BUSHIDO WAY OF THE SAMURAI Exhibition wall texts © COPYRIGHT This document remains the property of the National Gallery of Victoria and must be returned upon request. Reproduction in part or in whole is prohibited without written authorisation. Bushido: Way of the Samurai The art and culture of the samurai embodies more than 800 years of Japan’s history. From the twelfth century through to 1868, when Japan’s long era of international isolation came to an end, shoguns, regional lords and their warrior retainers ruled and lived according to a rigorous code of ethics. This military aristocracy aspired to a life of spiritual harmony devoted equally to the art of war and the fine arts. Bushido: Way of the Samurai introduces the samurai as both warriors and men of refined culture. The exhibition showcases the armaments and attire, cultural pursuits and epic tales of the samurai through objects acquired by the NGV since the 1880s, alongside a selection of the leading samurai art in Australian public and private collections. 1 JAPANESE Armour Yoroi よろい 鎧 Edo period 18th century, Japan lacquer on metal (maki-e), wood, pigment, silk, cotton, leather, metal (thread) Gift of Mrs Henry Darlot, 1888 2066.a-k-D1A The origins of samurai culture can be traced to ancient ceramic figures of warriors and suits of armour from the Kofun period (300–710). It was during the Heian period (794–1185), however, that warrior clans developed the characteristic style of Japanese armour that has come to universally represent samurai culture. This suit of armour, donated in 1888 by Mrs Henry Darlot, the widow of one of Victoria’s first pastoralists, is in the tosei gusoku style of so-called ‘modern’ armour. Made from large iron, bulletproof plates it was developed during the sixteenth century in response to the introduction of firearms into Japanese warfare. 2 Hishin Gikaku 非心 義覚 Japanese active 18th century Nourishing the chicks makes great cranes Hinakara yashinai ōkina tsuruto nasu 養雛成大鶴 Edo period 18th century, Japan ink on paper Purchased, 1990 AS2-1990 Zen philopsophy was closely associated with samurai spirituality and Bushido, the samurai code of behaviour. This powerful and unimpeded calligraphy by the 377th Abbot of the Japanese Zen temple Daitoku-ji, in Kyoto, encapsulates the samurai ethics of honesty, courage, benevolence, respect, self-sacrifice, self-control, duty and loyalty by which Japanese children were educated and Japanese society was based. 3 JAPANESE Armour Yoroi よろい 鎧 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan lacquer, leather, metal, silk, cotton, hemp, gold pigment, coloured dyes Acquired, 1889 460.4-6, 9-12,15-19-D2 This suit of armour was purchased by the NGV in 1889 and is not recorded as being exhibited since that time. Made during the Edo period (1600-15–1868), it is a tosei gusoku suit of modern armour in the style of eleventh- or twelfth-century kozan gusoku cavalry armour, characterised by its many scale-like parts joined by silk cord and elaborate helmet featuring golden horns (wakidate kuwagata) and large turn-back deflectors (fukigaishi) on both sides. Such dramatic and visually foreboding attire, worn by a sword-wielding warrior thundering into battle on horseback, must have created an impression of heart-stopping ferocity for all those he opposed. 4 TAMURA Chokuo Japanese 1688–1704 Hawks with pine tree and plum blossom Ume matsu taka zu うめ まつ たか ず 梅松鷹図 Edo period late 17th century, Japan pair of six panel folding screens: ink and pigments on gold leaf on paper, lacquer on wood, silk, paper, metal Purchased, 1971 AS11.a-b-1971 Ruling lords and samurai decorated their villas and castles with folding screens that emphasised their military prowess and positions of social power. Birds of prey were considered suitable subjects for the screens due to their innately predatory nature and hunting skills, and because only the most senior samurai and daimyo were granted the right to practice falconry. At official gatherings, screens such as these were positioned to make guests feel vulnerable, under the watchful eye of their imposing leaders. 5 JAPANESE Arrows and quiver Ya to yaire や や いれ 矢と矢入 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan wood, leather, feathers, bamboo, lacquer, metal, copper, gilt, plant fibre, gold leaf, paper On loan from the Museum Victoria X092936, X092936.1 – X92936.8 6 JAPANESE Bow Yumi ゆみ 弓 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan lacquer on wood, bamboo, rattan Unaccessioned item Before the development of high-quality Japanese swords, the chosen weapon of samurai was the bow and arrow. Shot from horseback or while standing, the bow and arrow was the first and often the foremost means of engaging opposing forces. Through the disciplines of kyūdo (way of the bow) and kyūba no michi (way of the horse and bow), samurai were as skilful with the bow and arrow as they were with the sword. 7 Saotome school Japanese active 1680–1800 Helmet and mask Kabuto to menpō かぶと めん ぽう 兜と面頬 early Edo period 1600–1700 Japan iron, laquer, silk JAPANESE Armour Yoroi よろい 鎧 Edo period 1680–1800 Japan metal, lacquer, leather, silk, cotton, hemp, gold pigment, coloured dyes, (other materials) Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne 8 This helmet and mask was produced by one of the best armour makers of the Edo period, the Saotome school. The Daki Kashiwa mon (double oak-leaf family crest) of the Hachisuka clan appears on the kabuto (helmet) and yoroi-bitsu (armour storage box). The Hachisuka clan were descendants of the ruling Kamakura-period Minamoto clan and was founded by Hachisuka Masakatsu (1526–1586) in the Owari region, near present-day Nagoya. Masakatsu served for two of Japan’s great unifying military lords, Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, during the sixteenth century, after which his descendants continued to live in the Tokushima region throughout the Edo period (1600-15–1868). 9 JAPANESE Armour Yoroi よろい 鎧 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan metal, wood, pigment, lacquer, gold paint, silk, cotton, leather, metal (thread) On loan from the Museum Victoria ST23978 This armour’s side-hinged torso piece, allowing easy dressing, is characteristic of the ‘modern’-style armour tosei gusoku. The Takada clan’s family crest of four diamonds features on the shoulder straps, hand coverings and helmet’s fukigaishi (turn-back deflectors). The Takeda clan was based in Kai province, present-day Yamanashi Prefecture, and was a powerful force until its defeat by Oda Nobunaga in 1572. During the Edo period, Takada clan members assumed prominent positions in the Tokugawa shogunate. The Museum of Victoria’s records indicate that this armour was acquired in 1878 from Mr. L. H. Hart, a dealer of native curiosities based in Melbourne’s Royal Arcade. 10 Sword guards This collection of sword guards was acquired by the Felton Bequest between 1916 and 1924. Sword guards had the practical function of preventing the users’ hand from slipping onto their blade, while also offering protection from the opponent’s blade. Their weight brought the centre of gravity closer to the sword’s handle, adding balance and force to the sword’s blow while also reducing fatigue to the user’s wrist. These beautifully cast, engraved and inlayed metal objects constitute an encyclopaedia of Japanese legends, folklore and nature observation, featuring landscapes, immortals and mythical beasts, as well as skilful compositions of flowers, insects and animals. 11 Swords Nihontō (Japanese swords) are revered as gifts from the gods, and throughout Japanese history have been presented to temples and shrines as votive offerings. The first swords produced in Japan were straight with double-edged blades; however, during the eleventh century innovative techniques led to the development of a distinctive Japanese style of curved, single-bladed swords that are recognised as the sharpest swords in the history of armaments. Japanese swords are celebrated not only for their use as weapons, but also as refined works of art, and are appreciated for their unsurpassed craftsmanship and beauty. During the swordsmithing process the bladed edge is cooled quickly in water, which allows an ultimate cutting edge when sharpened, while the non-bladed side is coated in clay, slowing its cooling when submerged in water and giving the sword its consummate strength. This dual cooling technique instils each sword with individual forged patterns (hamon or tempering lines) that enhances its overall beauty are highly appreciated by connoisseurs. 12 Suo MORITOSHI Japanese 1778–1857 Long sword Katana かたな 刀 Edo Period 1849 Japan metal Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Moritoshi worked in Iwakuni domain for Lord Kitsukuni and studied in Edo (Tokyo) at the formal school of Chōnsai Tsunatoshi. Most of his swords are in the Bizen style and are known for their powerful shapes and graceful lines. The hamon (forging patterns) of this blade feature stringed bead-like markings in regular and irregular wavy arrangements. 13 TAIKEI Naotane Japanese 1778–1857 Small sword Ko wakizashi こ わきざし 小脇差 Edo Period 1845 Komoro, Aichi, Japan metal Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Naotane was born in the Yamagata region of northern Japan. He excelled as a student at the Suishinshi Masahide school and became one of the best swordsmiths of the Shintō (new sword) era. He sucessfully worked in all the five main styles of sword making (Yamato, Yamashiro, Mino, Bizen and Soshu), and is recognised as the supreme exponent of the Bizen style. 14 KUNIYASU Horikawa Japanese active 1580–1610 Long sword Katana かたな 刀 late Momoyama – early Edo Period 1596– 1615, Japan metal Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne The late sixteenth century is considered as a time of fundamental change in Japanese sword-making history, and a turning point between the Kotō (old sword) and Shintō (new sword) eras. The first Japanese curved sword, known as tachi, was worn slung from the waist by cords, with its sharp edge facing downwards. From the twelfth and thirteenth centuries onwards another type of sword, known as katana, was worn through the samurai’s waist sash, with its edge facing upwards to allow an immediate strike when taken from its sheath. This katana, produced by the renowned Shintōera swordsmith Kuniyasu, is a rare Keichoperiod sword. 15 SOJI Naohide Japanese 1778–1857 Short blade Tantō たん とう 短刀 Edo Period 1861 Nagoya, Japan metal, copper and silver alloy, lacquer, gold, silver Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Tanto are short blades that were used for combat at close quarters. Before the classical katana (long sword) and wakizashi (short sword) combination was introduced during the sixteenth century, tantō were often paired with old-style, long tachi swords. Soji Naohide is from a renowned family of sword makers. A special feature of this blade is the hamon (forging patterns) that appear as irregular, drifting lines of sand and thick misty formations, characteristic of the Soshu style. 16 Yamato-Mino SENCHUIN Japanese active 1331–40 Long sword Katana かたな 刀 Muromachi Period 1331–40 Japan metal, copper and silver alloy, gold, lacquer, snake skin, silk (cord) Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Senchuin, along with other swordsmiths, transmitted the old traditions of sword making from the ancient region of Yamato (present-day Nara Prefecture) to the Mino area (present-day Gifu Prefecture), establishing the Mino school. This early katana-style sword displays the ancient Yamato characteristic, known as yakizumiboshi, where the hamon continue to the tip of the sword rather than turning back, in the normal style of katana. Other features include a sword guard with pine tree design, sword accessories in copper and silver alloy and gold, and a scabbard covered with snakeskin and clear lacquer. 17 Echizan KANENAKA Japanese active 1675–86 Long sword Katana かたな 刀 Edo Period 1681 Echizen, Japan metal, enamel, silver Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Kanenaka worked in both Echizen and Musashi provinces. This katana is mounted as an old-style tachi sword, and is displayed as it would have been worn – with the cutting edge facing downwards. The hamon features chōji-midare (clover or mushroom-like) patterns with togari-ba (thorn-like markings). Its mount features dei-shippo (opaque cloisonné), kodōgu (silver accessories) and kikumon (imperial crests). 18 Tegai KANENAGA Japanese active 1350–90 Short blade Tantō たん とう 短刀 Muromachi Period 1387 Echizen, Japan metal, enamel Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Kanenaga is a second-generation swordsmith, after Taira Saburo who founded the Yamato Tegai school at the western gate of Todai-ji temple in Nara. The hamon display narrow straight lines with frayed edges, and the mount features a dragon with a magical jewel, made in cloisonné. 19 Ichijosai HIROTOSHI Japanese active c. 1820 Sword guard with samurai in a tree design Ki no naka no bushi zu tsuba き なか ぶ し ず つば 木の中の武士図鍔 late Edo period 1820 Japan metal, copper and gold alloy Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Hirotoshi’s original name was Konishi Bunshichi, and he later became known as Uchikoshi Tanzo. He studied in Uchikoshi school – known for its refined techniques and delicate, detailed work – under the second Tamagawa master, Yoshinaga. 20 TAKAOKI Suruga Japanese active 1837–56 Sword guard with goose in tall grass design Kari ni kusa zu tsuba かり くさ ず つば 雁に草図鍔 late Edo period 1837–56 Japan iron, copper and gold alloy Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Takaoki was the the ninth hereditary master of the Suruga school in Inaba province (present-day Tottori Prefecture). The Suruga School is known for using iron of the highest quality, and for its cleanly modelled designs. The goose in tall grass was created using an open-work design that leaves a strong positive silhouette. 21 Hizen School Japanese active 1650–1700 Large and small sword guard with dragon and magical jewel design Sōryū hōju zu daishō tsuba そうりゅうほう じゅ ず だいしょうつば 双龍宝珠図大小鍔 early Edo Period 1650–1700 Northern Kyushu, Japan iron, gold, silver Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne This pair of sword guards is made for use on a daishō (a matching pair of large and small swords). Its classical samurai motif (in excellent condition) of dragons with magical jewels among clouds and waves was created with a technique known as iroe nunome-zogan, in which an overlay of gold and silver sheeting is hammered into the textured iron surface. 22 Goto ICHIJO Japanese active 1824–62 Small knife handle with plum blossom design Ume zu kozuka うめ ず こ づか 梅図小柄 late Edo Period 1824–62 Japan metal, copper and silver alloy Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Kozuka are decorative handle fittings for kogatana (small utility knives) that slid into a pocket in the sword’s sheath. Goto Ichijo’s skills as a painter and poet are displayed in his beautifully composed metal works. He was the sixth hereditary master in the Goto Hachirobei line of the Goto family, which served the Muromachi Shogunate (1337–1568) and continued to be active throughout the Edo period. 23 Old Goto School Japanese active 1600–20 Hair dressing tool with dragon design Ryū zu kōgai りゅう ず こうがい 龍図笄 early Edo period 1600–20 Japan metal, copper and gold alloy Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Kōgai are long pins used in personal grooming and for arranging hair into the traditional topknot that was a part of the samurai’s dress code. At the handle-end of these pins there is a small scoop for ear cleaning. Kōgai were fitted to one of the holes in the sword guard, and slid into a pocket in the sword’s sheath. The Goto school of sword accessory artisans, who produced wear for the Tokugawa shogunate, are renowned for animal and figure designs encrusted with gold and gilt metals. 24 TERUAKI Ishiguro Japanese active 1850–80 Sword guard with vine design Tsuta zu tsuba つた ず つば 蔦図鍔 late Edo period – early Meiji period 1850– 80 Japan metal, copper and gold alloy Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Teruaki was from Mutsu province in the north of Japan and studied under Ishigoro Masaaki in Edo (Tokyo), where he developed an individual style of his own. This sword guard features a large gold rim that is seen to represent a namako (sea cucumber). 25 ICHIJU Ishigoro Japanese active c. 1820 Sword pommel and hilt collar with family crests Kamon iri fuchi-gashira か もん いり ふち がしら 家紋入縁頭 late Edo period 1820 Japan metal, copper and gold alloy Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne The Ishigoro school is renowned for its lively and vibrant sword accessories. The elegant design of this set of fuchi-gashira expresses the formal and refined taste of high-ranking samurai. Ishigoro school sword fittings were in demand thoughout the Edo period. 26 Ishiguro MASATSUNE III Japanese active 1820–68 Sword pommel and hilt collar with plum blossom design. Ume zu fuchi-gashira Fuchi-gashira うめ ず ふち がしら 梅図縁頭 late Edo period 1820–68 Japan metal, copper and gold alloy Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Fuchi and kashira are two sword accessories that were skilfully decorated with nature designs or subjects from samurai mythology. The fuchi is a hilt collar that adds strength to the handle and fits between the handle and the sword guard. The kashira is a pommel, or cap, that fits to the end of the sword’s handle. Masatsune was the third generation of renowned fuchi and kashira craftsmen of the Ishiguro school. 27 HEDETOSHI Mito Japanese active c. 1840 Sword pommel and hilt collar with cockeral and chick design Ondori Fuchi-gashira おん どり ず ふちがしら 雄鶏図縁頭 late Edo period 1840 Japan metal, copper and gold alloy Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne Hedetoshi studied under Oyama Motozane, who established a distinct Mito-Sekijoken school style of metalsmithing. Motozane and his followers became renowned for colourful and animated designs, such as the glistening feathers of the cockerel on this fuchi-gashira. 28 Takahashi School Japanese active 1820–50 Sword pommel and hilt collar with spiral designs Guri fuchi-gashira ぐ り ふち がしら 屈輪縁頭 late Edo period 1830 Japan copper and gold alloy, copper Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne The Takahashi family of Edo (Tokyo) were skilled in the technique of guri, in which two kinds of metal are superimposed in alternating layers, with the design created by engraving through these layers, leaving a striped three-dimensional effect. This same technique can also be used in lacquer ware. 29 HARUTOSHI Japanese active late 19th century Two matching sword mounts Daishō-Goshirae だい しょうごしらえ 大小拵 late Edo period – Meiji period late 19th century, Japan copper and silver alloy, copper and gold alloy, lacquer, metal Collection of Peter and Julie Baker, Melbourne Daishō (literally ‘large and small’) refers to the matching pair of swords – a katana (long sword) and wakizashi (short sword) – which were the standard equipment for samurai from the sixteenth century to the end of the samurai era, in the late nineteenth century. Typically, katana were used for battles and wakizashi for self-defence. When a warrior entered a building he left his katana on a rack in the vestibule, carrying only his wakizashi indoors. 30 Lacquer sword case with pampas grass design Susuki zu tachi zutsu すすき ず た ち づつ 芒図太刀筒 Edo period 18th century, Japan lacquer, gold, silver On loan from the Pauline Gandel Collection While travelling in a palanquin (covered litter), daimyo, provincial governors and other high-ranking samurai were unable to wear their swords. The weapons were instead stored in travelling cases and carried by attendants. As sword cases were functional carrying containers, not many of them survive to this day. This rare example is decorated in the sprinkled lacquer relief technique (taka maki-e), with an elegant autumn design of susuki (pampus grass) sweeping its length. 31 Kabuto and Jingasa On the battlefield, samurai of rank wore elaborate helmets (kabuto) while those of lower standing, such as ordinary soldiers and footmen, wore mass-produced jingasa hats made of hardened paper, leather or iron. During the peaceful Edo period (1600-15–1868) the function of jingasa changed and they became large, slightly conical shaped flat hats worn by samurai for protection against the sun and rain during travel and outdoor ceremonies. Kabuto and jingasa often featured eccentric decoration that represented the wearer’s personality, and some were re-lacquered with elaborate designs during the late nineteenth century as mementos of samurai culture. 32 JAPANESE Ceremonial helmet with lion dog and peony design Shishi botan jingasa し し ぼ たん じん がさ 獅子牡丹陣笠 Edo period 19th century, Japan lacquer on (leather) (maki-e), metal, silk, mother-of-pearl, (other materials) Gift of Joan Gunn, 2011 33 2011.340 JAPANESE Ceremonial helmet with octopus and Genji cart wheel crest Tako nanawari genji guruma mon iri jingasa たこ なな わり げん じ ぐるまもん いり じん がさ 蛸七割源氏車紋入陣笠 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan lacquer on (leather) (maki-e), wood, gold, pigment, glass, metal (nails), silk and cotton (thread), (other materials) Felton Bequest, 1927 2900-D3 34 JAPANESE Helmet with lion dog and peony design Shishi botan kabuto し し ぼ たん かぶと 獅子牡丹兜 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan lacquer on (leather) (maki-e), metal, silk, mother-of-pearl, (other materials) Collection of Joan Gunn, Melbourne 35 Firearms Matchlock guns, or arquebus, were introduced to Japan in 1543 by Portuguese traders who made unexpected landfall on the small southern island of Tanegashima after being blown off course. News and examples of this new wondrous technology were quick to circulate, with regional lords adapting Japan’s long tradition of metalsmithing to reproduce these new weapons of war. Within a few decades their use on battlefield had irrevocably changed warfare and the ethics of samurai in battle. 36 JAPANESE Matchlock hand cannon with dragon and cloud design Unryū zu ōzutsu うんりゅう ず おお づつ 雲龍図大筒 Momoyama period 1573 Japan metal, wood, brass, silver Felton Bequest, 1927 2892-D3 This imposing ozutsu (hand cannon) is decorated along the length of its barrel with engraved dragons and swirling clouds. It features the inscriptions Tenshō Gannen (1573), Protector of the Matsudaira clan and the three–hollyhock leaf crest of the Tokugawa clan (formerly Matsudaira clan) who became allied with Oda Nobunaga in 1560. A heavy and brutal weapon on the battlefield that fired combinations of shot, and in some cases custom-made arrows, ozutsu were fired from the hip, as dramatically illustrated by the adjoining woodblock print by Utagawa Yoshiiku. 37 JAPANESE Matchlock gun with irises, sparrow and butterfly design Shōbu chō suzume zu teppō しょう ぶ ちょうすずめ ず てっ ぽう 菖蒲蝶雀図鉄砲 Momoyama period 1568–1600–15 Japan metal, wood, brass, silver Felton Bequest, 1927 2890-D3 By the second half of the sixteenth century arquebus with little or no decoration were produced in great numbers for use by ordinary soldiers. However, due to the exquisite inlayed, engraved and applied decoration found on these three magificent matchlock guns, it is evident they were not only produced as armaments for the battlefield, but also as flamboyant items for high-ranking samurai. On this gun we see a delicate design of irises among flowing water, with flying sparrows and butterflies produced with the same exquisite craftsmanship as would be found on a refined laquer writing box. 38 JAPANESE Matchlock gun with lion dog and peony design Shishi botan zu teppō し し ぼ たん ず てっぽう 獅子牡丹図鉄砲 Momoyama period 1568–1600–15 Japan metal, wood, brass, silver Felton Bequest, 1927 39 2895-D3 Utagawa YOSHIIKU 歌川 芳幾 Japanese 1833–1904 Fukushima Masanori, from the Heroic stories of the Taiheiki Taiheikieiyūden Fukushima Masanori たい へい き えい ゆう でん ふく しま まさ のり 太平記英勇傳 福島正則 Edo period 1867 Japan colour woodblock Purchased, NGV Asian Art Acquisition Fund, 2014 40 Utagawa YOSHIIKU 歌川 芳幾 Japanese 1833–1904 Shinro Musashinokami, from the Heroic Stories of the Taiheiki Taiheikieiyūden Shinro Musashinokami たい へい き えいゆう でん しん ろ む さしのかみ 太平記英勇傳 新侶武蔵守 Edo period 1867 Japan colour woodblock Purchased, NGV Asian Art Acquisition Fund, 2014 41 Utagawa YOSHIIKU 歌川 芳幾 Japanese 1833–1904 Akechi Samanosuke, from the Heroic stories of the Taiheiki Taiheikieiyūden Akechi Samanosuke たい へい き えい ゆう でん あけ ち さ まの すけ 太平記英勇傳 明智左馬助 Edo period 1867 Japan colour woodblock Purchased, NGV Asian Art Acquisition Fund, 2014 42 Utagawa YOSHIIKU 歌川 芳幾 Japanese 1833–1904 Gamō Ujisato, from the Heroic stories of the Taiheiki Taiheikieiyūden Gamō Ujisato たい へい き えい ゆう でん が もう うじ さと 太平記英勇傳 蒲生氏郷 Edo period 1867 Japan colour woodblock Purchased, NGV Asian Art Acquisition Fund, 2014 43 Felice BEATO (attributed to) Italian/English 1832–1909, worked throughout Asia and Europe 1853–90 No title (Samurai warrior) Bushi ぶ し 武士 1860s –70s Japan albumen silver photograph, colour dyes Presented through the NGV Foundation by Thomas Dixon, Member, 2001 2001.193 44 Baron Raimund von STILLFRIED Austrian 1839–1911, worked throughout Europe and Asia 1871–1910 No title (Samurai in armour) Bushi ni yoroi ぶ し よろい 武士に鎧 c. 1875, printed c. 1877–80 Japan albumen silver photograph, colour dyes Purchased through the NGV Foundation with the assistance of The Herald & Weekly Times Limited, Fellow, 2001 45 2001.9 JAPANESE Helmet with facemask and dragonfly ornament Kabuto menpō to tombo maedate かぶとめんぽう とん ぼ まえ だて 兜面頬と蜻蛉前立 early – mid Edo period 1600–1700 (helmet and ornament), late Momoyama – mid Edo perod 1570–1700 (face mask) iron, lacquer, copper and zinc alloy, silk Collection of Colin McDonald, Melbourne This style of kabuto (helmet), popular during the Momoyama and early Edo period, is known as kawari kabuto (an unconventional helmet) due to its unusual shape. The nagaeboshi (tall lacquered section) and distinctive dragonfly ornament represented the wearer’s personality and distinguished his identity on the battlefield. The tombo (dragonfly) was regarded as a noble and invincible creature; the ornament’s hinged wings became animated as the wearer rode on horseback. 46 Myochin YOSHIHISA Japanese active 1530–50 Helmet and mask Kabuto to menpō かぶと めん ぽう 兜と面頬 late Muromachi period 1530–50 Japan iron, lacquer, silk Collection of Peter and Julie Baker, Melbourne This kabuto (helmet) is a exemplary example of late Muromachi-period armature, with its bowl consisting of sixty-two overlapping iron plates, and swollen back section. A total of 1953 hoshi bullet-shaped rivets are precisely arranged, decreasing in size as they approach the tehen hole in the top of the helmet bowl. The menpo mask and laced neck guard are lacquered in an imitation rust finish that was popular for armour. 47 Samurai in battle One of the great war epics in Japanese history is The Tale of Heike, which narrates the monumental struggle between two warrior clans, the Minamoto (Genji) and Taira (Heike), culminating in the Genpei War from 1180 to 1185. Originally transmitted by travelling storytellers and singers, The Tale of Heike gained universal popularity throughout Japan and captured the imagination of artists for centuries thereafter. This pair of screens illustrates the dramatic events that took place at the battle of Ichi-no-tani (near present-day Kobe). Viewed from a bird’s-eye perspective through golden clouds, the screens depict in a dramatic narrative the various events that took place on the seventh day of the second lunar month of 1184. 48 JAPANESE Saddle and stirrups with dragon and lightning design Ryūrai zu kura to abumi りゅうらい ず くら あぶみ 龍雷図鞍と鐙 Edo period 1670 Japan lacquer on wood (maki-e), gold foil, silver, pigment, plant fibre (cord), dyes, metal, leather, (other materials) Purchased, 1888 2025M.a-c-D1A This set of saddle and stirrups, purchased by the NGV in 1888, displays a relief lacquer (taka maki-e) design of a thunderous dragon amidst lightning, clutching the magical medicine or wish-granting jewel in its claws. On the matching stirrups are samurai battlefield signalling fans with dragons, and on the upper section, under the buckles, are mandarin orange designs (tachibana) in open-work and three-tiered water chestnut (matsukawabishi) crests. Inscribed on the underside with the year Kambun 10 (1670), these ornate pieces may have been relacquered in the late Edo period (early to mid nineteenth century). 49 JAPANESE Battle scenes from The tale of Heike Heike Monogatari Ichi-no-tani no tatakai zu へい け ものがたり いち たに たたかいず 平家物語 一の谷の戦図 Edo period early 17th century, Japan pair of six panel folding screens: ink and pigments on gold leaf on paper, lacquer on wood, silk, paper, metal Art Gallery of South Australia Gift of Andrew and Hiroko Gwinnett throught the Art Gallery of South Australia Foundation 2003 20038A51.a-b This pair of folding screens is a visual narration of the famous battle of Ichi-no-tani from the twelth-century war epic The Tale of Heike. Viewed from right to left the right screen depicts the attack by the Minamoto clan on the Taira clan stronghold, the Fukuhara mansion, and on the left screen the retreat of the Taira samurai with Minamoto warriors in pursuit. 50 The death of Taira Atsumori The left screen illustrates the Minamoto warriors, with white flags, attacking from right to left, and the bewildered Taira warriors, with red flags, in retreat, fleeing into the sea. Featured in the near-centre of the screen is the young Taira samurai Atsumori, escaping to waiting boats on his gray and white horse. His nemesis, Kumagai Naozane, has sighted him from the shoreline and with raised fan taunts Atsumori to return to battle. The scene depicts the fateful moment the sixteen-year-old Atsumori reconciles with his samurai traditions and returns to face inevitable defeat and death, the ultimate sacrifice. 51 The attack on Fukuhara mansion The right screen illustrates the Minamoto’s surprise attack on the Taira’s fortified Fukuhara mansion. In the top-left we see the famed Minamoto general Yoshitsune leading his cavalry down the perilous Hirodori Pass cliff face. In the bottom-right the Minamoto brothers Kawara Taro and Kawara Jiro make a double charge across branch barricades (both died in the battle). In the centre-top Kajiwara Kagesue and two retainers are backed against a cliff by five opposing samurai as his father, on horseback, comes to the rescue. In the centre of the chaotic battle is the Fukuhara mansion, with the illfated child emperor Antoku, dressed in red, seated beside his mother and grandmother. 52 JAPANESE Boy’s Day Festival Armour Tango no sekku yoroi たん ご せっ く よろい 端午の節句鎧 Taisho-Showa period early 20th century, Japan metal, lacquer, silk, gilt, wood, cotton, fur, (other materials) On loan from the Pauline Gandel Collection The traditional festival of Tango-no-sekku (Boy’s Day) is held on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month (5 May in the modern era). On this day each family with boys would hang carp wind-socket flags at the entrance to their house and decorate their home’s tokonoma (special display alcove) with a miniature toy suit of samurai armour. The festival celebrated the samurai virtues of honesty, courage, benevolence, respect, self-control, duty and loyalty that all boys were expected to aspire to during their passage to adulthood. 53 JAPANESE Saddle and stirrups with crane and turtle design Tsuru kame zu kura to abumi つる かめ ず くら あぶみ 鶴亀図鞍と鐙 Edo period 1665 Japan lacquer on wood (maki-e), gold foil, silver, pigment, plant fibre (cord), dyes, metal, leather, (other materials) Acquired, 1889 460.1-3-D2 This set of saddle and stirrups, purchased by the NGV in 1889, features a relief lacquer (taka maki-e) design of redcrowned cranes and turtles, the symbols of good fortune and longevity, and plum blossoms over a cascading waterfall, indicating spring and reincarnation. The upper part of the stirrups display open-work water-plantain (omodaka) and three-tiered water chestnut (matsukawabishi) crests. Inscribed on the underside with the year Kambun 5 (1665), these ornate pieces may have been re-lacquered in the late Edo period (early to mid nineteenth century). 54 JAPANESE Saddle and stirrups with vine design Tsuta zu kura to abumi つた ず くら あぶみ 蔦図鞍と鐙 Edo period 1642 Japan lacquer on wood (maki-e), gold foil, silver foil, pigment, plant fibre (cord), dyes, metal, leather, (other materials) Purchased, 1888 2025E-G-D1A This set of saddle and stirrups, purchased by the NGV in 1888, features a relief lacquer (taka maki-e) motif of twisting vines with berries and, on the upper part of the stirrups, open-work Europen-style umbrellas (nanban kasa). Inscribed with the year Kan’ei 19 (1642) this set may have been relaquered in the late Edo period (early to mid nineteenth century). 55 JAPANESE Campaign jacket with oxalis crest Katabami mon iri jinbaori かた ばみ もん いり じん ば おり 片喰紋入陣羽織 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan wool, cotton, silk, gold (thread) Purchased, NGV Asian Art Acquisition Fund, 2014 2014.27 56 JAPANESE Box for horse trappings with chrysanthemum crest Kikumon iri umakazari bako きく もん いり うま かざりばこ 菊紋入馬飾箱 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan lacquer and gold leaf on wood and leather, paper, metal, (other materials) Accessioned, 1888 57 2025K.a-c-D1A JAPANESE Horse trappings Umakazari うま かざり 馬飾 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan leather, boar hair, silk, lacquer, metal, wood, wool, cotton, hemp, copper alloy, metal (thread), gold (thread), paper Acquired, 1889 460.13-14, 25-27, 30, 32-D2 58 JAPANESE Horse blanket with bell flower wheel crest Rindōguruma mon iri umagimu りん どうぐるまもん いり うま ぎぬ 竜胆車紋入馬衣 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan wool, cotton, gold pigment on leather, leather, silk and metal (thread), (other materials) Unaccessioned item 59 JAPANESE Horse stable Umagoya-zu うま ご や ず 馬小屋図 Edo period early 17th century, Japan six panel screen: ink, pigment and gold paint on paper, lacquer on wood, silk, paper, metal Purchased NGV Foundation, 2008 2008.4 Horses have been regarded as auspicious symbols since ancient times, when actual horses, or votive paintings of horses, were offered to shrines by those who believed in their protective power. Horses were of prime importance to the samurai in military engagement, travel and ceremonial parades. In this folding screen we see noble horses striking energetic poses in spacious and spotlessly clean stables set against a background of bamboo and golden clouds. The group of immaculately groomed horses display powerful physiques, beautiful markings and pedigree patterns that symbolise their great prestige, as well as the social status of their owners. 60 JAPANESE Armour undergarment with oxalis crests Katabami mon iri yoroi-shita かた ばみ もん いりよろいした 片喰紋入鎧下 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan cotton Purchased, NGV Asian Art Acquisition Fund, 2014 61 2014.28 JAPANESE Stirrups with triangular scale design Uroko mon abumi うろこもんあぶみ 鱗紋鐙 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan iron alloy, silver, lacquer, metal Unaccessioned item 62 JAPANESE Saddle with hollyhock, and plum blossom design Kiri ume zu kura きり うめ ず くら 桐梅図鞍 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan lacquer on wood (maki-e), gold foil, silver foil, gilt-leather, copper alloy, silver, (other materials) Gift of Mr Keith Murdoch, 1926 63 2810-D3 JAPANESE Fudō Myōō ふ どうみょう おう 不動明王 Muromachi period 14th century –15th century, Japan wood, pigment, gilt Collection of Raphy Star, Melbourne The fierce Buddhist deity Fudō Myōō is recognised as the protector of Buddhism and of all those who practise Buddhist teachings. He is portrayed standing upon a rock, to symbolise his immovability, and holding a sword and coil of rope. With his sword of wisdom, Fudō Myōō cuts through deluded and ignorant minds; and with his rope binds those who are ruled by violent passions and emotions. Many samurai revered Fudō Myōō as a symbol and role model for their own lives, and some were known to carry miniature representations of Fudō Myōō on their person in battle. 64 Cultural pursuits Dedicated warriors who risked their lives in battle cultivated a consciousness for living life as richly as possible, and hence a deep reverence for the arts and literature. Not only were the samurai skilled swordsmen and archers, they were also great patrons of Noh theatre and famous for their practice of Zen philosophy, calligraphy and the tea ceremony. They were renowned as custodians of classical literature, such as the eleventh-century novel Tale of Genji and the anthology of ancient poems Hyakunin Isshu. The samurai took great pleasure in the sophisticated noble pastimes of falconry, incense games and poetry games, and many were accomplished poets in their own right. 65 JAPANESE Fireman’s cape Ondori taiko hikeshi zukin おん どり たい こ ひ け ず きん 雄鶏太鼓 火消し頭巾 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan wool, silk (lining, thread, braid), copper alloy (eyelets, thread, buttons), cotton (thread), glass, (other materials) Gift of Mrs M.Stewart Webb, 1952 1256B-D4 During the Edo period the Tokugawa shogunate established a government fire defence system led by samurai. This decorative helmet and cape that clip together, leaving a narrow section to allow vision, would have been worn by a samurai fire brigade leader. Roosters were believed to dispel evil spirits (because the morning light dispels darkness) and, when seated on war drums, were a favoured symbol of samurai. The Edo period was a 260-year era of peace during which the samurai were unable to pursue their true vocation as warriors; hence it is interesting to note that these war drums are entwined by growing vines. 66 JAPANESE Fireman’s helmet with hollyhock and chrysanthemum crests Kiku to kiri mon iri hikeshi kabuto きく きりもん いり ひ け かぶと 菊と 桐紋入火消し兜 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan copper alloy, lacquer, silk (lining, thread, braid), metal (thread, braid), leather, cotton (lining) Gift of Mrs M.Stewart Webb, 1952 67 1256A-D4 The tea ceremony The tea ceremony became a fundamental part of political negotiations, and often functioned as a peaceful method of soothing confrontations between samurai clans or rival factions. During the Muromachi period (1333–1568) a formal style of tea was practised that used fine green celadon and dark tenmoku-style hare’s fur and oil spot glazed tea bowls that preserved ties to Chinese tea culture. During the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1568–1615) innovative tea masters, such as Sen no Rikyu and his disciple Furuta Oribe (a high-ranking samurai), established a new and uniquely Japanese style of tea known as Wabi-cha that used rustic and irregularly shaped Raku tea bowls created by Rikyu and the potter Chōjirō, and tea bowls decorated with whimsical and often abstracted nature designs in the taste of Furuta Oribe. 68 CHINESE Tea bowl Seiji chawan せい じ ちゃ わん 青磁茶碗 Southern Song dynasty 1127–1279 Longquan, Zhejiang province, South-east China, China stoneware (Longquan ware) Gift of H. W. Kent, 1938 69 3699-D3 CHINESE Tea bowl Tenmoku chawan てん もくちゃ わん 天目茶碗 Southern Song dynasty 1127–1279 Jianyang, Fujian province, South-east China, China stoneware (Jian ware) Bequest of Leonard B. Cox, 1976 AS77-1976 70 JAPANESE Tea bowl Chawan ちゃ わん 茶碗 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan earthenware (Raku ware 楽焼) Felton Bequest, 1927 71 2860A-D3 JAPANESE Tea caddy and bags Chaire shifuku ちゃ いれ し ふく 茶入仕覆 Edo period 17th century, Japan stoneware, silk, silk (cord) Felton Bequest, 1932 3334.a-c-D3 72 JAPANESE Tea scoop Chashaku ちゃしゃく 茶杓 Edo period 20th century, Japan bamboo Gift of Mr W. P. Wilkinson, 1926 73 2779-D3 JAPANESE Tea bowl Chawan ちゃ わん 茶碗 Momoyama period 桃山時代 1568–1600– 15 Japan stoneware (Narumi Oribe ware 鳴海織部焼) Purchased with funds donated by Mitsubishi Corporation, 2012 2012.218 74 Noh theatre Noh is a masked dance-drama that developed in the Muromachi period (1392– 1568) under the patronage of the Ashikaga shogunate. While kabuki was popular with the merchant classes it was considered a vulgar form of entertainment by the upper classes, who found the more elegant and subtle style of Noh philosophical and inspirational. Not only did Noh hold an official ceremonial function at formal receptions, but ranking samurai were also expected to be able to chant Noh verses by heart at any given time. Wearing masks and ornate silk robes, Noh actors chant in poetic rhythms moral accounts of ancient stories that mediate between the real world and supernatural occurrences. Many rulers, including Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and samurai generals were known to perform Noh enthusiastically. 75 JAPANESE Noh theatre robe, Atsuita Nōshōzoku Atsuita のうしょうぞく あつ いた 能装束厚板 Edo period late 18th century – early 19th century, Japan silk, gilt-paper, silk (thread) Felton Bequest in honour of Allan Myers AO President of the Council of Trustees of the NGV, 2012 2012.262 The striking alternating block design of this atsuita costume, worn mainly for male roles, displays auspicious symbols of bamboo grass leaves (sasa), cloud shaped gongs (kumochoban), stylised flowers (karabana) and interlocking deer horns. 76 DEME Hidemitsu (attributed to) 伝 出目 栄満 Japanese 17th century –18th century Noh mask, Ōbeshimi Nōmen Ōbeshimi のう めん おお べし み 能面 大癋見 early Edo period 17th century, Japan pigments, ground shell and animal glue on Cypress (Hinoki), silk (thread, cord) Purchased with funds donated by Allan Myers AO and Maria Myers AO, 2011 2011.352 Ōbeshimi is a tengu, a mythical goblin that lives deep in the mountains and possesses supernatural powers. The best-known tengu play is Kurama Tengu, where the goblin of Mt Kurama trains the young samurai prince in exile Minamoto Yoshitsune, imparting to him secrets of military strategy. 77 JAPANESE Noh mask, Chūjō Nōmen Chūjō のう めん ちゅうじょう 能面 中将 early Edo period 17th century –18th century, Japan pigments, ground shell and animal glue on Cypress (Hinoki), silk (thread, cord) Purchased with funds donated by Allan Myers AO and Maria Myers AO, 2011 2011.351 The character of Chūjō is based on the ninth-century poet and romantic Ariwara no Narihira. Narihira was a warrior of imperial lineage who became known as an ideal man, and was the inspiration for roles of gallant samurai generals and noblemen and, it is believed, the lead character of Murasaki Shikibu’s Tale of Genji. 78 DEME Mitsunaga 出目 満永 Japanese active 17th century Noh mask, Shakumi Nōmen Shakumi のう めん しゃく み 能面 曲見 early Edo period 17th century, Japan pigments, ground shell and animal glue on Cypress (Hinoki) Purchased with funds donated by Allan Myers AO and Maria Myers AO, 2011 2011.350 Shakumi is a middle-aged woman with worldly experience. The loose strands of hair give her the careworn air of one who has lived and survived through trials and tribulations, and for this reason she often appears in the role of a mother. 79 JAPANESE Noh theatre robe, Karaori Nōshōzoku Karaori のうしょうぞく から おり 能装束唐織 late Edo period 1913–35 Japan silk Felton Bequest in honour of Allan Myers AO President of the Council of Trustees of the NGV, 2012 2012.264 The delicate design of this karaori costume, worn mainly for female or spirit roles, displays autumn flowers that include chrysanthemums (kiku), bell flowers (kikyō) and bush clover (hagi). 80 Riusai Japanese active 19th century Inrō with one thousand crane design Senbazuru inrō せん ば づる いん ろう 千羽鶴印籠 Edo period 19th century, Japan ivory, silk JAPANESE Netsuke of immortal Sennin netsuke せん にん ね つけ 仙人根付 Edo period 19th century, Japan ivory Gift of Mr Geoffrey Innes in memory of Mr Guy Innes, 1960 81 133-D5 Kakōsai Shinryosai Japanese active 19th century Inrō with pilgrim and shrine gate Henro torii zu inrō へん ろ とり い ず いん ろう 遍路鳥居図印籠 Edo period 19th century, Japan lacquer on paper (maki-e), gold, motherof-pearl, coral, ivory, stoneware, metal, silk, (other materials) JAPANESE Netsuke with two chinese boys Karako zu netsuke から こ ず ね つけ 唐子図根付 Edo period 19th century, Japan lacquer Gift of Mr Geoffrey Innes in memory of Mr Guy Innes, 1960 137-D5 82 JAPANESE Inro with ancient pine tree Oimatsu zu inrō おい まつ ず いん ろう 老松図印籠 Edo period 19th century, Japan lacquer on wood, gold, gold alloy, copper alloy, ivory, silk JAPANESE Netsuke of chrysanthemum Kikuka netsuke きく か ね つけ 菊花根付 Edo period 19th century, Japan ivory Felton Bequest, 1921 83 2292-D3 YAMADA Jōkasai Japanese active 19th century Inrō with carp climbing a waterfall Koi ni taki zu inrō こい たき ず いん ろう 鯉に滝図印籠 Edo period 19th century, Japan lacquer, gold alloy, gold, silver, metal, ivory, silk (cord) JAPANESE Netsuke of boy with drum Danji ni taiko netsuke だん じ たい こ ね つけ 男児に太鼓根付 Edo period 19th century, Japan ivory Felton Bequest, 1921 2291-D3 84 KORYŪSAI Japanese active 19th century Inrō with mountain and village landscape Bōkyō zu inrō ぼうきょう ず いん ろう 望郷図印籠 Edo period 19th century, Japan lacquer on paper (maki-e), mother-of-pearl, gold, agate, silk, (other materials) JAPANESE Netsuke of puppy dog Kuji netsuke く じ ね つけ 狗児根付 Edo period 19th century, Japan ivory Felton Bequest, 1921 85 2290-D3 Samurai in times of leisure In their leisure time, leading samurai held authoritative and educated social positions, wore luxuriant robes, commissioned beautifully crafted and painted works of art and employed man servants to assist with daily requirements. Inrō – compartmentalised boxes attached by a cord and toggle (netsuke) to the waist sash of a male kimono – became essential accessories and were a further expression of the samurai’s cultivated tastes. Various motifs appear on inrō: one hundred cranes represent longevity; the ancient pine tree symbolises wisdom and resilience; the carp swimming up a waterfall symbolises strength and determination; pilgrims represent religious piety; and a traditional mountain and village landscape symbolises nostalgia for a simple and contemplative life close to nature. 86 Felice BEATO Italian/English 1832–1909, worked throughout Asia and Europe 1853–90 Samurai doctor and patient Ishi to kanja い し かん じゃ 医師と患者 1866–68 Japan albumen silver photograph, colour dyes Purchased through the NGV Foundation with the assistance of The Herald & Weekly Times Limited, Fellow, 2001 87 2001.4 Felice BEATO Italian/English 1832–1909, worked throughout Asia and Europe 1853–90 No title (Samurai with pistol and sword) Bushi ni kenjū to katana ぶ し けんじゅう かたな 武士に拳銃と刀 1860s –70s Japan albumen silver photograph, colour dyes Gerstl Bequest, 2000 2000.233 88 JAPANESE High ranking formal jacket and trousers Hitatare ひた たれ 直垂 Edo period 1600–15–1868 Japan silk Acquired, 1889 89 460.7-8-D2 Images of bravery, blood and bravado During the closing decades of Japan’s feudal era, artists working in the popular and greatly loved art form of ukiyo-e woodblock prints produced some of the most visually imaginative and dramatic images in the history of Japanese art. Popular subjects included stories of legendary samurai and their superhuman feats of bravery, as well as action-packed images of current-day traumatic events in which samurai sacrificed their lives for the emperor and for the preservation of a nation guided by the ideals of Bushido. 90 Utagawa KUNIYOSHI 歌川 国芳 Japanese 1797–1861 Ushiwaka overcoming Benkei at Gojō Bridge Yoshitsune Ichidai-ki Gojō no hashi no zu よし つね いち だい き ご じょうの はし の ず 義経一代記五条ノ橋之図 Edo period c. 1839 Japan colour woodblock Felton Bequest, 1909 91 432.a-c-2 This print illustrates the famous first encounter between the young samurai Minamoto Yoshitsune (1159–1189), also known as Ushiwaka-maru, and the warrior monk Benkei at Kyoto’s Gojō Bridge. Benkei was informed by a swordsmith that upon collecting 1000 swords a magical blade could be forged for his personal use. Benkei had successfully challenged all those who crossed Gojō Bridge and amassed 999 swords when the twelve-year-old Yoshitsune approached as his 1000th challenger. Benkei was confident of an easy victory; however, the young warrior’s superior acrobatic skills and lightning-quick sword were too much for Benkei who, defeated, pledged to become Yoshitsune’s dedicated follower. Utagawa YOSHITORA 歌川 芳虎 Japanese active 1850s –80s The Night Attack of Kumasaka at Akasaka Station in Mino province Mino no kuni Akasaka shuku Kumasaka yoiuchi no zu み の のくにあかさかしゅくくま さかよい うち の ず 美濃国赤坂宿熊坂夜討之図 Edo period 1860 Japan colour woodblock Purchased, 1992 AS12.a-c-1992 This is another print illustrating an episode in the life of the popular young samurai hero Yoshitsune. In 1174 Yoshitsune joined the travelling group of a wealthy gold merchant, Kaneuri Kichiji. When they stopped for the night at Akasaka in Mino province, Kinbai and his group was attacked by the notorious bandit Kumasaka Chōhan and his gang of outlaws. Caught in a dramatic beam of light shone from a Japanese torchlantern, here we see Yoshitsune fighting two opponents simultaneously – striking one on the shoulder with his sword as he extends his fan to block a blow from the giant outlaw chieftain Kumasaka. 92 Utagawa YOSHITSUYA 歌川 芳艶 Japanese 1822–66 The death of Kusunoki Masatsura Kusunoki Masatsura uchijini no zu くすのきまさつらうち じに の ず 楠正行討死之図 Edo period 1862 Japan colour woodblock Purchased, 1993 AS9.a-c-1993 In this adrenaline-filled print we see the famous fourteenth-century general Kusunoki and two fellow warriors battling through a storm of arrows at the battle of Sakainoura in 1348. In the poetic tradition of many samurai, before his final battle Kusunoki composed the following death poem, brought to life in this melodramatic woodblock print: I have a feeling I will not be returning, so among the names of those who died by the bow I inscribe my own. 93 Utagawa KUNIYOSHI 歌川 国芳 Japanese 1797–1861 Kataoka Dengoemon Takafusa, No. 15 from the Stories of the true loyalty of the faithful samurai Seichū gishi den Kataoka Dengoemon Takafusa jūgo せいちゅう ぎ し でん かた おか でん ご え もん たか 誠忠義士傳 片岡傳五石衛門髙 ふさ じゅう ご 房 十五 Edo period 1847 Japan colour woodblock Gift of Joanna King, 2013 2013.1032 These two prints are from Kuniyoshi’s famous series featuring each of the fortyseven rōnin (masterless samurai) from one of the most famous stories in Japanese history, the Chūshingura (Tale of the Loyal Retainers). The story concerns a group of loyal samurai whose leader was compelled to perform ritual suicide after assaulting a villainous court official. After patiently waiting and planning for more than a year, the group avenges their master’s death in a dramatic assassination attack. Although committing murder, the rōnin had fulfilled their duty and loyalty to their deceased lord. In turn, they could die honourable deaths by performing their own ritual suicide. 94 Utagawa KUNIYOSHI 歌川 国芳 Japanese 1797–1861 Yata Gorôemon Suketake, No. 36 from the Stories of the true loyalty of the faithful samurai Seichū gishi den Yata Gorōemon Suketake sanjūroku せいちゅう ぎ し でん や た ご ろう え もん すけ 誠忠義士傳 矢多五郎右衛門祐 たけ さんじゅうろく 武 三十六 Edo period 1847 Japan colour woodblock Gift of Joanna King, 2013 95 2013.1031 The revenge attack of the forty-seven rōnin (masterless samurai) took place on a snowy winter night in 1703. Each of the rōnin makes his way throught the streets of Edo disguised in black-and-white zigzag firemen’s coats. After scaling the walls of their antagonist’s compound, a frantic battle took place. This print features the samurai Yata Goroemon Suketake running among pieces of broken paper screens (shoji) and scattered flowers, his sword raised with both hands. To this day the forty-seven rōnin are regarded as cultural heroes and are honoured with traditional holidays, as well as in countless kabuki plays, movies, novels and manga. Tsukioka YOSHITOSHI 月岡 芳年 Japanese 1839–92 The death of the rebel leaders of the Kumamoto uprising Kumamoto bōdōzokkai uchijini no zu Meiji shōshi nenkankiji くまもと ぼう どう ぞっ かい うち じに の ず 熊本暴動賊魁討死之図 めい じ しょう し ねん かん き じ 明治小史年間記事 from the A short history of the Meiji Period: A record of events series Edo period 1876 Japan colour woodblock Purchased, 1992 AS16.a-c-1992 The Kumamoto uprising, also known as the Shinpūren Rebellion, was one of a number of uprisings that took place in the early Meiji period in reaction to the new government’s policy of modernisation (Westernisation) that was bringing change to traditional Japanese cultural values, dress and society. This print was published in the same year as the event, as a special edition with narrative description included in the upper right. The dramatic and blood-drenched scene can be interpreted as a romantic and somewhat melancholic view of the final futile attempts by the samurai to preserve the traditions of Bushido. 96 Tsukioka YOSHITOSHI 月岡 芳年 Japanese 1839–92 The suicide of Saigō Takamori Saigō Takamori seppuku no zu さい ごう たか もり せっ ぷく のず 西郷隆盛切腹図 Edo period 1877 Japan colour woodblock Purchased, 1993 AS4.a-c-1993 Saigō Takamori was one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history and is often referred to as ‘the last true samurai’. Saigō was instrumental in overthrowing the Tokugawa shogunate and establishing the new Meiji government, but his own conservative attitudes soon clashed with the new government’s policy of modernisation and reform. He returned to his native Satsuma province and in 1877 led a rebellion against the new government. After seven months of intense fighting, the revolt was put down. The exact manner of Saigō’s death is unknown. One popular initial account was that he performed ritual suicide after trying to escape by sea. 97 © COPYRIGHT This document remains the property of the National Gallery of Victoria and must be returned upon request. Reproduction in part or in whole is prohibited without written authorisation.
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