PEPPSI™ Catalyst 新しい Pd 触媒 - Sigma-Aldrich

Vol. 6 No. 3
新しい Pd 触媒
PEPPSI™ Catalyst
General Background
Advantages of PEPPSI™
Reaction Types
· Negishi
· Suzuki
· Buchwald–Hartwig
· Kumada
Future Generation PEPPSI™
sigma-aldrich.com
2
はじめに
Pd(PPh3)4 の触媒作用が Malatesta、Angoletta らによって見出されて以来 1、パラジウム及びその錯体は、複雑な有機分子の効率的な触媒
合成において中心的な役割を果たし、現在の有機合成化学において C-C 結合、C-O 結合、C-N 結合を形成するクロスカップリング反応に
欠かせない存在となっています 2,3。クロスカップリング反応における触媒の開発は、ホスフィン配位子を含む錯体の設計と応用を中心に
行われてきました。パラジウム触媒にホスフィン配位子を用いることには、コスト、安定性、前駆体の市販試薬の不足などの多くの欠点
があります。たとえば Pd(PPh3)4 は触媒反応に幅広く適用されていますが、保存安定性が低く窒素下で取り扱う必要があります。しかし
ながら、多くの基質や反応系に対して Pd(PPh3)4 を上回る活性を示す触媒がほとんど報告されていないのが現状です。
General Background
安定で高活性な新規 Pd 触媒 PEPPSITM
これらの欠点を克服するため、ヨーク大学の MikeOrgan 教授らによってシンプルな概念をベースとして優れた含窒素ヘテロ環カルベン
(NHC)Pd 錯体が考案されました 5。かさ高い NHC 配位子 2,6- 塩化ジイソプロピルフェニルイミダゾリウム(IPr)とσ供与性 3- クロロピ
リジン配位子を PdCl2 に反応させ安定性を高めたこの触媒は、Pyridine-EnhancedPrecatalystPreparationStabilizationandInitiation の頭文字
をとって PEPPSI ™と名づけられました。3- クロロピリジン配位子は �throw-away� 配位子 ( �使い捨て� の意 ) として機能し、かさ高い IPr
配位子は還元的脱離反応を促進して TON を向上します(Figure 1)6。NHC 配位子の高いσ電子供与能により、従来のホスフィン配位子よ
りも強く金属と結合し、金属の解離を防ぎます。NHC 配位子の不飽和性は触媒活性には影響しませんが、触媒の安定性や形成しやすさに
影響します。
Sigma-Aldrich は、Organ 教授の研究グループとの共同開発により、PEPPSI ™ -IPr 触媒を提供しています。C-C 結合、C-N 結合生成反応を効
果的に触媒できること、堅牢性、安定性、比較的低価格であることから、試験研究及びファインケミカル分野での幅広い応用が期待され
ています。
触媒関連製品の一覧は、Web サイト sigma-aldrich.com/catalysis でご覧いただけます。またお探しの試薬が見つからない場合は、
[email protected] [email protected]究開発を速やかに成功に導くため、Sigma-Aldrich は喜んでご協力します。
PEPPSI ™ -IPr の特徴
IPr ligand enables high
catalyst performance
R
N
・空気や水に対して極めて安定
R
N
・従来の Pd 触媒よりも高い(もしくは同等の)活性
R
R
Cl Pd Cl
Pyridyl ligand provides added
stability and creates a welldefined catalyst structure
・種々の反応に利用可能
・多くの反応は室温で進行
N
・その他の配位子は不要
Cl
・低コスト
R = IPr
Figure 1
・バルク供給可能
s i g m a - a l d r i c h . c o m / j a p a n
About Our Cover
ThecoverillustrationshowsarenderingofthePEPPSI™–IPrcatalystX-raystructure.The
3-chloropyridineligandbisectstheN-heterocycliccarbene(NHC)ligandandliesroughlyin
thesameplaneastheancillarychlorideligands,effectivelygrantingtheexpectedsquare
planargeometryaboutthePd(II)metalcenter.Pleasenotethatthehydrogensonthe
2,6-isopropylphenyl–NHCandpyridylligandshavebeenomittedforclarity.
テクニカルサポート Tel:03-5796-7330 Fax:03-5796-7335 E-mail:[email protected]
3
Representative Example with PEPPSI™
Scheme 1illustratesthestrongabilityofPEPPSI™toeffectcrosscouplings(sp2–sp2Negishi)undermildreactionconditions.Thearyl
bromidewascompletelyconvertedto4-methyl-4'-methoxy-biphenyl
in2hatroomtemperature,whereascompetitivePdsystemsrequire
overnightreactiontimestoreachadequateconversions.Another
compellingfeatureofthePEPPSI™systemisthelow(1mol%)
loadingsinNegishicouplings,whereinsp3–sp3couplingshavebeen
achievedinshort(30min)reactiontimeswithhighconversions.
PreviousNHCprotocolsinvolvingalkyl–alkylcouplingreactionshave
notbeenaccomplishedsuccessivelyinhighyield.
O
Br
+
Br
Zn
O
Scheme 1
R1
reductive
elimination
R2
N
Cl
Pd(0)Ln
throw-away
ligand
active catalyst
N
R2-R2
R1
PdII
R1-X
R2
L
L
transmetalation
2R2-M
oxidative
addition
N
X
II
R1 Pd
N
Cl Pd Cl
N
N
N
M-X
Cl
R2-M
PEPPSI-IPr
M = ZnX, MgX, BR2
Scheme 2
R1
N
N
R1
R1
R1
Cl Pd Cl
R2
R2
Cl
Br
+
¥8,600
¥30,000
M
1, R1 = IPr, R2 = H;
1a, R1 = Et, R2 = H;
1b, R1,2 = Me
5
1 mol % cat., rt, 24 h
entry
M
1
ZnBr
100% (1), 34% (1a), 8.0% (1b)
yield of n-heptylbenzene
2
BBu2
100% (1), 31% (1a), 6.5% (1b)
Table 1
オンラインセミナー CheminarsTM
・有機合成の最新の技術情報、新製品情報を Web 上で公開
・PC からいつでもアクセス可能
・約 3 ヶ月ごとの 新トピックス
www.sigma-aldrich.com/cheminars をご覧ください!
(Flash 8 Player が必要です )
バルク供給/スケールアップのご相談は…
ファインケミカル事業部 Tel:03-5796-730 Fax:03-5796-735 E-mail:[email protected]
General Background
N
N
(1,3-Diisopropylimidazol-2-ylidene)(3-chloropyridyl)
palladium(II) dichloride
C32H41Cl3N3Pd
MW:679.46
1g
5g
activation
N
PEPPSI™ Activation and Catalytic Cycle
669032-1G
669032-5G
Solvent, rt, 2 h
89%
N
Thechallengesassociatedwithimprovingpalladiumcatalystsystems
forcross-couplingareoftenrelatedtotherateofactivecatalyst
formationandsubsequentstabilitythroughoutthecatalyticcycle.
InthecaseofPEPPSI™–IPr,rapid,quantitativeconversiontoproduct
inNegishicouplingshasbeendocumentedbytheOrgangroup.6
Inthiscatalystsystem,activationmostlikelyoccursviareductionof
thePd(II)centerbytheorganometallicreagent,followedbypyridine
dissociationfromthenewlyformedPd(0)species(Scheme 2).
Theyieldofn-heptylbenzeneundertypicalNegishicross-coupling
conditionsisstronglydependentuponthestructuralenvironment
aroundthePdcenter.Isopropylgroupsinfluencetheconversion
ofcross-couplingproduct,whichmayimplyastabilizinginfluence
onthePEPPSI™–IPrPd(0)centerversusNHCanalogs1aand1b
(Table 1).Thus,thebulkyisopropylNHCligandacceleratesthe
reductiveeliminationofn-heptylbenzene,whilestabilizingthePd
center.
PEPPSI-IPr
1 mol %
Advantages of the PEPPSI™–IPr
Catalyst
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extremely stable to air and moisture
Commercialized on kilo scale
Improved or comparable activity to known Pd catalysts
High performance in various reaction paradigms
Many reactions occur at room temperature
No need for additional ligands ➞ one-component catalyst
Competitive pricing
Stability and Handling
Advantages of PEPPSI™/
Reaction Types
Unlike traditional palladium phosphine and NHC catalysts, PEPPSI™
is robust and can be stored indefinitely outside an inert atmosphere.
The catalyst may be weighed out on bench utilizing normal methods
and can even be subjected to a water workup without observable
decomposition by 1H NMR. Perhaps most impressively, PEPPSI™
has been heated in dimethylsulfoxide at 120 °C for hours without
decomposition and subsequent deactivation of the catalyst. This Pd(II)
complex becomes active in situ through reduction to the Pd(0)–NHC
active catalyst—thus it can be considered a ligand stabilized Pd(PPh3)4
alternative, minus the handling deficiencies. The picture above
brilliantly illustrates the multi-gram synthesis and impressive stability
of PEPPSI™–IPr in a coffee mug under atmospheric conditions!
N
X Mol %
Br
Negishi Reactions
Suzuki Reactions
Buchwald–Hartwig Aminations
Combined Amination/Heck Reaction Kumada Couplings
Future Cross-Couplings
+
Cl
5
n-BuZnBr
THF/NMP (2:1)
Entry
X mol %
Yield (%)
1
4
100
2
2
100
Negishi Couplings
3
1
100
Negishi reactions are comprised of the coupling between an alkyl halide
with an alkyl organometallic reagent, which is unexplored territory
for Pd–NHC complexes. The Organ group has achieved these difficult
transformations with PEPPSI™–IPr and in the process has developed
a general, efficient protocol with broad functional group tolerance.6
This PEPPSI™ catalyst satisfies two main criteria required for successful
couplings: 1) the reaction should be conveniently run without the
need for special handling, i.e., use of a glove box; 2) the catalyst
system must be extended to a diverse spectrum of reaction partners.
4
0.5
100
5
0.1
63
6
1, 15 min
100
PEPPSI™–IPr Loading
The Negishi reaction conditions utilizing PEPPSI™ have been
optimized and are presented in Table 2. Note that catalyst loadings
as low as 0.5 mol % show complete conversion to n-heptylbenzene
within 3 h at room temperature.
Table 2
Isolated Complex
N
in situ mixture
N
N
N
Br
Cl
Cl Pd Cl
+
Cat.
n-BuZnBr
5
Pd2(dba)3
N
Cl
1
(b)
(a)
Yield %
The success of this Pd–NHC catalyst system is highly dependent
upon the activation of the Pd(0) catalyst, in part through the use of
LiCl/Br as an additive. The Organ group attempted to perform a
Negishi cross-coupling of n-butylzinc, as prepared by Hou and coworkers,7 with the requisite bromoalkane and only recovered starting
material after stirring the reaction for hours at room temperature.
They applied the same reaction conditions, but used n-butylzinc
bromide prepared from the method of Hou along with 2 eq. of LiBr
and found that the reaction produced the sp3–sp3 coupled organic
in excellent yield in 30 min. Thus, the activation of the alkylzinc
reagent, via the formation (presumed) of a lithium zincate, is an
important driving force for the successful utilization of the PEPPSI™
catalyst in Negishi couplings.
s i g m a - a l d r i c h . c o m / j a p a n
N
1
Reaction Types
•
•
•
•
•
•
N
Cl Pd Cl
120
350
100
300
80
250
1
in situ
60
40
–1
Apparent TON h
Yield %
300
200
150
100
20
50
0
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
7.5
30
30
Pd2(dba)3 /1
4 mol %
Time (h)
1
0.1 mol %
Catalyst
PEPPSI™–IPr vs. in situ
The Organ group ran a direct comparison of PEPPSI™ versus an in
situ generated NHC complex and found that the former system gave
apparent TON h–1 of 300 at 0.1 mol % loading, while the latter
テクニカルサポート Tel:03-5796-7330 Fax:03-5796-7335 E-mail:[email protected]
Figure 2
system afforded only 7.5 TON h–1 at 4 mol % loading (Figure 2).
It should be mentioned that it was not practical to measure the
reaction rate of the isolated PEPPSI™ catalyst utilized in a coupling
reaction at a loading of 1 mol %, because the rates were extremely
fast. This comparison shows that only ca. 0.1 mol % of an active
catalyst is formed at 1 h reaction time, even though 4 mol % of
the precursors are used, when considering the apparent TONs and
assuming that the same active species is generated in both cases.
This study clearly proves the superiority of the preformed PEPPSI™
catalyst over the in situ methodology.
1
R
Entry
Organohalide Compatibility in the Negishi Reaction
R ZnBr/Cl
(1.6 equiv)
1
R
THF/NMP or THF/DMI
3.2 equiv LiBr/Cl
rt, 24 h
R1
X
R2
R2
Yield [%]a
Ph(CH2)3
Cl
nBu
88
2
Ph(CH2)3
OMs
nBuc
100
3
Ph
Cl
nHeptyld
100
4
Ph
Br
nHeptylb
100
5
Ph
OTf
nHeptyl
100
6
nHeptyl
Br
Phe
100
7
pTolyl
Cl
pMeOC6H4e
80
8
pTolyl
OTf
pMeOC6H4
71
1
b
d
e
a
GC yield against calibrated undecane internal standard performed in duplicate. b THF:DMI,
2:1. c THF:DMI, 1:3. d THF:DMI, 1:2. e THF:NMP, 2:1, no LiCl/Br.
Table 3
Experimental Conditions
Alkyl halide (1 eq.), alkylzinc bromide/chloride (1.6 eq.), PEPPSI™–IPr
(1, 1 mol %), THF/NMP or THF/DMI, room temperature to 60 °C.
For all Negishi couplings the following workup procedure was
used: after reaction completion, the solution was diluted with ether
(~5 x volume) and washed successively with a 1 M Na3EDTA solution
(3 eq. of NaOH with EDTA), water, and brine. The combined organic
solution was dried with MgSO4, filtered through a sintered funnel,
the solvent removed in vacuo, and the residue purified by flash
chromatography.
Br
+
nBuZnBr
(1.6 equiv)
Cl
CN
sp3–sp3
Negishi Substrate Scope: sp –sp couplings
3
These results lend credence to the possibility of coupling substrates
that contain biologically active components and subsequent
expeditious synthesis of natural product intermediates. The wide
range of alkyl bromides, chlorides, and tosylates supported by the
PEPPSI™ system extend the general usefulness (compounds 2–7)
of this reaction paradigm. Incredibly, the Organ research group
successfully achieved the coupling of a bromide in the presence of a
chloride by judicious choice of reaction conditions (compound 2).
2, 81%, rt
O
sp3–sp3 couplings, Scheme 3: a scintal vial was charged with 1
(0.034 g, 1 mol %) and a stir bar in air. Under an inert atmosphere
LiBr (0.139 g, 0.8 mmol) was added followed by a septum. The vial
was purged with argon after which THF (0.8 mL) and DMI (0.8 mL)
or NMP (0.8 mL) were added and the mixture stirred until the solids
dissolved. After this time, the organozinc (0.8 mL, 1.0 M in DMI or
NMP, 0.8 mmol) and the organohalide or pseudohalide (0.5 mmol)
were added. The septum was replaced with a Teflon®-lined cap
under a N2 flow and the reaction stirred for 2h, followed by workup
(cf. above).
PEPPSI™–IPr (1) is a highly efficient and mild catalyst for forming
alkyl-alkyl bonds, as illustrated in Figure 3. Sp3(RX)–sp3(RZnX)
couplings mediated by 1 include a wide spectrum of functionality
such as esters, nitriles, and amides (2–5). Notably the terminal alkynyl
TMS group in compound 7 is completely stable to the cross-coupling
of an alkyl chloride under room temperature reaction conditions.
nBu
THF/NMP or THF/DMI,
LiBr, rt –60 °C, 2 h
Scheme 3
Representative Experimental
Procedures and Results
3
PEPPSI-IPr (1)
1 mol %
N
O
3, 80%, rt
O
O
O
4, 86%, rt
OEt
5, 87%, rt
CN
6, 70%, rt
TMS
CN
7, 74%, rt
Figure 3
Br
PEPPSI-IPr (1)
1 mol %
+
BrZn
(1.6 equiv)
THF/NMP or THF/DMI,
LiBr (3.2 eq.), rt –60 °C, 2 h
Scheme 4
バルク供給/スケールアップのご相談は…
ファインケミカル事業部 Tel:03-5796-7340 Fax:03-5796-7345 E-mail:[email protected]
Reaction Types
Alkyl chlorides and sulfonates have effectively been coupled by
adding 2 eq. of LiBr to the reaction mixture. Interestingly, alkyl
chlorides and mesylates required a THF/NMP or THF/DMI ratio of
1:3 to achieve high product yields, whereas the corresponding
alkyl bromides were coupled in high yields utilizing a solvent ratio
of 2:1 (THF/NMP). These observations present the rare opportunity
to selectively couple an alkyl bromide in the presence of an alkyl
chloride, followed by an alkyl chloride coupling in a sequential
fashion. Table 3 illustrates the effectiveness of the PEPPSI™ catalyst
system, wherein the cross-coupling of organochlorides and bromides,
aryl triflates, and alkyl mesylates runs smoothly in all possible
pairings. Catalyst 1 offers the widest substrate range performed
successively in the Negishi reaction.
PEPPSI-IPr (1)
1 mol %
2
+
X
Negishi Substrate Scope: sp3–sp2 couplings
sp3–sp2 couplings, Scheme 4: A vial was charged with 1 (0.034 g,
1 mol %) in the air and under an N2 atmosphere ZnCl2 (0.107 g,
0.8 mmol) and a stirbar were added. The vial was capped with a
rubber septum and then purged with argon. THF (0.8 mL) was added
along with the required Grignard-type reagent (0.8 mL, 1.0 M in THF,
0.8 mmol) and the mixture stirred until a white precipitate formed.
Under an N2 atmosphere, LiBr (0.139 g, 1.6 mmol), DMI (0.8 mL),
or NMP (0.8 mL), and the organohalide or pseudohalide (0.5 mmol)
were added. The septum was replaced with a Teflon®-lined cap
under a N2 flow and the reaction stirred for 2 h, followed by workup
conditions (cf. above).
O
TMS
O
TMS
F
10, 92%, rt
The range of substrates successively applied in the Negishi reaction
for sp3(RX)–sp2(RZnX) couplings includes both electron-donating and
electron-withdrawing substituents on the arylzinc reaction partner
(Figure 4). Note the coupling of chiral (S)-citronellyl bromide, in
which the final product shows no observable erosion of enantiopurity
(compound 8). The mild nature of the PEPPSI™ catalyst tolerates
pendant alkenyl and alkynyl functional groups as well as the often
sensitive TMS group (8–10). Isolated product yields in this coupling
class are all greater than 80%.
Reaction Types
9, 89%, rt
8, 87%, rt
11, 91%, rt
Figure 4
PEPPSI-IPr (1)
1 mol %
Cl
nBuZnBr
+
THF/NMP or THF/DMI,
LiBr (3.2 eq.), rt –60 °C, 2h
(1.6 equiv)
Negishi Substrate Scope: sp –sp couplings
2
3
sp2–sp3 couplings, Scheme 5: A scintal vial was charged with 1
(0.034 g, 1 mol %) and a stir bar in air. Under an inert atmosphere,
LiBr (0.139 g, 0.8 mmol) was added followed by a septum. The vial
was purged with argon after which THF (0.8 mL) and DMI (0.8 mL)
or NMP (0.8 mL) were added and the mixture stirred until the solids
dissolved. After this time, the organozinc (0.8 mL, 1.0 M in DMI or
NMP, 0.8 mmol) and the organohalide or pseudo halide (0.5 mmol)
were added. The septum was replaced with a Teflon®-lined cap
under a N2 flow and the reaction stirred for 2 h, followed by workup
(cf. above).
Scheme 5
O
s i g m a - a l d r i c h . c o m / j a p a n
OEt
13, 98%, rt
F
EtO
O
O
14, 87%, rt
N
15, 83%, rt
tBu-O
O
Figure 5
PEPPSI-IPr (1)
1 mol %
BrZn
Negishi Substrate Scope: sp2–sp2 couplings
The high activity of PEPPSI™ catalyst 1 in Negishi couplings
offers a distinct advantage for C–C bond-forming reactions in
homogeneous catalysis. To this end, 1 holds great promise as a
generally applicable catalyst for a wide variety of cross-coupling
paradigms. The sp2–sp2 couplings shown represent direct access to
sterically hindered biaryls and heteroaromatic systems utilized as
drug platforms in natural product synthesis (Figure 6). A diverse
spectrum of electron-donating and -withdrawing partners utilized
in these sp2–sp2 couplings solidifies PEPPSI™’s claim as a more active
catalyst in Negishi processes than related and well-studied Pdphosphine systems.
N
12, 81%, rt
PEPPSI™–IPr complex 1 is able to catalyze the coupling of
aryl halides (or triflates) with alkylzinc reagents in high yield
(Figure 5). Furthermore, all reactions studied displayed no
obvious transmetallation to form arylzinc reagents. The mildness
of the PEPPSI™ system extends to the Negishi coupling of a chiral
zinc reagent with an acyl chloride (14), wherein subsequent
decarbonylation was not observed under the reaction conditions.
Also heteroatom-containing substrates were carried forward with
100% fidelity, further demonstrating the benefits of this catalyst
system to the synthetic community.
sp2–sp2 couplings, Scheme 6: A vial was charged with 1 (0.034 g,
1 mol %) in the air and then ZnCl2 (0.107 g, 0.8 mmol) and a stirbar
were added under an inert atmosphere. The vial was capped with
a rubber septum and then purged with argon. THF (0.8 mL) was
added along with the required Grignard-type reagent (0.8 mL, 1.0 M
in THF, 0.8 mmol) and the mixture stirred until a white precipitate
formed (ca. 15 min). Under an inert atmosphere, NMP (0.8 mL)
and the organohalide or pseudohalide (0.5 mmol) were added. The
septum was replaced with a Teflon®-lined cap under a N2 flow and
the reaction stirred for 2 h, followed by workup under the conditions
described above.
O
O
NC
N
Cl
+
(1.6 equiv)
N
THF/NMP or THF/DMI,
rt –60 °C, 2 h
Scheme 6
S
Ph
N N
16, 96%, 60 °C
O
18, 96%, rt
O
17, 89%, 60 °C
O
N
18, 90%, 60 °C
S
N
22, 90%, rt
F
N
20, 90%, rt
CN
O
O
21, 98%, rt
テクニカルサポート Tel:03-5796-7330 Fax:03-5796-7335 E-mail:[email protected]
Figure 6
PEPPSI™–IPr Advantages in the Negishi Coupling
•
•
•
•
•
No glove-box handling required
Prototypical and advanced couplings possible
Reactions performed at room temperature in a few hours
Selectively activate a bromide over a chloride
Diverse range of halides: Cl, Br, I, OTs, OMs, or OTf
R1
PEPPSI-IPr
(1 mol %)
R2 M
(1.1 equiv)
+
X
R1
Method A, B, C, or D
rt –60 °C
R2
Suzuki Couplings
Suzuki reactions involve the coupling of organoboron partners with
alkyl, aryl, and alkenyl halides or triflates (Scheme 7).8 PEPPSI™ can
be used effectively with a wide range of electron-rich (deactivated)
and electron-poor (activated) substrates.9 The high activity of this
catalyst system in the Suzuki coupling presents a strong case for
application in industrial and academic research laboratories on a
global scale.
CF3
O
N
O
93% 2 h
O
Procedure for Method A:
A vial was charged with potassium tert-butoxide (0.154 g,
1.30 mmol) and complex 1 (0.0068 g, 0.01 mmol) in the air,
followed by purging with argon in triplicate. Tech. Grade isopropyl
alcohol, 1.0 mL, was added via syringe and the solution was stirred
at room temperature until a color change from yellow to red/brown
was observed (ca. 10 min). The boronic acid (1.20 mmol) was added
under an argon flow, the vial was then resealed followed by the
organohalide (1.00 mmol) being added via syringe. The reaction
was stirred at room temperature for the indicated time period and
then diluted with diethyl ether (2 mL). After two additional 2-mL
washings, the organic solution was dried with MgSO4, filtered,
concentrated, and purified by flash chromatography.
Procedure for Method B:
A vial was charged with complex 1 (0.0068 g, 0.01 mmol) in the
air, K2CO3 (0.207 g, 1.50 mmol), the boronic acid (0.6 mmol) and
the organohalide (0.5 mmol) followed by sealing with a septum
and purging with argon in triplicate. Two milliliters of dioxane was
added via syringe. The solution was stirred at 60 ºC for the specified
time period, and then diluted with diethyl ether (2 mL). After two
additional 2-mL washings, the organic solution was dried with
MgSO4, filtered, concentrated, and purified by flash chromatography.
Procedure for Method C:
A vial was charged with complex 1 (0.0068 g, 0.01 mmol) in the
air, K2CO3 (0.207 g, 1.50 mmol), the potassium trifluoroborate
(0.55 mmol), and the organohalide (0.5 mmol), followed by sealing
with a septum and purging with argon in triplicate. Tech. grade
methanol, 2.0 mL, was added and the solution stirred at 60 ºC for
the specified time period, followed by dilution with diethyl ether
(2 mL). After two additional 2-mL Et2O washings, the organic
solution was dried with MgSO4, filtered, concentrated, and purified
by flash chromatography.
93%, 24 h
85%, 2 h
O
S
S
N
88%, 2 h
91%, 4 h
Different procedures were utilized (Methods A–D, cf. below)
that enabled the Organ group to expand the protocol to include
potassium trifluoroborates by running the reaction in methanol. The
flexibility of this catalyst system allows for the facile, rapid production
of a wide array of drug intermediates, heteroaromatics, and bulky
organic building blocks of varying electronic character (Figure 8).
Furthermore, trialkylboranes are coupled with bromoalkanes in
rapid fashion to yield the sp3–sp3 coupled n-heptylbenzene product
(Scheme 8).
Representative Experimental Procedures and Results
Reaction Types
All Suzuki reactions were accomplished using typical laboratory
preparations without the need for glove-box handling. The PEPPSI™
precatalyst was weighed out in the air and activated in situ under a
blanket of inert gas. The Organ group performed a full evaluation of
heteroatom and electronically varied reaction partners. The reactions
of various boronic acids proceeded smoothly in reagent-grade
isopropanol and potassium t-butoxide was found to be the optimal
base to ensure high product conversions. The broad utility of PEPPSI™–
IPr was demonstrated in the production of a complex array of organic
building blocks in high isolated yields (Figure 7, all via Method A).
Scheme 7
Figure 7
S
N
S
N
98%, 6 h, Method C, Br
93%, 2 h, Method A, Cl
S
N
N
96%, 2 h, Method B, Cl
NC
NO2
O
77%, 18 h, Method B, Cl
97%, 24 h, Method D, Br
O O
H
O
OH
OH
60%, 6 h, Method B, Cl
90%, 16 h, Method B, Br
Figure 8
PEPPSI-IPr
Br
+
B
1 mol %
5
5 min, rt
100%
バルク供給/スケールアップのご相談は…
ファインケミカル事業部 Tel:03-5796-7340 Fax:03-5796-7345 E-mail:[email protected]
Scheme 8
Procedure for Method D:
Solid KOH (0.84 g, 1.50 mmol) was utilized instead of solid K2CO3,
otherwise Method B was utilized and the reaction carried forward at
room temperature instead of 60 ºC.
+
X
H N
O
O
N
N
N
O
81%, 2 h, Cl
Since the work of Buchwald and others, palladium-catalyzed C–N
bond-forming methodologies have traditionally focused on the use
of (mostly) bulky, electron-rich phosphines as the ancillary ligands of
choice.10 The Organ group was pleased to discover that PEPPSI™–IPr
is an excellent catalyst for the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of
aryl chlorides and bromides with amines.11 The results in Figure 9
indicate that use of this catalyst system allows for the successful
arylation of various amines with superb yields. Morpholine,
arylamines, and even adamantylamine undergo facile amination
to afford a variety of aryl- and biarylamines. It is worth noting that
the mild reaction conditions (temp. and base) tolerate electron-rich,
electron-poor, and heteroaromatic substrates. This finding also shows
that Pd–NHC complexes are not only viable as catalysts, but in many
cases manifest tremendous efficiency and atom-economy in aromatic
C–N bond-forming processes.
84%, 2 h, Cl
95%, 2 h, Cl
O
N
NH
N
73%, 20 h, Br
65%, 2 h, Cl
F
N
H
S
86%, 2 h, Cl
82%, 20 h, Cl
Figure 9
R1
Br
H2N
H
N
R2
R1
NaO-t-Bu, 15 min, 210 °C
H
N
Ph
H
N
PEPPSI-IPr, Toluene
R2
+
Br
H
N
Ph
H
N
Ph
Cl
A new mild protocol expands the scope of homogeneous Pd
C–N bond-forming catalysis even further. The indole moiety
is one important element in organic compounds that exhibits
pharmacological activity.12 The most popular method utilized for
indole synthesis is the Fischer indole synthesis, wherein an N-acyl
hydrazone is transformed into the indole architecture through a
sigmatropic rearrangement.13 As a complement to that well-known
methodology, the Organ group has reacted a vinyl halide with various
2-bromoanilines in the presence of PEPPSI™ to afford 2‑substituted
indoles in good yields (Figure 10). This elegant strategy is being
applied toward the expeditious preparation of N-alkyl and N‑aryl
indoles for combinatorial libraries.
74% yield
Me
80% yield
84% yield
82% yield
Figure 10
Cl
Ph
+
PEPPSI-IPr
(2 mol %)
MgBr
THF/DMI (2:1), rt, 24 h
(1.1 equiv)
5
100%
OEt
OEt
Kumada Couplings
F
90%
Many studies have been performed on the oxidative addition
of aryl halides with Pd(0) and subsequent coupling of Grignard
reagents. However, deficiencies in these previous examples include
high catalyst loadings, high temperatures, and the necessity of
aryliodide substrates to reach adequate conversions.14 The Organ
group has reported Kumada couplings of various aryl chlorides with
Grignard reagents (Figure 11).15 These room-temperature oxidative
additions of aryl chlorides equal the best results to date. Reactions
with 1–2 mol % PEPPSI™–IPr in THF/DME (1:1) at room temperature
produced the respective biaryl organics in excellent yields.
s i g m a - a l d r i c h . c o m / j a p a n
O
H
N
70%, 2 h, Br
Buchwald–Hartwig Aminations
Reaction Types
R2
(1.1 equiv)
No glove-box handling
Boronic acids, esters, and trifluoroborates well tolerated
The halide can be Cl or Br
Strong and mild bases have been applied successively
Base sensitive substrates are acceptable
Note that both electron-rich and electron-poor Grignard reagents
underwent reaction as well as sterically hindered aryl chlorides. This
mild Kumada protocol shows superior tolerance of ether, TMS, and
alkynyl functionalities. Heteroaromatic substrates undergo Kumada
couplings in good yields at room-temperature and with low catalyst
loadings (Scheme 10). Furthermore, functionalized 5-aryl-substituted
indoles are produced in good yields (Scheme 11).The results shown
in Figure 11 present a strong case for the wide acceptance of the
PEPPSI™ catalyst for new discoveries in Kumada-type cross-couplings.
R1
Ar N
DME, 50 oC, 24 h
R2
PEPPSI™–IPr Advantages in the Suzuki Coupling
•
•
•
•
•
PEPPSI-IPr, 2 mol %
1.5 equiv KOt-Bu
R1
Ar
100%
95%
MeO
OMe
TMS
OMe
70%
N
85%
90%, 70 °C
Figure 11
MeO
S
MeO
Br
N
+
N
BrMg
PEPPSI-IPr, 1 mol %
THF/DMI (2:1), rt, 24 h
N
S
N
60%
Scheme 10
MeO
Br
+
N
O
MeO
BrMg
PEPPSI-IPr, 1 mol %
N
THF/DMI (2:1), rt, 24 h
O
O
O
83%
Scheme 11
テクニカルサポート Tel:03-5796-7330 Fax:03-5796-7335 E-mail:[email protected]
次世代のPEPPSI™ 触媒
パラジウム触媒によるアリル化合物の置換反応も、合成化学におい
て期待されている炭素-炭素結合生成反応です。アリルアルコール、
アリルエステルなどがよく用いられており、カルボン酸やオキシム
などの種々の基質と良好にカップリングします 18,19。このタイプの
反応についても、PEPPSI ™ -IPr を用いた結果がヨーク大学の研究グ
ループから報告される予定です。
PdBr2, 4 mol%
P(t-Bu)2Me, 10 mol%
O
EtO
4
Br
+
(MeO)3Si
Me
O
EtO
2.4 equiv Bu4NF, THF, rt
59%
4
Me
Scheme 12
根岸カップリング、鈴木カップリング、熊田カップリングなどの各
反応における結果が示すように、PEPPSI ™触媒が sp3-sp3、sp3-sp2、
sp2-sp2 カップリングに対して有用な触媒であるが示されました。反
応性と実用性に優れた PEPPSI ™は、天然物合成やバルクスケールで
の製造に直接応用できる変換反応を触媒し、研究開発に貢献するこ
とでしょう。PEPPSI ™ -IPr の主な特徴は、触媒前駆体の空気中での
安定性と、触媒サイクルへの迅速な活性化です。Pd(0) への還元に
おいて、IPr-NHC 配位子は独自の方法で金属中心を安定化すると同
時に、還元的脱離反応を促進し TON を向上させます。Organ らの
グループでは、PEPPSI ™ -IPr 触媒の工業用途での可能性を最大限に
高めるため、新しい反応のパラダイムを開拓すべく研究を進めてい
ます。金属配位部位や NHC 構造を改良した錯体など、今後も新し
い PEPPSI ™触媒が続々と開発されることが期待されます。
References
(1) (a) Malatesta, L. et al. J. Chem. Soc. 1957, 1186. (b) Yamazaki, S. Inorg.
Chem. 1982, 21, 1638. (c) Kumada, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94,
4374. (d) Kumada, M. Pure Appl. Chem. 1980, 52, 669. (e) Negishi, E.
Acc. Chem. Res. 1982, 15, 340.
(2) (a) Hiyama, T., Hatanaka, Y. J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 918. (b) Tamao, K. et
al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 4374. (c) Negishi, E. et al. J. Org. Chem.
1977, 42, 1821. (d) King, A. O. et al. Chem. Commun. 1977, 683. (e)
Miyaura, N. et al. Tetrahedron Lett. 1979, 20, 3437. (f) Milstein, D. J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 1978, 100, 3636.
(3) Wolfe, J. P. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 7215.
(4) (a) Frey, G. D. et al. Organometallics 2005, 24, 4416. (b) Herrmann, W.
A. et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2002, 41, 1363. (c) Viciu, M. S. et al.
Organometallics 2004, 23, 1629. (d) Viciu, M. S. et al. Org. Lett. 2003,
5, 1479. (e) Jackstell, R. et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2002, 41, 986. (f)
Jensen, D. R. et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 3810.
(5) O
rgan, M. G. Rational Catalyst Design and its Application in sp3–sp3
Couplings. Presented at the 230th National Meeting of the American
Chemical Society, Washington, DC, August 2005; Abstract 308.
(6) Organ, M. G. et al. Chemistry: A European Journal 2006, in press.
(7) Hou, S. Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 423.
(8) (a) Miyaura, N. Top. Curr. Chem. 2002, 219, 11. (b) Suzuki, A. J.
Organomet. Chem. 1999, 576, 147.
(9) Organ, M. G. et al. Chemistry: A European Journal 2006, in press.
(10)For lead references on the Pd-catalyzed coupling of amines with aryl
halides, see: (a) Wolfe, J. P. et al. Acc. Chem. Res. 1998, 12, 805. (b)
Hartwig, J. F. Synlett 1997, 329. (c) Wolfe, J. P. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
1996, 118, 7215. (d) Driver, M. S. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118,
7217.
(11)Organ, M. G. et al. manuscript in preparation.
(12)For background on the biological activity of indoles, see: Sundberg, R. J.
Indoles; Academic Press: London, 1996, and references therein.
(13)For a current review on the Fischer indole synthesis, see: Hughes, D. L.
Org. Prep. Proced. Int. 1993, 25, 607.
(14)Hassan, J. et al. Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 1359.
(15)Organ, M. G. et al. manuscript in preparation.
(16)(a) Hiyama, T. In Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions; Diederich, F.,
Stang, P. J., Eds.; Wiley-VCH: New York, 1998; Chapter 10. (b) Hiyama, T.
et al. J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 918.
(17)Fu, G. C. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 5616.
(18)Kobayashi, S. Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 3241.
(19)Takemoto, Y. et al. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 5630.
バルク供給/スケールアップのご相談は…
ファインケミカル事業部 Tel:03-5796-7340 Fax:03-5796-7345 E-mail:[email protected]
Future Generation PEPPSI™
ここ 10 年の間に、パラジウム触媒による芳香族ケイ素化合物と有
機塩化物のクロスカップリング反応である檜山カップリング反応が
開発されました 16。有機ケイ素化合物は取り扱いが比較的容易でそ
の多くが低毒性であるため、当然ながら合成化学において魅力的な
基質です。Pd 触媒による檜山カップリング反応の多くは Csp2-X タ
イプの求電子剤が中心ですが、Fu らは高活性 Pd 触媒系が臭化アル
キルとのカップリングで高収率を与えると報告しました(Scheme
17
12)
。興味深いことに、Fu は、PdBr2 と塩化 2,6- ジメシチルフェ
ニルイミダゾリウム(IMes)の存在下、臭化アルキルの直接アリー
ル化に利用できる高活性触媒が得られたと報告しています。これま
でに示された PEPPSI ™ -IPr 触媒の優れた触媒作用にもとづいて、
Organ らのグループはハロゲン化アルキルと有機ケイ素化合物の檜
山クロスカップリング反応を検討しています。
Rieke® Organozincs
Custom Metal Reagents for Cross-Coupling
• Available as solutions in THF
• Diverse array of functional groups tolerated
• Industrially proven applications
Sigma-Aldrich では、Rieke
®
の有機亜鉛試薬を供給しております。
有機亜鉛試薬は、触媒分野で多くの報告がなされており、種々のクロスカップリング反応に利用されています1。へテロ環化合物、芳
香族フッ素化合物、その他電子特性の異なる種々の置換基を有する有機亜鉛化合物は、塩化アルキル・塩化アリールと良好な収率でカッ
プリング生成物を与えます。
5-Chloro-2-thienylzinc bromide solution
C4H2BrClSZn
FW:262.87
[312624-22-9]
497843-50ML
50mL
Cl
ZnBr
S
¥18,000
(Cyclohexylmethyl)zinc bromide solution
C6H11CH2ZnBr
FW:242.47
[135579-86-1]
498025-50ML
50mL
ZnBr
¥17,200
3,5-Dimethyl-1-adamantylzinc
bromide solution
C12H19BrZn
FW:308.57
[312692-99-2]
ZnBr
Me
50mL
498734-50ML
50mL
Butylzinc bromide solution
CH3(CH2)3ZnBr
FW:202.41
[92273-73-9]
497746-50ML
50mL
Phenylzinc bromide solution
C6H5ZnBr
FW:222.4
[38111-44-3]
Me
498432-50ML
5-Hexenylzinc bromide solution
H2C=CH(CH2)4ZnBr
FW:228.45
[226570-65-6]
¥25,900
524719-50ML
50mL
2,3,,5,6-Pentafluorobenzylzinc
chloride solution
ZnBr
¥20,800
C6F5CH2ZnCl
FW:281.93
[308796-02-3]
sigma-aldrich.com
ZnCl
F
F
F
F
F
499064-50ML
50mL
¥22,600
ZnBr
¥14,900
ZnBr
2-Pyridylzinc bromide solution
C5H4BrNZn
FW:222.39
[218777-23-2]
499382-50ML
N
50mL
ZnBr
¥16,900
-Fluorophenylzinc bromide solution
¥13,900
FC6H4ZnBr
FW:240.39
[181705-93-1]
498645-50ML
50mL
(1)(a)Bunlaksananusorn,T.etal.Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.2003,42,3941.(b)Knochel,P.etal.Chem. Rev. 1993,93,2117.
(c)Chinchilla,R.etal.Chem. Rev.200,104,2667.
RiekeisaregisteredtrademarkofRiekeMetals,Inc.
ZnBr
F
¥15,200
MacMillan Imidazolidinone OrganoCatalysts™
Metal-Free Asymmetric Catalysis
製品の特長
• 各種の反応における優れたエナンチオ選択性
• 高い触媒活性
• 官能基に対する汎用性
Metathesis Catalyst
Technology
• 天然物合成における不斉α-フッ素化
MacMillan らは、エナミンにより触媒されるアルデヒドのα位の塩素化もしくは 1,3- 双極子付加環化など、様々なエナンチオ選択的な有機化
学反応において要となるキラルなイミダゾリジノン有機分子触媒を開発しました。Sigma-Aldrich は、Materia 社との共同開発により、迅速かつ
エナンチオ特異的に C-F もしくは C-H 結合を形成可能な、6 種のイミダゾリジノン有機分子触媒を提供しています。C-F 形成反応としては、以下
の例のように、少量(5 mol %)の触媒の添加により、アルデヒドのα位を高エナンチオ選択的にフッ素化し、さまざまなアルコールが得られます。
O
H
O
O
O
R +
Ph
S
2
N
F
Me
N Me
Me
N
H . DCA
5 mol %, –10 °C, THF,
i-PrOH, NaBH4, CH2Cl2
Bn
O
N
O
R
HO
+
F
ee range
91–99%
Cl
Me
O
Me
N Me
Me
N
H . HCl
20 mol %, +4 °C,
CH3NO2, H2O
Bn
Bn
N O
Ar
Me
N O
Ar
CHO
Me
CHO
78%, endo:exo 92:8, 95% ee (endo)
References: (a) MacMillan, D. W. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 9874. (b) MacMillan, D. W. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 8826.
(2S,5S)-(−)-2-tert-Butyl-3-methyl-
5-benzyl-4-imidazolidinone, 97%
C15H22N2O
FW: 246.35
[346440-54-8]
663107-500MG
663107-1G
O
500 mg
1 g
Me
N
N
H
500 mg
1 g
(2R,5R)-(−)-2-tert-Butyl-3-methyl-
5-benzyl-4-imidazolidinone, 97%
C15H22N2O
FW: 246.35
[390766-89-9]
663093-500MG
663093-1G
8
Me
Me
Me
¥12,000
¥19,000
8
O
Me
N
N
H
Me
Me
Me
¥12,000
¥19,000
(5S)-2,2,3-Trimethyl-5-benzyl-4-
imidazolidinone dichloroacetic acid
C15H20Cl2N2O3
FW: 347.24
O
8
Me
N Me
Me
N
H . CCl HCOOH
2
663085-500MG
663085-2G
500 mg
2 g
(5R)-2,2,3-Trimethyl-5-benzyl-4-
imidazolidinone dichloroacetic acid
C15H20Cl2N2O3
O
FW: 347.24
663077-500MG
663077-2G
500 mg
2 g
¥11,000
¥30,000
8
Me
N Me
Me
N
H . CCl HCOOH
2
¥11,000
¥30,000
(5S)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-phenyl-
methyl-4-imidazolidinone monohydrochloride, 97%
C13H18N2O · HCl
FW: 254.76
[278173-23-2]
569763-500MG
569763-2G
sigma-aldrich.com
O
Me
N Me
Me
N
H . HCl
500 mg
2 g
¥6,000
¥18,600
(5R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-phenylmethyl-
8
4-imidazolidinone monohydrochloride, 97%
C13H18N2O · HCl
Me
O
N Me
FW: 254.76
Me
[323196-43-6]
N
H . HCl
663069-500MG
663069-2G
For more information, please visit us at sigma-aldrich.com/catalysis.
OrganoCatalysts is a trademark of Materia, Inc.
8
500 mg
2 g
¥6,000
¥16,000
A-193 SAJ 2006.6