(COpepoda: Caligidae) Seawater-cultured COho Salmon

Bulletin Of the National Salmon
Resources Center, N0. 1: 35-38
さけ・ます資源
肯埋センター
研究報告 第 @号 35-38 頁
l998 年 I2 月
December 1998
RESEARCH
NOTE
A Status 0f Lepeophtheirussalmonis (COpepoda: Caligidae) on
Seawater-cultured COho Salmon {Qncorhynchus kisutch)
and Rainbow Trout (Q. mykiss) ;n Japan
Shigehiko Urawa*', Teiichi Kato*2,and Akira Kumagai*3
*' Research Division, National Salmon Resources Center, Fisheries Agency 0/ Japan,
2-2 Nakanoshima,
TOyohira-k@, Sapporo 062-0922, Japan
*2 National Research Institute ofAquaculture, Fisheries Agency Or Japan,
Nansei-ch0, Watarai-gun, Mie 516-0/08, Japan
*3 Fisheries Development Division, Miyagi Prefectural GOvernment,
HOncho 3, AOba-ku, Sendai 980-0014, Japan
Abstract-
Infection levels 0f the salmon
louse Lepeophtheirus
salmonis
were
examined
for coho
salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (0. mykiss) cultured tn seawater net pens fn
northern Japan. The prevalence Of L. salmonis 0n coho salmon gradually increased from 59.2% fn
late June
t0 84.6%
harvested, but the mean intensity remained less than
0n rainbow trout increased to 92% in NOvember
with a mean
intensity Of 4.1 parasites per fish. The low infection levels Of L. salmonis among
seawater cultured salmonids tn Japan may be largely attributable to the complete single year class cu1ture system harvested within one year, and t0 relatively low susceptibility 0r host fish to the parasite.
3.2 parasites
per
tn August
when fish
were
fish. The prevalence Of parasite
Key words: parasitic COpepoda, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, prevalence, coho salmon, rainbow trout
Introduction
The salmon
louse Lepeophtheirus
salmonis
(Kroyer, 1837) is a marine ectoparasitic copepod
infecting wild and cultured salmonids in [he northern
Hemisphere.
The heavy parasite infections cause
serious problems ;n marine salmonid farms fn the
Atlantic coasts Of Scotland, NOrway, Ireland, and
Canada (see BOxshall and Defaye 1993). In addition, the parasite has impact 0n wild populations of
sea trout (Salmo
trutta) and sockeye
salmon
(Oncorhynchus
nerka) (Birkeland 1996; JOhnson et.
a1. 1996).
In Japan,marine farms annuallyproduce approximately twenty thousand tons Of coho salmon (0.
kisutch) (Mahnken
1991). MOst salmon farms are
located along the northeast coast Of HOnshu Island in
the Sanriku District. In addition, several farms
attempt rainbow trout (0. mykiss)culturesfn seawater net pens fn Japan. The salmon louse was recorded from these farmed coho salmon and rainbow trout
COntribution A N0. 4 from the National Salmon
Center.
@ 1998 National Salmon Resources Center
Resources
(Nagasawa and Sakamoto
1993) aS well aS from wild
fishes (Nagasawa
and Yanagisawa
1992; Nagasawa
et a1. 1993), but the impact Of L. salmonis on
salmonid rnariculture have not been well known.
The aim 0f the present study tS to assess the infection
level Of L. salmonis On seawater-reared coho salmon
and rainbow trout fn Japan.
Materials and Methods
COho salmon
COho salmon
were
reared in net pens
in
Shizugawa Bay along the Pacific coast 0f northeastern HOnshu
(Fig. 1). Underyearling
coho salmon
smolts (body weight about 150 g) were stocked in
seawater
net pens fn the middle 0r October, 1991,
and farmed by the early August Of the next year (see
Mahnken
1991). Fish harvested fn the Shizugawa
Market
were
bi-weekly examined for parasites
between June and August fn 1992.
Rainbow trout
A marine rearing experiment was conducted for
rainbow trout tn Katsurakoi Harbor near Kushiro
along the Pacific coast Of eastern HOkkaido (Fig. 1)
36
ぽsCen
さけ・ます資源管理センター
所報 Bul1.Natl.SalmonResour
忙 r,
NO . I, 1998
and adult stages. The fork length and body
weight Of each fish were also measured. SOme lice
were preserved fn 10% formalin for species identifications. The terms indicating the level Of parasite
young
応
Kushiro
infections(prevalence,
dance)
were
intensity,and abun-
mean
accordance
with
those proposed
by
Margoliseta1.(1982).
NOrth Pacific Ocean
Results
COho salmon
gradually fnThe prevalence Of L.salmonis
creased from 59.2% fn late June t0 84.6% in August
intensity also increased to 3.2
(Table 1). The mean
parasites per fish in late July, but slightly decreased
became close to 20oC (Fig.
when water temperature
2). There were no significant relations between the
巳 25
[email protected]
NOrth Pacific Ocean
E
山
Fig. 1. Maps
showing the sampling locations
Of seawater-culturedcoho
vey
for parasite
-M
亘
sur-
山
salmon and rainbow trout
in northern Japan.
―
RO
羊
―
@i 60
for 6 months in 1988. One thousand rainbow trout
(mean weight 215 g) previously reared tn a freshwater hatchery for two years were held ;n a seawater net
pen On June 14, 1988. Fish anaesthetized after capture using MS222
were
examined for parasites 0n
p,g
examined
Date
changes ln prevalence
(columns
ln %)
and
for L. salmonis including
Table 1. Prevalence, intensity and abundance 0f Lepeophtheirus salmonis
0n
@ @-asond
August
intensity (closed circles) 0f Lepeophtheirus salmonis on
coho salmon, and surface water temperature
(closed
squares) in Shizugawa Bay, northeastern HOnshu
Parasite survey
and
July
June
the rearing period.
were
三0
上 20
September 2, October 6, and NOvember 22,1988.No
treatmentwas conducted for salmon licethroughout
Fish
二一-
一山二
0n
coho salmon reared in Shizugawa Bay. northeastern HOnshu,
rainbow trout reared ln Katsurakoi, eastern HOkkaido
Fish size
0f
FOrk length(cm)
survey
Prevalence
Number
weight (g)
examined
Mean
intensity
Abundance
Maximum
infected
COho salmon in Shizugawa in 1992
3, 260
June 29
57
July
54
+
July'28
56
+
820
August 8
57
@
680
Rainbow
5*
trout in Katsurakoi
27.0+
October
30
478
NOvember 22
33.7 @ 3.6
@ SD
720
76
45
59
167
128
76
52
44
74
.69
三 0*
1.22
84
.24*
.47
.85
!.28
2. 62
1.05
.64
土
2. 4l
'.58
in 1988
September 2
*Mean
2.8
士
301 + 119
137
@
188
120
694 @ 227
123
60
50
'.48
4 . l3
.23
士
2. 28
24
.52
'.46
I8
Urawa
et a@ - Sea lice On
coho
一 Q 。 -C
42
卜コ
- 山 - 山 oE
+ノ
二の-
一てノ
[Q
の -@
のつ
山 - 巾き
20
September
Fig 3. Seasonal
Oct0be
NOvember
「
changes in prevalence
(columns @n %) and
intensity
(closed circles) Or Lepeophtheirus salmonis On
rainbow
trout,
and
surface
water
temperature
(closed
squares) in Katsurakoi Harbor, eastern HOkkaido
parasite intensity and fish size (fork length, weight Or
condition factor;
R ば而 hnw
trou
p >
0.05)
ア
The prevalence was only 2.2% tn September, but
despite Of decreased
increased to 92% fn NOvember
water temperature
below 5oC (Fig. 3). The intensity
also increased to average 4.1 parasites per fish with a
maximum
Or t8 parasites per fish tn NOvember
There were no significant relations between the parasite intensity and fish size (fork length, weight Or
condition factor; p>0,05)
throughout the parasite
surveys
Discussion
Salmon louse causes serious problems to salmon
culture industry fn NOrway,
Scotland, Iceland and
NOrth America. In Japan, however, serious disease
caused by sea lice has not been reported, except that
Caligus orientalis caused heavy mortalities among
pen-reared rainbow trout along the coast Of Okhotsk
Sea tn eastern HOkkaido
(Urawa and Kato 1991)
The present study confirmed that the infection Of L.
salmonis ts low levels On cultured coho and rainbow
trout tn northern Japan. Hemorrahages
were Observed fn the perianal region Of infected fish, but
these might
not
cause
37
salmon and rainbow trout in Japan
severe
disease
In the NOrth PacificOcean the infectionlevelOf
L. salmonis
was different among
six species Of
Pacific salmon: pink salmon (0. gorbuscha)
had
highest infection levels, followed by steelhead trout
(0. mykiss), chino0k (0. tshawytscha) and coho
salmon (Nagasawa
et a1. 1994). Salmon
louse ls
prevalent On pen-reared Atlantic salmon and chino0k
salmon (JOhnson 1993), but coho salmon tS more
resistant to infection than these fishes (JOhnson and
Albright 1992a, 1992b). The low susceptibility of
host fish against L. salmonis may result tn the low
level Ot the parasite infections On cultured coho
salmon fn Japan.
The Sanriku District Of northeastern HOnshu has
an annual seawater surface temperature
range from 9
to 22oC (Mahnken
1991). Then cultured salmon are
completely harvested before early August to avoid
the high summer
water temperature
exceeding the
upper lethal limit for coho salmon.
By comparison,
seawater temperatures
approach the lower lethal limtt for salmonids ;n winter months along the Pacific
coast Or HOkkaido
where fish are harvested by the
end Of NOvember.
Thus Japanese marine salmon
culture fs characterized by a fact that fish are reared
tn single year class sites for less than one year. Bron
et a1. (1994) found a different pattern Of population
dynamics Of L. salmonis On farmed Atlantic salmon
between
single and multiple year class sites in
Scotland. On the single year class site,mean intensity Of L. salmonis gradually increased from one to
two lice fn early August to over 45 lice per fish in
October Of the next year. On the multiple year class
site,however, numbers rose far more rapidly than On
single year class sites with mean intensity reaching
40 by August and peaking at over 100 lice per fish in
October Of the first year. The low level Of L. salm0nis infections On farmed salmonids tn Japan may be
attributable t0
a
single
year
culture that salmon
are
completely reared tn single year class sites for less
than one year. A main source Of the initialinfection
may be salmon lice infecting wild chum
salmon (0.
keta), but their migration to the coastal waters of
northern Japan is limited from the late August to
December.
In conclusion, the infection level 0f L. salmonis is
quite low among
seawater cultured coho salmon and
rainbow trout @n Japan. tt may be attributable to a
single year class culture system harvested within one
year and relatively low susceptiblity Of host fish to
the parasite.
Re 止renCeS
Birkeland, K. 1996. COnsequences
Of premature
return by sea trout (Salmo trutta)
infestedwith the
salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer):
migration, growth, and mortality. Can. J. Fish.
Aquat.Sci., 53: 2808-2813.
BOxshal1, G. A., and D. Defaye. 1993. Pathogens of
wild and farmed fish: sea lice. Ellis HOrwo0d,
New YOrk. 378 p.
38
さけ・ます資源管理センター
研報 Bul1.Natl.SalmonResourcesCenter,No
Bron, J. E., C. SOmmerville, R. WO0tten, and G. H.
Rae. 1994. Influence Of treatment with dichlorvos
On the epidemiology
Of Lepeophtheirus
salmonis
(Kroyer,1837) and Caligus elongatusNOrdmann,
1832 On Scottishsalmon farms. f@ Pathogens of
wild and farmed fish: sea lice (edited by G. A.
BOxshall and D. Defaye). Ellis HOrwo0d, LOndon.
pp.263-274.
JOhnson, S. C. 1993. A comparison Of development
and growth rates Of Lepeophtheirus
salmonis
(COpepoda: Caligidae) On native Atlantic salmon
(Salmo salar) and chino0k salmon (Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha). f@ Pathogens Of wild and farmed
fish: sea lice (edited by G. A. BOxshall and D
Defaye). Ellis HOrwo0d, LOndon, Pp. 68-80
JOhnson, S. C., and L. J. Albright. 1992a. COmparative susceptibility and histopathology Of the
host response Of native Atlantic, chino0k, and coho
salmon to experimental
infection with Lepe0phtheirus salmonis (COpepoda: Caligidae). Dis.
Aquat. Org, I4: 179-193.
JOhnson, S. C., and L. J. Albright. 1992b. Effects of
cortisol implants 0n the susceptibility and the
Of native coho
histopathology
Of the responses
kisutch to experimental
salmon Oncorhynchus
salmonis (COpeinfection with Lepeophtheirus
. I, 1998
Bering Sea. r@ Pathogens 0f wild and farmed fish:
sea lice (edited by G. A. BOxshall and D. Defaye).
Ellis HOrwo0d, LOndon, PP. 166-178.
Nagasawa, K., and S. Sakamot0. 1993. Infection of
the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis
(COpepoda:
Caligidae) On seawater-farmed
salmonids fn northern HOnshu,
Japan. Fish
Patho1.,28: 143-144.
1994.
Nagasawa, K., T. Takami, and Y. Murakami.
Lepeophtheirus salmonis (COpepoda: Caligidae)
from white-spotted chair (Salvelinus leucomaenis), juvenilechum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta),
and Japanese dace [Tribolodonhakonensis) from
northern Japan.
Sci. Rep.
HOkkaido
Fish
Hatchery, 48: 95-97.
1992. The
Nagasawa,
K., and F. Yanagisawa.
salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, found On
tshawytscha,
a chino0k salmon, Oncorhynchus
from central HOnshu, Japan, with the southernmost records Of their distribution. Nankiseibutsu,
34: 49-50.
Urawa, S., and T. Kat0. 1991. Heavy infections of
Caligusorientalis
(COpepoda: Caligidae)On caged
rainbow trout Oncorhynchus
mykiss tn brackish
water. Fish Patho1., 26: 161-162.
poda: Caligidae).Dis.Aquat. Org.,I4: 195-205.
JOhnson, S. C., R. B. Blaylock, J. Elphick, and K. D.
Hyatt. 1996. Disease induced by the sea louse
(Lepeophtheirus salmonis)(COpepoda: Caligidae)
in wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus
nerka)
stocks Of Alberni Inlet, British COlumbia. Can. J.
Fish. Aquat. Sci., 53: 2888-2897.
Mahnken,
C. V. W. 1991. COho salmon farming in
Japan. f@ Culture 0f salmonid fishes (edited by R.
R. Stickney). CRC Press, LOndon, PP. 131-149.
Margolis, L., G. W. Esch, J. C. HOlmes, A. M. Kuris,
and G. A. Schad. 1982. The use Of ecological
terms tn parasitology (report 0f an ad hoc committee Of the American
SOciety Of Parasitologists). J.
Parasito1., 68: 131-133.
Nagasawa,
K., Y. Ishida, M. Ogura, K. Tadokor0,
and K. Hiramatsu. 1993. The abundance and distribution Of Lepeophtheirus
salmonis (COpepoda:
Caligidae) On six species Of Pacific salmon tn offshore waters Or the NOrth Pacific Ocean and
日本で海面養殖されたギンザ ケ と二ジマスにおける
榛脚類 Lepew ね theiruLssalm
。乃 is の寄生状況
浦和茂彦 ・加藤禎―・熊谷
門
北口本 沿岸で海面上貴養殖されたギンザ ケおよび 二ジ
マスにおける サケジラミぬ peophtheirussalmonis の寄
生レべルを調査した.宮城県志津川湾で 養殖されたギ
ンザケにおける
寄生率ほりX 穫が終了する
8 月には
84.6% に増加したが ,平均寄生数は 3. 2 生体以下と低
かった.北海道東部の 桂恋港で養殖された 二ジマスに
おける本虫の 寄生率は飼育が 終了する 口 月までに
92%
となったが,平均寄生数は 4 . l 主体以下でやはり
低かった.欧米では 養殖サケマス 類における サケジラ
ミの大量寄生が大きな 問題となっているが ,
日本にお
ける本虫の低い 寄生レべルは 海面における 飼育期間が
I 年以内であ ることと宿主の 比較的低い感受性による
と推定される.