蟹器欝欝

ごく
攻甥赫
鱒男臥
謡万井
シmト授
会沁回教
徹囎樟
技㎞拓北
)y一東
程製
構刺子郎通
博曲国」優一川
一町究出
蟹器欝欝
項研sす数
照第工b鵬に原教教客
目1学囲血関山授授員
熱繍灘
計賊難鷲塑麩
名位円規称団員員
月難題委
与の専
学年根攻文教査
与授与,論導審
位難位文
民授学学研学指論
論文内容要旨
…獺
1.b伽oduct董。盛
Thestu(圭董esontheearly血重ema纏。葺aま圭se(ismalla皿d鴇ediumenteη療ses,。w藪charec撮夏edasBo搬Globalsシ
havebeeRdone鵬ainly血European,NorthA飢erica慕andOcea趨acountriessincethelateI980smtilnow・
Howeveちtherearefヒwcasesthatresearchedt薮eBomGlob飢sl簸Japansof葱,
Hencetheaimsofourresearcゑa業e重ρac難ieve癒efbllowing20切ec巌ves:Firstofall,we圭de濃i撤w難ytheBom
Globals擁overseascoulds伽tinternationalis&tiona伽ear血cept…o簸an(iwhyt}1eBomGlobalsinJapancould
sta爵ntematio簸a}isatまonaガnearinceptionif癒eyexistSeco昼d1)もweprovideperso鍛swhoplantostartbus血ess
w鋤an㎞p銭cationt負atitmi頭重beco搬etobe㎞porta雌圭br重hemtocagture醸emation紐。即ort凶澁esa廿near
呈難ceptio焦
3hyp・theses細egeneratedt・achievethese・切ec傾ves・
Hyp・thesis1.B・mGi・bals血atseek撚ket・PP・血nitiesln・versease廠inJap蹴
H"othes圭s2.TheJapaneseBomGlobalshavedif驚re簸重。切ectives{brintemationalisatio銭費omtheexisting
醸ematio盤a玉ise(iJapanesesmal董andmediumente業prises(SMEs).
H距・thesis3.丁益eJa卿eseB・mG董・b謡曲aves㎞圭1証ch鍵acte亘sticst・t雑e・e頭stingc訂1y血tema‡三・獄a玉茎sedS囲s
㎞overseas.Inaddition,theJapa鍛eseBomGlobals圭}avespecificc}}aracteris翻csaswe1L
hlordertover靭those鼓ypotheses,weco薙ductIiteraturesurveysontheexistingBomGlobalsinoverseasa准d
theexistingin重ematio簸a1圭sedJapaneseSMEsto量denti旬塩echaracteris重量csofeachtypeoff㎞s.Wb鵬ake
q騒esti・㎜aires㎜ey・n150SM巳s血」a脚that劔elike取t・haved㈱呈ntemati・nalisati・nt・勧d・u葡ekye㎜
.elapsedbe櫨eenst蹟血9雌ema‡i・nalisa"・n㎝dthe玉r魚田dati・塁・f血e㎞s,enhymωesandtke・切ectives・f
the盆intematio獄a董isa亘。几Wit㎞49respOnδedSMEstha擁縦vedoneintcmationallsationofthequestiomalre
s蟹veエinterviewsurveyareco盤d戯edon7㎞sthatstarted血tem厩量onalisat量onwithin3years含。磁their
inceptio蓑an(13film3thespentmorethanfiveyearss餓rtingintema重量onalisat量ontoi(ie感靭w薮ythose7f血s
coulds顧edin船matio謡isationwit㎞n3yeaごsandwhythose3㎞sspendtodoit凪orethan5years、
2.Liteザa重獄reSurvey
繋
麺thischapteちweconductliter磁ures雛veysontheexistingBomGlobalsinoverseasandtheexisting
in重emationallsedJapa豊eseSMEs重oiden重酌thecharacteristlcsofeach卵eof籔mls,
2-1.SurveontheBomGlobals血ove鮒eas
From1970s,負mls,i盛emationalisationprocessisdesc貢bedasincreme磁alorstepwiseproces鑑Thatprocess
isexplainedt難atfirmstendtost餓the量r醸ema重lonalisatlonaftermatura重ion王難thedolnesticmarketfヒomIess
resourceco㎜itted鵬anneち1ikeexporL
Howeveちffomtheendof1980s,theinc堂eme薙紛lintemationa}圭sa重量onprocessbegantoexp1&n3to瑠poweL
So搬eSMEss重artedtheirintemationalisぬonaザnearinceptionwithoutcxperiencing伽matur飢ioninthe
domesticmarket.Thoseearlyinte鑓atlo副ised飽mshavebee益called・as“BomG玉obais'孔BomGlobalshavebeen・
various董yconceptα3銭sedin癒eexist㎞gstudieswithregardtoyealselapsedbe重wee登staエtihg醸ema重量on謝sation
andthefbundatlonof癒eH㎜.hltherecentstudiesofBomGloba董s,theyearselapsed玉sco鼓ceptualisedas
一205一
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'within 3 ears from inception'. In our research on the Japanese Bom Globals, they are defined as, 'SMEs, that
from near inception (within 3 years fiom inception), seek to derive significant competitive advantage from their
'.,
intemationalisation '
In the existing studies of Bom Globals, many scholars show the limitation of the incremental
internationalisation. process through their empirical researches, and explain the determinants of early
intemationalisation. From those existing studies, we found out the 3 determinants of early internationalisation;
'competitive resources', 'effective use ofnetworks' and 'TOp management team's characteristics'.
'Competitive resources' is explained that the firms having competitive products (tangible resources) that are
developed on the basis of their unique techtiology may start interb:ationalisation at/near inception. Due to the
effective use of network, the firms can gain complementary resources, which may allow them to gain
competitiveness in the foreign market at/near inception. There are 2 top management team's characteristics to be
factors for the firms' early internationalisation. The team having strong intention for internationalisation before
foundation could proactively seek intemational opportunities. Further, member of the team having intemational
experiences could trigger for the early internationalisation.
}
2-2. Surve on the existin intemationalised Ja anese SMES
The analysis of the current situation in inte}nationalisation of Japanese SMES indicates that the Japanese
SMES intemationalise for various objectives. The Japanese SMES adopt various enty modes to reduce costs on
production and market expansion. The proportion of the Japanese SMES that made foreign direct investment
(FDI) for production in China or ASEAN (Indonesia. Thai, Malaysia Philippine, Vietnam and Myanmer) was
86'/,. The proportion of the Japanese SMES that formed an alliance for consignment of production is
approximately 80'/Q in China and approximately 60'/. in ASEAN countries. The Japanese SMES also made FDI
and formed alliance with partners in the US or NIES countries (Korea, Tairwan, Hong Kong and Singapore) for
market expansion. The Japanese SMES that made FDI for sale accounted for approximately 70"/, in the U.S. and
NIES. Those that form an alliance for sales sale consignment occupies 460/, in the US and 38'/. in NIES.
In short, Japanese SMES seeking production cost reduction tend to enter China or South East Asian markets,
while they seeking market expansion tend to enter US or NIES countries.
3. Empirical Survey on Internationalised Japanese SMES
In this chapter, we make an analysis on the result of our questionnaire survey to identify similarities and
differences in characteristics between Bom Globals and the other intemationalised Japanese SMES that started
intemationalisation after 3 years form inception.
export as their initial entry mode, and one third of the 49 firms formed an alliance when they start their
intemationalisation. On the other hand, only lO'/, of the 49 firms could make FDI at their initiation of
internationalisation, In this respect, the Japanese SMES in this survey are prone to start their intemationalisation
fiom less resource required mamers; such as export or alliance, which the incremental intemationalisation process
model supposes.
Secondly, we examined years elapsed between starting internationalisation and the foundation of the firm
among 49 firms that responded doing internationalisation or used to do internationalisation. We could find out 3
peaks in Figure I , which indicates the number of firms in year elapsed between starting internationalisation and
the foundation of, the finn. On the basis of three peaks, the 49 firms are classified into three categories; Born
Globals category (0-2 years), Category 2 (3-7 years) and Category 3 (8-25 years). Specific characteristics of the
firms in each category are analysed in terms oftypes and qbjectives of each entry mode (see Figure I ).
(1 ) Born Globals category
The frrms in this category start intemationalisation through either export or alliance. Within 6 firms chose
export as their initial entry mode, 4 firms chose indirect export that is required less resources than direct export,
whilc 7 firms chose alliance, 3 firms formed their alliance for technology transfer fiom an overseas partner
because of complementarity of their lack of resources.
(2) Category 2
In this category, the majority of firms started their intemationalisation througll export, particularly direct
export. Within 3 firms made FDI, 2 firms did it for sales activities. The finns in this category tend to start
intemationalisation for seeking market opportunities with more controlling enty modes.
(3) Category 3
The similar tendency can be seen in this category compared with Category 2. The firms in this category seek
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;
First of all, we analysed the results of our questiomaire survey with regard to entry modes, the objectives of
internationalisation, and industry sectors of the firms. Among 49 firms that responded 'currently doing
intemationalisation' or 'used to doing intemationalisation but currently not', around half of the 49 firms adopt
market opportunities with more controlling enty mode. Additionally, the finns pay attention to shifiing
production to overseas. 3 out of 4 firms made FDI for shifiing production. 4 out of 5 firms formed alliances to
consign production to an overseas partnei.
Figure I No. of firms by years elapsed between starting internationalisation and the foundation ofthe firms
Born Globais
Category 2
Category 3
13 fi ns
l 7 firms
18 firms
8
3
7
6
2
5
1
O
189
1021
11 15 17
25
Years elapsed between sterting intemationalisatiGn and the foundation of the firTn
Source: Organized by author
i
4. Analysis of 7 Japanese Born Globals and 3 Ihternationalised Japanese' SMES
In this chapter, 7 Japanese Born Globals and 3 intemationalised Japanese SMES in Category 2 and 3, which
we made interview surveys are analysed to identify characteristics of each type of firms and the factor why the 7
. ,:!,;
Japanese Bom Globals could start internationalisation at/near inception. In order to make comparative analysis
between the Bom Globals in overseas and those 7 finns and 3 firms to capture the simil rities and specific
characteristics, the 3 determinants of early intemationalisation are found out.
4-1 . Market oriented Bom Globals and Knowled e and Technolo oriented Born Globals
The 7 Japanese Bom Globals are classified into the 4 Market oriented Bom Globals and the 3 Knowledge and
Technology oriented Bom Globals depending on their entry modes and objectives of internationalisation. The
objective of intemationalisation in the 4 Market oriented Bom Globals is to seek market opportunities in overseas
through export, while that in the 3 Knowledge and Technology oriented Bom Globals is to seek complementary
knowledge and technology from an overseas partner through an alliance.
4-2. Identification ofthe 3 determinants and s ecific characteristics ofthe 7 Ja anese Bom Globals
The 4 Market oriented Born Globals and the 3 Knowledge and Technology oriented Bom Globals have quite
similar characteristics on competitive resources and use of networks; however, a couple of differences becausd of
the differences in the objectives of intemationalisation. All ofthe 7 Japanese Bom Globals develop and sell niche
oriented competitive products based on their unique technology! The 4 Market oriented Bom Globals built their
unique technologies through the founder's experience, while the 3 Knowledge and Technology oriented Bom
Globals are complemcnted their lack of technology from an overseas partner and bult their unique technoiogy,
Most of the 7 Japanese Bom Globals have strong industry knowledge that was established through founder's
experience, which help to capture the potential demands before inception. The 7 Japanese Born Globals also used
networks for their early internationalisation. The 4 Japanese Born Globals used networks for sales in the foreign
market, while the 3 Knowledge and Technology Bom Globals used networks to be complemented knowledge and
technology.
As the specific characteristics compared with the Bom Globals in overseas, we identify the factor of their
growth after starting intemationalisation, which is rarely discussed in the existing studies of Bom Globals. They
have been growing due to continual new product development and upgrading the existing products. The 4 Market
oriented Born Globals develop them based on their core technology. The 3 Knowledge and Technology Bom
Globals develop them based on their core technology and complemented knowledge and technology from a new
overseas partner.
4-3. Identi s ecific characteristics ofthe 3 intemationalised Ja anese SMES and com arative anal sis
The specific characteristics on the 3 intemationalised Japanese SMES are seen in their attributes of products,
types of SMES and experience in the industry. From those specific characteristics, we identify why the 3
internationalised SMES Spend some years to start intemationalisation, and why the 7 Japanese Bom Globals could
start internationalisation at/near inception.
The Japanese Bom Globals tend to have established technologies, market knowledge and knowledge about the
industry through the founder's experience before inception. Hence they could develop products that satisfy
potential demands by themselves or with complemented technology fiom a foreign partner near inception.
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;=
;
Consequently, the seven Japanese Bom Globals might start internationalisation near inception.
In case of the three intemationalised Japanese SMEs, their products require large volume of sales to secure the
profit;, hence as long as they can secure the profit by the domestic production, they do not have to shifi production
to overseas. Further, the 2 firms inherently did not have to seek opportunities in the foreign markets near inception, _
since they had been a subcontractor of the Japanese large enterprises. The two firms had not ex erience in the
,;;・
industry as well. They needed to spend some time to gain competitiveness in the domestic market. As a result,
they might spend five or ten years to start intemationalisation.
S *i}
5. Verification of Hypotheses
;
5-1.H othesis 1
We identified the existence of the Japanese Bom Globals that seek market opportunities in overseas through
our questionnaire survey Henee the Hypothesis I is verified. In addition, through our interview survey, we found
out the existence of Knowledge and Technology oriented Bom Globals in Japan as well, which have not been
found out in the existing studies.
5-2. H othesis 2
=
"'.. ;
"*・
The 4 Market oriented Bom Globals and some intemationalised Japanese SMES Seek market opportunities in
overseas. However, the 3 Knowledge and Technology oriented Born Globals formed their alliance to seek
complementary knowledge and technology. The majority of the intemationalised Japanese SMES in our literature
survey seek production cost reduction. In this respect, the Hypotheses 2 is not verified for the Market oriented
Bom Globals, while for the Knowledge and Technology oriented Bom Globals the Hypothesis 2 is verified.
5-3.H othesis 3
The Japanese Born Globals, especially in the Market oriented Born Globals, have quite similar characteristics
to the Bom Globals in overseas in termes of their objective of intemationalisation and the 3 determinants. The
Japanese Bom Globals have specific characteristics that they continually develop new competitive products based
on their core technology or complemented knowledge and technology. Hence the Hypothesis 3 is verified.
".;
6. Conclusion
6-1 . Conclusion
Through our research, we identify the 4 new findings. Firstl) the existence of the Japanese Bom Globals in
Japan was identified. Secondly, we found out the existence of Market oriented Bom Globals and Knowledge and
Technology Bom Globals. Our research pould contribute to widening the research area of the orn Globals ftom
the, firms doing export to the firms fonning an alliance to be complemented knowledge and technology Thirdly,
the Japanes Bom Globals have 3 different attributes fiom the internationalised Japanese SMEs; attribute of
products, type of SMES and founder's experience in the industy, which have not been seen in the existing studies.
Finally, we identified that the main factor of the fhrther growih in the 7 Japanese Born Globals, which have not
been seen. They have been growing uiltil now partly due to continually developed new_ products and upgrading the
existing products, In the existing studies, the further growih of Bom Globals has not been analysed from our view
point of new product development.
6-2. Im lication for ersons who lan to start business
We draw an implication for persons who plan to start business that it seems to become important to pay
attention to the opportunities in the foreign market from inception to gain their competitiveness. However, not
every newly established firm can capture international opportunities from inception. The persons are required to
have niche oriented product, unique technology and knowledge about industy before inception.
6-3. Further research direction
Our research is based on the analysis of case studies on the I O firms. Hence we would have to conduct
quantitative research on the Japanese Bom Globals to identify the findings of our research more precisely.
; :**ji;
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*+
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蒙
論文審査結果の要旨
経済のグローバル化、ボーダレス化が進展する国際社会にあって、世界的傾向として企業の海外展開は益々
進展を見せており、多国籍企業と呼ばれる大企業のみならず中小企業においても市場拡大等を目的として多
く企業が海外展開を行っている。その様な海外展開を行う中小企業にあって会社設立直後より市場開拓を積
『き
霧
極的に行い、市場拡大に成功している企業、所謂「ボーングローバル企業」に関する研究が欧米諸国を中心
に行われており、海外展開における新たな形態として注貝を集めている。しかしながら我が国においてはこ
うしたボーングローバル企業に関する研究は殆ど行われていないというのが現状である。本論文は、日本国
内においてもこうした欧米の事例にある様に、設立直後から海外の市場開拓に成功しているボーングローバ
ル企業が存在するとの考えから、目本におけるボーングローバル企業の存在の確認を行い、それらの企業の
特徴、更には会社設立後早期に海外展開を開始した背景、要因を見出し、企業が早期海外展開に成功するた
一期溺意
めの初期条件をまとめたものであり、全文7章からなる。
第1章は序論であり、本研究の背景と貝的、研究方法論について述べている。
第2章では、海外で行われているボーングローバル企業に関する先行研究、並びに臼本国内中小企業の海
甕
外展開に関する先行研究の分析を行っている。海外におけるボーングローバル企業に関しては、それ与に共
一妻
通して見られる海外展開の目的、早期の海外展開を開始するに当たっての3つの決定要因、r競争力を有する
経営資源」、ギネットワークの有効活用」、「経営陣の特色」及び外的要因を明らかにしている。また、日本国
内の中小企業に関してはそれらが海外展開を行ってきた歴史的背景及び現在の海外展開に関す動向について
分析を加え、海外展開を行う主たる目的、参入方法に関してそれらの特徴を明示している。
,第3章では、日本の中小企業が海外展開を行う際に、会社設立後何年目に海外展開を開始しているか、そ
の参入方法、海外展開の目的を明らかにするために全国150社を対象としたアンケート調査を実施し、日本
におけるボーングローバル企業の存在を確認した。また海外展開の開始年数により参入方法、海外展開の目
的に変化が見られる点を見出している。これは、現行の海外展開に関する研究では見られなかった新たな見
知であり、極めて重要な成果である。
第4章では、上記のアンケート調査により見出されたボーングローバル企業の内、7社及び会社設立5年
以降に海外展開を開始した企業の内、3祉を対象に行ったインタビュー調査をもとに、各社のケーススタデ
ィーを構築し、それらの企業の特徴及び海外展開戦略を明確にしている。
第5章では、第4章のケ讐ススタディーをもとにボーングローバル企業7社、会社設立5年以降に海外展
開を開始した3社に対しての分析を、第2章で見崩した3つの決定要因、外的粟因との比較を通じて行って
いる。ボーングローバル企業7社を分析した結果、それらは海外展開の目的の違いから「市場開拓型(Market
OrientedBomGlobals)」と「知識・技術探求型(Knowledgeand馳。㎞ologyOr玉entedBomGlobals)」に分類が
可能であることを指摘している。これは、先行研究が市場開拓を行う企業のみを対象としてきた事に対して
新たな視点を提示しており、重要な成果である。加えて、ボーングローバル企業7社と会社設立5年以降に
海外展開を開始した3社の特徴に関して姥較分析を行った結果、海外展開の開始年によって、3つの要因「商
品特性」r取引形態(独立型か下請か)」ゼ業界での経験」に大きな違いがあることを指摘した。これは、先行
研究では見られない新たな見知であり、極めて貴重な成果である。
第6章では、これまでの調査分析結果を踏まえ仮説の検証を行っている。その中で、日本のボーングロー
バル企業が自社の持つ中核技術や海外企業から補完された技術を基盤に、顧客の潜在的なニーズを踏まえた
新製品開発を行うことによって海外市場もしくは国内市場においての競争優位性を保持している点を見出し
ている。これは、早期の海外展開が如何にして行われたか、その要因と背景に着目した多くの先行研究から、
早期海外展開がもたらす比較優位性をボーングローバル企業が如何に活用し、成長の糧としているかという
点まで研究のスコープを拡げたことに今研究の大きな意義がある。
第7章は、結論である。
以上要するに本論文は、科学技術を応用し事業化へと結びつけるプロセスを研究する技術社会システム工
学において、事業化直後からの海外市場展開あるいは提携による海外からの技術導入という中小企業の新た
な事業展開の可能性を、独自の調査に基づき提示したものであり、技術社会システム工学に寄与する所が少
なくない。
よって,本論文は博士(工学)の学位論文として合格と認める。
一209一
諜