MASTERS PROJECT PREPARATION ARCH 523 FALL 2012 KIYOMI KUMAZAWA PROFESSORS YURKO, RUBIO, GIL “Fire made us human, fossil fuels made us modern, but now we need a new fire that makes us safe, secure, healthy and durable.” by Amory Lovins The Current Challenge: Seeking renewable energy is critical for Japanese people who have been suffered by the accidents of the nuclear energy plants in Japan in March, 2011. CASE STATEMENTS DESCRIPTION This project will be Hot Springs Resorts with Geothermal Energy Plant. This project will be about proposing a new, clean, safe alternative energy with cultural, historical, and social activities which is deeply related to Japanese people. Response to the Challenge: Potential of geothermal energy in Japan is significant because its capacity could reach the third biggest in the world after Indonesia and the US. Also geothermal energy is one of the clean and stable sources of energy. Furthermore, outcome of the nuclear energy plant’s accidents are so tremendous and traumatic; therefore, it is meaningful to constructing a renewable energy plant in Fukushima prefecture to bring hope and secure future to the citizens. In addition, geothermal energy produce hot water, and hot springs is one of Japanese culture and tradition in their history. They have enjoyed hot springs all year round. Therefore, a combination of a geothermal plant and hot springs is relevant in Japan. This project will satisfy not only urgent need of alternative energy resources but also an amenity of social and cultural activities in Japan. Presenting enjoyment and relaxation with sustainable resources to leading a better quality of life. Connecting social and cultural activities with renewable energy to thriving local economy. Direct: Owners – legal entity with rights to develop the project Users – workers and visitors in hot springs and geothermal plant. Japanese government that has power to regulate the environmental policies. Indirect: Hot springs industry Residents near the project City Contractors General: Local tourism Transportation/traffic Natural environment STAKEHOLDERS GOAL STATEMEMT Providing alternative and reliable energy system to the community. LOCATION: Graubunden Canton, Switzerland YEAR: 1996 ARCHITECT: Peter Zumthor The Vals thermal and mineral springs originate on the left side of the valley, 20 to 25 meters above the valley floor on the hotel and spa grounds. Drilled in 1980, the most important well is located south of the Hotel Therme and protected by a modern structure. The mineral spring water is used by both the Hotel and Thermalbad Bad Vals ag and the Valser Mineralquellen ag. The springs are owned by the community of Vals. Peter Zumthor designed the spa/baths which opened in 1996 to pre date the existing hotel complex. The idea was to create a form of cave or quarry like structure. Working with the natural surroundings the bath rooms lay below a grass roof structure half buried into the hillside. The Therme Vals is built from layer upon layer of locally quarried Valser Quarzite slabs. This stone became the driving inspiration for the design. PRECEDENT THERME VALS Blue Lagoon is located between two continents where the Eurasian and American tectonic plates meet, which are closely associated with the country’s active volcanic system and geothermal heat. The Lava surrounding the Blue Lagoon was formed in 1226. The lava is to a great extent covered with fragile moss which should be handled with care. Its operation is powered one hundred percent by Iceland’s clean geothermal energy. Blue Lagoon communicates a world of healing power, wellness and beauty, and is founded on a unique source of geothermal seawater that originates in Iceland’s extreme environment. Blue Lagoon is one of Iceland’s most visited sites with more than 400,000 visitors annually. The lagoon is 5000 m2. At each time the lagoon holds six million liters of geothermal seawater all of which is renewed every 40 hours. PRECEDENT BLUE LAGOON LOCATION: Grindavik, Iceland YEAR: 1999 ARCHITECT: Basalt Architect LOCATION: Kagoshima, Japan YEAR: 1984 Nestled in Kirishima mountain range and next to the national park, this hotel owns a geothermal plant which generates electricity for the building as well as provides hot water for spa. There are three wells which are taken hot water from 70 to 300 m below the ground, and offers nine different spas either the inside and outside in the facility. PRECEDENT KIRISHIMA HOT SPRINGS SITE ANALYSIS N FUKUSHIMA PREFECTURE TOKYO KITASHIOBARA SITE MAP N AREA MAP SITE (C°) (mm) 30 300 25 250 20 200 15 150 10 100 5 50 0 0 -5 PRECP. LOW AVERAGE HIGH -50 -10 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC -100 MONTHLY TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION 磐梯朝日国立公園 （磐梯吾妻・猪苗代地域） SITE ANALYSIS N 板谷駅 Itaya Sta. Bandai-Asahi National Park 新潟県 Niigata Pref. ▲ SITE Lake Hibara KITASHIOBARA POPULATION: 3,184 山形県 Yamagata Pref. 吾妻小富士 Mt.Azuma Kofuji AREA: 233.94 km2 (22.5km east and west, north and south to 19.3km, of which about 80% are in the mountains, farmland is only 2.5%) Kitakata 五色沼 Goshikinuma Ponds 福島県 Fukushima Pref. Lake Akimoto DENSITY: 15/km2 (38/sq mi) ▲ 安達太良山 Mt.Adatara ▲ Nihonmatsu 磐梯山 Mt.Bandai Inawashiro 猪苗代駅 Inawashiro Sta. 凡 例 特別保護地区 Special Protection Zones 特別地域 Special Zones 普通地域 Ordinary Zones 乗り入れ規制地区 Lake Inawashiro Mt. Nishi-Azuma Restricted Zones of Vehicles, Horse and et al. 磐梯熱海駅 Bandaiatami Sta. Azuma Kofuji 猪苗代湖 Lake Inawashiro SITE: It is situated in the Ordinary Zone in the National Park. 0 5 10 15 20km 1:200,000 この地図の作成に当たっては、国土地理院長の承認を得て、同院発行の数値地図200000（地図画像）及び数値地図メッシュ（標高）を使用したものである。（承認番号 平18総使、第565号） LOCATION OF THE TOWN: Located in the northwestern part of Fukushima prefecture, town hall is 139° 56’ 18” east longitude, 37° 39’ 09” north latitude. It can be arrived at the Fukushima prefectural capital for one and a half hours, and can be reached in about three hours to the Tokyo metropolitan area by Banetsu Expy. There are a couple of lakes and the mountains that created a beautiful natural landscape; as a result, this area is designated as a national park in 1950, and become a tourist destination. 使用地図は平成18年3月1日版 数値地図200000（地図画像）です。図葉毎に更新期日が異なりますのでご了承ください。 CLIMATE: It is a snowy cold region of northern type, average snowfall is about 2m during the winter time. CAPACITY (MW) 2009 Japan is one of the most tectonically active countries in the world, with more than 100 volcanoes and the evidence of tremendous geothermal energy resources. Its geothermal development started in 1925, with an experimental unit, and the first commercial plant on Matsukawa started in 1966. About twenty geothermal power plants are in operation at 17 locations nationwide, scattered all along the country. Most are located in the Tohoku and Kyushu districts. In these years, there have not been significant developments of geothermal power plants in Japan because high potential region exists inside of national park, and long lead time (over 10 years) for geothermal power plant due to several lows and assessment. ACTUAL PRODUCTION 2010 UNITED STATES 160 3000 309.3 INDONESIA 146 2779 119.7 JAPAN 119 2347 53.6 PHILILPPINES 47 600 190.4 MEXICO 39 600 95.8 ICELAND 33 580 57.5 NEW ZEALAND 20 365 64.9 ITALY 13 327 84.3 GEOTHERMAL COMPARISON CHART SOURCE: The Chunicih Shimbun 2012 OTHERS GE/NP 5% 5% ORMAT 10% MHI 25% 1000 88.4 800 ANSALDO 11% FUJI 20% 975.2 742.1 37.8 TOSHIBA 24% Direct 607.6 600 Indirect 129.7 886.8 400 704.3 477.9 200 JAPANESE MANUFACTURERS 69% Fig. Manufacturers’ global geothermal Fig. Manufacturers’ globalshare share ofof geothermal turbines turbines (Source:Geothermal Japan Geothermal Developers’ Council) (Source: Japan Developers’ Council) 53.4 0 Fossil Oil Natural Gas Solar 29.5 Wind 22.5 15.0 Nuclear Geothermal 11.3 Water Amount of CO2 Discharge per energy plants (g-CO2/kWh) SOURCE: Central Rsearch Institute of Electric Power Industry GEOTHERMAL ENERGY VOLCANIC ACTIVITIES 2009 Mori: 50,000kW HOT WATER & STEAM Onuma: 9,500kW Sumikawa: 50,000kW Uenotai: 28,800kW STEAM TURBINE Matsukawa: 23,500kW GENERATOR Kakkonda: 80,000kW SILENSOR Yanaizu-Nishiyama: 65,000kW Onikobe: 12,500kW WARM WATER PRODUCTION WELL Tagigami: 25,000kW Otake: 12,500kW Yamagawa: 30,000kW CONDENSER INJECTION WELL AIR Kuju: 890kW Ogiri: 30,000kW FLASHER Hachijo-jima: 3,300kW Suginoi: 3,000kW COOLING TOWER Hatchobaru: 110,000kW Kirishima-kokusai: 100kW FLASH STEAM Geothermal Energy Plants WATER GEOTHERMAL ENERGY SEPARATOR Potential installation of Hot water resources density map GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Abundance of Hot water resources density map Plunz, Richard, et al. Geothermal Larderello: Tuscany, Italy. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. Binet, Helene, et al. Peter Zumthor Therme Vals. London: Scheidegger & Spiess, 2007. The Geothermal research society of Japan. <http://grsj.gr.jp/index.html> Kyusyu Electric Power Co., Inc. < http://www.kyuden.co.jp/en_index.html> Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. < http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/index.htm> Institute for Geothermal Information. < http://igigeothermal.jp/index.php> Hotel Therme Vals. < http://www.therme-vals.ch/en/home> Geological Survey of Japan. < http://www.gsj.jp/HomePageJP.html> REFERENCES Lund, Henrik. Renewable Energy Systems: The Choice and Modeling of 100% Renewable Solutions. London: Elsevier, 2010.
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