No Slide Title

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The table to the right
shows te-forms of
various grammatical
categories.
Place the pointer on
a category name to
hear how each
representative form
sounds.
1
Te-forms of various grammatical categories
Positive
Negative
I-adjectives
高くて
高くなくて
Na-adjectives
きれいで
きれいじゃなくて
Nouns
学生で
学生じゃなくて
One-step verbs
食べて
食べないで/ 食べなくて
TA-RA-WA-line verbs
待って
待たないで / 待たなくて
BA-MA-NA-line verbs
読んで
読まないで / 読まなくて
KA-line verbs
歩いて
歩かないで / 歩かなくて
GA-line verbs
急いで
急がないで / 急がなくて
SA-line verbs
話して
話さないで / 話さなくて
© S. Hamano and W. Kikuchi
•
The table to the right
shows te-forms of
irregular verbs.
•
Place the pointer on
a category name to
hear how each
representative form
sounds.
2
Te-forms of various grammatical categories
Positive
Negative
“go”
行って
行かないで / 行かなくて
“do”
して
しないで / しなくて
“come”
きて
こないで/ こなくて
“exist”
あって
なくて
© S. Hamano and W. Kikuchi
•
To the right are
representative uses
of te-forms of iadjectives.
Productive patterns based on te-forms
高くてまずい
It is expensive and not good-tasting.
たか
高くて買えない
Because it is expensive, I cannot buy it.
か
高くなくてよかった
It was good that it wasn’t expensive.
高くてもいい
It is OK for it to be expensive.
高くても買う
Even if it is expensive, I will buy it.
安くなくてはいけない
It has to be cheap.
やす
3
© S. Hamano and W. Kikuchi
•
To the right are
representative uses
of te-forms of naadjectives.
Productive patterns based on te-forms
きれいで安い
It is clean and cheap.
簡単で誰でも使える
Because it is simple, anyone can use it.
かんたん だれ
4
つか
簡単でいい
It is good that it is simple.
きれいでなくてもいい
It does not have to be clean.
きれいでなくても買う
I will buy it even if it is not good-looking.
きれいでなくてはいけない
It has to be clean.
© S. Hamano and W. Kikuchi
•
And here are
representative uses
of nominal te-forms.
Productive patterns based on te-forms
学生でまずしい
He is a student and poor.
がくせい
5
学生で買えない
Because she is a student, she cannot buy it.
学生でよかった
It was good that I was a student.
学生でもいい
Students will be fine.
学生でも買う
Even a student will buy it.
学生でなくてはいけない
They need to be students.
© S. Hamano and W. Kikuchi
•
To the right are
representative uses
of verbal te-forms.
Productive patterns based on te-forms
書いてください
Please write.
か
書かないでください
Please do not write.
書いて覚える
I will write and memorize it.
おぼ
6
書かないで覚える
I will memorize it without writing.
書いてあげる
I will write for you.
書いてやる
I will write for someone “lower.”
書いてくれる
She/he/they will write for me.
書いてくださる
She/he/they will write for me.
書いてもらう
I will ask her/him/them write for me.
© S. Hamano and W. Kikuchi
•
And here are more.
Productive patterns based on te-forms
書いている
I am writing.
書いて来る
I will write and come.
く
書いて行く
I will write and go.
い
7
書いておく
I will write ahead of time.
書いてある
I have written it in preparation.
書いてみる
I will write and see.
書いてみせる
I will write (to show it).
書いてしまう
I will write (in an unexpected way.)
© S. Hamano and W. Kikuchi
•
And more.
8
Productive patterns based on te-forms
書いてから
after I write
書いてもいい
It is OK to write.
書かなくてもいい
It is OK not to write.
書いてはいけない
You may not write.
書かなくてはいけない
You must write.
© S. Hamano and W. Kikuchi