NETHERLANDS GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK A report into the workplace needs, attitudes and aspirations of Gen Y Netherlands 1 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK CONTENTS FOREWORD FOREWORD3 For such a relatively small nation, the Netherlands punches well above its weight. With a population of 16.7 million and a land mass of just 33,730 sq. km (about twice the size of the state of New Jersey in the US), it may come as some surprise to know that the Netherlands possesses the eighth most competitive economy in the world according to the World Economic Forum.1 Impressively, the country also ranks fourth in the United Nation’s Human Development Index,2 and fourth in the World Happiness Report issued by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network.3 SUMMARY OF OUR RESEARCH 4 1. GEN Y NETHERLANDS AND THE WORLD OF WORK 6 2. LEADERSHIP 10 3. ENTREPRENEURSHIP 14 4. ATTRACT 16 5. RETAIN 20 6. TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL MEDIA AT WORK 24 ABOUT HAYS 26 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 The glowing reputation of the Netherlands doesn’t end there. The country also boasts a very favourable employment environment, being one of the best places among developed nations for work-life balance and with an average household disposable income of US$29,697 (way above the OECD average of US$23,938).4 These prosperous conditions have their roots in a long history of profitable Dutch business. Beginning with the prosperity generated by international merchant trading (most notably through the Dutch East India Company) in the seventeenth century, a Dutch affinity with trade and business continues today. The Netherlands is home to some of the world’s most ubiquitous businesses and brands such as Unilever, Philips and Heineken. Alongside these established companies, many organisations are springing up. The Dutch government is seeking to improve the nation’s start-up ecosystem in recognition of the fact that these new businesses account for a large part of job growth in the Netherlands.5 With this background, Gen Y Netherlands have developed unique expectations of their life and work. Many of them have had to begin employment in less desirable jobs, making them hungry for enjoyable, interesting and challenging work. They also display some very typical Dutch cultural preferences, such 2 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK as an appreciation for sociability, which is reflected in their desire for a fun working environment and a social life around work. But work is not just about socialising for Gen Y Netherlands: this group show strong signs of initiative and self improvement, making them keen to follow in the footsteps of the accomplished Dutch businesspeople that have gone before them. Our report which follows is based on the answers given by 1,000 respondents from Gen Y Netherlands. We asked them questions around several key areas of employment. They were asked about their attitudes to issues surrounding their work and careers. We wanted to know what attracts them to a potential employer and what makes them stay in a job. We asked what they look for in an ideal boss and what they regard as markers of success in their careers. We explored their attitudes to changing jobs and starting their own businesses. We also asked about their use of social media that is transforming the way people throughout the world communicate both at work and in their leisure time. Reading this report will give you a detailed picture of Gen Y Netherlands: what they are looking for in a job, how to motivate them and what they can bring to your business. We’ve also looked beneath the survey results and offer practical insight and support to the HR community, line managers and business leaders as they seek to engage and motivate this segment of the workforce. James Cullens Group HR Director Hays GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 3 SUMMARY OF OUR RESEARCH ABOUT OUR SURVEY GENDER SPLIT For our thirteenth Hays report on the needs and aspirations of Gen Y worldwide, we asked young people in the Netherlands to tell us how they see their future at work. 39.0% A total of 1,000 members of Gen Y Netherlands answered our survey. 34 per cent are students or in full time education, ten per cent are unemployed and a further 24 per cent are working part time. Male 46% Female 54% 21.5% 17.9% 9.8% 8.7% 3.1% Only 25 per cent are working full time, the lowest out of any country we surveyed. It seems that, among this generation, a full time career starts later than for most. This research explores what young Dutch people look for in the world of work, what kind of career they aspire to, the rewards they expect and what gives them job satisfaction. It throws light on the kind of working environment they seek and the qualities they look for in their bosses. YEARS IN WORK 13–24 months 0–12 months 25–36 months Over 3 years AGE SPLIT 9.9% 5.4% 7.9% 8.2% 7.0% 9.4% 6.9% 7.6% 7.2% 6.3% 7.4% Still in full time education Not started working since completing full time education CURRENT WORKING STATUS 8.9% 7.9% 34.2% 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 23.5% Finally the research reveals some insights into the way Gen Y Netherlands relate to social media and technology. The findings are invaluable for HR departments and organisations seeking to recruit, motivate and retain Gen Y Poland as part of their workforce. REGIONAL REPRESENTATION 15.7% 9.7% 8.9% 46.5% 6.0% 2.0% 32.5% Student/ in full time education Working part time (up to 40 hours per week) Working full time—in first full time job (40 hours per week or more) Unemployed and looking for work Working full time—not first full time job (40 hours per week or more) Other Intern No rth & Ea st Ne th er la nd W s es tN et he rla nd So s ut h Ne th er la nd s 21% PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS A total of 1,000 18–30-year-olds living in the Netherlands answered our survey. Nearly one quarter are working part time, and 34 per cent are still students/in full time education. Very few (five per cent) run their own business. Our respondents come from all over the Netherlands, and those in work cover a wide number of sectors. 4 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 5 1. GEN Y NETHERLANDS AND THE WORLD OF WORK Gen Y Netherlands have been born into a nation with an impeccable working environment. As we’ll see, the Netherlands compares very favourably to other nations, particularly with regard to work-life balance—something that’s highly valued by the Dutch. With this background, Gen Y Netherlands have high expectations of employers as they embark on their careers. GEN Y NETHERLANDS’ IDEAL BOSS: 49% COACH/MENTOR CONFIDANT/ DISCUSS PRIVATE & WORK MATTERS COACH/MENTOR CONFIDANT/ DISCUSS PRIVATE & WORK MATTERS 49% INTERNATIONAL WORK OPPORTUNITIES 39.6% HAVE NO INTEREST IN INTERNATIONAL WORK WORKING IN NETHERLANDS BUT WITH INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL 18.5% WORKING IN NETHERLANDS BUT ON INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS 16.2% ANY KIND OF INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL 13.2% WORKING AND LIVING OVERSEAS 12.5% 6 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK Current demographic trends in the Netherlands put the onus on employers to meet or exceed these expectations. The Dutch workforce is aging, so with fewer employees coming into the job market, attracting and retaining the services of Gen Y Netherlands becomes extremely important. And we’ve discovered some interesting points about this group that will prove useful in building employee value propositions—Gen Y Netherlands are very well educated, show plenty of initiative, but they aren’t just motivated by money. They thrive on challenging and interesting work too. VALUE PLACED ON PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND EQUALITY Dutch politics is famed for what has become known as the Polder Model—a consensus-based approach to decisionmaking. This approach is also influential in Dutch business, where relatively flat organisational structures prevail.6 Dutch business leaders too typically adopt a consensus-based style; they’re usually impatient of formal hierarchies and want individuals to share their opinion in meetings.7 It seems that our Gen Y Netherlands sample are familiar and comfortable with this approach to work and leadership. They want a relatively familiar relationship with their boss. 49% 49% 22% ADVISOR 22% But it should be noted that Gen Y Netherlands’ management preferences 25% 26% 25% LEADER PEER LEADER PEER 9% 7% 9% 7% DIRECTOR/ ALLOCATOR OF WORK DIRECTOR/ ALLOCATOR are not all about familiarity. They OF WORK ADVISOR Just under half (49 per cent) want a boss who is a coach/mentor, a very similar preference to the Gen Y cohorts we surveyed in other European countries. An equal proportion (49 per cent), are looking for a boss they can confide in and discuss private as well as work matters. Perhaps Gen Y Netherlands’ desire for a personal, equal relationship with their bosses is most clearly expressed in a quarter who see their ideal boss as a peer. This is the highest among all Gen Y groups we surveyed worldwide. These preferences indicate that Gen Y Netherlands are much more likely to respond to leadership that invests in them in a personal way, rather than being distant and directive. 26% still appreciate more conventional leadership characteristics such as the ability to motivate (49 per cent) and decisiveness (31 per cent). STRONG ON INITIATIVE BUT NOT SELF-EMPLOYMENT Dutch business acumen put the Netherlands on the map in the 17th century with an explosion in international merchant trading. This same business awareness has kept the Netherlands as a major player in the global corporate world. Some of the world’s biggest companies are still headquartered there. While we have found that Gen Y Netherlands aren’t particularly enthusiastic about selfemployment, they still appear to have FRIEND FRIEND the necessary initiative to succeed in the business world, just like their forebears. Gen Y Netherlands’ desire to own their own business is among the lowest of all the countries we surveyed (only seven per cent say this is one of their main career objectives). However, when it comes to taking control of their work, this cohort scores highly—55 per cent want autonomy in what they do. This is perhaps good news for employers—the brightest minds of this group are not particularly likely to use their talents to run their own business, but are still willing to take clear ownership over their own projects at work. A similar degree of initiative is displayed in Gen Y Netherlands’ interest in further study. 94 per cent are willing to study or are GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 7 1. GEN Y NETHERLANDS AND THE WORLD OF WORK SATISFACTION AT WORK: MOST IMPORTANT TOOLS WHEN LOOKING FOR A NEW JOB 53% 49% 37% 35% 32% FEELING VALUED AND APPRECIATED VARIED/INTERESTING WORK FEELING YOU HAVE MADE A POSITIVE CONTRIBUTION FINANCIAL REWARD LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT already studying for further professional qualifications. Of those who are willing to study further, 37 per cent would do so if it helped them progress more quickly in their careers. When combined with the fact that 45 per cent see training and development as one of the most important factors when choosing a job, the picture emerges of a group that want to progress in their careers and take charge of their work. JOBS SHOULD BE FUN AND FLEXIBLE The employment environment of the Netherlands fares well when compared to other nations. It has the fourth best work-life balance and the second lowest number of people who work long hours among all OECD countries.8 It’s also financially favourable—the Netherlands ranks seventh for personal earnings in the OECD’s Better Life Index and GDP per capita is high at US$45,960 (compared to US$38,919 in the UK).9 With good 8 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK work-life balance and financial reward already an established part of the Dutch working environment, it’s not surprising that Gen Y Netherlands are looking for something more: specifically, a workplace that’s fun and with plenty of flexibility around working hours and location. 61 per cent say they want fun and social interaction in the workplace (by far the highest proportion among all the countries we surveyed). 45 per cent also say that social life around work is an important aspect of the office environment. As we’ll see, these preferences are an expression of the value the Dutch place on sociability and togetherness. Just behind the importance of a fun workplace comes flexibility: Gen Y Netherlands come top among all the countries we surveyed in their desire for the possibility of working from home (40 per cent) and flexible working hours (53 per cent). Just as revealing is what this cohort isn’t particularly looking for in a job. Only 23 per cent say that benefits offered are important when deciding to work for a potential employer, the lowest among all the countries we surveyed. This perhaps suggests that in the context of such a favourable working environment, Gen Y Netherlands assume good benefits to be a part of any decent employment offer. ENJOYABLE AND INTERESTING WORK CONTRIBUTES TO CAREER SUCCESS The population of the Netherlands is aging, which means that the number of new entrants to the Dutch labour market is decreasing. The demand for Gen Y Netherlands’ services is therefore likely to outstrip supply, making retention of Gen Y Netherlands hugely important for employers. Our sample give us some good pointers on the things most likely to keep members of this cohort in a job. They’re 48% THINK IT IS MOST IMPORTANT TO HAVE A ONE OR TWO-PAGE CV 23% 12% 7% HAVING A COMPLETE PROFILE ON LINKEDIN HAVING RECOMMENDATIONS ON LINKEDIN HAVING AN ACTIVE FACEBOOK PROFILE clear that enjoyment of work is what they want most from their careers rather than money. Their responses also tell us that interesting work with a good dose of challenge will keep them engaged. challenged constantly is what they want most from their work, the highest number among all the countries we surveyed. 76 per cent, by far the highest proportion among all the countries we surveyed, say that achieving job satisfaction/enjoying work is what best defines career success for them. It’s been suggested that youth in the Netherlands are using less desirable, less secure short-term contracts as a steppingstone towards the careers they want and it’s quite possible that this experience has taught them the value of enjoyable work.10 The Netherlands ranks first worldwide in terms of internet penetration for social networks Facebook and LinkedIn.11 Research also shows that the average smartphone user in the Netherlands is getting younger, with almost a third being students in Q3 2013.12 In light of all this, it’s no surprise to find that Gen Y Netherlands are prodigious users of social media. So prodigious, in fact, that it runs the risk of encroaching on their work life. However, despite their affinity with technology, our findings also show that they acknowledge the role traditional communications will continue to play, particularly in recruitment. Our survey also delved deeper into what exactly constitutes satisfying work for Gen Y Netherlands. Just under half (49 per cent) with some work experience say that varied and interesting work is what gives them most satisfaction in their jobs. Furthermore, more than one in three (36 per cent) say that to be PROLIFIC SOCIAL MEDIA USERS have the lowest number who can’t resist looking at work emails on holiday (22 per cent) and the fewest who find it hard to switch off from work at weekends due to constant connectivity (22 per cent). This combination of findings suggests that for Gen Y Netherlands technology is causing their social lives to encroach on work, rather than vice versa. Given their avid use of social media, it may come as some surprise that Gen Y Netherlands still see more traditional forms of communication holding sway in the workplace. Two thirds say email will be the most common form of communication in the workplace five years from now and 57 per cent say mobile phone calls. Similarly, when it comes to recruitment, the CV is still the most important thing to have (by far) when looking for a new job according to Gen Y Netherlands. Gen Y Netherlands has the highest number (63 per cent) who say that social media is distracting at work. Conversely, they GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 9 2. LEADERSHIP A 1998 GLOBE study on the Netherlands’ culture and politics remarked that the Dutch have a conspicuously low number of commemorative statues in the country, which is suggested to be a reflection of a collective, rather than individual, focus. “In Dutch culture,” says Henk Thierry of Tilburg University, “outstanding individuals are usually not identified in terms of being a hero: it runs counter to important values and habits to attribute unusual performance mainly, let alone exclusively, to individual characteristics.”13 Indeed, there are several commonly used Dutch proverbs that warn against trying to stand out from the crowd. An amusing example translates as ‘Don’t stick your head above the lawn, or it’ll get mown off’.14 This outlook has not prohibited Dutch business from flourishing, however. Some of the world’s leading brands were established in the Netherlands and remain under Dutch leadership today. Pioneering companies such as Unilever, KLM, Heineken, Philips and Royal Dutch Shell are just some examples of enduring Dutch business success. Behind these different stories of success lies a business culture borne out of the historical Dutch belief in the importance of consensus and group contribution rather than individual achievement.15 GEN Y NETHERLANDS’ IDEAL BOSS: 49% COACH/MENTOR 49% CONFIDANT/ DISCUSS PRIVATE & WORK MATTERS 22% ADVISOR 10 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 9% 26% DIRECTOR/ ALLOCATOR OF WORK 25% LEADER PEER 7% FRIEND The prevailing management style in the Netherlands, therefore, is one that does not focus on top-down decision-making processes. It is commonly suggested that the Dutch are keen for all interested parties to be happy before any firm decisions are made,16 and this approach has been broadly described as the ‘polder model’,17 relying on an ‘ingrained culture of cooperation and consultation.’18 Whilst the polder model has resulted in positive outcomes, such as good relationships between businesses and trade unions,19 striving for consensus has its drawbacks. Decision-making can often be slow as a result, with overly frequent meetings not uncommon. Whilst acknowledging the positive side of seeking consensus, German business writer Jacob Vossestein expresses his frustration with the Dutch tendency for numerous meetings by commenting that “it becomes a charade, a ritual, sponsored by coffee producers.”20 5 MOST IMPORTANT QUALITIES IN A WORKPLACE LEADER: ABLE TO MOTIVATE OTHERS KNOWLEDGEABLE/ EXPERT FAIR SUPPORTIVE DECISIVE 49% 49% 45% 33% 31% Some argue that the polder model is simply a strong desire for consensus but as John Peet observes in The Economist, it was clearly expressed in the institutional arrangements of the Netherlands after the Second World War.21 The private Labour Foundation, consisting of representatives of both employers and employees (commonly called ‘social partners’), was established first. Then in 1950, the government set up the public Social and Economic Council, which has government representatives on it as well. Peet observes that consensus and decentralisation are also built into the fabric of the Dutch political system. The Dutch republic was based on consensus among the seven provinces that initially made up the United Provinces. This consensus-based approach is reflected today in the Dutch parliament where proportional representation and the lack of any threshold before a party can gain parliamentary seats mean that there are many parties in parliament and governments are often coalitions.22 This predilection for consensus is accompanied by relatively flat organisational structures.23 The classic Dutch leader is often described as impatient of formal hierarchies,24 and individuals are expected to share their opinion in meetings as each person is seen to hold information that is valuable to the company.25 When doing so, individuals are expected to speak plainly—communication in the Dutch workplace is often direct and evasiveness is disliked. 26 The results of our survey show that the preferences of Gen Y Netherlands sit relatively well with prevailing Dutch leadership styles and business culture. They want a boss who treats them as an equal but they also expect him or her to be decisive. PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS PREFERRED TO DIRECTIVE MANAGEMENT The prevailing consensus-based approach to decision-making seems to have had an influence on Gen Y Netherlands’ managerial preferences. This group seem to look for egalitarian working hierarchies, and a personal relationship with management. When asked about their ideal boss, just under half of our sample (49 per cent) would describe them as a coach/mentor. This groups Gen Y Netherlands with their contemporaries in the other European countries we surveyed, with over 40 per cent of the Gen Y cohorts in Sweden, France, UK and Germany all choosing this same style of management. Their desire for a more egalitarian relationship with their boss is also seen in what they don’t want—only nine per cent describe their ideal boss as an allocator of work. It appears that Gen Y Netherlands are unlikely to function well under a manager who simply gives instruction. Equal to Gen Y Netherlands’ desire for a coach/mentor as a leader is their preference for someone they can confide in/discuss private matters with. The high value they place on this distinguishes them from their European peers. 49 per cent of our respondents say that this is the way they see their ideal boss. This is by far the highest number among all European countries we surveyed. It seems that Gen Y Netherlands want a boss who can be a mentor to them not just in work matters but also in their personal lives. We also found that a full quarter see their ideal boss as a peer, which is the highest among all Gen Y cohorts we surveyed worldwide. Gen Y Netherlands appear to want to relate to their boss as an equal, GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 11 2. LEADERSHIP where their views are respected and valued regardless of seniority. It doesn’t look like they will respond well to directive or distant management! This seems to fit with the prevailing business and political culture in the Netherlands.27 TRANSPARENCY EXPECTED AND VALUED IN LEADERS When it comes to the qualities they value most in a workplace leader, a quarter of Gen Y Netherlands say transparency and openness, which is joint highest among all the countries we surveyed (along with their neighbours Germany). The Netherlands has a reputation for being one of the least corrupt nations in the world—the country ranked eighth worldwide in Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2013.28 Dutch people don’t consider corruption to be a major problem in the Netherlands,29 and it seems that Gen Y Netherlands value this and expect their workplace leaders to live up to it. 12 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK MOTIVATION AND DECISIVENESS STILL IMPORTANT Even though Gen Y Netherlands appreciate egalitarian relationships with their bosses, they also value some fairly traditional characteristics. Just under half (49 per cent) think that the ability to motivate others is important in a workplace leader and 31 per cent value decisiveness. This latter finding sets Gen Y Netherlands apart from their contemporaries in Western Europe (only Gen Y Japan, Poland and China rate decisiveness more highly among all the countries we surveyed). This is perhaps a reflection of the Dutch tradition of direct communication and contribution to the decision-making process, and may be a trait valued in all colleagues rather than just leaders. Muriel Arts, co-founder of the SEAL Institute and former Unilever employee says: “The Dutch have a capacity to see a dilemma for what it is and look for solutions… During my time [at Unilever], it was often the Dutch who would set the direction and have strong opinions on issues.”30 IMPLICATIONS FOR HR Our survey indicates that Gen Y Netherlands want decisive, but not overbearing, leadership from their bosses. Companies will need to find managers who can combine decisive, transparent, motivational leadership with a willingness to involve Gen Y Netherlands employees in a personal way. : But perhaps one of the most profitable ways that organisations can foster good relations between Gen Y Netherlands employees and their bosses is to put wellstructured mentoring schemes in place. By the same token, employers should ensure that managers know they must invest in Gen Y Netherlands employees, listen to them, and not just act as allocators of work. It will also be important for Gen Y Netherlands to understand how their preferences differ to those of other nationalities too, especially for leading or participating in cross-cultural teams and working environments. GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 13 3. ENTREPRENEURSHIP 94% The Dutch have been successful entrepreneurs and traders for centuries, ever since the rapid development of international merchant trading in the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century. Even today, the economy of the Netherlands is dependent on foreign trade and derives more than 65 per cent of its GDP from both port activities and merchandise exports. The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and the third busiest in the world.31 ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS: ARE SELF EMPLOYED/HAVE THEIR OWN BUSINESS 5% 38% ARE NOT INTERESTED IN HAVING THEIR OWN BUSINESS 50% WOULD CONSIDER HAVING THEIR OWN BUSINESS IN THE FUTURE 7% AGREE THAT HAVING THEIR OWN BUSINESS IS THEIR MAIN CAREER OBJECTIVE This tradition of business activity has continued into the 21st century and the Netherlands is now fertile ground for start-up enterprises. It benefits from Europe’s fastest internet speed and second-highest broadband penetration32 and Martijn Groot, co-founder of Dutch startup Peecho, a print company, observes: “The cloud is connecting Amsterdam start-ups in the way the ocean did in the 15th century.”33 Amsterdam, along with Utrecht, is considered to be a creative centre and the cities of Rotterdam, Delft and The Hague are known 14 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK as technology hubs.34 Eindhoven also stands out as the home of High Tech Campus, a world-renowned R&D ecosystem. Along with the country’s competitive tax regime, which includes an effective business tax rate of five per cent and a research and development allowance,35 these factors have combined to make the Netherlands one of the most entrepreneurially appealing countries in the world. The country ranked ninth on the Global Entrepreneurship Development Index 2014.36 The High Tech Campus in Eindhoven, described as ‘the smartest square kilometre in the world’,37 is an organisation that aims to drive free sharing of ideas and facilitation of research and development of new technologies, environmental work and smart business. It comprises over 125 companies and institutes with 10,000 engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs. Companies from this campus are responsible for nearly 40 per cent of all Dutch patent applications.38 Companies associated with it include Accenture, Capgemini, IBM and Intel.39 And the Dutch government is set to introduce legislation that will further improve the Netherlands’ start-up ecosystem.40 Anne-Wil Lucas, the MP who proposed the legislation, says: “Start-ups make up for a lot of jobs, 60 per cent of the job growth comes from companies that didn’t exist five years ago. It’s only normal that we focus on those companies that can bring growth and job growth to the Netherlands.”41 But despite such favourable conditions for entrepreneurs, our Gen Y Netherlands sample don’t appear to have much enthusiasm for starting their own businesses or for international travel with work compared to their peers elsewhere. That isn’t to say, however, that this generation don’t have initiative or a desire for self-improvement. They are very willing to engage in further study when in work, especially if it brings them progression in their careers, more money or professional recognition. ARE STUDYING OR ARE WILLING TO STUDY FURTHER THROUGHOUT THEIR CAREER SELF-EMPLOYMENT NOT A PRIORITY Only seven per cent of Gen Y Netherlands say that having their own business is one of their main career objectives; this is the lowest proportion among all the countries we surveyed (the cross-country average is 19 per cent). Similarly, half of them say they are not interested in working for themselves (second fewest overall after Gen Y Japan at 58 per cent). As discussed previously, the Dutch language is littered with idioms and proverbs discouraging individuals from trying to rise above the rest.42 While business, innovation and entrepreneurship thrive in the Netherlands, the focus is not on the individual, and perhaps this cultural reluctance to stand out or break with normality may partly account for the lack of enthusiasm for selfemployment among Gen Y Netherlands. Even though self-employment isn’t a priority for the majority of Gen Y Netherlands, this shouldn’t be interpreted as a lack of initiative. Over half of them (55 per cent) want autonomy in their work. Companies should take this as an encouraging sign—they don’t want to run their own business, but they do want to take charge of their work. LITTLE INTEREST IN INTERNATIONAL WORK Our sample are also relatively uninterested in international work. 40 per cent say they are not interested in any international opportunities, which is the second highest proportion of all the countries we surveyed (just behind Gen Y Japan at 44 per cent). Only 13 per cent would like to live and work overseas, and just over one in three (35 per cent) are interested in working in the Netherlands with some international travel or on international projects (far below the cross-country average of 44 per cent). Impressively, the Netherlands is ranked third by the OECD in terms of earnings, job security and employment, and fourth in terms of work-life balance.43 Along with the vast amount of international trade coming through Rotterdam, perhaps these favourable conditions mean that Gen Y Netherlands don’t see any need to go abroad for work because they see so much opportunity at home. MAJORITY WILLING TO STUDY FOR ADDITIONAL QUALIFICATIONS The Netherlands ranks in the top ten OECD countries in terms of education standards44 and has an enormous 76 per cent enrolment rate in tertiary education, far above the world average of 30 per cent.45 It seems that this academic start in life has an impact on Gen Y Netherlands, and their thirst for knowledge does not stop when they leave school or university. Our sample are very interested in further study. 94 per cent of them are willing to study or are already studying for additional professional qualifications. Of these, more than one in three (37 per cent) say they would do so if it helped their career progress more quickly and one in four if it meant they could earn more money. Clearly Gen Y Netherlands are willing to study in order to get ahead, especially in view of the fact that for almost half of them (45 per cent), training and development is one of the most important factors for them when choosing a job. Our survey also explored the reasoning behind Gen Y Netherlands’ desire for further study. Interestingly, 19 per cent would study for additional qualifications if it meant they received more recognition at work. This puts Gen Y Netherlands joint second overall with Japan for this motivation (just one per cent behind China and Brazil). When viewed with some of our other findings, it appears that recognition is quite important to Gen Y Netherlands. Just under one in three (31 per cent) say achieving professional recognition is what defines career success and just over one in three (36 per cent) say personal recognition is what they want most from their career. IMPLICATIONS FOR HR Even though Gen Y Netherlands are not particularly entrepreneurial compared to their peers in other countries, this group should not be dismissed as lacking initiative. Not only do they want autonomy in their work but they are also eager to improve their prospects by taking part in further training and development. In fact, it is probably good news to companies looking to bring in the best of this young talent pool. The brightest minds are not as likely to start their own business as elsewhere, and can instead be attracted to working for organisations that offer them the right environment. To get the best out of Gen Y Netherlands, employers should give them the opportunities to run their own projects and look after their own deadlines. Companies can also foster this cohort’s desire to improve their prospects by providing or sponsoring training which helps progress their careers where possible, and encouraging a culture of continuous learning. It will also be important to spend time on developing appropriate financial and non-financial tools to address their desire for recognition, given the importance of this in defining career success for Gen Y Netherlands. GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 15 4. ATTRACT Gen Y Netherlands have grown up in a country with a highly favourable employment environment, and which performs well across a range of measures. Perhaps most notably it has the second best work-life balance among all OECD countries.46 This is likely related to the fact that the Netherlands has the second lowest number of people who work long hours (i.e. more than 50 hours per week) among OECD countries.47 The Dutch value time off and are disciplined at keeping their work within the confines of regular office hours,48 a similarity they share with their German neighbours. TOP FIVE FACTORS WHEN DECIDING ON A POTENTIAL EMPLOYER: FUN / SOCIAL INTERACTION 61% This did not have the negative effect on the economy many would have expected—in fact, it is argued that it was one of the key catalysts in the Dutch economic turnaround known as the ‘Dutch Miracle’. Unemployment fell from 12 per cent to five per cent, while the average work week was cut by three hours.52 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 45% REWARDS & BENEFITS FIVE MOST ATTRACTIVE REWARDS AND BENEFITS: 73% 53% FLEXIBILITY 43% 44% 40% The changes did not end there. In 2000, the Dutch parliament passed the Working Hours Adjustment Act. According to this law, workers who have been with a company more than a year can request an increase or decrease in working hours, and the employer can only refuse if they can prove it would cause significant financial difficulty for the firm.53 BENEFITS OFFERED 23% ONGOING STUDY OPPORTUNITIES 21% BASE SALARY The financial side of employment in the Netherlands is just as impressive. The country ranks seventh in the OECD’s Better Life Index in terms of personal earnings, with an average household disposable income of US$29,697 per year, compared to the OECD average of US$23,938.49 The GDP per capita is also high at US$45,960, which compares to the UK, for example, at US$38,919. 16 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK FLEXIBLE WORKING— WORK FLEXIBLE HOURS POTENTIAL TO EARN BONUS Against this context, it is no surprise that Gen Y Netherlands have some strong preferences for what they look for in a potential employer. They want more than a good work-life balance and fair financial compensation. In particular, we’ve found that they want to have fun in the workplace and a high degree of flexibility when it comes to working hours and location. FLEXIBLE WORKING— WORK AT HOME DESIRE FOR A FUN AND SOCIABLE WORKPLACE When asked about what’s most important when deciding to work for a potential employer, a staggering 61 per cent of Gen Y Netherlands say they want fun and social interaction. This is by far the highest proportion among all the countries we surveyed, nine per cent more than the next highest Gen Y cohort (Japan). 45 per cent also say that social life around work is important to them in terms of the work environment, with Gen Y Netherlands second only to their German peers in this preference. Taken together, these findings present Gen Y Netherlands as a very sociable group. This is perhaps partly explained by an important aspect of Dutch culture—gezelligheid. There is no direct translation for this word but it refers to a kind of togetherness, conviviality or social intimacy that is highly valued in the Netherlands.50 Contrary to many other Western countries, the Netherlands has made significant efforts to reduce the working hours of the population since the 1980s. In 1982 the Wassenaar Arrangement was signed by both employers and unions, which led to restrained wage growth in exchange for lower working hours and expanded part time employment opportunities. 51 DESIRE FOR FLEXIBILITY AND AUTONOMY Gen Y Netherlands’ appreciation for sociability in the workplace is followed by a desire for flexibility. They come out on top among all the countries we surveyed both in their preference for the possibility of working from home (40 per cent, equalled only by Gen Y Brazil) and the possibility of working flexible hours (53 per cent, equalled only by Gen Y Australia). Flexible working arrangements are one way to ensure a work-life balance is maintained and it may be that Gen Y Netherlands are aware of their country’s good reputation for reasonable working conditions, and are keen to see this continued. Employees that do this retain their rights in terms of hourly pay, holiday, pensions and sick leave. They are also expected to be considered fairly for other jobs and promotion. This law is especially important to working parents wishing to spend more time with their children, but is indicative of a wider trend in the Netherlands to create a better work-life balance.54 Perhaps related to the desire to choose their working hours and location is the fact that over half of Gen Y Netherlands (55 per cent) rate autonomy as an important part of a working environment. This is once again the highest proportion GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 17 4. ATTRACT MOST IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF THE WORK ENVIRONMENT: 76% 55% 45% 36% INTERESTING WORK AUTONOMY IN YOUR WORK SOCIAL LIFE AROUND WORK FLEXIBLE HOURS among all the countries we surveyed by nine per cent (the closest are Gen Y France with 46 per cent). In many other country reports we see a correlation between groups with high entrepreneurial intentions and interest in having flexibility or autonomy in their work. The Netherlands seem to buck this trend, and they are perfectly willing to achieve these kind of perks by working for others rather than themselves. CAREER PATH AND PROGRESSION LESS IMPORTANT Gen Y Netherlands also stand out in terms of what they don’t particularly look for in a job. First, they are notably uninterested in a defined career path. Only seven per cent say this is important to them when deciding to work for a potential employer, the least among all the countries we surveyed (the cross-country average is 26 per cent). This reticence towards a defined career path is probably one expression of Gen Y Netherlands’ strong preference for flexibility (as noted above). 18 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK Secondly, the ability to progress quickly in their careers is another factor which fails to muster much enthusiasm among Gen Y Netherlands. Fewer than one in five (17 per cent) see this as important—only Gen Y Japan are less enthusiastic about rapid career progression (12 per cent). Perhaps this is a sign of greater patience among this group, or a manifestation of the Dutch cultural unease with individuals who try to break from the crowd too much. Finally, benefits offered are also a relatively low priority for Gen Y Netherlands. Just over one in five (23 per cent) see this as important, which is the fewest among all the countries we surveyed. They are quite similar to neighbours Gen Y Germany in this regard, only 25 per cent of whom say benefits offered are important. The relatively low importance of benefits among Gen Y Netherlands makes sense in the context of a very good employment environment (outlined above), where personal earnings are relatively high and work-life balance is among the best in the developed world—it may well be assumed that these things are a given rather than a perk. IMPLICATIONS FOR HR Gen Y Netherlands are quite clear on what they want from a job. In particular, they are looking for a fun and sociable environment and a high degree of flexibility. Given the important part that sociability plays in Dutch culture and the value that Gen Y Netherlands place on it, companies will need to demonstrate that they are fun places to work at in order to attract the best talent. Evidencing such a working culture through employees and social media channels would be a sensible approach for many organisations to take. Organisations will also need to consider how to create an employee value proposition which takes account of Gen Y Netherlands’ strong preference for flexibility. The option of working flexible hours and, to a lesser extent, the possibility of working from home could be vital in attracting the best talent for some companies. Again, work-life balance and the rarity of long hours are established elements of Dutch working culture, so need to be respected and accommodated in any employment packages aimed at Gen Y Netherlands. GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 19 17 5. RETAIN The unemployment rate in the Netherlands rose steadily in 2013 to an average of around 8.5 per cent, above many of its European neighbours. However, while the youth unemployment rate is higher, at 11.5 per cent, it is considerably lower than many other European neighbours, such as the UK at 19.5 per cent, France at 23.6 per cent, Italy at 42.3 per cent and Spain at over 50 per cent.55 SATISFACTION AT WORK: WHAT GEN Y NETHERLANDS WANT MOST FROM THEIR WORK: INTERESTING WORK TO BE CHALLENGED CONSTANTLY 66% 36% HELPING OTHERS 42% 30% PERSONAL RECOGNITION ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE 36% 27% 20 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK Furthermore, the population of the Netherlands is aging,57 and the number of new entrants to the job market is being reduced.58 It may be that the young Dutch people find the demand for their services outstripping supply, and this is sure to have an effect on their preferences for work. It will be vital for organisations to understand what Gen Y Netherlands want out of their careers if they are to prevent the best talent from moving on to other jobs. 49% 37% 35% 32% FEELING VALUED AND APPRECIATED VARIED/INTERESTING WORK FEELING YOU HAVE MADE A POSITIVE CONTRIBUTION FINANCIAL REWARD LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT it comes to what gives them this kind of satisfaction, Gen Y Netherlands are looking for challenge, recognition and above all, interesting work. JOB SECURITY It’s been argued that a flexible approach to work contracts for young people in the Netherlands has helped keep this figure low. The Work Foundation, part of Lancaster University in the UK, has suggested that many young people in the Netherlands use less desirable, less secure short-term contracts as a steppingstone into the world of work.56 This seems to be improving their prospects and helping them find permanent positions. 53% As noted in the previous chapter, the Netherlands has a very favourable employment environment and it’s likely that this will further contribute to Gen Y Netherlands’ expectations of potential employers. The results of our survey provide a number of insights for employers on how to keep Gen Y Netherlands engaged. A large majority define career success as enjoying their work. When We also found that over four fifths (81 per cent) expect to have six or fewer employers in their career, and 40 per cent expect to have less than four. It seems that, despite their relatively strong position in the employment market, Gen Y Netherlands do not plan to job hop too much if given the right working environment, which is good news for employers. NOT MOTIVATED BY MONEY As previously mentioned, the Netherlands has a relatively high average disposable income of US$29,697 per year, compared to an OECD average of US$23,938.59 Against this context, we have found that Gen Y Netherlands stand out in terms of their relative lack of enthusiasm for financial reward compared to other countries. Only 16 per cent say personal wealth is what they want most from their career—by far the lowest number among all the Gen Y cohorts we have surveyed. Similarly, only 35 per cent of respondents say that financial reward is what gives them the most satisfaction at work. This is significantly lower than the cross-country average of 46 per cent and the second lowest proportion overall. These findings may be a result of the already high average income in the Netherlands and an expectation among Gen Y that their jobs will typically provide a good level of pay. CAREER SUCCESS MEANS ENJOYING WORK AND BEING CHALLENGED Our Gen Y Netherlands sample are emphatic about what best defines career success for them. Over three quarters (76 per cent)—by far the highest proportion among all the countries we have surveyed—say it is achieving job satisfaction/enjoying their work. As The Dutch value their time off from work and this is reflected in their work legislation. It is a requirement in the Netherlands for employees to receive a holiday bonus, or ‘vakantiegeld’ paid out in May each year (on top of their paid leave). It constitutes eight per cent of a worker’s annual salary, unless that salary is more than three times minimum wage.60 It is even paid to those on social security.61 This benefit is highly valued, and if an employer fails to pay it in time they are required to make additional payments.62 previously mentioned, many of them will have taken less desirable jobs early on as a stepping-stone in their career. It may be that this experience has taught them the value of enjoyable work.63 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 21 5. RETAIN CAREER SUCCESS INDICATORS: 76% 42% 39% 33% ACHIEVING JOB SATISFACTION/ ENJOYING MY WORK ACHIEVING A WORK/LIFE BALANCE CREATING PERSONAL WEALTH/BEING WELL PAID ATTAINING JOB SECURITY Combined with the finding that 61 per cent of Gen Y Netherlands are looking for fun and social interaction in a potential employer, it certainly seems that they have an understanding that much of their lives will be spent at work and so want the experience to be as enjoyable as possible. This is corroborated by the experience of those of Gen Y Netherlands who already have some work experience. Just under half (49 per cent) say that varied and interesting work is what gives them the most satisfaction in their jobs. It also seems that part of what constitutes engaging work for Gen Y Netherlands is an element of challenge. More than one in three (36 per cent) say that to be challenged constantly is what they want most from their work/their career—the most among all the countries we surveyed. DESIRE FOR PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION Respondents to our survey are noteworthy in their desire for recognition—Gen Y Netherlands want this in both a personal and professional capacity. Just under one in three (31 22 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK per cent) put achieving professional recognition in their top three factors of what best defines career success (only Gen Y France and Brazil had more respondents opting for this). And just over one in three (36 per cent) have personal recognition in their top three of what they want most from their work, well over the cross-country average of 20 per cent. This desire for recognition may tie in with the need of Gen Y Netherlands to feel valued and appreciated. Over half (53 per cent) of those with employment experience say that feeling valued and appreciated is what gives them the most satisfaction at work. This perhaps seems to be at odds with the polder tradition of ignoring individual accomplishment in favour of group achievements. Finding a balance that accommodates both appropriately will be important. 31% ACHIEVING PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION engaged. Thankfully, Gen Y are quite clear on what is likely to keep them in a job. If organisations can ensure that Gen Y Netherlands employees are enjoying their work, at least three quarters of them will feel successful in their careers and will therefore be more likely to stay on. In light of Gen Y Netherlands’ unique level of enthusiasm for being challenged, a successful strategy for retaining them could feature a healthy dose of specific goals and targets, as well as providing them work relevant to their skills and interests. Finally, this cohort’s desire for recognition shouldn’t be neglected. Celebrating exceptional work and rewarding this with relevant recognition will go a long way towards retaining the best talent in the workplace. IMPLICATIONS FOR HR The declining number of new entrants into the Dutch labour market highlights the importance of the role businesses have in keeping Gen Y Netherlands GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 23 6. TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL MEDIA AT WORK As one would expect for a developed European nation, the Netherlands is well connected digitally. Significantly, the Netherlands ranks first worldwide in terms of internet penetration for social networks Facebook and LinkedIn.64 10 million people accessed a social networking site in the Netherlands during May 2013 (among a population of 16.7 million) and social networks reached 85.3 per cent of the total Dutch internet audience.65 Among these sites, Facebook was the clear leader with 8.7 million unique visitors; more than double that of LinkedIn, which came in second place with an audience of 3.8 million unique visitors.66 Smartphone penetration is also growing quickly in the Netherlands, reaching 72 per cent of Dutch mobile phone users in Q3 of 2013, up from 56 per cent a year earlier.67 According to research from the Telecompaper Consumer Panel, the average smartphone user in the Netherlands is getting younger—in Q3 2013 almost a third of smartphone users were students.68 In this context, our own research shows that Gen Y Netherlands are indeed prolific users of social media and see it as an important mode of communication both now and in the future. This is not necessarily a good thing, however—our findings suggest that this cohort believe that social media can encroach on their work. Further, we found that despite their affinity with technology, Gen Y Netherlands acknowledge the role that traditional forms of communication will continue to have in recruitment. The Netherlands has a strong tradition of technology companies. A prime example is Philips, which has been in business for over 120 years. It started in 1891 as a producer of carbon-filament lamps and now produces consumer electronics, domestic appliances and healthcare products as well as lighting. As of 2012, it was the largest manufacturer of lighting in the world. In that year it posted sales of €24.8 billion and employed 114,000 people.69 This tradition of technological companies is also manifested in the High Tech Campus in Eindhoven, as well as Amsterdam start-up LayerGloss, which allows people to easily build their own iOS applications (named one of Europe’s hottest start-ups in 2012 by Wired Magazine).70 SOCIAL MEDIA USE EXPECTED TO BE PREVALENT We asked our Gen Y Netherlands sample what they think will be the most common form of communication in the workplace five years from now. 40 per cent say corporate or business specific social media, the second highest proportion of all the countries we have surveyed (behind Gen Y Brazil). A quarter say personal social media—by far the highest number among all the Gen Y cohorts we have surveyed. As outlined above, the Dutch are avid users of social media so it comes as no surprise that this younger generation see it as continuing to have an important role. 24 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK Despite this, Gen Y Netherlands also see more traditional forms of communication continuing to play a part in the business world. Two thirds think email will be one of the most common forms of communication in the workplace and 57 per cent include mobile phone calls in their top three. SOCIAL MEDIA INTRUDING INTO THE WORKPLACE 59 per cent of Gen Y Netherlands agree with the statement “Technology is blurring the boundaries between work life and social life”. Furthermore, this group have the highest number (63 per cent) among all the countries we surveyed who say social media is distracting at work. However, this group have the fewest number who can’t resist looking at work emails on holiday (25 per cent) and the fewest who find it hard to switch off from work at weekends due to constant connectivity (22 per cent). It seems that this is a group who are adept at keeping work out of their social lives, but not vice versa. This is perhaps unsurprising, considering that the OECD rank the Netherlands fourth out of all countries covered in terms of work-life balance.71 It seems that Gen Y Netherlands want to enjoy good social relationships with their colleagues but prefer not to allow the encroachment of work on their social lives. CV STILL STANDS STRONG Even though LinkedIn is very popular across the country and among Gen Y Netherlands (23 per cent see it as the most important thing to have when looking for a job), our sample say that having a CV is more important. 48 per cent say having a one or two-page CV is the most important thing to have when looking for a new job, far and away the most popular option. Clearly, although LinkedIn has a huge presence in the Netherlands, it hasn’t usurped the traditional CV. However, social media is expected to play a role in the recruitment process. Over half of our sample (52 per cent)—the second highest among all the countries we surveyed—expect prospective employers to look at their social media profile and say they would do the same in their position. IMPLICATIONS FOR HR The propensity for Gen Y Netherlands to allow their social lives to encroach on their working lives means that companies would do well to ensure that their social media policies are fit for purpose, especially as this cohort are likely to carry their prolific usage over into the workplace.71 Recruitment strategies appear to be more conventional at present— Gen Y Netherlands don’t expect social media to replace traditional methods. Companies looking to recruit from this cohort should therefore be aware that this group are fully prepared to provide a CV and should make sure this remains central to any recruitment strategy. At the same time, given their propensity to use social media, encouraging employees to showcase their working culture, in parallel with any appropriate corporate messaging, through these channels will be helpful as attraction and retention mechanisms. MOST IMPORTANT TOOLS WHEN LOOKING FOR A NEW JOB 48% THINK IT IS MOST IMPORTANT TO HAVE A ONE OR TWO-PAGE CV 23% 12% 7% HAVING A COMPLETE PROFILE ON LINKEDIN HAVING RECOMMENDATIONS ON LINKEDIN HAVING AN ACTIVE FACEBOOK PROFILE REFERENCES 1. World Economic Forum http://reports.weforum.org/ the-globalcompetitiveness-report-2013-2014/#secti on=countryeconomyprofiles-netherlands 2. United Nations Development Programme https://data.undp.org/dataset/ Table-1-Human-Development-Indexand-its-components/wxub-qc5k 3. Sustainable Development Solutions Network http://unsdsn.org/ resources/publications/world-happiness-report-2013/ 4. OECD Better Life Index 5. Startupjuncture.com. Op cit. 6. Holland Alumni (2013) https://www.hollandalumni.nl/career/ our-dutch-business-culture/organisational-structure 7. Balch, O. (2013) ‘Going Dutch: why the country is leading the way on sustainable business’, The Guardian, September, http://www.theguardian.com/ sustainable-business/blog/dutch-companies-leading-sustainable-business’ 8. OECD (2013) ‘How’s Life? 2013: Measuring Wellbeing’, http://www. keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/how-slife-2013/how-s-life-at-a-glance_how_life-2013-6-en#page17 9. OECD passim 10. Crowley L., Jones K., Cominetti N. & Gulliford J. (2013) ‘Youth unemployment in a global context’, The Work Foundation, January, http://www.theworkfoundation.com/DownloadPublication/ Report/329_International%20Lessons.pdf 11. Passport To Trade 2.0 (2013) http://businessculture.org/western-europe/ business-culture-in-netherlands/social-media-guide-for-netherlands/ 12. Telecompaper (2013) ‘Dutch smartphone penetration hits 72% in Q3’, August 13. Thierry, H. (1998) ‘Culture and Leadership in a Flat Country’, p. 6 14. Transparent.com (2013) ‘Be Norman, and Other Reasons the Dutch are Plain as Appletaart’, May, http://blogs.transparent.com/dutch/benormal-and-other-reasons-why-the-dutch-are-plain-as-appeltaart/ 15. Thierry, H. (1998) ‘Culture and Leadership in a Flat Country’, p. 12 16. eDiplomat (2014) 17. Peet, J. (2002) ‘Model Makers’, The Economist, May, http://www.economist.com/node/1098153 18. Peet, J. passim 19. Rossingh, D. (2003) ‘Dutch miracle breaks down’, BBC News, April, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/2882451.stm 20. Vossestein, J. (1998) ‘Dealing with the Dutch’, http:// businessculture.org/western-europe/business-culture-innetherlands/meeting-etiquette-in-netherlands/ 21. Peet, J. passim 22. Government of the Netherlands, ‘Coalition Agreement’, Government. nl http://www.government.nl/government/coalition-agreement 23. Holland Alumni (2013) ‘Dutch Business Culture: Organisational Structure’, https://www.hollandalumni.nl/career/ourdutch-business-culture/organisational-structure 24. The Guardian passim 25. Holland Alumni (2013) ‘Dutch Business Culture: Meetings and Negotiation’, https://www.hollandalumni.nl/career/ourdutch-business-culture/meetings-and-negotiations 26. Centre for Intercultural Learning (2009) ‘Cultural Information— Netherlands’ http://www.intercultures.ca/cil-cai/ci-ic-eng.asp?iso=nl 27. Expatica.com (2012) ‘Dutch society and working culture’, http://www.expatica.com/nl/essentials_moving_to/ country_facts/The-Netherlands-at-a-glance.html 28. Transparency International (2013) ‘Corruption Perceptions Index 2013’, http://www.transparency.org/cpi2013/results 29. Global Advice Network (2014) ‘Netherlands Country Profile’, http://www.business-anti-corruption.com/country-profiles/ europe-central-asia/netherlands/snapshot.aspx 30. The Guardian passim 31. Trading Economics (2014) ‘Netherlands GDP Growth Rate’, http:// www.tradingeconomics.com/netherlands/gdp-growth 32. Chau, L. & Schiefelbein, J. (2014) ‘How the Netherlands built a thriving startup scene’, U.S. News, February, http://www.usnews.com/opinion/economicintelligence/2014/02/14/how-the-netherlands-built-a-thriving-startup-scene 33. Armstrong, S. (2013) ‘Europe’s hottest startup capitals: Amsterdam’, Wired, October, http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/ archive/2013/11/european-startups/amsterdam 34. U.S. News passim 35. U.S. News passim 36. GEDI (2014) ‘The Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2014’, http://www.thegedi.org/research/gedi-index/ 37. Startupbootcamp.org (2014) ‘About the Accelerator’, http://www. startupbootcamp.org/accelerator/hightech-eindhoven.html 38. Hightechcampus.com (2014) ‘About the Campus’, http:// www.hightechcampus.com/about_the_campus 39. Hightechcampus.com passim 40. Saberi, S. (2014) ‘Dutch Government opt for improving nations startup ecosystem’, Startupjuncture.com, March, http:// startupjuncture.com/2014/03/19/dutch-governmentopts-for-improving-nations-startup-ecosystem/ 41. Startupjuncture.com passim 42. Trip Advisor (2014) ‘The Netherlands: Culture’, http://www.tripadvisor. co.uk/Travel-g188553-s202/The-Netherlands:Culture.html 43. OECD Better Life Index passim 44. OECD Better Life Index passim 45. World Bank (2012) ‘School Enrolment: Tertiary’ http:// data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.TER.ENRR 46. OECD (2014) ‘Better Life Index: Work-life balance’, http://www. oecdbetterlifeindex.org/topics/work-life-balance/ 47. OECD (2013) ‘How’s Life? 2013’, http://www.keepeek.com/ Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/how-s-life-2013/ how-s-life-at-a-glance_how_life-2013-6-en#page17 48. Expatica.com (2014) ‘Essentials To Moving To The Netherlands’, http://www.expatica.com/nl/essentials_moving_to/ country_facts/The-Netherlands-at-a-glance.html 49. OECD Better Life Index passim 50. DutchAmsterdam.com ‘Gezellig: A Word That Encompasses The Heart Of Dutch Culture’, http://www.dutchamsterdam.nl/155-gezellig 51. de Graaf, J., & Batker, D. (2011) ‘Americans Work Too Much for Their Own Good’, Bloomberg, November http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2011-11-03/ americans-work-too-much-for-their-own-good-de-graaf-and-batker 52. de Graaf, J. & Batker, D. passim 53. Groenendijk, H. & Keuzenkamp, S. (2010) ‘The Netherlands’, The Leave Network.org, October, http://www.leavenetwork.org/fileadmin/ Leavenetwork/Country_notes/The_Netherlands.published.oct_2010.pdf 54. de Graaf, J. & Batker, D. passim 55. Trading Economics (2013) ‘Unemployment Rates’, http://www. tradingeconomics.com/country-list/unemployment-rate 56. Crowley L., Jones K., Cominetti N. & Gulliford J. (2013) ‘Youth unemployment in a global context’, The Work Foundation, January, http://www.theworkfoundation.com/DownloadPublication/ Report/329_International%20Lessons.pdf 57. OECD (2013) ‘Demographic Change in the Netherlands: Strategies for resilient labour markets’ http://www.oecd. org/cfe/leed/demo_change_netherlands.pdf 58. OECD (2013) passim 59. OECD Better Life Index passim 60. Jobat.be (2012) ‘Bereken je vakantiegeld’, http://www. jobat.be/nl/artikels/bereken-je-vakantiegeld/ 61. Dutch News (2014) ‘A Dictionary of Dutchness’, Dutch News.nl, May, http://www.dutchnews.nl/dictionary/vakantiegeld.php 62. Jobat.be passim 63. Crowley L., Jones K., Cominetti N. & Gulliford J. passim 64. Passport To Trade 2.0 ‘Social Media’, http://businessculture.org/westerneurope/business-culture-in-netherlands/social-media-guide-for-netherlands/ 65. ComScore Data Mine (2013) ‘Who uses social networks in the Netherlands?’, June, http://www.comscoredatamine.com/2013/06/ who-uses-social-networks-in-the-netherlands/ 66. ComScore Data Mine passim 67. Telecompaper (2013) ‘Dutch Smartphone Penetration Hits 72% In Q3’, October, http://www.telecompaper.com/news/ dutch-smartphone-penetration-hits-72-in-q3--973995 68. Telecompaper passim 69. Phillips (2014) ‘Company Profile’, http://www.philips. co.uk/about/company/index.page 70. Parton, H. (2012) ‘Europe’s 100 hottest startups 2012: Amsterdam’, Wired Magazine, August, http://www.wired.co.uk/ magazine/archive/2012/09/european-startups/london 71. OECD passim GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK 25 ABOUT HAYS Hays is the world’s leading recruiting expert in qualified, professional and skilled work. We employ over 7,800 staff in 239 offices across 33 countries. Last year we placed around 53,000 people in permanent jobs and nearly 182,000 in temporary positions. Hays works across 20 areas of specialism, from healthcare to telecoms, banking to construction and education to information technology, covering the private, public and not-for-profit sectors. Our recruiting experts deal with 150,000 CVs every month and more than 50,000 live jobs globally at any one time. The depth and breadth of our expertise ensures that we understand the impact the right individual can have on a business and how the right job can transform a person’s life. Our job is to know about professional employment, employers and employees. For more information, visit hays.com 26 GEN Y AND THE WORLD OF WORK SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Armstrong, S. (2013) ‘Europe’s hottest startup capitals: Amsterdam’, Wired, October, http://www. wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2013/11/european-startups/amsterdam Balch, O. (2013) ‘Going Dutch: why the country is leading the way on sustainable business’, The Guardian, September, http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/blog/dutch-companies-leading-sustainable-business Centre for Intercultural Learning (2009) ‘Cultural Information—Netherlands’ http://www.intercultures.ca/cil-cai/ci-ic-eng.asp?iso=nl Chau, L. & Schiefelbein, J. (2014) ‘How the Netherlands built a thriving startup scene’, U.S. News, February, http://www. usnews.com/opinion/economic-intelligence/2014/02/14/how-the-netherlands-built-a-thriving-startup-scene ComScore Data Mine (2013) ‘Who uses social networks in the Netherlands?’, June, http://www. comscoredatamine.com/2013/06/who-uses-social-networks-in-the-netherlands/ Crowley L., Jones K., Cominetti N. & Gulliford J. (2013) ‘Youth unemployment in a global context’, The Work Foundation, January, http://www.theworkfoundation.com/DownloadPublication/Report/329_International%20Lessons.pdf de Graaf, J., & Batker, D., (2011) ‘Americans Work Too Much for Their Own Good’, Bloomberg, November http://www. bloombergview.com/articles/2011-11-03/americans-work-too-much-for-their-own-good-de-graaf-and-batker Dutch News (2014) ‘A Dictionary of Dutchness’, Dutch News.nl, May, http://www.dutchnews.nl/dictionary/vakantiegeld.php DutchAmsterdam.com. ‘Gezellig: A Word That Encompasses The Heart Of Dutch Culture’, http://www.dutchamsterdam.nl/155-gezellig eDiplomat (2014) Expatica.com (2012) ‘Dutch society and working culture’, http://www.expatica.com/nl/ essentials_moving_to/country_facts/The-Netherlands-at-a-glance.html Expatica.com (2014) ‘Essentials To Moving To The Netherlands’, http://www.expatica.com/nl/ essentials_moving_to/country_facts/The-Netherlands-at-a-glance.html GEDI (2014) ‘The Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2014’, http://www.thegedi.org/research/gedi-index/ Global Advice Network (2014) ‘Netherlands Country Profile’, http://www.business-anti-corruption. com/country-profiles/europe-central-asia/netherlands/snapshot.aspx Government of the Netherlands, ‘Coalition Agreement’, Government.nl http://www.government.nl/government/coalition-agreement Groenendijk, H. & Keuzenkamp, S. (2010) ‘The Netherlands’, The Leave Network.org, October, http://www. leavenetwork.org/fileadmin/Leavenetwork/Country_notes/The_Netherlands.published.oct_2010.pdf Hightechcampus.com (2014) ‘About the Campus’, http://www.hightechcampus.com/about_the_campus Holland Alumni (2013) ‘Dutch Business Culture’, https://www.hollandalumni.nl/career/our-dutch-business-culture/ Jobat.be (2012) ‘Bereken je vakantiegeld’, http://www.jobat.be/nl/artikels/bereken-je-vakantiegeld/ OECD (2011) ‘Better Life Index, Netherlands’, http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/countries/Netherlands/ OECD (2013) ‘Demographic Change in the Netherlands: Strategies for resilient labour markets’ http://www.oecd.org/cfe/leed/demo_change_netherlands.pdf OECD (2013) ‘How’s Life? 2013: Measuring Wellbeing’, http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/ oecd/economics/how-s-life-2013/how-s-life-at-a-glance_how_life-2013-6-en#page17 OECD (2013) ‘How’s Life? 2013’, http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/ economics/how-s-life-2013/how-s-life-at-a-glance_how_life-2013-6-en#page17 OECD (2014) ‘Better Life Index: Work-life balance’, http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/topics/work-life-balance/ Parton, H. 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