VLBI Frequency Transfer

日本測地学会第112回講演会
2009年11月6日(金)
産業技術総合研究所
Ⅴ.測地測量・地球潮汐・測地
測地VLBI技術による
高精度周波数比較
VLBI MEASUREMENTS FOR FREQUENCY TRANSFER
瀧口 博士1,小山 泰弘1 ,市川 隆一1 ,後藤 忠広1 ,
石井 敦利1,2,3 ,Thomas Hobiger1 ,細川 瑞彦1
1情報通信研究機構,
2国土地理院, 3(株)エイ・イー・エス
Content
 Introduction
» Previous study
 Intercomparison : VLBI (IVS) vs. GPS (IGS)
- Wettzell - Onsala
 How stable are current VLBI systems?
- Kashima34m – Kashima11m
- Kashima11m – Koganei11m
 Intercomparison between VLBI and other techniques
» Can the VLBI measure the right time difference?
 Kashima34m - Kashima11m
- Artificial change by Line Stretcher & Trombone
 Conclusions
Introduction
 Development of
frequency standard
Background
 Time and frequency
transfer technique
» GPS Carrier Phase
 Atomic fountains
2×10-15
@a few days
NICT-CsF1
….. developing
 Optical clocks
10-17~
@a few hours
NICT
optical clocks
….. developing
2×10-15 @1day
» TWSTFT
2-4×10-15 @1day
» long averaging period
» insufficient accuracy
 improvements of highly precise
time and frequency transfer techniques
are strongly desired
VLBI
VLBI
Very Long Baseline Interferometry
measure the arrival
time delays between
multiple station
Geodetic VLBI experiment by IVS
The averaging formal error
of the clock offset : 20 ps
← better than other current techniques
Previous study
Intercomparison : VLBI vs. GPS
1.
Wettzell-Onsala


VLBI vs. GPS CP
IVS and IGS data
GPS
[email protected]
VLBI
[email protected]
1
+ GPS long period

(2007 91-105 15days,
106-124 19days)
GPS VLBI
IGS: ●
IVS: □
Onsala
Sweden
Onsala Space Observatory
Wettzell
Germany
Fundamental Station Wettzell
at each site
The
geodetic VLBI technique
VLBI and
GPS
are sharing
hasthe
theH-maser
potential for precise
frequency transfer

103s
 VLBI is more stable than GPS
 surpassing the stability of atomic fountain at 103s
 VLBI stability : follows a 1/τ law very closely
 2×10-11 (20ps)@1s
Previous study
How stable are current VLBI systems?
Kashima34m-Kashima11m
1
Ato
m

ic F
oun
in summer
Kashima11m – Koganei11m
tain
TW
ST
F
Op
tica
l Cl
T
ock
s
103s
after removing linear trend
2x104s
105s
How stable are current VLBI systems?
→ surpassing the
in stability
winter of atomic fountain at 2x104 , 105 s
⇒ unstable than international baseline (Wettzell-Onsala)
⇒ influence of temperature change
Measures to reduce the influence of the temperature change are necessary.
What’s Next ?
 The geodetic VLBI technique has the potential for precise
frequency transfer
» VLBI is more stable than GPS
» surpassing the stability of atomic fountain at 103s (Wettzell-Onsala)
» 2x104 , 105 s (Kashima11-Koganei, Kashima34-Kashima11)
Improve the station environment
»for Geodesy → for T&F transfer
Intercomparison
»MARBLE
»International
»other techniques : GPS, DMTD, TWSTFT, TEC(ETS-8)
Calibrate instrumental delay
Intercomparison : VLBI vs. other techniques
 Kashima34m – Kashima11m
NICT sites
 Kashima11m – Koganei11m
Kashima
Kashima Space
Research Center
Koganei/Tokyo
Headquarters
VLBI
Koganei11m
VLBI
VLBI
GPS
TWSTFT
TEC (ETS-8)
109km
H-maser, DMTD
MARBLE
GPS
VLBI
Kashima11m
Koganei
GPS: kgni
Kashima
239m
★
★
GPS : ksmv
GPS : ks34
VLBI
Kashima34m
Can the VLBI measure the right time difference?
 Kashima34m – Kashima11m
» Artificial time difference change
 using Line Stretcher & Trombone
» Intercomparison between VLBI, GPS and DMTD
DMTD
[email protected]
(6ps)
Trombone
Differences with the normal observation
 Normal Geodetic VLBI
» Observation




multiple sources
antenna slew time
different scan time
24 hours
» Data Analysis
 estimate
clock parameter
atmosperic delay
station coordinates
 This study
» Observation




one source : 3C84
no antenna slew time
same scan time
a few hours
» Data Analysis
 estimate only
clock parameter
 atmospheric delay :
short baseline, one source
 station coordinates :
fixed to a-priori coordinates
Data analysis
VLBI
» CALC/SOLVE
» single baseline
» S/X ionosphere-free
linear combination
 clock offset / 30sec
» Time Defference
clock offset / 30sec
GPS
» NR Canada’s PPP
 IGS Final Orbit & Clock(30s)
» Precise Point Positioning
 satellite clock interpolation
 clock offset / 30sec
» Time Defference
clock offset A – clock offset B
/ 30sec
vs. DMTD Time Difference / 1sec
DMTD
Time Difference
5 6
4 7
3
8
2
9
1
10
50メモリ
DMTD
12 14
11 13 15
16
0 ⇒ Max
18
17
DMTD
1 37.9
2 39.7
3 46.9
4 38.8
5 26.7
6 -22.5
7 -45.0
8 -43.3
9 -55.1
10 -43.7
11 207.9
12 -210.1
13 214.2
14 -215.3
15 216.8
16 -210.6
17 203.8
18 -212.3
42 ps
211 ps
GPS vs. DMTD
Time Difference
DMTD
GPS
after removing offsets
GPS-DMTD
37 ps
DMTD GPS GPS-DMTD
1 37.9 61.7 23.8
2 39.7 66.3 26.7
3 46.9 62.1 15.2
4 38.8 54.6 15.8
5 26.7 44.3 17.7
6 -22.5 -43.7 21.2
7 -45.018-53.0
ps 8.0
8 -43.3 -54.0 10.7
9 -55.1 -72.0 16.9
10 -43.7 -65.3 21.6
11 207.9 268.0 60.1
12 -210.1 -263.0 52.9
13 214.2 273.0 58.8
14 -215.3 -283.0 67.7
62 ps
15 216.8 277.3 60.6
16 -210.6 -274.3 63.7
17 203.8 269.3 65.6
18 -212.3 -279.0 66.7
VLBI vs. GPS and DMTD
Time Difference
DMTD
GPS
VLBI
after removing offsets
GPS-DMTD
VLBI-DMTD
23 ps
DMTD VLBI VLBI-DMTD
1 37.9 48.3 10.4
2 39.7 48.2 8.5
3 46.9 60.8 13.9
4 38.8 48.5 9.7
5 26.7 27.3 0.6
6 -22.5 -30.2 7.7
7 -45.0 8-53.1
ps 8.2
8 -43.3 -43.0 0.3
9 -55.1 -62.6 7.5
10 -43.7 -54.5 10.7
11 207.9 243.8 35.8
12 -210.1 -244.0 33.9
13 214.2 256.6 42.4
14 -215.3 -251.3 36.0
42 ps
15 216.8 262.6 45.9
16 -210.6 -258.5 47.9
17 203.8 259.0 55.3
18 -212.3 -254.6 42.3
VLBI vs. GPS and DMTD
Time Difference
DMTD
GPS-DMTD
GPS
VLBI
VLBI-DMTD
DMTD
GPS
VLBI
-45.0
-53.0
-53.1
-43.3
-54.0
-43.0
-55.1
-72.0
-62.6
214.2
273.0
256.6
-215.3
-283.0
-251.3
216.8
277.3
262.6
Conclusions
Can the VLBI measure right time difference?
» VLBI vs. GPS CP and DMTD
» Artificial change
 VLBI vs. DMTD: [email protected], [email protected]
↑good agreement
 GPS vs. DMTD: [email protected], [email protected]
» The geodetic VLBI technique can measure
the right time difference.
Acknowledgements
IVS and IGS
for the high quality products
GSFC, JPL, NRC Canada
for VLBI and GPS analysis software
Thank you very much for your attention.