Introduction to Language: Animals and Human

Engl 160: Intro to Language
•Where did language come from?
•Did all humans always speak?
• When did language evolve?
•Was there more than one original language?
•What is the Language Acquisition Device?
•Did it evolve as humans evolved?
The Theories
•Divine source
• Natural sound source
•The natural sound source
•The social interaction source
•The physical adaptation source
•The tool making source
•The genetic source
Divine Creation of Language
 Many societies throughout history believed
that language is a gift of the gods to humans:
 “Adam gave names to all living creatures.”
Humans were created from the start with an
innate capacity to use language.
 This capacity is complex – there are NO
ever been – even among the most remote
tribes today or of stone-age huntergatherers!
 Psammetichus and the babies raised by goats.
 King James of Scotland and the Hebrewspeaking babies.
 But empirical evidence from children raised
without exposure to language shows that these
children grow up with no language at all.
Exposure to language before the age of 7 is
critical to language development. This is called
The Critical Period for language acquisition
(natural sound source)
 “Ding-Dong” – humans named objects,
actions and phenomena after a recognizable
sound associated with it. The first human
words were a type of ICON, a sign whose
form is an exact image of its meaning:
Boom = explosion (English)
Tun-tun = heart (Chinook Indian)
Ai-ai = knife (Basque, literally “ouch-ouch”)
 “bow-wow” – human vocabulary developed
from animal noises, e.g., Moo, hiss, quack,
meow, etc.
 Onomatopoeia: lit. “name-sound” the
imitation of a sound in naming.
 Drawbacks: Limited part of vocabulary.
Different from language to language:
Russian ba-bakh = bang; bukh = thud
 “pooh-pooh” Hypothesis: humans’ first words
were derived from spontaneous expressions of
dislike, hunger, pain, or pleasure.
 Ha-ha-ha, wah-wah
 Problems: Very small part of any language.
 Differ from language to language:
English ouch; Russian oi; Cherokee eee, Basque ai
Made with intake of breath, which is the opposite of
normal talking.
 Renditions of animal sounds differ considerably
from language to language, even though the
animal makes essentially the same sound:
Dog: bow-wow; Chinese wu-wu; Jap. wan-wan;
Russian gaf-gaf or tyaff-tyaff
Cat: meow; Russian myaoo; Chinese mao;
Japanese nya-nya
Rooster: cocka-doodle-do; Japanese kokekoko;
Greek kikuriku, kikikiriki
PROBLEM: Where do names for natural
noiseless concepts come from: rock, sun, sky,
 “ta-ta” Hypothesis. Charles Darwin theorized
that speech may have developed as a sort of
mouth pantomime – the organs of speech were
used to imitate the gestures of the hand. The
first words were lip icons of hand gestures.
 Same problem as for onomatopoeia – different
gestures in different cultures: crossing fingers
for good luck in English versus Russian “fig”
gesture; nodding “no” in Greek versus “yes” in
 Even Darwin himself thought this was a little
Necessity Hypotheses
 “Necessity is the mother of invention”
 Warning Hypothesis. Language evolved
from the warning signals used by animals.
Perhaps language started with a warning
sound to others, that signified “HELP!” or
“RUN!” to alert other members to the
approach of a lumbering hairy mammoth or
hungry saber-tooth tiger.
 Other first words could have been hunting
Necessity Hypotheses
 “yo-he-ho” Hypothesis: Language developed
on the basis of human cooperation.
 The earliest language was chanting to stimulate
collective effort, like moving a great stone to
block off a cave entrance from roving carnivores,
or repeating a war phrase over and over to
inflame the fighting spirit.
 Poetry and song came to us this way – and we
still have some “yo-he-ho” ones: the Volga Boat
Song, Military drill chanting, the Seven Dwarves
working song!
Necessity Hypotheses
 The “Lying” Hypothesis: Sturtevant argued
that since all our real intentions or emotions
get involuntarily expressed by gesture, look,
or sound, voluntary communication must have
been invented in order to lie or deceive. He
believed that the need to deceive and lie – to
use language in contrast to reality for selfish
ends – was the social prompting that got
language started.
 Seems pretty far-fetched.
The Real Reason For Language
Other Sources of Language
 Physical Adaptation. Other primates, such as
gorillas, do not have the same physical
characteristics which make speech possible.
upright teeth in humans (fricative sounds)
Intricate lip muscles on humans
Smaller, thicker more muscular tongue
Humans can close off the nose to create more
air pressure for sound in the mouth cavity.
Other Sources of Language
 The human larynx, or “voice box,” which
contains the vocal cords, is in a lower position in
humans than in primates, creating a longer
cavity called the pharynx.
 The pharynx is like a big echo chamber above
the vocal cords for volume and clarity of sound.
 Unfortunate outcome: we can now choke on
food. Monkeys can both breathe and drink or
eat at the same time – we can’t. So can babies
until their larynx drops as they mature.
Other Sources of Language
 The tool-making source: As early humans’
hands became occupied with tool use, they
were less able to use hand gestures, so
speech became a necessity
 Preferential right-handedness
 Lateralized brain: each hemisphere has its
own functions
 Speech and tool-making abilities are very
close to one another in the left hemisphere
Other Sources of Language
 The Genetic Source: a crucial genetic mutation
arose which gave humans the unique ability to
produce and understand language. This means that
language is
Hard-wired like in a computer
Universal in form
The innateness hypothesis states that language is
endemic to all humans.
But only to humans? We will explore this next week.
Hypotheses Regarding Language
• Was there one or more than one
original language?
•Was there one or more than one
“invention” of language?
•There are approximately 6,300
languages spoken on earth now, and
an even greater number spoken in the
Discussion Questions
 What is the basic idea behind the bow-wow theory?
 Why are interjections like “ouch” considered to be an
unlikely source of language origin?
Where is the pharynx and how did it become an
important part of human sound production?
What happened at the Tower of Babel, and why is it
used in explaining language origins?
What is the connection between the innateness
hypothesis and the idea of a Universal Grammar?
Why do you think that young deaf children who
become fluent in sign language would be cited as a
support of the innateness hypothesis?
Discussion Questions
 What is the connection between language, toolusing, and right-handedness?
 Why is it difficult to believe Psammetichus that
Phrygian must have been the first language?
 What is monogenesis and how does it explain
the development of languages?
 What theory of language diversity would explain
having different families of languages?
Discussion Questions
 Is there a connection between the Heimlich
maneuver and the development of human
 What are the arguments for and against a
teleological explanation of the origins of
 Read Chapter 2, Animals and Human
Language, including study questions.
 Yule, George. 2010. The Study of Language. 4th
 Vajda, Edward. Undated Manuscript. The
Origin of Language.
 Fromkin, et. al. 2009. An Introduction to