### The Chapel Language - College of Engineering IT

```An Introduction to Chapel
compiled for Mary Hall, February 2006
Cray Inc.
What is Chapel?
 Overall goal: “Solve the parallel programming problem”
– simplify the creation of parallel programs
– support their evolution to extreme-performance,
– emphasize generality
 Motivating Language Technologies:
2) locality-aware programming
3) object-oriented programming
4) generic programming and type inference
Chapel (23)
Data Parallelism: Domains
 domain: an index set
– specifies size and shape of “arrays”
– supports sequential and parallel iteration
– potentially decomposed across locales
 Three main classes:
– arithmetic: indices are Cartesian tuples
 rectilinear,
multidimensional
 optionally strided and/or sparse
– indefinite: indices serve as hash keys
 supports
hash tables, associative arrays, dictionaries
 supports
sets, graph-based computations
– opaque: indices are anonymous
 Fundamental Chapel concept for data parallelism
 A generalization of ZPL’s region concept
Chapel (25)
A Simple Domain Declaration
var m: integer = 4;
var n: integer = 8;
var D: domain(2) = [1..m, 1..n];
D
Chapel (26)
A Simple Domain Declaration
var m: integer = 4;
var n: integer = 8;
var D: domain(2) = [1..m, 1..n];
var DInner: domain(D) = [2..m-1, 2..n-1];
DInner
D
Chapel (27)
Domain Uses
 Declaring arrays:
var A, B: [D] float;
A
B
 Sub-array references:
A(DInner) = B(DInner);
 Sequential iteration:
for (i,j) in DInner { …A(i,j)… }
or: for ij in DInner { …A(ij)… }
1 2 3 4
7 8
D
 Parallel iteration:
forall ij in DInner { …A(ij)… }
or: [ij in DInner] …A(ij)…
D
 Array reallocation:
D = [1..2*m, 1..2*n];
A
Chapel (28)
BDInner
B
5
6
9 10 11 12
Other Arithmetic Domains
var D2: domain(2) = (1,1)..(m,n);
D2
var StridedD: domain(D) = D by (2,3);
StridedD
var indexList: seq(index(D)) = …;
var SparseD: sparse domain(D) = indexList;
SparseD
Chapel (29)
Indefinite Domains
var People: domain(string);
var Age: [People] integer;
var Birthdate: [People] string;
Age(“john”) = 60;
Birthdate(“john”) = “12/11/1943”;
…
forall person in People {
if (Birthdate(person) == today) {
Age(person) += 1;
}
}
“john”
People
Chapel (32)
60
“12/11/1943”
Age
Birthday
Opaque Domains
var Vertices: domain(opaque);
for i in (1..5) {
Vertices.new();
}
Vertices
var AV, BV: [Vertices] float;
AV
BV
Chapel (33)
Opaque Domains
var Vertices: domain(opaque);
var left, right: [Vertices] index(Vertices);
var root: index(Vertices);
root = Vertices.new();
left(root) = Vertices.new();
right(root) = Vertices.new();
left(right(root)) = Vertices.new();
root
conceptually:
root
Left
more precisely:
Vertices
Right
Chapel (34)
 co-begins: indicate statements that may run in parallel:
computePivot(lo, hi, data);
cobegin {
Quicksort(lo, pivot, data);
Quicksort(pivot, hi, data);
}
cobegin {
}
 atomic sections: support atomic transactions
atomic {
newnode.next = insertpt;
newnode.prev = insertpt.prev;
insertpt.prev.next = newnode;
insertpt.prev = newnode;
}
 sync and single-assignment variables: synchronize tasks
– similar to Cray MTA C/Fortran
Chapel (35)
2) Locality-aware Programming
 locale: machine unit of storage and processing
 programmer specifies number of locales on executable
command-line
prompt> myChapelProg –nl=8
 Chapel programs provided with built-in locale array:
const Locales: [1..numLocales] locale;
 Users may use this to create their own locale arrays:
var CompGrid: [1..GridRows, 1..GridCols] locale = …;
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
CompGrid
A
B
Chapel (36)
C
D
E
F
G
H
Data Distribution
 domains may be distributed across locales
var D: domain(2) distributed(Block(2) to CompGrid) = …;
D
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
CompGrid
A
B
 Distributions specify…
…mapping of indices to locales
…per-locale storage layout of domain indices and
array elements
 Distributions implemented as a class hierarchy
– Chapel provides a number of standard distributions
– Users may also write their own
one of our biggest
challenges
Chapel (37)
Computation Distribution
 “on” keyword binds computation to locale(s):
cobegin {
}
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
 “on” can also be used in a data-driven manner:
forall (i,j) in D {
on B(j/2,i*2) do A(i,j) = foo(B(j/2,i*2));
}
foo()
A
Chapel (38)
B
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
CompGrid
Chapel Challenges
 User Acceptance
– True of any new language
– Skeptical audience
 Commodity Architecture Implementation
– Chapel designed with idealized architecture in mind
– Clusters are not ideal in many respects
– Results in implementation and performance
challenges
– Efficient user-defined domain distributions
– Parallel Garbage Collection
 And many others as well…
Chapel (43)
Summary
 Chapel is being designed to…
…enhance programmer productivity
…address a wide range of workflows
 Via high-level, extensible abstractions for…