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Weidener Diskussionspapiere
Giving ideas a chance – systematic
development of services in manufacturing
Prof. Dr. Johann Strassl
Prof. Dr. Günter Schicker
Christian Grasser
Diskussionspapier Nr. 47
März 2015
Prof. Dr. Franz Seitz und Prof. Dr. Horst Rottmann
Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Amberg-Weiden
University of Applied Sciences, Abt. Weiden
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Giving ideas a chance - systematic
development of services in
manufacturing industry
Johann Strassl, Günter Schicker & Christian Grasser
Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Amberg-Weiden
Hetzenrichter Weg 15
92637 Weiden i.d. OPf.
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
März 2015
The purpose of this paper is to propose a service development process
that is adapted to manufacturing companies and to discuss its
implication for companies with a focus on product development and
product sales. This paper looks at new service development (NSD)
literature and argues for design principles to develop a NSD process in
a manufacturing context. Further, a generic NSD framework for
manufacturing companies and a five-stage service development
process framework is presented in detail. Managers need to be aware
of the interrelationship that exists between NSD and NPD. A number of
managerial implications are proposed and discussed. This paper
emphasizes the importance of NSD lifecycle management, something
that has not previously been extensively studied or addressed. In
addition, to explicitly discuss NSD in a business model context in
manufacturing is novel.
Keywords: Manufacturing industry, services, service development
process, innovation, service development
JEL: L60, L84, M31
Abstract (in Deutsch)
Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, einen Serviceentwicklungsprozess
anzuregen, der auf produzierende Unternehmen angepasst ist, und
seine Auswirkungen auf Unternehmen mit einem Schwerpunkt
Produktentwicklung und Vertrieb zu diskutieren. Dieser Beitrag befasst
sich mit Literatur neuer Serviceentwicklung (New Service Development,
NSD) und plädiert für Gestaltungsprinzipien, um einen NSD-Prozess in
einem Fertigungskontext zu entwickeln. Ferner wird ein generischer
NSD-Rahmen für Fertigungsunternehmen und ein fünfstufiger
Serviceentwicklungsprozess im Detail vorgestellt. Führungskräfte
müssen sich über die Wechselbeziehung bewusst sein, die zwischen
NSD und NPD (New Product Development) existiert. Eine Reihe von
Auswirkungen werden vorgeschlagen und diskutiert. Diese Arbeit
unterstreicht die Bedeutung des NSD-Lebenszyklusmanagements,
etwas, das bisher nicht ausführlich untersucht oder behandelt wurde.
Zusätzlich ist die ausdrückliche Diskussion des NSD im Kontext eines
Geschäftsmodells in Fertigung neu.
Giving ideas a chance - systematic
development of services in
manufacturing industry
Increasingly, across industries, manufacturing firms are extending
their products with services. This trend is affecting the way goods are
produced and serviced are offered and physical objects are being
seamlessly integrated into the information network. 'Industry 4.0', the
high-tech strategy of the German government, emphasizes this idea of
consistent digitization and linking of all produced inputs in an economy
- goods and services.
This paper identifies the need for a service development process for
manufacturing companies.
What are the deficiencies in service development in
manufacturing industry?
There are a variety of problems that still makes work hard in terms of
service development in manufacturing firms.
Service ideas are often not transparent, documented and readoptable. Service ideas occur in all parts of an organization.
However, managers are uncertain, if marketing or R&D has to develop
service ideas. Many firms have (discrete) innovation processes in place,
but do not offer the opportunity to collect and document service ideas
systematically - from all parts of the organization. However, decisionmaking about transforming service ideas into service offers is an ongoing process that needs constant exchange of assertions and
presentations and can be considered as an organizational learning
process (Stevens, 2005). In particular, information collected from
customers is often not recorded and reviewed, which results in worse
service decision making (Carbonell, 2009). Customers, personnel and
managers have, often, (dazzling) ideas, maybe not always at the right
time or the right place. Systematically coordinated and transparent
procedures may support the successful development of new services.
The service development process must be precisely defined and also
accompanying criteria on which conscious decisions are made upon.
Organizational responsibility is often ambiguous. The
responsibility of new service in organization is often not clear. Is it
marketing or R&D? R&D sees itself (often) as the driver of technical
innovation and not as a contact point for services. Sales and marketing
see themselves as core to service. Service becomes an instrument to
customer loyalty and marketing initiatives. Many firms lack innovation
departments that focus on services.
Firms are still (service) customer-phobic. Customers are (often)
not the main source for new service ideas but competitors. Everyone
seems to know what customers expect, but nobody really asks on a
systematic and regular basis. However, service revenue requires
market-oriented service development based on customer needs. For
example, workshops with selected customers are an important source
of ideas for developing new services. Carbonell's study confirms that
the use of information from customers involved in new service
development can lead to new or better services and may increase
market performance (Carbonell, 2009), mainly by shaping expectations
and design of the new service idea. Closely working with customers
during service innovation can provide a better understanding of
challenges and needs of customers and may ultimately lead to new
Firms lack of tools along the lifecycle. There is a lack of softwaresupported tools and templates that support service development along
the lifecycle across the firm. Traditional models, methods and tools are
not sufficient for systematic, interactive and cooperative service
A (clear-cut) service development strategy is often missing.
The adoption and definition of a service strategy is key to success (i.e.
how to differentiate themself from their competitors by means of
service offering) and is the missing link - linking customer's context,
resources and capabilities.
Over the past five years, we have investigated how manufacturing
firms plan, design and deliver services. We conducted 22 in-depth
interviews with industrial goods companies operating in a variety of
product markets, including medical detection and diagnostics, process
and filling technology, automobile manufacturers and suppliers, and
electronics manufacturing. We went on to carry out a large-scale study
with 503 participating managers. After thorough analysis, six further
extended interviews with executives complemented and validated our
Already 41 per cent of manufacturing firms in Germany, Austria and
Switzerland generate more than one quarter of their overall revenue
with service offerings (Strassl & Schicker, 2012; Schicker & Strassl,
2014). One major reason for the increasing importance of industrial
services is, on the one hand, the fact that service makes 80 per cent
of all product life cycle costs. The orientation as innovation leader is
not sufficient anymore in order to compete in markets successfully.
Service is the central success factor in order to be successful in high
wage countries and against low cost companies. The establishment of
service structures, expertise and skills of employees, and the
experience of services process makes imitation much more difficult
than the imitation of product features.
During the course of analysis it became clear that the choice of an
adequate service strategy, the effective management of the service
portfolio and the systematic development of the service offering leads
not only to higher service professionalism, but these firms are more
profitable than their competitors.
Based on study findings in the literature and from our own primary
data, we developed a reference framework for service development.
Two (main) assumptions led our tests.
First, firms already have services, which are at different stages
of their lifecycle. Services, such as spare parts, may exist for a long
time. Other services, such as remote monitoring for a recently
developed machine, may just be before the worldwide rollout. Yet
again, another service idea has been discussed in the firm for a long
time but not even developed yet.
Second, firms have a heterogeneous set of service offering.
Some services may be applied by a human, independently of a
machine, such consulting services. Other services are hybrid services
in the sense that they require technical infrastructure that forms the
prerequisite for a service offering, such as remote monitoring (hybrid
means in this context a combination of a technical and a human
element). Again other services are primarily technical, such as an
upgrade of a machine where modules are sold to bring a machine to
Design Principles
In the following, we define design principles, which describe
fundamental ideas about the practice of good service development for
manufacturing firms. How firms apply these principles determines how
successful a service offering may be.
Service business model autonomy
Service offerings with product-related services supporting customers
focus on the value proposition of the customer and allow interactive
value co-creation (Oliva & Kallenberg, 2003; Gebauer, 2006; Böhmann
et al., 2014). A service offer (out of the possible set of service offers)
can, therefore, be taken into account to be an autonomous business
model that describes the (at best an unique) value that a company
delivers for their customers, how it delivers the value proposition and
how it generates revenue.
Alexander Osterwalder defines a business model as „[…] a conceptual
tool that contains a set of elements and their relationships and allows
expressing the business logic of a specific firm. It is a description of
the value a company offers to one or several segments of customers
and of the architecture of the firm and its network of partners for
creating, marketing, and delivering this value and relationship capital,
to generate profitable and sustainable revenue streams.“ (Osterwalder
et al., 2010, p. 10)
The following table illustrates the structure of a service business
model, adapted from Osterwalder.
Key Questions
Which of the customer's problems is solved by the
Which requirements do customers pose to the firm
and how can the service satisfy it?
What value does the service deliver to the customer,
how does it differentiate from competitors?
How can the benefit be quantified?
For whom does the service create value?
Who are the most important customers?
Which type of relationship does each of the customer
segments expect to establish and maintain?
Which ones exist?
How are they integrated with the rest of product
and/or services?
Through which distribution channels does the firm
reach customers with service activities?
How are customers integrated in the distribution
What capabilities do the value proposition require?
The distribution channels?
The customer relationships?
The revenue model?
Which role does the customer play in each of the
What resource configuration does the value
proposition require?
The distribution channels?
The customer relationships?
The revenue model?
Which resources are available?
Key Questions
Who are the partners that are necessary to execute
the value proposition?
Which capabilities and resources are required from
Cost Structure
Which costs are inherent in the service?
How can these costs be quantified?
What are the impacts to the success?
Revenue Model
For what value are customers really willing to pay?
For what do they currently pay? How?
How much does the service contribute to overall
Table 1: Autonomous Service Business Model
An autonomous service business model can be portrayed by focused
single achievement independence and, at the end, held (individually)
accountable for its performance. Since most firms develop and deliver
more than one service offer simultaneously, the consideration of a
service offer to be an autonomous business model permits the firm to
determine accountable actions and to balance internal capabilities and
resources, an issue that is often underestimated by managers
(Edvardsson et al., 2010).
Customer integration
The value of a service offering is co-created together with customers.
This concept is referred to as service-dominant logic and was created
by Stephen Vargo and Robert Lusch (Vargo & Lusch, 2004), a term
coined as opposed to goods-dominant logic. This co-creation of value
requires linked activities provided to customers with a positive
outcome (Vargo & Lusch, 2004; Edvardsson et al., 2010) and cannot
be separated from customers.
The idea that value is co-created during delivery (secretly) presumes
the integration of customers during the development process. The
main question during service development is how to create value, both
for customers and service provider firm during service delivery. The
success of a value proposition depends on its ability to understand the
(future) customer co-creation act. Since customers are a resource in
value networks, the integration
development seems attractive.
Firms that integrate customers can capture knowledge that is essential
for developing services from/with customers. Bo Edvardsson and his
team (Edvardsson et al., 2010) distinguish (at least) two types of
knowledge: use knowledge refers to actual situations of knowledge,
difficulties, ideas, opportunities, behaviours, and emotions. Technology
knowledge refers to underlying resources used to realize the actual or
future service.
Capturing knowledge from customers during service development is
possible from different customer roles, e.g. service personnel, senior
management, which can be integrated in the development process,
both for the improvement of already existing (be it successful or not
successful, what ever this means for a service) as well as for radically
new services (Edvardsson et al., 2010; Carbonell et al., 2009).
Service development agility
Service development requires a framework that allows systematic
development, as the development of products does. However, Dörner
et al. point out that development process for new services rarely
proceeds systematically (Dörner et al, 2011). To remain competitive,
firms have to respond to changes flexible and timely. Only adjusting
the development process for products may result in an unused service
development process. This calls for a service development framework
that requires a different approach than the development of products.
Kindström et al. argue that if a development process is too structured
and formalized, it will inhibit (rich and courageous) exploration efforts.
It must rather balance the need for structure with explorative
encouragement (Kindström et al., 2009). Gremyr (even) found that
services are not developed systematically, even if there was a process
in place (Gremyr et al., 2010).
Software development has struggled with a similar problem for many
years, until the idea of iterative and incremental development turned
up and facilitated adaptive and evolutionary development. The concept
of agile software development was born.
The idea of agile service development, therefore, may enable a firm to
adapt to (un-)expected changes rapidly during this process. In this
sense, the term ‚agile‘ has been introduced as “the ability of a
sensitive [organization] that exhibits flexibility to accommodate
expected or unexpected changes rapidly, following the shortest time
span, using economical, simple and quality instruments in a dynamic
environment and applying updated prior knowledge and experience to
learn from the internal and external environment”. (Qumer et al.,
2008) Agile service development may lead to higher customer
satisfaction and lower budget overruns.
Team integration
Team integration expresses the way in which decentralized and
heterogeneous organizational members participate during the service
development process.
Product-service process interdependency
Service development process and product development process are
interdependent. Many manufacturing firms offer bundles of products
and services. This implies that product and service development
processes are interdependent and cannot be performed in isolation
from each other.
NSD Framework
In this paper, we present a NSD framework with five stages that
considers a service business model approach. These five stages are
market sensing, assessment, design, development, and delivery.
The NSD process wheel visualizes all service business model building
blocks (Fig. 1). It allows illustrating visually the extent to which the
development of a service progresses. The NSD process wheel is split
into business model building blocks. The development progress is
visualized from the core to the outside boundary by the stages
Fig. 1: NSD Process Wheel
In the following, each stage of the NSD framework is considered in
Market sensing
During market sensing, personnel learn continuously about markets
and customers (Day, 2002) through active or passive customer
interaction. They understand needs, behaviours, and preferences
(Carbonell, 2009; de Bretani, 1989). Other sources to sense markets
are system integrators or consultants. Market sensing is particularly
challenging, where customers expect services for free or as part of a
product (Auguste, 2006; Reinartz, 2008). However, no service idea
should get lost during market sensing, wherever the idea stems from,
how strange or impossible to deliver it may be. In essence, all service
ideas should get a chance, at least. The key question during market
sensing is to collect new service ideas and to consider whether the
new service idea is interesting.
A service value proposition creates value for customers through a mix
of elements. As for customers, it may be important to reduce their
machine availability, to reduce their costs for parts, to operate
environmentally-sound with water, electric power, or raw materials
and supplies. Others may profit with the new service value proposition
by reducing the material requirements, better usability, flexible and
gentle refitting. Yet other customers are interested in improving their
product quality, hygiene or equipment. Again others aim to improve
and to manage production processes and therefore have particular
interest in data, methods and tools as part of a service offer.
During market sensing, companies consider their benefits in a
qualitative way. They think about the impact of the service idea and
whether it enables to sell further products and/or services. Other
service ideas may impact their customer relationship and loyalty. Many
customers are interested in more simplified processes, faster reaction,
or simpler methods. Others aim to understand, if a service idea
indicates market potential in terms of technology progress, innovation
or possible customer demand.
However, without profitable customers, no company can survive for
long. During market sensing, it seems valuable to already understand,
if there are customers (and which ones) that have demand for the
service idea. Asking if these potential customers are willing to pay
(and how much, of course) for the service offer may be important but
challenging. Well, there is still the open question: what, if customers
are not willing to pay, why should the service idea still be turned into
an offering?
Every service idea calls for a number of activities and resources, once
in operation. For a service support offering, this may be customer
contact, problem identification, data analysis, problem solving and
documentation. It is certainly worthwhile to think about consequences
about necessary activities and resource during market sensing.
1 - Market Sensing
2 - Assessment
Reference to product or product part
Customer value for service idea importance (e.g. machine
availability increased, operating supplies reduced)
Company value of service idea (e.g. positive impact on
image, cross-selling, customer loyalty)
Known customers that are willing to pay for service offer
Operating procedures of service idea (e.g. support = receive
contact, identify problem, analyse data, solve problem,
document, etc.)
Resources needed for service operations
Task of company for the service during service and what
happens at customers site
Parts and components for which service offer is relevant for
a period of time
Service offer relevant for machines, parts, plants or sites
Number of potential sales
Strategic value for company, risks and barriers
Customer co-creation and value from customer perspective
Different requirements for different customer segments
Sales channel of service offer
Direct beneficiary of service offer
Decision maker/Budget holder for service
Long-term relationship through service offer
Product manager for service offer
Required expertise, resources and activities for service offer
Development activities, resources and effort
Revenue streams and cost during service operations
Cross-selling potential
Cost saving potential
Customer value with performance indicators transparent
Competitors and differentiations (quality, time, flexibility,
sustainability, cost ...) and priorities
Promotion plan, key message and communication channel
of service offer
Target customers (region, industry, size, shift model,
production type, maintenance strategy)
Sales process (activities, product/service sales)
Pilot testing
Process for service delivery
Development project (plan, project organisation, time
schedule, budget, documents)
Development costs
Pricing and billing model (time, material, value)
Terms and conditions
Sales plan, cost plan, profit plan
Cross-selling potentials
Cost saving potentials
Customer value with KPI - validation (from pilot test)
Pilot testing
Implementation of process for service delivery
Review of development stage
Development cost (internal, extern, material)
Pricing and billing
Terms and conditions
Sales plan, cost plan, profit plan
Cross-selling potentials
Cost saving potentials
Portfolio management (profitability, return, stage of life
cycle, customer acceptance risk, importance for customers
and its competiveness, customer loyalty, cross selling
potential, service piracy)
3 - Design
4 - Development
5 - Delivery
Table 2: Aspects during service development process
During assessment firms assess service ideas and evaluate, if a
particular service idea makes sense. This sense making consists of
activities in which information is sorted, filtered and simplified into
coherent patterns (Day, 2002). With these mental models of
(coherent) patterns of a service idea a firm is able to move into one
direction. The key questions during assessment are whether more
meaning can be given to the initial service idea and whether the
service idea should be designed.
During assessment an owner of a service idea specifies activities,
which will be necessary for operating the service, and ponders about
the impact the service will have at customers sites. In particular, in a
product-service-system it is vital to understand the scope to which the
service idea affects what products, machines, or machine parts. From
a sales point of view, it is interesting how (per customer site, machine,
plant, etc.) and how often (once or more than once) the service idea
may be sold. One firm verifies the service idea during customer
interaction (e.g. workshops or interviews) and prioritizes according to
which the service idea meets specific customer needs, such as quality,
speed, flexibility, cost, or sustainability.
Some managers posed questions that go beyond (specific) customer
needs: What strategic impact has the service idea? Can customers buy
the service from competitors? Which risks and barriers can the service
offering avoid? Which risks may be new with the service offering?
Which requests from customers may come, if they are not satisfied
with the new service offering (e.g. refusal of payment)? In this way,
firms are able to gradually establish required measures.
The service value proposition creates value for customers and defines
who benefits (directly) from the service offering. This may be the
managing director, head of production, purchasing manager, head of
maintenance or operator. During assessment managers asked who
owns the budget (at the customer) and who decides upon purchasing
the service.
Service providers discuss during assessment on how to bring the
service to market. For example, managers discussed likely channels to
reach customer best, such as new machine sales, through service
sales, service engineers, web sales, partners, or a mix. This depends
on the type of machine, production or site the service refers to. The
customer relationship for a service influences the customer experience.
During sense making managers assessed a whole range: from
personal to automated, from short- to long-term.
Every service requires a number of activities to create and to deliver it.
These activities can be problem-solving activities or a software
platform. Resources allow the firm creating and delivering a service.
During assessment, managers and specialist specify and evaluate
activities and resources (internal and/or external) in detail.
Having answered the question, if customers are willing to pay for the
service, leads to plan the revenue streams from that service over the
next years from one-time customers, recurring revenues, or current
contracts. Creating and delivering a service incurs costs. Such costs
are calculated after defining resources and activities. Cost structures
consist of fix costs that remain constant despite the volume of service
created and delivered, and variable costs that vary proportionally with
the volume of the service delivered. De Bretani (de Bretani, 1989)
found that cost saving potentials (economies of scale) are often not
the focus of manufacturing firms, however, there may be other
attributes of cost structures that firms enjoy as the output increases.
During design elements are integrated into the service to meet
customers needs. This may be product design (design of material
components), facility design (configuration of environment),
operations design (protection of infrastructure during service delivery)
and service process design (interaction between supplier and
customer) (Ramaswamy, 1996). The key question during the design is
whether the service idea that was positively evaluated during
assessment can now be designed.
In workshops, managers discussed the service value proposition - the
reason why customers prefer one company to another - for a
particular customer (segment) and asked questions like: Can
customers improve their efficiency and effectiveness? Can customers
produce faster through downtime reduction? Can customers improve
their supplier reliability? Can customers react upon market changes
faster? Can customers reduce their costs through the service offer
(e.g. spare parts, costs for material and supplies)? Can customers
produce more sustainably?
Services may be innovative or new, others already exist in the market.
During design managers look at the service in its entirety in the
market and consider the competition (or segments) and design
attributes that differentiate them from competitors. Some firms define
target customer profiles and categorized them. Attributes can be the
region/market of the firm, the size of the customer, the shift model of
production, production type or maintenance strategy.
Raising awareness about the firm’s service offer requires a promotion
plan with a clear communication goal and a distinct message. During
design managers define the sales process with roles and activities from purchasing to delivery.
As activities and resources describe the important things a firm must
do in order to make the service work, during design managers define
activities and resources needed for the sales and delivery process.
Having defined this, firms must define the development process with a
plan, project organization, and development resources. As part of this,
services should be pilot-tested early as part of customer interaction
(Kindström, 2010). Managers identify necessary activities and pilot
customers during design.
At the end of design, managers examine ways they generate revenue
streams with. Here are some of them: Usage fees are the most widely
understood revenue streams for service offers ((hourly rate * hours)
plus material). Volume fees are generated by the use of a particular
service with a fixed price multiplied with the volume. Along with
defining the kind of revenue streams, managers discussed conditions
of contract. As revenue represents the money a firm generates from
customers, firms plan revenues, costs and profits. Some also consider
cross-selling potential for the service and cost-saving potentials.
During sense making firms estimate the development cost for the
service. Now at the end of design, managers detail development
activities and related costs (for personnel and material) for the service.
Development comprises a number of tasks and processes that aim to
develop and implement the service design and bring it finally into live.
The key question during the development stage is whether the
designed service can be development and at the end sold and
delivered to customers.
In this step, for efficient and effective service development, it is
required to align performance goals with pilot test results from the
previous stage. As in previous stages of this framework, managers
further identified customers/customer segments planned what value is
created for them. Market implemented the promotion plan during
development by defining sales and marketing activities. Sales
managers defined targets by region, marketing, customers, etc.
During development firms initiate pilot studies with selected customers
to provide (quantitative) proof that this (particular) service has
(enough) potential to succeed on a full-scale basis. Pilot studies have
the advantage to reduce later costs, as they are less expensive during
Implementing the service delivery process is key to developing a
service. Two major issues are worth highlighting. In internationallyoperating manufacturing firms, often R&D (at the headquarters)
develop (basic, standard) services that are then localized for differing
market needs. Cross-functional and cross-regional are a dominant
coordination aspect during development. Due to the prevailing
dominant goods logic and existing practices, practitioners find it
important to align service development processes to product
development processes, in terms of steps and terminology.
During development, in most cases, the biggest proportion of
development costs incur. Close monitoring of development costs is
important for firms. Yet, sales managers validate pricing, billing and
contract conditions for the service and estimate revenues and cost of
The delivery of services is in its very nature fundamentally different to
the delivery of products, since services are created in an interaction
with the customer during the delivery process (Grönroos, 2007), and
are often highly localized. The key question during service delivery is
if the service is successful in its operation in terms of performance and
quality (de Bretani, 1989).
Service managers deploy portfolio management to manage services. A
service portfolio supports the decision making process with regard to
managing the service lifecycle (Kohlborn et al., 2009). The core of
service portfolio management is the amount of services and their
dependencies and it consists of services in all stages of their lifecycle.
The aim of a service portfolio is to be strategically aligned, balanced
and to maximize value (Cooper et al., 1999; Kohlborn et al., 2009). In
workshops, managers found financial criteria (such as profit margin) to
maximize value important, but also argued about the scope to which
customer needs are aligned with current service offering, the
willingness to pay for the service, or the (performance) impact of the
Table 3 illustrates the complete NSD framework.
not yet relevant or
not yet relevant or
Compile list of activities
(rough estimates) for
service operations
Identify potential
customers of service
Identify relevant
products of customers
Stage 1 - Market
• Describe fundamental
service idea
• Give the service a
unique name
• Define primary and
secondary value criteria
Detail service
Quantify value
Synchronize quantified
value proposition with
Validate benefits for
customers and
Determine strategic
impact of service for
Analyse target market
Analyse installed base
Estimate possible
service sales per time
Estimate maximum
possible market
Define service type
(one-time job/longterm)
Specify service
processing (in person,
Determine place of
service provision
Identify relevant
Define development
activities for service
Determine responsible
people for development
Determine activities
during service
Define responsible
Stage 2 - Assessment
Specify development
project (plan, project
Define process of
service operations
Define sales processes
Complete development
Optimize process of
service operations
Implement process of
service operations
Develop sales planning
Define sales target
Implement promotion
Pilot service with
selected target
Use pilot results to
revise service value
Deliver and assess
Adapt distribution
Deliver service to
Collect, assess and use
customer feedback
Deliver and assess
Decide upon
Stage 5 - Delivery
Validate customer value •
by means of pilot
Stage 4 - Development
Define cooperation with •
customers during pilot
Develop promotion plan
Complete target
customer profiles
Complete service
Define performance
indicators to measure
service performance
and benefits for
Stage 3 - Design
Determine willingness
to pay for service
Identify alternative
advantages for the
firm, if customers are
not willing to pay for
not yet relevant or
not yet relevant or
Estimate required
resources for service
Stage 1 - Market
Table 3: NSD Framework
people for service
Specify development
Specify service
operations resources
Determine internal
expertise for
development and
operations of service
Identify necessary
internal and external
Determine relevant
time intervals for
Estimate development
costs of service
Estimate cost of
operation for service
Determine cost saving
Determine customers'
willingness to pay for
Analyse cross selling
potentials of service
Stage 2 - Assessment
Define pricing strategy
for service
Define billing mode for
Specify development
cost for service
Analyse profitability of
Test monetary planning
(revenue, cost, profit)
Validate pricing of
Validate billing mode of
Perform market
Perform service
Perform service
Integrate external
Adapt resource model
Stage 5 - Delivery
Identify final
development costs
Update monetary
planning (revenue,
costs, and profits)
Test monetary planning
(revenue, costs, and
Integrate required
partners for service
operations into process
of service operations
Optimize resources for
process of service
Stage 4 - Development
Preselect internal teams •
and external partners
for development
Screen internal teams
and external partners
for service operations
Specify resources for
development project
Stage 3 - Design
In this paper, we argue that the whole life cycle must be equally in focus in order for
manufacturing firms to become successful service offering suppliers. In our NSD
framework, we include the idea that a new service development process must give
every service idea a chance. However, this NSD framework should not be considered
as a process model with disconnected phases but rather a skeleton with intersecting
We believe that exploring related organizational and technological learning in a
manufacturing setting is a promising future research strand.
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