Validity and reliability of farsi version of Cornell Musculoskeletal
Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ)
H, Afifehzadeh-Kashani1, A, Choobineh2, S, Bakand3, M. R, Gohari4, H, Abbastabar5, P,
Received: 2010/09/05
Revised: 2010/09/18
Accepted: 2010/10/25
Background and aims: Tools for evaluation of body discomfort are tools that can be used for the
prevention of musculoskeletal discomfort in industrial settings. Musculoskeletal disorders are serious
health concern in the developed world. The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire
(CMDQ) that is designed to evaluate the musculoskeletal disorders by the time being is translated to
diverse languages and being implemented in many countries. However, in Iran, CMDQ is not
translated into Persian language yet. . The aim of this study was to translate, accredit and validate the
CMDQ in Persian version in order to establish the standard tool to be implemented for ergonomic
research in Iran.
Methods: This analytical research was performed to determine the validity and reliability of
translated Persian version of the CMDQ for implementation in steel industrial settings. In order to
implement this tool for Iranian workers, the Farsi version of the CMDQ was prepared using the
Forward-Backward translation method. Then the translated version of the questionnaire was
distributed between 100 workers of Kashan steel industries in a randomized manner. To determine
the validity for the severity of discomfort, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was completed by all
workers. Further the reliability of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach’s alpha
Results: For analyzing the validity of the questionnaire for the severity of the pain and discomfort
the Kappa coefficient, and for the frequency of pain and discomfort the Spearman correlation
coefficient was used. However, regarding
analyzing the reliability of the questionnaire, the
Cronbach’s alpha Coefficient of 0.986 was determined. The Cronbach’s alpha Coefficient for all
three sections of frequency of discomfort, severity of discomfort and interference scales were
determined 0.955, 0.961, 0.969 respectively.
Conclusion: The Farsi version of the CMDQ is an appropriate tool for investigation of the level of
musculoskeletal disorders in Iranian workers and can be used as a part of ergonomic research and
health surveillance programs to prevent the musculoskeletal disorders.
Keywords: Musculoskeletal Discomfort, CMDQ, Translation, Validity, Reliability
1. Corresponding author, Department of Occupational Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
2. Research Center for Health Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
3. Department of Health, School of Public Health, Member of Occupational Health research center, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
4. Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Management and Bioinformatics, Tehran University of Medical
Sciences, Iran.
5. Department of Epidemiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
6. English Language University of General Application unit 33 Tehran, Iran.
Iran Occupational Health, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 2011
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