Design of “Rikkyo University LLOYD HALL” — Planning of Precast

Design of “Rikkyo University LLOYD HALL”
— Planning of Precast Prestressed Concrete Slabs Considering
Architectural Design and Mechanical Engineering —
― 意匠性・設備機能性を兼ねた PCaPC 床版の計画 ―
原田 公明:(株)日建設計
村上 博昭:(株)日建設計
Contact: [email protected]
Keywords: PCaPC slabs with curved surfaces, architectural design and mechanical engineering
DOI: 10.11474/JPCI.NR.2014.21
In order to provide an affluent atmosphere within
the limited floor height, precast prestressed concrete
(PCaPC) slabs with curved surfaces were applied
diligently for a university building consisting of a
main library and research facilities. The slab was
designed not only considering structural rationality and
construction workability but also design characteristics
and functionalities of the building facilities. As a
consequence an attractive design method employing
PCaPC slab was accomplished.
PCaPC slab was designed to be exposed on the ceiling
without finishing in order to provide an affluent space
within the limited floor heights. It was planned as a
skeleton considering structural rationality, construction
workability, cost performances, design, and building
facility functionalities.
Structural Data
Structure: steel encased reinforced concrete, Precast
prestressed concrete (floor slab, beam, post)
Number of stories: B2, 7F, P1
Maximum height, eaves height: 32.1 m, 26.6 m
Construction period: August 2010 - July 2012
Constructors: Shimizu Corp. and Kenken Co. Ltd
Location: Toshima-Ku, Tokyo
Fig. 1 Over view
1. Introduction
The building was designed to be the largest building in
the university campus with 7 stories above ground and
2 below. Net floor area is more than 20,000 m2. The
building hosts an integrated large scale library with a
capacity of two million books and a seating capacity
of 1520 seats. The faculty libraries were originally
scattered around the campus. The second basement
floor is dedicated for automated storage. The first
basement floor up to the third floor is for the library
functions. Research laboratories with small rooms are
located from the fourth floor and above. The long span
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Fig. 2 Night view
2. Structural Planning
(1) Outline of structural planning
Steel encased reinforced concrete (SRC) construction
was adopted considering its capacity in strength,
stiffness and ductility against input forces. As for the
framing system, rigid frame structure with shear walls
was adopted. The low-rise section of the building
(from the second basement floor to the third floor)
hosting library functions has shear wall type reinforced
concrete cores concentrated in the four corners, which
contributes not only to having an efficient resistance
against earthquake but also creates a clear zoning which
matches the architectural planning. This design allows
one large open space (ca. 48m x 40m) without walls
obstructing views. The high-rise section of the building
(from the fourth floor above) hosts small rooms such
as research laboratories. Reinforced concrete cores
resist against seismic forces which are located in the
spaces designated to elevators, staircases, or machine
rooms located in the east and west sides of the building
for concrete walls. PCaPC slabs which show superior
characteristics in strength and stiffness have been
applied to the library floors requiring heavy duty floors
with the maximum span of 14.6 meters, realizing the
large space with much flexibility. Most of the precast
slabs has no ceiling finish and is exposed to the interior
space to realize an affluent atmosphere within the
limited floor heights.
(2) Structural member design
Columns of main structural frames are designed
with SRC sections measuring 900mm by 900mm
and 800mm by 1000mm. SRC girders in the lowrise section of the building in the X direction - which
support PCaPC slabs with spans of 14.6m and
12.1m - have a standard section of 600mm x 950mm
and span 6.6m. In the Y direction the girders have
the same standard section of 600mm x 950mm by
considering the details with the PCaPC slabs (adjusted
at bottom side). In the high-rise section of the buildings,
the girders have the standard section measuring
500mm by 750mm, and cast-in-place concrete slab
of the thicknesses of 150mm - 180mm was adopted.
Reinforced concrete shear walls have the maximum
thickness of 650mm to maintain the sufficient stiffness
and strength against seismic forces.
3. PCaPC member designs
(1) Curved surface PCaPC slab designs in the
low-rise section of the building
The slabs in the low-rise section of the building were
designed with curved surface PCaPC slabs of the bilge
shape, and planned as one large space by eliminating
girders as much as possible by considering the expanse
of the space. The curved surface PCaPC slabs have the
maximum span of 14.6m, affording ample flexibility.
PCaPC slabs are exposed by eliminating ceiling finish
as much as possible, and were designed considering
the structural rationality, construction workability, cost
performance, or the design characteristics. The shape
of the PCaPC slabs was determined by following the
stress lines of the simple beam. At the slab centers
the bending moment is maximum and no shear forces
arise, while the opposite is the case at the both ends.
Structural forces can be directly represented by the
downward-convex shape, however in the practice, the
upward-convex shape were applied for the PCaPC slabs
and reserving space at the upper side of the both ends,
thus the space were utilized efficiently for the
ducting route under the flooring. Curved surface steel
Fig. 3 Framing elevation
Fig. 4 Floor plan
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moldings were used for the production of the PCaPC
slabs, and the appearance of the figurative shapes
which are difficult to realize with the cast-in-place
concrete were investigated. The distribution pattern
(width) of the PCaPC slabs has been determined as
1,650mm by considering the layout of the bookshelves
and construction workability (transportability).
Thus, architectural design, structural and mechanical
engineering have been equally considered.
Floor reflection air-conditioning using a bookshelf
Main air-conditioning duct routes
Fig. 7 Structural system
Curved surface PCaPC slab
SRC Girder
LED lighting employing slab-shape
Fig. 5 System of PCaPC slabs with curved surfaces
Fig. 8 Interior view (Reading area)
Fig. 6 Detailed drawings of PCaPC slab with curved
(2) Curved surface PCaPC slab with beam
Curved surface PCaPC slab with canopy-beam was
planned for the slab of the south facade. The edge of
the slab was tapered toward outside to obtain the open
inner space toward the campus in the south direction.
The perimeter columns and beams have the flat section
shape, which contributes to the openness of the facade.
The flat beams of section measuring W:500mm by
H:400mm has been formed by having a rectangular
section at the edge of each slab and unifying by in-situ
tensioning with prestressing cables after the placement
of the slabs. Every other PCaPC slab of 1,650mm width
is supported at the beam by the precast concrete (PCa)
post columns of the section measuring 300mm by
450mm distributed at the distance of 3,300mm, which,
by eliminating the number of the posts at the perimeters
as much as possible, contributes to the openness of the
(3) Design of the r-shaped curved surface
PCaPC slab at the entrance
R-shaped curved surface PCaPC slab in the entrance
hall having double height called “Learning Square”
was carefully designed whose shape was determined as
11.5m-long and r-shaped by considering lighting and
illumination planning and air-conditioning planning.
Both side-ends of PCaPC slabs are post-tensioned with
prestressing cables to form the beam shapes within the
slabs, and intensive distribution of PCa post columns
contributes to the flexibility of the entrance hall.
Heat collecting duct
LED lighting
Gravity ventilation
Warmed air for
air-condition in winter
Fig. 9 System of R-shaped curved surface PCaPC slab
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was employed in the manufacture of concrete form.
Before the manufactures mock-up was made and the
shape, colors, shading with illuminations by night were
confirmed. Construction areas for the PCa members
are divided in a plane and the construction planning
employing the crawler crane using the double height
area in the central part of the building was made by
considering the working radius of the crane. Timbering
planning of the exposed PCaPC slabs, systemized
timbering (rectangular tower method) was adopted
aiming to the shortening of the construction period
and maintaining high accuracy, which enabled the
consecution with the vertical and horizontal tolerances
of + - 3mm.
Fig. 10 Interior View (Learning Square)
4. Outline of construction
5. Conclusion
Curved surface slabs, rectangular posts, r-shaped roof
slabs and cross-shaped post above the double height
area of the Learning Square, and stair slabs are adopted
as the PCa components. Amongst the PCaPC slabs,
PS1, PS2, PS4, PS5 are the ST slabs with the distinctive
forms in the edge curved surfaces. These ST panels
were manufactured as pre-tensioned members with
prestressing cables in the linear alignments in the ribs.
In the PS3 slabs composed of the edge canopy and edge
curved surface prestress was introduced along the curve
through the unbonded prestressing cables (tensioned
in the factory). The PCaPC slabs adopted in this
project have three-dimensional curved surfaces, and
to realize the edge curved surface, naval engineering
Fig. 11 Steel form for PCaPC slabs
PCaPC slabs are employed in this building enabling
an affluent atmosphere within the limited floor heights.
The slab was designed not only by considering
structural rationalities or construction workability but
also design characteristics or functionalities of building
facilities. As a consequence an attractive design method
employing PCa floor slab was carried out.
Acknowledgement is in order for the staffs from
Shimizu Corporation and Kenken Co. Ltd. involved
in the construction of this building to a high quality
and high accuracy and to a very precise construction
Fig. 12 Placement of PCaPC slabs
Fig. 13 Tension end of PCaPC slabs
概 要
を実現するために,曲面 PCaPC 床版を積極的に用いた計画を行った。
曲面 PCaPC 床版は,力学合理性や施工性だけでなく,意匠性,設備機能性にも配慮した三位一体の躯体と
して計画し,PCaPC 床版の魅力ある設計の一手法を実践した。
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