside other activities in order to concentrate on this.
I think hard about what steps to take.
I act as though it hasn’t even happened.
I do what has to be done, one step at a time.
I learn something from the experience.
I pray more than usual.
156
Appendix 5
PERCEIVED STRESS SCALE
The questions in this scale ask you about your feelings and thoughts in the last onemonth. In each case indicate how often you felt or thought a certain way in the last
month. Although some of the questions are similar, there are differences between
them and you should treat each one as a separate question. The best approach is to
answer each question fairly quickly. That is, don’t try to count up the number of
times you felt a particular way, but rather indicate the alternative that seems like a
reasonable estimate.
For each question choose one of the following alternatives:
0 = never; 1 = almost never; 2 = sometimes; 3 = fairly often; 4 = very often
Sl.
QUESTIONS
0
No.
1
How often had you been upset because of something that
happened?
2
How often have you felt that you were unable to control
the important things in your life?
3
How often have you felt nervous and stressed?
4
How often have you dealt successfully with irritating life
hassles?
5
How often have you felt that you were effectively coping
with important changes that were occurring in your life?
6
How often have you felt confident about your ability to
handle personal problems?
7
How often have you felt that things were going your way?
8
How often have you found that you could not cope with
all things that you had to do?
9
How often have you been able to control irritations in your
life?
10 How often have you felt that you were on top of things?
11 How often have you been angered because of things that
happened that were outside of your control?
12 How often have you found yourself thinking about things
that you have to accomplish?
13 How often have you been able to control the way you
spend your time?
14 How often have you felt difficulties were piling up so high
that you could not overcome them?
1
2
3
157
4
Appendix 6
LIFE EVENTS QUESTIONNAIRE
You will find below a list of statements related to life events.
If you have
experienced any of them in the past 18 months please mark ‘ ✓ ’ in the box in front of
them.
NOTE : Answer only those statements, which you have experienced in life.
Sl.
No.
1.
Death of spouse
2.
Marital Separation / Divorce
3.
Extramarital relations of spouse
4.
Death of close family members
5.
Detention in jail of self or close family member
6.
Excessive alcohol or drug use by family member
7.
Suspension or dismissal from job
8.
Marital conflict
9.
Family conflict
10.
Financial loss or problems
11.
Lack of child
12.
Illness of family members
13.
Marriage of daughter / dependent sister
14.
Son or daughter leaving home
15.
Large loan
16.
Self or family member unemployed
17.
Major purchase or construction of house
18.
Failure in examination
19.
Property / Crops damaged
20.
Death of friend
21.
Robbery or theft
22.
Broken engagement / love affair
23.
Major personal illness / injury
24.
Conflict with in –laws (other than dowry)
Life Event
158
25.
Retirement
26.
Getting married / engaged
27.
Sexual problems
28.
Trouble at work with colleagues, Superior or subordinates
29.
Break up with friend
30.
Change in residence
31.
Unfulfilled commitments
32.
Change in working conditions / transfer
33.
Conflict over dowry
34.
Gain of new family member
35.
Appearing for examination or interview
36.
Change in sleeping habits
37.
Birth of daughter
38.
Change or expansion of business
39.
Beginning or end of schooling
40.
Wife begins / stops work ( Employment )
41.
Death of pet
42.
Pregnancy of Wife
43.
Outstanding personal achievement
44.
Lack of son
45.
Change in social activities
46.
Going on a pleasure trip or pilgrimage
47.
Reduction in number of family functions
48.
Change in eating habits
49.
Trouble with neighbor
50.
Prophecy of astrologer or palmist etc
51.
Minor violation of law
159
VULNERABILITY TO STRESS QUESTIONNAIRE
DIRECTION: You will find some factors, which have been found to influence your
vulnerability to stress. Draw a circle around the numbers (1 almost always to 5 never)
according to how much of the time an item is true of you. Please answer all the items.
1. almost always;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
2. always;
3. sometimes; 4. seldom;
I eat at least one hot, balanced meal per day
I get 7-8 hours sleep at least 4 nights per week
I give and receive affection regularly
I have at least one relative within 50 miles on
whom I can rely
I exercise to the point of perspiration at least twice
per week
I limit myself to half pack of cigarettes per week
(Draw circle on 1 if you do not smoke)
I limit myself to fewer than 5 alcoholic drinks per
week. (Draw circle on 1 if you do not drink)
I have the appropriate weight for my height.
I have an income adequate to meet basic expenses
I get strength from my religious beliefs
I regularly attend club or social activities.
I have a network of friends and acquaintances
I have one or more friends to confide in about
personal matters.
I am in good health (sight, hearing including teeth)
I am able to speak openly about my feelings when
angry or worried.
I have regular conversations with the people I live
with about domestic problems (e.g., chores, money
& daily living issues)
I do something for fun at least once per week
I am able to organize my time effectively
I limit myself to three cups of coffee or tea per day
I take quite time for myself during the day
5. never;
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
160
Appendix 7
Personality Five Factors Inventory
Instruction
¾For each statement put a cross on the response that best represents your opinion
Mark SA : If it is most characteristic of you, or if you always or most often behave
or feel this way
Mark A
: If it is usually true of you, or you quite often behave or feel this way.
Mark N
: If it is somewhat true in your case.
Mark D
: If it is not true of you, or if you only occasionally feel or behave this way.
Mark SD : If it is not at all characteristic of you, or you seldom feel or behave this.
SA=(Strongly agree), A=(Agree), N=(Not agree), D=(Disagree), SD=(Strongly
disagree)
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I am not a worrier
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I like to have a lot of people around me
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I don’t like to waste my time daydreaming
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I try to be courteous (polite) to everyone I meet
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I keep my belongings clean and neat.
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I often feel inferior to others
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I laugh easily
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Once I find the right way to do something, I stick to it.
9
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I’m pretty good about pacing myself (organizing my time) so as to get
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13
14
15
16
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I don’t consider myself especially “light-hearted”.
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I am intrigued (fascinated) by the patterns I find in art and nature.
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Some people think I’m selfish and egotistical (self centered)
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I am not a very methodical person.
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I rarely feel lonely or blue.
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I really enjoy talking to people.
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18
19
W{Wz}`Ž{»jz}Q¥|W
I believe letting students hear controversial speakers can only confuse
and mislead them.
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I would rather cooperate with others than complete with them.
162
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20
21
22
23
I try to perform all the tasks assigned to me conscientiously (carefully SA
and to the best of my ability).
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
I tend to be cynical (distrustful) and skeptical (disbelieving) of others’ SA
intentions.
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
When I make a commitment, I can always be counted on follow through SA
(to keep up the promise)
A
N
D SD
W{Wz}j{ºzŠ{Wz¯º{4+Qz¥Lzl{3z~8zLzYzM.cz}Wz}©!Wz}`Žz»jz}Q¥|W
I often feel tense and jittery (nervous)
W{Wz}czŠ{º{3zv~5zHW3znz}WzLcz}}R¥ez}ºzB{3z3znzw±#ezv}acz}jz}Q¥|W
I like to be where the action is (where things are happening)
.{ºz¯ºzˆWzWz©º}|g!R.zMº}!Szº{czŠ{ºzˆU|Yz°`Ž{ºzb|ez}ºzˆVv±
Poetry has little or no effect on me.
`|ecz}ºzez%U§|Èz3znzWz}©.z}fQz†QWzWz3kX.zQzWzºz}Qz}¥!YzWz†b.%†G{3z}Qz¥U
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
W{Wz}X3zVQzº{Uz3z}f3znzWz}©l~†VUz}§.z°ºz}aUz¨º{4!ºzˆ3znzQz¥WzLcz}}Q¥|W
I have a clear set of goals and work toward them in an orderly fashion.
.vº‰º}®W{Wz}+a¬X“z¾c~|C.zWXjz}Qz¥U
Sometimes I feel completely worthless.
.vjz3znzWz}©W{W~a¬W|ºzŠ{Lzv}#9œjz}Q¥|W
I usually prefer to do things alone.
W{Wz}l~jzºz}Qz}¥»U|É"l{ez3znzWz}©%Yzc~|4kW~|Lz}Q¥|W
I often try new and foreign foods.
!ºz.{ÈzX|MUzeWzWz©Wz}©alznz“z} CWzUz}ez}Yzc~|3zYzMk.~nz}·Q{¥e(†Uz}Wz†bU§|W
I believe that most people will take advantage of you if you let them.
.vjzUzw±Q~Lz4k.~nz}·ºzˆUzezº~Uzv}W{Wz}j{.z“z} jzºz}cz}ºzWz}©l{nz}ºzŠ{Lz}Q¥|W
I waste a lot of time before setting down to work.
W{Wz}alznz»eznzº{4b|R3{af3+nz3{3z}Q¥|W
I rarely feel fearful or anxious.
WzWz3"3{3zW{Wz}8‚QzWz¯V†Uz9ºz}}®R¥U§|W(Xjz}Qz¥U
I often feel as if I’m bursting with energy.
º{Q{ºzezO%†H}ºzŠ{Lz}ºz`Ž{ºzW3znz}ºz}Wzk¦R3znzWz}©W{Wz}!Yzez~Yzº{43zºz}Xjz}Q¥|W
I seldom notice them moods or feelings that different environments produce.
WzWz3RoVez}ºzºz¯/¥3znzw±!W|.zez}WzWz©Wz}©#“z YzLz}Q{¥e
Most people I know like me.
WzWz©3z}fcz}Wz}©YzLcz}v}j{.z“z} .z“z YzLz}Q¥|W
I work hard to accomplish my goals.
`|ecz}ºzez}WzWz©Wz}©WzLk.~nz}·ºzf|Rd}†UzWzWz3j{ºzŠ{Wz¯º{4.~|Yzaez}Qz¥U
I often get angry at the way people treat me.
W{Wz}jz†Qzjzºz}Qz}¥8|QzWzl~†VUzºz¯/¥
I am a cheerful, high-spirited person.
SD
W‚R.z»“zcz}3znzw±XUŽ{ez.‚3~nz·v}W{ºzˆUŽ{»}.z3z}ez}3znzº~el~|3z`|.†Uz}W{Wz}
38
39
Wz†bU§|W
I believe we should look to our religious authorities for decisions on
moral issues.
W{Wz}+a¬g.z–8{ezUzºz¯/¥c}†Uz}.vºzez}`Ž{»jz}Q{¥e
Some people think of me as cold and calculating.
+º}®ºzŠ{Qz}.~H e!Uz.–jzfczŠ{4WzLUz}.~nz}·ºzˆUzeza3˜WzWz©Wz}©Wz†aalz}Uz}
40
163
WzWz3(v±ºz‰ºz¯Rf.z¥º{4l~|U{3zUŽ‚cz}3H} lzQ{ÈzW{3z}Q¥|W
41
42
Too often, when things go wrong, I get discouraged and feel like giving SA
up.
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
I have little interest in thinking of the nature of the universe or the SA
human condition.
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
SA
A
N
D SD
W{Wz}Yz°jzWz©9Qz¥ºzˆnz·"È{º{V!v±
I am not a cheerful optimist.
.{ºz¯
43
44
45
46
47
,Uz}º{3zg{3zw
9Qz°.zgcz}Wz}©
W~|Lz}º{3z
"3zw
W{Wz}
+†Uz}
f|Rcz}
e~|ºzŠ{†8zWz3~nz}·Q¥|W
Sometimes when I am reading poetry or looking at a work of art, I feel a
chill or wave of excitement (I get excited).
W{Wz}+a¬UŽzLzXUŽ{ezUzD3z}H}jz²`Ž{ºzUzºz¯/¥
I’m hardheaded (stubborn) and tough-minded in my attitudes.
.vº‰º}®W{Wz}Wz†b.3!lzW{Uzºz¯/¥cz}v±
Sometimes I’m not as dependable or reliable as I should be.
W{Wz}alznz»eznzº{42Wz©Q3+nz3{3z}Q¥|W
I am very rarely sad or depressed.
WzWz©D|ºzWzºzˆÉ|5z°º|3zUz3zRcz}Wz}©l~†VU
My life is fast-paced (lots of things going on at the same time).
ºzŠ{WzºzWzk¦R3znzW{©3zwYz°.zRcz}Wz}©.z}fQ{3zwc~|9jz}ºzˆUzezw±WzWz3"jz/¥d}v±
48
49
50
W{Wz}j{ºzŠ{Wz¯º{4c~|8zW{É|vW{4ez}Q¥|W
I generally try to be thoughtful and considerate.
W{Wz}czŠ{º{3zv~.vjzºzWz}©Yz‰Oº{4ºzŠ{Mºz}}4jz}ºzjzYŽzvºz¯/¥
I am a productive person who always gets the job done.
W{Wz} lzvºzˆ `{f Xjzµl{cz}.zW{4 #Qzezez} WzWz© jzºz}j¯3zo3 Yzfl{ez X|Lz`|.†Uz}
51
acz}jz}Q¥|W
I often feel helpless and want someone else to solve my problems.
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
W{Wz}+a¬Yz°/°cz}/°czŠ{É|vºz¯/¥
I am a very active person.
WzWz©w±j{.z“z} `…V¨.z.z}Qz~lzv»U
I have a lot of intellectual curiosity.
WzWz3czŠ{e{Uzez~#“z º{3zVUz§w±W{Wz}!UzWz}©!ºzf3Rocz}}ºz†QºzŠ{Lz}Q¥|W
If I don’t like people, I let them know it.
ºz¯ºzk¦Qzº{4ez}ºzˆUz}WzWz3j{UŽz¯º|"3z}ºzˆVv±
I never seem to be able to get organized.
+º~®º}®WzWz3(“z} W{9.czŠ{4Uc}†UzeW{Wz}!»Qz}.~nz·`|.z}(XkU
At times I have been so ashamed I just wanted to hide.
`|ecz}ºzf3W{cz}.zW{3z}ºzˆUz/–†QzWzWz©U|U{fcz}w±WzLcz}v}acz}jz}Q¥|W
I would rather go my own way than be a leader of others.
kU{¨†Qz3znz}!ºz}~Qz»“zcz}3zn~†V3»W~|Uzº{Lz}ºzˆUzWz}©W{Wz}"Wz†Vjz}Q¥|W
I often enjoy playing with theories or abstract ideas.
!ºzÈz¯»Uz§w±WzWz3`|.{Uz†Q`|ecz}ºzezWz}©WzWz©3z}fcz}Wz}©l~†Uzv}anzk.~nz}·Q¥|W
If necessary, I am willing to manipulate people to get what I want.
WzWz©(g{±.{cz}3znzw±%Qz–”“z Qcz}Wz}©YzLcz}v}Yz°cz}R©jz}Q¥|W
I strive for excellence in everything I do.
164
Appendix 8
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165
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Appendix 9
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