非英語圏諸国のビジネスに刺滝て使われる英語の諸問題 二 フ… ンス

Issues surrounding En.glish language use in. business in non−Anglophone coun.tries:
Freneh Case Studies(Part 1)
Iss覗es surr⑪u】ndi】ngl E]ng互ish盈εm9醜ε魁ge覗se i】n長》繍s童】ness i】n
賂⑪三一A鞭gloゆh⑪賂e e⑪繍賂triesl Fre簸eh C翫se S加。d丑es(P鯉t 1)
Beverley Elsom Lafaye
Key words English, Lingua Fran.ca, Attitudes, Perception,
キーワード 英語、リンガフランカ、態度、認識
One o:f the consequences of globalization lies in the alteration in linguistic ability
required of staff in the wor:kplace、 The organic expansion of companies along with
mergers and acquisitions across borders have brought with them a rapid increase in
the need for English, and in intemational companies located in non−Anglophone
countries a need for a functional bilingualism in wor:kers at many levels of a business。
This is :necessary to facilitate the s:mooth ru:nrling of the office, e:nsure efficient
business dealings with native spea:kers of English in other companies, non−native
speakers of English needing to communicate using the established lingua franca, as
well as Anglophones at headquarters abroad, when, for example, these are in North
America。 Part of a project in progress, this work focuses on two companies in which
En.glish is on.e working language of two or three。 Using questionnaires with follow−up
in.terviews, it looks at who is using English arld how and assesses attitudes to English.
The two companies focused on were Infores and Toyota France。 The study shows the
importance of English as a working language at different levels of non−Anglophone
companies in a non−Anglophone country。 The attitude to English in the companies
studied is positive、
東海学園大学研究紀要 第16号
English language teaching continues to be a multi−million dollar industry and people
worldwide struggle to leam the language in order to improve their career prospects
and future lives。 Literature on the impact of English globally abounds. Its position as
the lingua:franca, concrete data describing its uses and the extent of its influences, in
addition to compelling reasons for aiming at competence in the language are
succi:nctly laid out i:n the frequently cited The Future of E:nglish(Graddol,1997), an
established reference。 What is missing in the research is an insight into how English
is used in. the workplace and what attitudes and issues exist there。 Educators want to
see some outcomes of their language training efforts and see what is required of them、
They also want to see the results of the investments in time spent leaming the
English language by learners(now become workers). Was their language−leaming
experience adequate, failing in some way or useless?It would be particularly useful to
know what the situation is in non−Anglophone countries, as many non−native spea:kers
of English using the lan.guage in. their daily work−lives are using English in their own
COUntrieS, nOt On aSSignmentS OVerSeaS。
English is becoming progressively more crucial in companies in non−Anglophone
countries as companies themselves develop or are taken over in this age of mergers
and acquisitions、 But research on English use in them is only just beginning to appear。
Asmall study isolating English舶tensive lobs has been found on English in businesses
in. South America(Oza:ki,2010)but the author could find none focusin.g on. English in
busin.ess in Asia which will feature in Part 20f this study、, It appears that the latest
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part l) 205
studies on English use are being carried out in Europe. The ELAN.cat (2006) report,
whose key findings from language research in the workplace showed the economic
impact and lost business owing to poor communication skills ift Catalonia is one of the
recent studie$ available. A large study recently made in Italy, (incelli, 2008) drew
similar coftclusions. Two further, often-cited studies on language in busiftess led by
Stephen Hageft (i999, 2006) also looked at the negative effects of foreign language
skills shortages from the point of view of its economic impact. Little research is
available on the situation in France though the author found uitexpected results
regarding attitudes, in a general study, unfortuftately ftot specific to business (Bakke,
2004), which provided unexpected re$ults regarding positive attitudes to Engli$h in
France. It concluded that the view that the French are anti-Eftglish is stereotypical
and the attitude to British Eitglish (though not American Eitglish) i$ quite positive.
However Bakke fouftd in the French a negative attitude to speaking the language
which they attribute to a laftgwage-teachiftg problem in France. This matches one of
the questions raised in the present paper.
Another study which touches on English in business (but with a main interest in
language and Europeait Youth) i$ Berns' (2007) In the Presence of English. It is
informative about the role of English, the influence of media in language acquisition
and other variables which create positive or negative attitudes in youftg Europeans.
The demaitd for English is strong in the French workplace (Margie Berns et al p 20).
Truchot (1997) found that there was a requirement for language (95% requiring
English) in on average 70% of the jobs po$ted in Le Monde, a major French new$paper.
It would therefore seem timely to find out what happens once workers are in the
companies requiring such laitguage skills.
Ba¢kgromawad, Goals thwad imwwovaStoww
This paper seek$ to addre$s the following questions: 1. What is the status of Engli$h
in your office, who is using it in the workforce, and what is its importance? 2. What
attitudes exi$t towards Engli$h and why? The hypotheses are 1. Eitglish competence
is crucial for the workforce in non-Aftglophone companies in a non-Anglophone
206 Si<i4kptt¥ii:muiAct¥ii:iEiFill{ikEIilill (Ilfg161i:}L
environment 2. French workers have a ftegative attitude to English.
Aside the initovative nature of this oitgoing re$earch, the chaftces for its sutccess lie in
its fton-threatening aspect. Enquiries in business are most often undertaken by
governmental bodies, interma1 or external auditors or other companies. All come with
a potentially threatening agenda. The present enquiry, coming from academe and
haviitg as its goal to inform pedagogy, i$ itot only fton-threatening but of a positive
nature for employees. In addition, the object of enquiry was English but the language
of enqutiry wa$ French. This makes the situation more comfortable for respondent and
makes an honest dialogue more likely.
Reasons originally prompting the study were two-fold. First, the author learned how
a poor level of Eftglish inhibited the career progress of a Freftch acquaintaitce when
the company was taken over (bought ouO by a foreign organization. Secondly, a
different French acqutaintance workiftg in a foreign company headquartered overseas
but with a large business concern in France, struck up a conversation ift competent
Eitglish with the author, wheit the laftgutage of commutiticatioit prior to that had for
many years been French.
The study, at this stage of the project, is not intrinsically comparative, (though some
obvious comparisons have been isolated in the findings), therefore the size of the
companies and study group is considered unimportant
MatewtaMs thrmd Metkod
Data was collected in two intermational companies, both operating in Paris, Infores (a
market research compaity) aitd Toyota France (an automobile sales company). The first
company is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Symphony IRI Group (most recent available
figures: 2008 revenue $700,OOO,OOO, 3500 employee$, of whom 600 work in France).
The second company is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Toyota Motor Company (2010
estimated reverme $2 billion, 300,OOO employees worldwide, i75 at Toyota France).
A fu11 workiftg day wa$ spent at each office, questioitnaires were distributed and
completed, and follow-up interviews were conducted. In total, 29 questionnaires were
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part l) 207
completed, 22 in the first company, with 7 follow-up interviews. In the second
company, 7 questionnaire$ were distributed and all respondents were interviewed. 27
of the respondents were French nationals, the other two were Japanese residing in
France. Note was taken of natioftality when aitaly$e$ were done aftd findings being
drawn up.
The questionnaire (French, see Appendix 1 and rendering in English Appendix 2) was
broken down into 30 statement$, of which 20 were graded item$ on a Likert Scale
(Likert, 1932). Another bipolar scaling method measuring emotional association with
a word, Osgood'$ 1957 Semaniic differential $cale, made up the final 10 items of the
questionnaire. (see Findings). in this section each respondent was requested to choose
where his or her position lay on 10 Semantic differential scale items, ift answer to the
question `where do you situate your response to the Eftglish language. At interview,
respondenis were encouraged to expand on responses made in the questionnaire and
to give further details about their work and their feeliftgs about English.
imSrodwwctiorm to tke qwwestgowa rawage armd caSegorgsatgown
Four question categories were established for the enquiry and questionnaire items
were desigited to gather information about the$e:
1. Who is using Eftglish in your company and with whom?
2. As the Lingua Franca, English has a growing importance in the workplace
worldwide. How i$ your compafty responding to that?
3. What is your attitude toward Eftglish?
4. How do you rate your English level and Eftglish learning experience?
Eftglish competeitce is important for workers ift a noft-anglophone internatioital
company, even in a non-Anglophone environment
Given the position of English as the Lingua Franca, English competence is required
208 Si<i4kptt¥ii:muiAct¥ii:iEiFill{ikEIilill (Ilfg161i:}L
and English will be in regular use in an international company, even when it is
operating in a noit-Aftglophofte coutntry. Responses to statement$ 1, 3 aftd 4 aitd i9
(Category 1: Who is using English?) support this. For statement 1, 75.9% of
respondents strongly agreed that English is almost always used in commuitications
with foreign companies and 20.7% agreed, and for statement 3, 69% of respondents
strongly agreed that they almost alway$ communicate in English with $ubsidiary
companies and 24.1% agreed with this (see Chart 1 below). For statement 4,
respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement that only maitagers
need to communicate in English in their company (51.7% and 24.1% respectively).
Confirming the importaitce of Eftglish a$ a useful commutiticative tool, in answer to
statement 19 `English is useless in my professional 1ife', all respondents said that they
disagreed or stroftgly disagreed with this (27.6% and 72.4% respectively). There were
significant differences in respoftse frequencies in statements 1(x2==60.83, df==3, p<.Ol),
3(X2 :48e76, df :3, P<eOl), aitd 19(X2 :58e07$ df :3, P<eOi)e
QzEl. Foreign Companies alikost always use English in their communications with ediks.
Qu3. I almost always cominunicate with ottr subsidiary compankes m English
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part 1)
Qtx19. English is Naseiess iit my Professioma1 Life
Concerning Category 2, if a company acknowledges the importance of Eftglish iit the
workplace, company policy will reflect this. Responses to statement 2 support the
tenet. 55.2% of respoftdents $trongly agreed that the company sponsors language
training for its employees and 37.9% agreed. 6.8% of respondents were uftdecided or
disagreed. However, in re$ponse to statement 6, less thait half of the respondents
(44.8%) agreed that English is a criteria for promotion in their company and
respondiitg to $tatemeni 5, ju$t uftder half (48.3%) thoutght that recent recruitment
favours candidates who use English proficiently (41A% agreed and 6.9% agreed
stroftgly, 31% were undecided aftd 20.7% disagreed). Regarding evaluation of Engli$h
level (using tests such as TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language or TOEIC
- Te$t of Eitglish for Interftatioital Commuiticatioit), the eitquiry in statement 7, 42% of
respondents agreed that these tools are indispensible, almost ofte third of the
respondenis were undecided about this. There were also $ignificant differeitces amoitg
response frequencies in statements 2(x2=36.34, df-3, p<.Ol), 5(x2==16.69, df-3, p<.Ol),
6(X2 :1Oe83, df :3, P<eO1) aftd 7(X2 :iOe21, df :3, P<eO1)e
French workers have a negative attitude to English and laitguage teaching.
Statements 9, ii, 12, 13, 15, 17, i& 20 (Category 3: What is your attitude toward
Eftglish) help gauge whether French workers attitudes are negative or not.
Of the most significant findings, respondents agreed overwhelmingly (89.65%) that they
like Eftglish ($tatemeitt 11) In respoftse to statement 17, `it i$ quite natural that
academic publications and commercial publications, like websites, should primarily be
210 Si<i4kptt¥ii:muiAct¥ii:iEiFill{ikEIilill (Ilfg161i:}L
in Eftglish', combiniftg those answering that they strongly agree and those answering
that they agree, (6.9% and 44.8% respectively) 51.7% agree that this is ftormal. In
response to statement 18, 17 respondents (almost 61% of the sample) thought it not
unacceptable that the global language $hould be English. Concerning entertainment,
respondents in the main preferred to watch film in the original language of
production, not dubbed into French, ju$t over half (51.7%) of the respondents said they
preferred to watch film in its original production language. 31% disagreed with this
and 17% were utndecided.There were significaitt difference$ in respoftse frequeitcies in
statements 17(x2- 17.03, df==3, p<.Ol) and 18(x2= 2395, df==3, p<.Ol).
Statements 8, 9, 10, 14, 16 (Category 4: What is your opinion about your level of
Eitglish?) provide information about respondents' perception$ of their Eftglish level in
addition to some insight into their attitudes. 75.86% of respondents said that they read
Eftglish better than they $peak it, ($tatement 14.) 62.06% of them said that they write
it well (statement 16) and 37% of the respondents think that English is less accessible
to French natioitals than Latin laftgutages (statement 9) are but over half the
respondents, 51.8% disagreed. The two Japanese nationals' results were not put in this
equatioit. 75.86% of re$poitdent$. The mo$t $ignificant result in thi$ category was the
response to statement 8, `My country's Eftglish teaching methods are excellent' (see
graph 1). 48.28% of respoitdents said that they disagree with the statement and 27.59%
of them said they strongly disagree, that is 75.87% in total. Statement 8 had
$ignificant difference$ amoftg re$poitse frequeitcies (x2-2083, df=3, p<.Ol).
tw gg#ftby"$ emgll$k twgeetwge ee$thed$ gs"e $xeebekS
Graph X.
ggx$$ "isagfee
Below are the results of two very different responses on the Semantic differential
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part l) 211
items presented:
Co.1. Respondent who considers himself poor at English
1.<ii"i:Rff:icuit : :: ::mxm:: :: :ga$y
2.offputting: :: ::-x-:: :: :pleasant
3.lj$gie$$ : :: ::w:: ::wwxww:iftcti$pen$abie
4.wttru$ive : :: ::x:: :: :weieeme
5.poor : :: ::mxM:: :: :rich
6.$iffkple : :: ::-x-:: :: :compeex
7.ob$cure : :: ::x:: :: :ciear
8.ambiguou$: :: :: ::muxmu:: :preci$e
9.b#ring : :: :: ::mxm:: :intgre$ting
10.beeeutifui : :: ::-x-:: :: :asgey
Co. 2. Respondent who consider$ himself good at English
zciiMi:f:icljit : :: ::wwx-:: :: :gee$y
2.offputting: :: :: ::muxmu:: :pieft$ant
3.usele$$ : :: :: ::mxm::ww :iftcei$pen$abie
4.intras$ive : :: :: ::x:: :welcome
5.p*or : :: :: ::wx-:: :rich
6.$impie : :: :: ::mxm:: :eempEex
7.ob$cure : :: :: ::x:: :clear
8.nrrkbiguau$: :: :: ::-x-:: :preci$e
9.bering : :: ::wx-:: :: :intgre$ting
10.beautifui : :: :: ::muxmu:: :ugEy
Hypothesis 1. English competence is crucial for the workforce in an international
company in a iton-Anglophone environment
It is a common trend for larger compaities in Europe to use Engli$h as a working
language and the recent ELANcat study (2006), surveying companies in Catalonia,
perceived a$ far le$s internatioftal a locatioit than Paris, fouitd that 25% of compaities
(with 100-245 workers) use English as a working language. The present results suggest
212 Si<i4kptt¥ii:muiAct¥ii:iEiFill{ikEIilill (Ilfg161i:}L
that English, if not a stated working language, is certainly in regular demand in the
two compaities visited. Workers need to u$e Eitglish both with branches and
customers for practical aftd organizatioftal reasons. Toyota France is a wholly-owned
subsidiary of TMC Japait. It would follow aftd is in-keeping with recent 1inguistic
research that a majority of non-natives are more likely to communicate with other
noit-itatives in the Liftgua Franca Engli$h rather thait one of their owit ftative
languages, in this case Japanese or French. Similarly, Infores is part of a muki-national
company, Symphony-IRI, based in Chicago in North America and English would be a
matural language of communication choice here also, first because fewer Americans
$peak French, a fact lamented by President Obama (2008) and Spanish foreign
language education is growing in contrast (Emily Ser, 2009), but also because the
French would be expected to speak Eitglish, eveft if there were ito hierarchical issue
in play. Moreover, in one interview, the author learned that some colleagues in the
organization (Infores) might sometimes speak French but accent would make
comprehensibility difficult so the interaction would soon revert to English. Examples
were of Indiaft, Spanish and Italiaft colleagues. Concerniitg the latter, older Spaftiards
(45+) and Italians would be expected to have better French than Eftglish but English
language teaching has overtaken Freftch teachiftg iit recent decades iit these counirie$.
Eitglish is not requtired only by managerial $taff but throughout the workforce at
Infores, though this has ftot been verified at Toyota France. In both companies a
range of communications in English is required: reading/writing of emails, marketing
or other reports and press releases; reading of feedback from internatioftal confereftces
and 4-skills competence in meetings for example in England or other Anglophone
countries. Much of the required competence is in reading and writing but spoken
competence is also necessary, for example for powerpoint preseniations, conference
calls, aftd weekly phone reports.
Because companies are acknowledging the pressing need for workers with good
Eftglish commutnication $kills, they often offer $taff or requtire staff to have language
training. The results show that this is true at these two companies though neither
company appears to offer $ystematic trainiftg or regular / $ustained language programs.
Toyota France offers more opportuftities than Infores. Interestingly, akhough less than
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part l) 213
half of the respondents thought that recent recruitment favoured those with strong
Eftglish laitguage skills, at interview a $eftior executive confirmed that at lea$t ift the
the past half decade nobody had been recruited without a good command of English.
Corroborating thi$, a 25 October 2010 advertisement for a Data Proce$sing Engineer
for Infores asked for the following profile requiring candidates to be perfectly
Pr#fig:De formeztton ingenieeex vons eles a l'esise dezns limvironnement injormeztiqese. Vbscs
etes Paneitement bilingueQ4nggais?. Voecs etes yogontaire, rigaureas et organise, bon
commeeniqsceznt (Oral & eerew (Cezdres APec Fvaneoj.
TOEIC (Te$t of Eftglish for Internatioma1 Commutnication) has become one of the mo$t
widely-used tests in business, some 4.5 millioft examinees taking it per aftnum
worldwide. The ftumber of test takers in France is iit third place worldwide after
Korea, no other European country coming near its level of numbers. (Chateau, 2009).
It has been embraced by the French Navy among other prominent establi$hment$, and
for over a decade some 30 Ecoles d'ing6nieurs (see ETS website) and many `grandes
ecoles' have required its student$ to have a high score (arouitd 750) to enier their
schools. The test has been criticized for its multiple-choice format aftd for not testing
commutnicative ability (ebid, 2009) but it continues to attract growing numbers of testtakers.
In the present study, 6 of the 29 respondents in the present study had taken either
TOEIC (created for the Japaitese government as aft alternative to the more academic
TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language) or TOEFL. One male and one
female had taken both and 3 males had taken TOEFL, one of which wa$ a Japanese
national, and one other female had taken it. All were aged between 25 and 45. 0ne
female respondent between 25 aitd 45 had taken BULATS, a British-grown business
Eftglish test. It was unexpected that so many respondents had no opinion about
whether snch tests are useful or not. 32.i% aftswered `utndecided'. This led the author
to query whether all respondents knew about these tests. Clearly the 42.8% who
consider the tests indispensible are familiar with them, but one respondent igftored the
question entirely and put a question mark next to the statement, confirming
214 Si<i4kptt¥ii:muiAct¥ii:iEiFill{ikEIilill (Ilfg161i:}L
ignorance. In future studies acronym explanation should be provided, for information
purposes and out of courtesy to re$poitdent$.
It should be noted that while Eftglish can be and i$ likely to be increasingly used as
a working language in non Anglophone countries, the legal language in companies
operating on French soil remain$ French, which mean$ that legal communications
must be in French. This has been law since 1994 (law 94-665 of 4 August 1994) and
is known as the Toubon Law, (Toubon being the Miitister of Culture at that time) and
mandates the use of the French language in official government publications, in all
advertisements, iit all workplaces, in commercial contracts among others.
In contrast to these requirements for English in compaftie$ in fton-Anglophone
countries, an interesting example of a French company attempting to make it possible
for their foreign staff to commuiticate in French is that of a major French bank. Thi$
baftk offered French classes twice a week and at different levels for its non-French
employees workiftg in London (per$onal communication, Alliance Francaise teacher
who established the program in the mid-1980s) so reinforcing the position of the
French language in it$ offices ift a noft-Fraitcophone coutntry.
EIypothesi$ 2. French workers have a negative attitude to English.
Britain and France have a loitg hi$tory of rivalry and the battle of the languages is
one that has persisted through into the 21st Century. The prowess of English as the
global laftgutage is dute to the ecoftomic $ucces$ of the United States, not Great Britain,
but historically it was with Britain that France vied for economic and linguistic
power. It is only recently that French ha$ been losing its position as the established
diplomatic language, for example. One might therefore expect a resistance to the use
of Eitglish in the workplace and a generally negative attitude to it. The re$ults of this
small study suggest otherwise.
First, a majority of respoftdents like English (see findings). In additioft well over half
thought that the position of English i$ acceptable a$ a global language. This i$ not a
view shared by the French establishment (see the Toutbon Law, above), but perhaps
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part l) 215
this can be explained by a youftg sample of employees ift the study or the fact that
they are working in internatioftal busifte$ses aftd / or pro-Eitglish. It may be of note
that only one quarter of the respondents are over 45 years of age. A final mark of a
positive approach to Eitglish i$ the willingness to watch film iit it$ original language
of production. Traditionally, the French dub film and television series alike. In the
study, just over half of the respondents preferred to watch film in its original
The Semantic Differential Items allowed the author some interesting observations of
the respondents' attitude$ to Eftglish or their Eftglish ability. Generally speaking
speakers seeing themselves as poor communicators in English seem to choose the
mediait or to the left of the $cale whereas $peakers with more confideftce in their
Eftglish language ability choose items to the right. No clear results could be
ascertained, pending further data. However, at interview, an overwhelming ftumber of
the linguistic items interviewees chose to advaftce as their respoftses to English
denoted a po$itive attitude to the language. They were a$ked to de$cribe Eitglish and
to say what English meant to them. Chosen items included `precise', `rich', `subtle',
`utsefu1', `efficieite, `elegant', `complex', `global', `progress', `passion', `exchange', `pa$spore,
`work', `pleasurel `toolk `necessity', ℃ommunication'.
The most interesting results and additional information coming up at interview
coftcerned re$poitdent$ opinions of their Eftglish level. It wa$ fto surprise that most
thought that they wrote and read English better than they spoke it, given that
speaking is more taxing. However they inexplicitly attributed at least some of the
responsibility for their poor communication skills and disappointing English level to
the laftguage teachiftg they received at school. Thi$ was true of the whole group
irrespective of age, with responses supported in interviews. Comments included the
view that Engli$h edncation in France i$ `catastrophic', that Engli$h edncation is too
academic and impractical and not good at the primary level. There were complaints
that teacher$ are good at grammar but caft not and will not speak. In addition some
respondents corroborated a finding by French sociolinguist Claude Truchot concerning
perfection. (Trnchot, 1997): teachers demand perfection. At interview, one respondent
said that people are very afraid of making mistakes in English. He spoke of the `per
216 Si<i4kptt¥ii:muiAct¥ii:iEiFill{ikEIilill (Ilfg161i:}L
fection barrier'. Another spoke of the psychological barrier where language is
coftcerned. Coitcerning the criticism of laftgutage teaching, the two Japanese
respondents shared their French colleagues' ftegative feelings. This is not to say that
personal responsibility was refu$ed. As reported, 4i% acknowledged ftot putting above-
average effort into English language learning but the majority were more damning of
language educatioft.
This study i$ a work iit progress aitd thi$ article comprises ait inierim report. The
study goes some way to supporting the first hypothesis that Eftglish is an
indispensible tool for fton aftglophine internatioital compaities even wheft they operate
in non-Anglophone countries. However, many more companies need to be investigated
before any concrete conctusions can be drawn.. The second hypothesis that the
French worker has a negative attitude to English was largely refuted and it was
fouftd that positive attitude$ to Engli$h were the norm, though the respondenis had
serious reservations about laftguage teachiftg in their countries.
No research method is infallible and in the case of Likert scales one can speculate
about the motivatioit$ afty re$pondent may have for hi$ responses, not least what
Garrett et al (2003) call the social desirability bias: a teftdency to give socially
appropriate aftswer$ to appear well-adju$ted, rational, opeit-minded and democratic.
However, the research methods used in the study appear well-suited to the purpose
although the qutestioitnaire would beftefit from refinement. On a technical level,
reliance on notetaking during interviews was a grave error. Future interviews must be
recorded, preferably with a video recorder. After $ome remodeliitg, there are countles$
companies in Europe and Asia which will be good targets for this research. In Japan
alone there are two prominent companies which have recently declared that they will
use English as the official language in the company. These two companies are
Rakuten aitd Uniqlo and should be inve$tigated. The qutestioitnaire should be
translated into Japanese and workers interviewed in their own language in order to
get optimum re$ults. The researcher is itot an ethftographer exactly here, but by
speaking the respondents' language a relaxed, unthreatening research environment can
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part l) 217
be created.
Some implications for language study come from this study. We saw that students do
itot become u$efu1 functionally bilingual employees if the early experiences of
language learning are not made to be made practical and effective. A communicative
aspect of English language learning should be favoured as student$ begin to master it$
basics structures.
Finally, the most significant observation, if we allow a comparison of the two
companies under investigation, i$ that the growth in compaity 2 was organic but
company 1 became intermational as a result of a takeover. Employees who had been
in the company before that takeover fouitd themselves throwft into a workplace with
a different working language from the one which they knew and operated in when it
was a mational market re$earch success. Snddenly, owing to a takeover by a compafty
in another nation, employees found themselves linguistically ill-equipped for work in
a global eitvironment. Educator$ need to cater to the economic and laftgutage needs of
companies and employees. For as Willy Brandt once said, "If I am selling to you, I
$peak your language. If I am buying, dann mUs$en sie Deutsch sprechen" (DePalma,
2006). He who pays the piper calls the tune The tune is in the language of the piper.
Bakke, A. (2004). A Stecdy of French Attitecdes to English University of Bergen,
unpublished doctoral the$is
Berns, M., Bot, Kees de, Hasebrink, U. (eds) (2007) in the Presenee of English, Springer
Cadre$Apec (2010) Cadres. Apec. fr/MesOffres/RechercheOffres/ApecRechercheOffre.
jsp?offreSid27116035&partenaireSid==OptionCarriere&xtor=AL-411 (retrieved from the
world wide web)
Chateau C. (2009) TOEIC - The Test of English for International What?, TEEL. NET
retrieved from the world wide web: http://www.tefl.net/alexca$e/teach-abroad/toeic-atest-of-what/
DePalma, D. (2006) English Rntes the emlorld. Why Globesldee? COM (Chief Marketing
Officer) Magazine
218 Si<i4kptt¥ii:muiAct¥ii:iEiFill{ikEIilill (Ilfg161i:}L
In cmomagazine.com/amalyst/031805 (retrieved from the world wide web)
ELAN.cat (2006) Are Cut(zlon bwsinesses mntlilingscezl enaugh? Linguamon-UOC Chair of
Multilingualism and the Government of Catalonia's Ministry of Innovation
FCE/CPE http://www.cambridge.org/exams
Graddol, D. (1997) The Futscre of Enggish2 The British Council
Hagen, S. (i999) (ed) Beesiness eommesnientions across borders: A sleedy of langscezge wse
aud Practice in Eeeropean comoautes. London: Centre for Information on Language
Teaching and Research
Hagen, S. (2006) (ed) ELAN: Efrigcts on the Eecropean Economy of Shortages of Fontgn
Leznguage Skill in Entemprise London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching
and Research
Incelli, Ersilia. (2008) Foreigft laftgutage management iit Lazio SMEs Lesngscezge Poliey
7(2): 99-120
Lafaye, B & Tsnda, S (2002) Attitudes toward Eftglish Language Learning in Higher
Educatioft in Japan interncntteeral Commecnication Stecdies Vol. xi: 3 p.155tw173
Likert (1932). A Technique for the Measurement of Attitude$, Archive$ of Psychology
140: 1-55
Obama, B. (2008). CBS News iith July 2008 (retrieved from the world wide web)
Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. (1957) The mcaseerement of meaning. Urbama,
IL: University of Illinois Pre$s
Ozaki, S. (2010) English eese in 3 Becsiness Domains in Puerto Rieo. Presented at JACET
Ser, E. (2009) ExPlntning the decline in Freneh Foreagn Language Stscdtes in the dnited
Stales. In helium.com (retrieved from the word wide web)
TOEIC/TOEFL http://www.ets.org
Truchot, C. (1997) From France to a more Geiteral Perspective WOrld Englishes i6
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part l) 219
Apmpendfix X
ewQufirc (vmes!oN mANcAisew
Bonjour, je m'appelle Beverley LAFAYE. Je represente une universite japomaise, Tokai Gakuen
Daigakz2, et je fais z2ne etz2de sur 1'anglais dams le cadre professioitnel dans des pays itonAnglophones. Vous m'aideriez beancoNap en r6pondant a ce qtgestionnaire h cette enqtgete avec la
plus grande franchise. Je vous remercie par avance pour le temps que vous voudrez bien m'acc
order. Toutes les informationS personitelles que votxr foz2rnirez resteront anonymes.
PRffMwaRff PARTma
Instructions: Pour chaque proposition, cochez ia case qui reflbte ie miez2x votre opinion.
Exerrkpie: J'airrke la mttsiqNae classiqtxe. Tont h fait d'accord eeeeeeeeePas dNa tont d'accord
Tout h fait d'accord Plut6t d'accord x Indecise Plut6t pas d'accord Pas du tout d'accord
1. Les companies 6trang6res ayant ttn contact avec moit entreprise commz2niqtx6 presqz2e totxjours
avec nous en anglais
Tout h fait d'accord Plut6t d'accord Indecise Plut6t pas d'accord Pas dtt tout d'accord
2. Mon entreprise subventionne 1'apprentisage de 1'anglais
Tont h fait d'accord Pltgt6t d'accord Ind6cise Pitgt6t pas d'accord Pas dtx toNat d'accord
3. Je communique presque toujours avec les filiales de mon enterprise dans d'autres pays non
Anglophones en anglais
Tont a fait d'accord Pltgt6t d'accord Ind6cise Pitgt6t pas d'accord Pas dtx toNat d'accord
4. Seul 1'encadrement a besoiit de communiquer en anglais dans cette enterprise.
Tout h fait d'accord Plut6t d'accord Ind6cise Piut6t pas d'accord Pas dtx toz2t d'accord
5. Les personnes embatgch6es ici dtgrant les derniers 5 ans manient bien i'anglais.
Tout h fait d'accord Plut6t d'accord Indecise Plut6t pas d'accord Pas dtt tout d'accord
6. Vanglais est z2n crit6re de promotion dans cet enterprise.
Tont h fait d'accord Pltgt6t d'accord Ind6cise Pitgt6t pas d'accord Pas dtx toNat d'accord
7. Les tests tels que le TOEFL, TOEIC, FCE CPE etc sont des outils indispensables pour evaluer
soit niveatt d'anglais
Tont h fait d'accord Pltgt6t d'accord Ind6cise Pitgt6t pas d'accord Pas dtx toNat d'accord
8. Les in6thodes d'apprentissage de 1'anglais au niveau secondaire dans mon pays sont excellentes.
Tout h fait d'accord Plut6t d'accord Ind6cise Piut6t pas d'accord Pas dtx toz2t d'accord
9. Vanglais est moins accessible a mes compatriotes qtxe ie sont les langttes Latines.
Tout h fait d'accord Plut6t d'accord Indecise Plut6t pas d'accord Pas dtt tout d'accord
10. J'estime qtte j'ai fourni z2n effort stxp6riez2r a ia moyenite potxr 6ttxdier 1'aitglais.
Tont h fait d'accord Pltgt6t d'accord Ind6cise Pitgt6t pas d'accord Pas dtx toNat d'accord
Rtapt¥mupit¥ew3℃kEee ag16g
J'aime Yaitgiais.
Tout h fait d'accord
12. J'ai
Plut6t d'accord Indecise Plut6t pas d'accord
Pas dtt tout d'accord
plmsieurs amis de iangz2e anglaise.
Tont h fait d'accord
d'accord Ind6cise Pitgt6t pas d'accord
Pas dtx toNat d'accord
23. Le s6jour liitguistique est indispensable pour maitriser une laitgue etraitgere.
Tout h fait d'accord
Plut6t d'accord Ind6cise Piut6t pas d'accord
Pas dtx toz2t d'accord
14. Je iis mietgrx 1'anglais qtge je ite le parie.
Tout h fait d'accord
Plut6t d'accord Indecise Plut6t pas d'accord
Pas dtt tout d'accord
15. Je pr6fere regarder les fiims aitgiais en v ersion originale.
Tont h fait d'accord
d'accord Ind6cise Pitgt6t pas d'accord
Pas dtx toNat d'accord
Plut6t d'accord Ind6cise Piut6t pas d'accord
Pas dtx toz2t d'accord
26. J'ecris bien 1'aitglais.
Tout h fait d'accord
17. C'est normal qNae
les ptxblicatioits
acad6miqNaes et commerciales (exemple site-web)
redig6es en aitglais en majorit6.
Tout h fait d'accord
Plut6t d'accord Ind6cise Piut6t pas d'accord
Pas dtx toz2t d'accord
18. La position de la iangNae anglaise globalement est iitacceptable.
Tout h fait d'accord
Plut6t d'accord Indecise Plut6t pas d'accord
Pas dtt tout d'accord
19. Lhitgiais ite me sert az2cttnement dans ma vie professionnelle.
Tont h fait d'accord
d'accord Ind6cise Pitgt6t pas d'accord
Pas dtx toNat d'accord
20. Les mots 6trangers qtt' on emploie, `walkinan', `weekend' etc m'incommodent.
Tout h fait d'accord
Plut6t d'accord Ind6cise Piut6t pas d'accord
Pas dtx toz2t d'accord
DmeUXmeMme PARTwa
Vetxillez r6agir a chacuite des paires de mots concernant la langue aitgiaise dans la serie
et cocher ia case qtgi reflete ie mieNax votre opinion.
21.ciifficile :
22.rgbarbativg :
23.ifiutile :
24. evavfthi$$ante :
25.pauvre :
26.$impie :
27.ob$cure :
28.ambigwe :
29.eftnasyeas$e :
30. beiig :
: faci!e
: agreaioig
: indi$pen$aioie
: bienvenue
: riche
: cewmpiiqlj6g
: ciairg
: preci$e
: intgre$$nnte
: pas ioeiig
Issues surrounding Eltgiish }anguage use in business in non-Ang}ophone coulttries:
French Case Studies (Part l) 221
TROiSeeeMff PARTiff: DONNecS maRSONNewLms
Nationalit6:Francais(e) CEE Autrenationalit6
Mari6(e): C61ibataire Sexe:Homme Femme
Age:Moinsde25ans entre25et45ans
Plus de 45 ans
Dip16mes: Le BAC (otx eqtxivalent) BAC pltxs 2 BAC plms 4
Conitaissaitce d'aitgiais:
Je comprends 1'anglais:
unpetx bien tr6sbien
Je parie i'anglais:
unpen bien tresbien
Merci beaucoup B E Lafaye
Appendix 2
1. Foreign companies commz2nicate with my company almost exciusively iit English
2. My company sponsors English langtxage traming
3. I coinmunicate with our subsidiaries and branches iit other noit-Anglophone countries in
4. 0itly middle mauagers and exectxtives need to commtgnicate in Engiish in this corrkpany
5. Staff recruited by my company in the last 5 years use English well
6. English is a criteria for promotion in this company
7. Tests sNach as TOEFL TOEIC FCE, CPE are indispensible toois with which to evaluate one's
English level
8. Langz2age teaching methods at secoitdary schools iit my cotxntry are exceilent
9. The English 1angtxage is less accessibie than are Latin languages to nationals in my coNantry
20. I thiitk I have inade ait above average effort to study Eitglish
11. I like English
12. I have several Eitgiish friends
23. A period of study abroad is indispensible in order to inaster a foreign language
14. I read English better than I speak it
15. I prefer watching films iit the origima1 iangNaage rather than dtgbbed in French
26. I write English well
17. It is right that academic and commercial (for example website) pz2blications shotxld primariiy
be in Eitgiish.
東海学園大学研究紀.要 第16号
18。The position of English as the global language is鷺nacceptable to me
19. English is useless to me professionally
20.English loanwords,1ikピwalkman四weekend’etc bother me