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VR-B
U-50620
No.1
The Concept of Apprenticeship(見習い期間の概念)
Shaping and Managing an Apprenticeship(見習い期間の形成とその扱い)
○ When one looks (hooks を訂正) at successful entrepreneurs, one sees profiles of careers rich in
experience. Time and again there is a pattern among successful entrepreneurs.
→ 成功を収めた起業家に目を向けると、職歴の側面が経験豊かであることがわかります。 成功
を収めた起業家にはしばしばパターンがあります。
◎ apprenticeship → 見習い期間 ◎ profiles of careers → 職歴の側面
◎ rich in experience → 経験豊かな
◎ time and again → しばしば
○ They have acquired 10 or more years of substantial experience, built contacts, garnered the know-how,
and established a track record in the industry, market, and technology niche within which they eventually
launch, acquire, or build a business.
→ 彼らは10年以上の実質的な経験を積み、コネを築き、ノウハウを蓄積し、業界、市場、そし
て最終的に事業を開始、取得、あるいは構築する特定技術分野で実績を上げてきたのです。
◎ substantial experience → 実質的な経験
◎ build contacts → コネを築く
◎ garner the know-how → ノウハウを蓄積する
◎ establish a track record → 実績を確立する
◎ launch ∼ → ∼を開始する
◎ technology niche → 特定技術分野
○ Frequently, they have acquired intimate knowledge of the customer, distribution channels, and market
through direct sales and marketing experience.
→ 彼らは頻繁に直販とマーケティング経験を通じて顧客、流通経路、および市場に関する詳細な
知識を獲得してきました。
◎ acquire intimate knowledge → 詳細な知識を獲得する
◎ distribution channels → 流通経路
◎ direct sales → 直販
◎ marketing experience → マーケティング経験
○ The more successful ones have made money for their employer before doing it for themselves.
Consider the following examples:
→ 自分自身のためにお金を稼ぐ前に、より成功した起業家は自分の雇い主のためにお金を稼ぎま
した。 以下の例を考えてください:
◎ for oneself → 自分自身のために
◎ their employer → 雇い主
No.2
○ Apple Computer founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were computer enthusiasts as preteens and
had accumulated a relatively lengthy amount of experience by the time they started the company in their
mid-20s.
→ アップル・コンピューターの創設者のスティーブ・ジョブズとスティーブ・ウォズニアックは、
11,2歳のころからコンピューターマニアであり、20代半ばで会社を始める時までに比較的
長期にわたる経験を蓄積していました。
◎ computer enthusiasts → コンピューターマニア
◎ accumulate ∼ → ∼を蓄積する
◎ preteens →13歳未満の子供
◎ lengthy → 長期にわたる
○ In entirely new industries such as microcomputers, a few years can lie a large amount of experience.
→ マイクロコンピュータのようなまったく新しい産業では、数年で多量の経験を蓄積することが
できるのです。
◎ lie → 蓄積される
○ Paul Tobin had no prior cellular phone experience when he was picked by John Kluge to launch
Cellular One of eastern Massachusetts, but neither did anyone else!
→ ポール・トビンが東部マサチューセッツのセルラー・ワンを立ち上げるためにジョン・クルー
ゲによって選ばれた時、彼はそれ以前いかなる携帯電話に関する経験もありませんでしたが、他
の誰もそのような経験は持っていませんでした。
◎ prior cellular phone experience → 以前の携帯電話に関する経験
◎ be picked by ∼ → ∼によって選ばれる
○ He had had six years of experience at Satellite Business Systems in marketing and had previously spent
more than five years launching and building his own company in a non-technology business.
→ 彼はサテライト・ビジネス・システムズでマーケティングにおいて6年の経験を持ち、それ以
前に非テクノロジー事業で彼自身の会社を立ち上げ、それを築き上げるのに5年以上を費やしま
した。
◎ previously → それ以前に
◎ a non-technology business → 非テクノロジー事業
○ His learning curves as an entrepreneur were invaluable in the next startup.
→ 起業家としての彼の学習曲線は次の会社で計り知れないほど貴重なものでした。
◎ his learning curves → 彼の学習曲線
◎ invaluable → 計り知れないほど貴重な
No.3
○ Jeff Parker had worked for 10 years in bond trading at three major investment banks; he had sold,
managed, and built a substantial trading business at one of the investment banks.
→ ジェフ・パーカーは10年の間に3つの大手投資銀行の債券取引部門で働きました。 彼は、
その投資銀行うちの1つで販売を行い、経営を行い、そして実体のある債券取引事業を築き上げ
ました。
◎ bond trading → 債券取引
◎ major investment banks → 大手投資銀行
◎ a substantial trading business → 実体のある債券取引事業
○ His technical and computer background enabled him to write programs to assist bond traders on the
first Apple Computers.
→ 技術やコンピューターに関する背景知識があったので、彼は最初のアップルコンピューターで
債券取引業者を助けるためのプログラムを書くことができました。
◎ his technical and computer background → 技術やコンピューターに関する背景知識
◎ bond traders → 債券取引業者
○ He launched Technical Data Corporation with $100,000 in 1981 and built the first online computer
system for bond traders.
A few years later, his company was sold to Telerate for more than $20 million.
→ 彼は1981年に10万ドルでテクニカル・データ・コーポレーションを立ち上げ、債券業者
のために最初のオンラインコンピューター・システムを構築しました。 数年後に彼の会社は20
00万ドル以上でテレレートに売却されました。
◎ launch ∼ → ∼を立ち上げる
◎ build ∼ → ∼を構築する
◎ be sold to ∼ → ∼に売却される
○ Tens of thousands of similar examples exist.
There are always exceptions to any such pattern, but if
you want the odds in your favor, get the experience first.
→ 何万もの同様の例が存在しています。そのようなパターンには常に例外がありますが、もし成
功する確率が自分にとって有利になることを望むのであれば、最初にそのような経験をして下さ
い。
◎ tens of thousands of ∼ → 何万もの∼
◎ want the odds in one’s favor → 確率が自分にとって有利になることを望む
◎ get the experience → そのような経験をする
○ As was shown in Chapter 2, successful entrepreneurs are likely to be older and to have at least 8 to 10
years of experience.
→ 第 2 章に示されたように、成功を収めた起業家は年長であり、少なくとも8年から10年の経
験を持っているようです。
No.4
○ They are likely to have accumulated enough net worth to contribute to funding the venture or to have a
track record impressive enough to give investors and creditors the necessary confidence.
→ 彼らはベンチャー事業に資金を提供する助けとなるのに十分な純資産を蓄積しているか、投資
家と債権者に必要な信用を与えるほど印象的な業績を持っているようです。
◎ accumulate ∼ → ∼を蓄積する
◎ net worth → 純資産
◎ contribute to ∼ → ∼の一助と成る
◎ the necessary confidence → 必要な信用
◎ fund the venture → ベンチャー事業に資金を提供する
◎ a track record → 業績、実績
◎ creditors → 債権者
○ Finally they usually have found and nurtured relevant business and other contacts and networks that
ultimately contribute to the success of their ventures.
→ 最後に彼らはたいていの場合、ベンチャー事業の成功に最終的に貢献する関連事業、その他の
コネ、そしてネットワークを見つけ、それらを育て上げました。
◎ nurture ∼ → ∼を育てる
◎ relevant business → 関連事業
◎ other contacts → その他のコネ
◎ ultimately → 最終的に
◎ contribute to ∼ → ∼に貢献する
○ The first 10 or so years after leaving school can make or break an entrepreneur's career in terms of how
well he or she is prepared for serious entrepreneuring.
→ その人が本腰を入れた起業家活動のためにどれくらい用意ができているかに関して、学校を卒
業してから最初の10年かそこらの年月が、起業家のキャリアを左右する場合があります。
◎ make or break ∼ → ∼の成否を握る、∼を左右する
◎ in terms of ∼ → ∼に関して
◎ be prepared for ∼ → ∼の準備ができている
◎ serious entrepreneuring → 本腰を入れた起業家活動
○ Evidence suggests that the most durable entrepreneurial careers, those found to last 25 years or more,
were begun across a broad age spectrum, but after the person selected prior work or a career to prepare
specifically for an entrepreneurial career.
→ 証拠が示唆するところによれば、最も長続きする起業家のキャリア(25年以上続いているこ
とが判明しているキャリア)は広い年齢範囲にわたって始められましたが、それはその人が事前の
仕事、すなわちとりわけ起業家としての仕事の準備をするための仕事を選択した後のことだとい
うことです。
◎ Evidence suggests that ∼ → 証拠が示唆するところによれば∼ということだ。
◎ durable → 長続きする
◎ a broad age spectrum → 広い年齢範囲
◎ prior work → 事前の仕事
◎ an entrepreneurial career → 起業家としてのキャリア
◎ specifically → とりわけ
No.5
⃝ Having relevant experience. know-how, attitudes, behaviors, and (arid を訂正) skills appropriate for a
particular venture opportunity can dramatically improve the odds for success.
→ それと関連する経験、ノウハウ、態度、行動、そして特定のベンチャー事業の機会にふさわし
い技能を持っていると成功の確率を劇的に向上させることができます。
◎ relevant → それと関連する
◎ skills for ∼ → ∼にふさわしい技能
◎ a particular venture opportunity → 特定のベンチャー事業の機会
◎ the odds for success → 成功の確率
⃝ The other side of the coin is that if an entrepreneur does not have these, then he or she will have to learn
them while launching and growing the business.
The tuition for such an approach is often greater than
most entrepreneurs can afford.
→ その反面、もし起業家がこれらの特性を持っていないと、その起業家はビジネスを立ち上げそ
れを育てる間にそれらを身につけなければならないでしょう。 そのようなやり方に対する授業料
はほとんどの起業家が支払う余裕がないほど高額なものなのです。
◎ The other side of the coin is that ∼. → その反面∼である。
◎ the tuition for ∼ → ∼に対する授業料
◎ greater than most entrepreneurs can afford → ほとんどの起業家が支払う余裕がないほど高額な
⃝ Since entrepreneurs frequently evolve from an entrepreneurial heritage or are shaped and nurtured by
their closeness to entrepreneurs and others, the concept of an apprenticeship can be a useful one.
→ 起業家はしばしば起業家遺産から発展したり、他の起業家やその他の人たちとの親密さによっ
て形成され育てられるので、見習い期間という概念は役に立つ概念となる場合があります。
◎ evolve from ∼ → ∼から発展する
◎ an entrepreneurial heritage → 起業家遺産
◎ be shaped and nurtured by ∼ → ∼によって形成され育てられる
◎ their closeness to ∼ → ∼との親密さ
◎ the concept of an apprenticeship → 見習い期間という概念
⃝ Much of what an entrepreneur needs to know about entrepreneuring comes from learning by doing.
→ 起業家が起業家活動に関して知る必要があることの多くは、実行することにより何かを学ぶこ
とに由来しています。
◎ come from ∼ → ∼に由来する
◎ learn by doing → 実行することにより学ぶ
No.6
⃝ Knowing what to prepare for, where the windows for acquiring the relevant exposure lie, how to
anticipate these, where to position oneself, and when to move on can be quite useful.
→ 何を準備するのか、それと関連する公開情報を取得するための窓がどこにあるか、そしてどの
ようにこれらを予期するか、そして自分自身をどこに位置づけるか、そしていつ先へ進むのかと
いうことを知っていることが、かなり役に立つ場合があります。
◎ prepare for ∼ → ∼の準備をする
◎ the relevant exposure → 関連公開情報
◎ position oneself → 自分自身を位置づける
◎ move on → 先へ進む
⃝ As Howard Stevenson of the Harvard Business School has often reminded us when teaching in the
Price Babson College Follows Program, and elsewhere:
→ プライス・バブソン大学フェロー・プログラムや、ほかの場所で教える時に、ハーバード・ビ
ジネス・スクールのハワード・スティーヴンソンが以下のことをしばしば私たちに思い出させま
した。
◎ the Harvard Business School → ハーバード・ビジネス・スクール
⃝ You have to approach the world as an equal.
There is no such thing as being supplicant. You are
trying to work and create a better solution by creating action among a series of people who are relatively
equal.
→ あなたは同等な人間としてこの世界に近づかなければなりません。 哀願するなどということ
はありません。 あなたは一連の比較的同等な人々の間で行動を起こすことによって、よりよい解
決策を生み出そうとしているのです。
◎ approach the world → この世界に近づく
◎ supplicant → 哀願する
◎ an equal → 同等な人間
◎ create a better solution → よりよい解決策を生み出す
◎ create action → 行動を起こす
◎ relatively equal → 比較的同等な
⃝ We destroy potential entrepreneurs by putting them in a velvet-lined rut, by giving them jobs that pay
too much, and by telling them they are too good, before they get adequate intelligence, experience and
responsibility.
→ 彼らが十分な知性、経験、および責任を得る前に、私たちは非常に恵まれた環境に彼らを入れ、
非常に金になる仕事を彼らに与え、非常に有能であると彼らに言うことによって、潜在的な起業
家をだめにするのです。
◎ potential entrepreneurs → 潜在的な起業家
◎ put them in a velvet-lined rut → 非常に恵まれた環境に彼らを入れる
◎ jobs that pay too much → 非常に金になる仕事
◎ adequate → 十分な
No.7
Windows of Apprenticeship (見習期間の枠)
⃝ Exhibit 76 summarizes the key elements of an apprenticeship and experience curve and relates these to
age windows.
→ 別表76は見習期間および経験曲線の鍵となる要素をまとめて、これらを年齢枠に関連させて
います。
◎ summarize ∼ → ∼を要約する
◎ the key elements → 鍵となる要素
◎ an apprentice and experience curve → 見習期間および経験曲線
◎ relate A to B → A を B と関連させる
◎ age windows → 年齢枠
⃝ Age windows are especially important because of the inevitable time it takes to create and build a
successful activity, whether it is a new venture or within another organization.
→ 年齢枠は、新しいベンチャー事業であろうと他の組織内であろうと、成功を収める活動を生み
出しそれを築き上げるには必然的に時間がかかるので、特に重要なのです。
◎ inevitable → 必然的な
◎ a successful activity → 成功を収めた活動
◎ whether A or B → A であろうと B であろうと
⃝ There is the saying in the venture capital business that the “lemons,” or losers, in a portfolio ripen in
about two and one-half years and that the “pearls,” or winners, usually take seven or eight years to come to
fruition (see Exhibit 3.7).
→ 有価証券一覧表の「不良企業」、すなわち敗者はおよそ2年半で成熟し、「優良企業」、すなわ
ち勝者は通常実を結ぶのに7,8年かかると、いうことわざが投機資本ビジネスの世界にありま
す(別紙3.7を参照)。
◎ the saying → ことわざ
◎ the venture capital business → 投機資本ビジネス
◎ the lemons → 不良企業
◎ a portfolio → 有価証券一覧表
◎ the pearls → 優良企業
◎ ripen → 熟する
◎ come to fruition → 実を結ぶ
⃝ Therefore seven years is a realistic time frame to expect to grow a higher potential business to a point
where a capital gain can be realized.
→ それゆえに7年間というのは、より高い潜在的可能性のある企業を資産売却益が実現できる程
度にまで育てることを期待する現実的な時間枠なのです。
◎ a realistic time frame → 現実的な時間枠
◎ a higher potential business → より高い潜在的可能性のある企業
◎ to a point where ∼ → ∼する程度にまで
◎ a capital gain → 資産売却益
⃝ Interestingly, presidents of large corporations, presidents of colleges, and self-employed professionals
often describe seven years as the time it takes to do something significant.
No.8
→ 興味深いことに、大企業の社長、大学の学長、および自営業の専門家たちはしばしば何か重要
なことをするのにかかる時間は7年であると述べています。
◎ interestingly → 興味深いことに
◎ self-employed professionals → 自営業の専門家
◎ describe A as B → A が B であると述べる
⃝ The implications of this are quite provocative. First, time is precious. Assume an entrepreneur
spends the first five years after college or graduate school gaining relevant experience.
→ これが暗に意味していることはかなり挑発的です。 まず最初に時間は貴重です。 起業家は大
学、あるいは大学院を出た後の最初の5年間を関連経験を獲得することに費やすと仮定してくだ
さい。
◎ the implications → 含意、暗に意味していること
◎ provocative → 挑発的な
◎ assume (that) ∼ → ∼であると仮定する
◎ gain relevant experience → 関連経験を獲得する
⃝ He or she will be 25 to 30 years of age (or maybe as old as 35) when launching a new venture. By the
age of 50, there will have been time for starting, at most, three successful new ventures.
→ 新しいベンチャー事業を立ち上げる時、その人は25歳から30歳(あるいはひょっとしたら
35歳かもしれません)くらいでしょう。 50歳までには、多くても3つの成功を収めた新しい
ベンチャーを立ち上げる時間しかなかったということになるでしょう。
◎ launch a new venture → 新しいベンチャー事業を立ち上げる
◎ by the age of ∼ → ∼の時までに
◎ at most → 多くても
⃝ What’s more, entrepreneurs commonly go through false starts or even a failure at first in the
trial-and-error process of learning the entrepreneurial ropes.
→ その上起業家としてやって行くコツを学ぶ試行錯誤の過程で、彼らは一般的に最初に間違った
スタート、あるいは失敗を経験します。
◎ commonly → 一般的に
◎ go through ∼ → ∼を経験する
◎ false starts → 間違ったスタート
◎ in the trial-and-error process of ∼ing → ∼する試行錯誤の過程において
◎ learn the entrepreneurial ropes → 起業家としてやって行くコツを学ぶ
⃝ As a result, the first venture may not be launched until later (i.e., in the entrepreneur's mid- to late 30s).
This would leave time to grow the current venture and maybe one more.
No.9
→ その結果、より後年になって(すなわち起業家が30代半ばか後半になった時)ようやく最初
のベンチャー事業を始めることになるかもしれません。 これは現在のベンチャー事業とひょっと
したらもう1つの事業を育てる時間を残すでしょう。
◎ until later → 後年になるまで
◎ leave time to
V
→ ∼する時間を残す
◎ the current venture → 現在のベンチャー事業
⃝ (There is always the possibility of staying with a venture and growing it to a larger company of $50
million or more in sales.)
(ベンチャー事業を続けて、それを売上高5,000万ドル以上のより大きい会社に育て上げる可
能性は常にあります。)
◎ the possibility of ∼ing → ∼する可能性
◎ stay with ∼ → ∼を続ける
◎ grow A to B → A を B に育て上げる
⃝ Reflecting on Exhibit 7.6 will reveal other paradoxes and dilemmas.
→ 別紙7.6を熟考すると、他の矛盾とジレンマが明らかになるでしょう。
◎ reflect on ∼ → ∼を熟考する
◎ reveal ∼ → ∼を明らかにする
◎ paradoxes → 矛盾
⃝ For one thing, when an entrepreneur's drive, energy, and ambition are at a peak, the necessary relevant
business experience and management skills are least developed and wisdom and judgment are in their
infancy.
→ 1つには、起業家のやる気、エネルギー、および野心が頂点にある時、必要な関連事業経験と
経営スキルは最も発展しておらず、知恵と判断力は揺籃期にあります。
◎ for one thing → 1つには
◎ be at a peak → 頂点にある
◎ drive → やる気
◎ ambition → 野心
◎ judgment → 判断力
◎ the necessary relevant business experience → 必要な関連事業経験
◎ be least developed → 最も発展していない
◎ be in one’s infancy → 揺籃期にある
⃝ Later when an entrepreneur has gained the necessary experience in the “deep, dark canyons of
uncertainty” and has thereby gained wisdom and judgment, age begins to take its toll.
→ 起業家が「不確実性の深くて、暗い峡谷」で必要な経験を積み、そうすることによって知恵と
判断力を獲得した時、年齢が影響を及ぼし始めます。
◎ gain the necessary experience → 必要な経験を積む
◎ canyons of uncertainty → 不確実性の渓谷
◎ take its toll → 影響を及ぼす
◎ thereby → そうすることによって
◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎
→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→◎→
⃝⃝⃝⃝⃝⃝⃝⃝⃝⃝⃝⃝
Also, patience and perseverance to relentlessly pursue a long-term vision need to be balanced with the
urgency and realism to make it happen. Flexibility to stick with the moving opportunity targets and to
abandon some and shift to others is also required. However, flexibility and the ability to act with urgency
disappear as the other commitments of life are assumed.
また、容赦なく長期のビジョンを追求する忍耐と忍耐は、起こらせるように緊急とリアリズムと
バランスをとる必要があります。 また、動く機会の目標に忠実であり、いくつかを捨てて、他の
ものを移す柔軟性が必要です。 しかしながら、人生の他の委任が想定されるように柔軟性と緊急
で行動する能力は見えなくなります。
EXHIBIT 7.6
Windows of Entrepreneurial Apprenticeship
Age
Elements of the Apprenticeship
and Experience Curve
20s
30s
50s
40s
1. Relevant business experience
Low
Moderate to high
Higher
Highest
2. Management skills and
Low to moderate
Moderate to high
High
High
Varies widely
Focused high
High
High
4. Drive and energy
Highest
High
Moderate
Lowest
5. Wisdom and judgment
Lowest
Higher
Higher
Highest
6. Focus of apprenticeship
Discussing what you
General
Growing
enjoy; key is learning
management
harvesting
business,
Division
know-how
3. Entrepreneurial goals
and commitment
marketing; profit and
management
loss responsibility
Founder
Realizing
7. Dominant life-stage issues
sales,
Reinvesting
your
dream
adolescence
and
of
and
young adulthood
Personal
growth
Renewal,
and new directions
regeneration,
and
reinvesting in the
Ventures
system
*Adopted from Daniel .1. Levinson et al., The Seasons of a Man's Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978).
A Personal Strategy
An apprenticeship can be an integral part of the process of' shaping an entrepreneurial career. One principal
task is to determine what kind of entrepreneur he or she is likely to become, based on background.
experience, and drive. Through an apprenticeship. an entrepreneur can shape a strategy and action plan to
make it happen. "Crafting a Personal Entrepreneurship Strategy" (see Chapter 20) addresses this issue more
fully. For a quick inventory of your entrepreneurial attri-butes, do the “QuickLook: The Personal
Entrepreneurial Strategy" Exercise at the end of this chapter.
Despite all tile work involved ill becoming an entrepreneur, the bottom line is revealing. Evidence about
careers and job satisfaction of entrepreneurs all point to tile same conclusion: If they had to do it over again,
not only would more of them become entrepreneurs again, but also they would do it sooner) They report
higher personal satisfaction with their lives and their careers than their managerial counterparts. Nearly
three times as many entrepreneurs than managers say they plan never to retire, according to Stevenson.
Numerous other studies show that the satisfaction from independence and living and working where and
how they want is a source of great satisfaction. Financially, successful entrepreneurs enjoy higher incomes
and a higher net worth than career managers in large companies, In addition, the successful harvest of a
company usually means a capital gain of several million dollars or more and, with it, a new array of very
attractive options and opportunities to do whatever they choose to do with the rest of their lives.
Entrepreneur's Creed
So much time and space would not be spent on the entrepreneurial mind if it were just of academic interest.
But they are, entrepreneurs themselves believe, in large part responsible for success. When asked an
open-ended question about what entrepreneurs believed are the most critical concepts, skills, and
know-how for running a business-today and five years hence-their answers were very revealing. Most
mentioned mental attitudes and philosophies based on entrepreneurial attributes, rather than specific skills
or organizational concepts. These answers are gathered in what might be called an entrepreneur’s creed:
*Do what gives von energy−have fun.
* Figure out what can go right and make it.
*Say "can do." rather than "cannot" or "maybe."
*Illegitimi non carborundum: tenacity and creativity will triumph.
*Anything is possible if you believe you can do it.
*If you don’t know it can't be done, then you'll go ahead and do it.
*The cup is half-full, not half-empty.
*Be dissatisfied with the way things are-and look for improvement.
*Do things differently.
*Don't take a risk if you don't have to−but take a calculated risk if it's the right opportunity for you.
*Businesses fail; successful entrepreneurs learn−but keep the tuition low.
*It is easier to beg for forgiveness than to ask for permission in the first place.
*Make opportunity and results your obsession−not money.
*Money is a tool and a scorecard available to the right people with the right opportunity at the right time.
*Making money is even more fun than spending it
*Make heroes out of others−a team builds a business; in individual makes a living.
*Take pride in your accomplishments−it's contagious!
*Sweat the details that are critical to success.
*Integrity and reliability equal long-run oil and glue.
* Make the pie bigger−don't waste time trying to cut smaller slices.
* Play for the long haul-it is rarely possible to get rich quickly.
* Don't pay too much−but don't lose it!
* Only the lead dog gets a change of view.
* Success is getting what you want: Happiness is wanting what you get.
* Give back.
Chapter Summary
1. Entrepreneurs are men and women of all sizes, ages, shapes, religions, colors, and backgrounds. There is
no one single profile or psychological template.
2. Successful entrepreneurs share six common themes that describe their attitudes and ways of thinking and
acting.
3. Rather than being inborn, the behaviors inherent in these six attributes can be nurtured, learned, and
encouraged, which successful entrepreneurs model for themselves and those with whom they work.
4. Entrepreneurs love competition and actually avoid risks when they can. preferring carefully calculated
risks.
5. Most entrepreneurs gain the apprenticeship over 10 years or more after the age of 21 and acquire
networks, skills, and the ability to recognize business patterns.
6. The entrepreneurial mind-set can benefit large, established companies today just as much as smaller
firms.
7. Most successful entrepreneurs have had a personal strategy to help them achieve their dreams and goals,
both implicitly and explicitly.
Study Questions
1. Who was Ewing Marion Kauffman. what did he do and what was his philosophy of entrepreneurial
leadership?
2. What is the difference between a manager and a leader?
3. Define the six major themes that characterize the mind-sets, attitudes, and actions of a successful
entrepreneur. Which are most important, and why? How can they he encouraged and developed?
4. Entrepreneurs are made, not horn. Why is this so? Do you agree, and why or why not?
5. Explain what is meant by the apprenticeship concept, and why is it so important to young
entrepreneurs?
6. What is your personal entrepreneurial strategy? How should it change?
MIND STRETCHERS
Have you considered?
1. Who can be an entrepreneur; and who cannot? Why?
2. Why has there been a 30-year brain drain of the best eutrepreneurial talent in America away from the
largest, established companies? Can this be reserved? How?
3. How do you personally stack up against the six entrepreneurial mind-sets? What do you need to develop
and improve?
4. If you work for a larger company, what is it doing to attract and keep the best entrepreneurial talent?
5. How would you describe and evaluate your own apprenticeship? What else has to happen?
6. Is Bill Gates an entrepreneur. a leader, a manager? How can we know?