〔Ⅰ〕 次の英文を読み、設問に答えなさい。(40 点)
Leaves are the food factories of a plant. The raw materials they use are of the
simplest. Carbon dioxide, water, and a few mineral ingredients. The first, a gas,
*time-lapse film:微速度撮影映画
is all around them in the air and they absorb it through tiny *pores in their
surface. Water, and the minerals dissolved in it, is collected by the roots from
the ground in which the plant grows. The agents within the tissues of the leaves
問1.下線部(1)を日本語に訳しなさい。(8 点)
that process these raw materials are small *grains containing that remarkable
substance, *chlorophyll. Powered by the energy of the sun, this is able to
問2.下線部(2)を日本語に訳しなさい。(10 点)
combine these elements and produce starches and sugars, the foods from which
the plant builds its various tissues. The process is called *photosynthesis. Its
by-product is oxygen. (1)That gas drifts away through the leaf pores into the
問3.下線部(3)を、“Watching them do so”の“them”の指すものと、“do so”の内容を明らかに
しながら、日本語に訳しなさい。 (12 点)
atmosphere to the benefit of animals. For them it is the very breath of life.
Since daylight is essential for this process, every plant must, as far as
possible, position its leaves so that each collects its share without interfering
のような仕組みを備えているか。簡潔に日本語で説明しなさい。 (10 点)
with any others the plant may have. This may require changing the posture of
the leaves throughout the day as the sun moves across the sky. (2)The accuracy
with which a plant can position them may be judged simply by gazing up at the
treetops in a wood. The leaves form an almost continuous ceiling, fitting
together like the pieces of a jigsaw.
In an environment where many species live crowded together, as they do in
an English hedgerow, plants may have to compete with their neighbors and
rivals for exposure to the sun. (3)Watching them do so on *time-lapse film,
having been shot over several days, is like watching the faces of a packed crowd
at the tennis match, where each person is anxious to get a good view of the ball
as it passes from one side of the court to the other. In the morning, they face
eastwards. As the sun rises, so they crane upwards; and as it sets, so they turn
westwards. Overnight, some may fold up, but all arise to be ready to face the
sun when it appears once more at dawn in the east.
On the floor of a dense forest, the light may be very dim indeed. Some plants
deal with the problem by growing extremely large leaves. Others maximize the
meager light that falls on them in a different way. They coat the underside of
their leaves with a purple *pigment. This catches the light after it has passed
through the thickness of the leaf and reflects it back into the leaf tissues so that
the chlorophyll has a second chance to utilize what is left of it. Begonias have
(4)an additional trick. Some cells in the upper surface of their leaves are
transparent and act as tiny lenses, gathering the feeble light and focusing it
onto the grains of chlorophyll within.
*pores: (葉の)気孔
〔Ⅱ〕 次の英文を読み、設問に答えなさい。(30 点)
問3.下線部(3)を日本語に訳しなさい。(12 点)
Ancient Greece differed from all contemporary civilizations in the
development of personal freedom, individuality, and objective thought. These
qualities seem partly explainable by the political system that was unique to
Greece, namely the city-state and its politics, especially the assembly, in which
people had to persuade one another by rational argument. The city-state was
also important because it was possible for intellectual rebels to leave one
location and go to another, thereby maintaining a condition of relatively free
inquiry. Indeed, members of the intelligentsia who were *personae non gratae in
a given city-state would sometimes be sought out by other city-states for the
prestige they would bring. Socrates’ followers begged him to leave Athens and go
somewhere else rather than allow the death sentence against him to be carried
out. He would have been welcomed elsewhere and ‘Athenian citizens would not
have had any desire to pursue him.
Another factor sometimes invoked to explain Greece’s uniqueness is that its
maritime location made trading a *lucrative occupation, which meant that there
was a substantial mercantile class who could afford to have their sons educated.
That the merchants would have wished to have their sons educated requires
explanation in itself, of course, especially because, unlike in China, education
was not a route to power and wealth. The drive toward education was apparently
the result of curiosity and a belief in the value of knowledge for its own sake. The
curiosity characteristic of Greeks may in turn be explained in part by the
location of the Greeks at a crossroads of the world. They were constantly
encountering novel and perplexing people, customs, and beliefs.
An obvious consequence of the different practices and beliefs swirling
around the Greeks would have been the necessity of dealing with contradiction.
They would have been constantly confronting situations where one person was
asserting that A was the case and another was contending that not-A was the
case. Contradiction coming from the opinions of outsiders, as well as freely
expressed contradiction among insiders’ views, might have led to the
development of the art of rational argument.
*persona non gratae:好ましからざる人
問1.下線部(1)を日本語に訳しなさい。(10 点)
問2.下線部(2)を日本語に訳しなさい。(8 点)
〔Ⅲ〕 次の下線部(1)、(2)、(3)を英語に訳しなさい。(30 点)