Young Blood Donation percentage, by country

参考 資料 5
Young Blood Donation percentage, by country
No
Country
% of Donatlons from donors
under 18 years old
% of Donatrons from donors
ln age group 18lo 24
TOTAL % of Donatrons from oonors
5200o6
3700%
4684%
89.00%
80.17%
Lao People's Democrattc Repubhc
1
DaOWe
3 Malawt
4 Jotswana
5 Vret Nam
000%仏
Repubhc of Korea
burKIna卜 asO
2554%
Gurnea
1100°
Tuvalu
52696
JOrO a
000%
Indra
n nnq久
3abon
Bhutan
3000/。
046%
Mall
Sao Tome and Pnncroe
n
lambodra
621%
Myanmar
_uxem0ourq
,4a ldrves
T--l
on
0009^
00096
3
一4
3
3
000,負
233°/。
Morocco
0000/。
lran (lslamtc ReDubhc on
76R9久
Tonga
085°
Oemocratrc Republrc of the Conqo
00036
Unrted States of Amerrca
Josnia and Hezeoovrna
Я nQら 久
/。
0009ム
908%
00096
00o%
峰
4929%
48.060/。
4691%
bVン o
4329%
4055%
387436
38740/。
36000/。
3600°
/。
3564%
35.290/。
3262%
3110%
3000°
30.000/。
2800%
28000/。
2394%
26.45%
2496%
25.81%
2597%
0し も
ZZ
1373%
339°
/。
2147%
1238%
1278%
21.45%
19.50%
1840°/。
1800%
1605%
18.00° /。
17.59%
17.58%
17.09%
1283%
1616%
1541%
1495%
000%
14830/。
000°
14170/。
0930/。
1262°/O
000,も
129296
/。
υυツЪ
21.32%
17030/O
16.21・ /。
16.16° /。
1564%
1495・
/。
14.830/。
1417%
14.00° /。
13.55° /。
1353%
13530/。
000%
1111%
1111%
000%
1096%
0009も
833%
lahratn
veroailan
4883%
4805%
/。
000%
lreland
lceland
Slovenra
look lslands
55.22° /。
52.83%
000%
iingapore
Mauntrus
Australta
5717%
56.34%
33.95%
(VrgVzgla n
38 SOuth Af“ ca
39
Uzbekistan
5717%
4017%
35290/。
2■ [th望 18
Estonra
Talrkrslan
59.00%
57.89° /。
29700/。
Poland
r4aurrlanra
77.00%
7201%
6930%
6181%
376ら 久
/。
Ki「 ibatl
1
77.320/。
2200%
5290/。
n
under 25 years old
VZツ o
11.11%
11.11%
11080/。
11 080/。
10960/.
090ツ b
89096
833°
/。
☆
Source Data repOrted by cOunines tO wHo Global Database on 31ood safety,2008(updated lo」
une 2010)
2009年 度 韓国 における年齢別・職業別献血 状況
2009年 度 献血事業統計 (韓 国)よ り抜粋
■ 年齢 別
(単 位 :人 )
16∼ 19歳
20∼ 29歳 30∼ 39歳 40歳 以上
l lll
80
60
総 献血 者 数
2′
5691954
40
20
80M7%}
男
女
女
女
男
男
54932348248 875514261,110 286″ 451′ 176
女卿
197′
男卿
40歳 以 上
■ 職 業別
(単 位 :人 )
総献m者 数
: 2′ 569′ 954
60「
一︱︱︱寸︱︲
40
30
10
0
軍人
375477
会社員
470翻
公務 員
76275
自営 業
∞ 943
宗教職
6492
掛卿
﹂
薇
・
・
事
十
ヽ
・
響
一
一
20
0
BL00D lloNoRS AND BL00o 00LLECTloN
The aging populatiOn poses a g10bal challenge fOr b100d services
/1た
_メ
,Afα α
びA′ ′
0お αA夕 ′
72θ 77,α ′
zグ ノた
た
αRα ム
θ
77ビ 7Z
7ブ
zノ
BACKGROUND: The F
t
t s o m e a a rm n g
ffiT
n;:'.:,.nj.,,} j"_i "
that are likely to be faced by transfusron
serylces as
populations conttnue to age
STUDY DEStcN AND METHODS:
Computerized data
coilection was performed on all potentially
transfused
patients ln Finland, thus covering _70"/.
of all blood
usage. We srmulated the red blood
cell (RBC) usage
accordrng to the Finntsh
sroups bur rne popurat
susses
j'ffi
r
orlffi::ffi :fl:fi
lι
鳳
:鷺 Ll:号竃
驚llHl:よ
ing alc ttaК httOn prd“
ces
ivat101l prOgranls in diffl_lrcnt
CO111ltries by sirnply calclllatillg l)100d llsage per capita
nlay be all illadcquate Or cvell rnisiea(ling practicc、
vllen
trying tO plan fOr b100d scrvicc requirenlenis in aging
populatio1ls_
MATERIALS AND METHoDS
1T",
countries
RESULTS: The Frnnrsh data demonstrate
a markeo
Increase rn RBC consumptron
wtth increastng age
among recipients, begrnnrng at around
SO years:of age.
The 70- to B0-year_olds have an
eightfold higher RBC
consumptron than 20_ to 40-year-olds.
11111:・ :ξ ::l主 ::》 :::γ
IIilifillili:l:11111,li〕nly
b100d stll〕 plier ill「 i1lland
thus providi118 apprOxilnately 400,Ooo b10。
ci cOnlponcnts
allnually tO tllc「 inllisll hOspltals.1`
he data are cOnectcd
lttI穏
CONCLUSioNS:A large palt Ofthe vanatiOn in RBc
出 『 蜘
l
軍 鳳 :柵
1き 基 締
i(,1l oメ Hご 〉
ISinkl,Filllan(li al〕 d
Olllu data extracti01l systelll,Olllu,「
inlalld)The valida―
use per caplta can be explained by the age distribution
Of the different pOpulat10ns and nOt by the dlfferent
tlol1 0f data has l)cell d()scribc(11)rcviOusIン
natiOnal and reg10nal treatlllent pOlicles and protOcOls
1l cllrrelltly]o
hOsl)ital distlicts prOvide data tO the leglstly AltOgetller
used lf current effOlts are not enOu9h to selVe the
changlng pOpulat10n dem。
zィ
these hOspital dlstricts trallsfllse approxilnatcly 63ツ
9raphic and if increaslng
7096 0f b100d cOlnpOnellts produced ill「
dernands For b100d products cannot be met,there ls
おtO
illland.There are
llo generai nat101lal transFtlsiOn guidelines in Finland
need 10 cOnsider unprecedentOd measures such as
】
躍:IT棋 ュl窯1駄I:TII:1「 ‖
器
reversing cellaln dOnor deferrals Or even expOlting
1導
bloOd from cOuntry tO countlγ
1営 1lli躍 :
ふ
1部:1熙 ‖
虻
灘[熙 猟
i島
高
温じ
よ n:ふ :よ
『T鳶:l肌 置:鍬 :f脂 総l;T:∫ 認 1潔
上
町
dependcncy ranoに he nunlber Of`。
tiよ
:
凝燎11甘 :鳳 ilぷ 罵尊富犠:器 r謡 :計
Iご 贅
l!駐 群
魁
till』 ti::」 二
∬
li:漁、
量
t漁 霊
T
a cOde fOr tlle rnain procedllre);and 3)patients
Ⅵ:ith hos_
pital、 isits M/ith any 11laligllant disordct allenlla Of any
お13:ニ ツ:lalTll:マ 輩∫
猟軍
ilI糖ど写キ
I
Red Cross Blood Senlce,
Kivihaantrc Z, 00310 Helsrnki,
Finland;
e- rnail: rnar;a-karsa
auvinen@bts.redcros-s.fi
Received for publicarrcn August
t0, 200g; revisiorr recen,etl
September l l , 2iJ09, antl accepted
Septetrlbcr I l. 2009.
doi: t0.llt 111.1537-2995.2009 {}2.1:10
x
'ITTANSFUSION
20 t0;50 5[],1-588.
584 THANSFUSION
Volume 50. March 2010
:
cause,Obstetric disOrders,feta1 0r neonatal hen10rrhagic
alld hemato10gic disOrders,and burns alld trauma(Inter_
na110nal classlncation()l Diseases IIcD-lo],main diag―
nOSeS C81-C96,D45-D47,D50-D77,Ooo_o998,P50-P61,
S00-S999,TOo― To7,T20-T32,T79_I・
98,alnd z99 9)Patient
data are enracted liOnl cxlsting electro11lc mcdical
純 :淋 憮 鰐lipl幾
AG:NC POPuLATiON AND BLOoD USAGE
狡
ヨ
鰤
J
]
2025
浣
0︲鰈 ︲
5
0
︲鰈 = 二鰈
2
]
聰︱ ・
鰈
Ψ 漑1 %I ・
鑽
主導 ︲
孵・
m一
l'
螂 “ ” ¨ 珈 ] “ ” ﹁ ¨ ¨ ] ] ∝ ” ﹁ m
“
¨] ¨
OC ∞一C 一
﹂ O C∞一
o上 ⊂“Q O﹁
Fig'
1975
Examples of population pyramids
for Finland, Ireland, and fapan for rlifferent age groups base4 on wHo
statistics years
l95o to 2000 and prognosis ior 2o25 to 2050' The left side of the pyramid indicates the proportion
of males and the right side of
females in the country.
operations, test rcsults, and blood components as well as
transfusions. F-or data security reasons, a coding
on
computer prograrn (DWcrypt, Datawell Oy, Espoo,
Finland) encrypted parients' personal identiflcation
numbers using different passworcls for each hospital
dis_
trict. The data were analyzed with the analyzer reporting
program (Ecomed, Datawell Oy) and a statistical sof'tware
package (SPSS, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Ihe simulation
analyses are based on red blood cell (RBC) Lrsage in
Finland. Per-capita usage was calculated by dividing the
annual RBC use of persons at certain age with the total
number of living individuals of the same age. We simulated the RBC usage according to the Finnish practice on
different age groups but the population demographics
from other countries, which can be presented as popula_
tion p1-ramid, that is, distribution of different age groups
within a population. Some examples of population pyramids for Finland, Ireland, and Japan are shb\^n in Fig. 1.
For the population demographics, the data from Statistics
Finland and \AIHO were used. The data for Finlancl consist
of population statistics on the size and structure of the
permanently resident population and related changes,
such as births, deaths, marriages, migration, as well as
population projections. For the otirer countries the IIIHO
(United Nations, Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, Population Division, http://www.un.org/esa/
population/unpop.htm) data consist of rvorld population
prospects, popularlon by age groups, medium_fertility
assumption based on UN population Division,s quin_
quennial estimates and proiections.
RESULTS
The Finnish data demonstrate a marked increase in RBC
consumption
with
jncreasing age iimong recipienrs,
beginning at aroutrd 50 years of agc. 'l-he elderly consis_
tently have a ntuch higher RBC consumption than
younger people: 70- to B0-year-olds havc an eightfold
higher RBC consunrlttion than 20- to 4O-year_olds (Fig. 2).
Many othcr cotrntries show similar trends in RBC usage.2 a
Accorcling to Corrncil of Europe 2004 statistics, the uSe
prodtrcts varies considerably among the European
Union ntenrber states (4-73 per 1000 inhabitants; mean,
37 per 1000 inhabitants).5 A large part of the variation in
RBC use per capita can be explained by the age distribu_
of
RLIC
tion of the different populations and not by the clift.erent
national and regional treatment policies and protocols
used. Figure 3 shows the simulated RBC usage per capita
1950 to 2050, based on historicat
and predicted age distribution figures (from the UN popu_
iation Division) and the age-distributed variation of blood
usage (as RBC units) in Finland between 2002 and 2006.
This simulation assurnes the same transfusion practices
in selected countries in
for each country- In Finland, SSTo of RBCs are used for
patients treated for surgicai diagnoses or interventions,
rvhereas 45o/o are used during conservative treatment
periods. For the piatelets, the proportions are 32 and 68%,
respectively. Of all blood used in Finland, 2LVo goes for
treatment of hematologic malignancies (ICD-10 classes
CB1-C97), 16% for trearment of cardiac and circulatory
system diseases (i00-199), and l2yo for the treatment of
tumors (C00-CB0 and D00-D4B). The popularion trend
during tire period 1950 to 2050 predicts an increase in RBC
requirements in most countries. Very few countries exhibit
a period of decreasing need for simulated RBCs, and since
1990 the simulated RBC use shows increase in all thc
cOuntries.
We have calculated the blood-dependency ratio iu
selected countries for the perioci 1950 to 2050, describing
the number of age-noneligible clonors that each
VOlume 50,March 2010 TRANSFUSioN 585
ALi ET AL.
Red blood cell
usage per 1000
rnhabrtants (units)
%/rj&iiltrw:lde:FF*Frer3@@@a*:@81
&9_'-f,j4iEwrrs!-*::4!'i*,_it-rf,
.a\a3k$fi
二
ノ
IWTFFTT翼
躙
――-2002-― _2003
町
町
TTT,T葛
2004-― _20o5-―
―-20o6-― ―
Fig.2.RBC usagc per capita by agc in Finland 20o2 to 2006.Current annud RBC usagcill「
mean
マ鶏
T鳳
「
inland is 50 11111ls per 1000 inhabitants_
age-eligible donor neecls to
support in addition to hirn/
herseif (Fig. a). Most countries
had a local maximum
duringthe
the 1990s.
1960s
and lg70s and u.ufrruqr.n, aecline
until
In conclusion, rhc increasing proportion
of elderly
people in most counlries ivrll
resr-Jt ln u _u1r. increase
in
*..O:TunO for RBC producrs globally,
,_,rri.r, ,r.urr.,.rr,
modalities can be i
the cOuntries analyzed in tllis study.HOv′
for death due tO ittury in FinlaI〕
cve■ the causes
d are lnore Often cOn―
nected tO tOxicity Or sllicida1 1)chavlor tllall traffic acci^
dents Or Othcr such inittries、
llCcessarン 16
vl)cre transfusiOns、 vO11ld l)e
The Observed diFercnce Of 42%bet、
ハeell thc 10■ 7est
「
(Ireland, 41 RBc units/10oo p01)ulatiOn)and highest
ciependenceonRBC,:t'r"J:lr#5;.;""::".:T;"tt;,;X:
(Japan, 58 RBc units/10oo pOpulatiOn)cOuntry in tllis
argue rhar future elderly populations
w;lt be healthier
than their current counterparts.
However, the Finnish
data have not shoi.m a decrease
in tfr" t.uniillsion needs
of elderly people. For the prevalence
of ttru diseases
treated rvith transfusions, we
silllulat10n is ft11ly explained by the direrent llatiOnal
cornpared \AtlO ciata on
mortaiity and morbidity (http:/itvwr,gwho.intlr,r,trosisl
whostat/2009/en/index.html). For
.o.aiouur.uto. Oir_
eases, which is rhe secondl*r:r1
cliagnostic g.u.,p u,oong
transfused patienrs in Finland,
the cluntriel selected for
the sinruiation analyses have
similar ug"_r,u.rOu.Ot.a
mortaiity rates. TWo exceptions
ar" RusJja and poland,
w}rere trre rnortarity rates for
carciiovascular a,r."r". *,
three- and rwofold compared
with Finland (Table 1). The
age-standardized mortaliry
rate for injuries is 64 per
100'000 popuration in Fiarand,
trrus hrgher ihan most of
586
TRANSFUSTON Volume 50,
March 2010
pOpulatiOn pyrantid ltis clcar that althOugh tlle natiOnal
data On RBC use are a usefulindicatOr,they are l10t suFl―
clent tO conlpare transfusiOn practice an10ng cOulltries
輝
搬
鮮
搬
1樅
II群
榊
the pOpulatiOn eligiblc tO donate bloOd lll deve10ped
W:≒ 繁 」
幌器 mT∫
r糧
織
it質
1∬
increases expectcd in Eastern Europe an(l dcvcloped
countries
ぴn胞 思
:Ti篤 1宅 ITF[1謝 lb:認 Ⅷr∬
sLlppOrt in additiOn tO hilll_Or herselt shows tlDatin lnost
AG:NG POPULAT:ON AND BL00D USAGE
。
6
Canada
5
5
France
。
5
*
Ireland
Italy
5
4
Poland
。
4
Russran Federatlon
''.*
Sparn
5
3
︵∽〓 こう ︶ ∽脚C oコ一
n or c一〇〇〇 H LOQ OOЮ∽⊃ 一
∪ “に つ0コ0一
OωL∝
5
6
Austraha
,ry
--
unlted Klngdom
z-T unrted states
1960 1965 19701975 1980 1985 1990 19952000200520102015202020252030203520402o452050
Fig. 3. Simulation of clinical use of RBC units per 1000 population (based on age-distributed variation in bl'od usage
[as RBC
unitsl in Finland befiveen 2OO2and2OO6l.
Austra lta
-Canada
Fra n ce
Germany
--*-Ireland
_* Ita ty
--Ja
pa n
Po la nd
Federatron
-Russtan
-qnain
Kingdom
-United states
--unrted
Finland
19501955196019651970 19751980198519901995200o2005 2010201520202025203020352040 20452050
Fig. 4- Blood-dependency ratio
donors in the population.
in selected countries I 950 to 2o50: ratio of age-eligible (l 8-65 years) to age-noneligible blood
Volume 50, March
2010 TRANSFUSION
587
AL:ET AL
39
countrjes a local maximum was exccedecl
clrrring the
1960s
REFERENCES
and i97t)s and a sultsequent decline
untrl the 1990s
suggests thal the .".ruitrr..r_rt
of rionors has lteen
easicr-iom yeirr to year than cluring
a period of corrstant
ratio. For the future, ttrese prolcctioii,
.lrn* an rncreasing
Ihis
j.
trend for tl-re bloocl-dcpendenclr ratio,
suggesting that it
be more dilficulr to recruir UtooO
annnlir, exacerbatecl
by thc fact that recruitment levcls
have been rclarively
will
good
in recent years r\Jth'ugh recruitrnent
of
bloocl
donors rnay appear to have bee"n
relativeiy
anrl high
jn recent years, historicaily
this has not tr,ri,.,"ury
tt," case and
it is unlikely to be so in the future
u, ,r,ur, local blood
scrvices rvrll attest_ Ihe eligible
clonor population is
lirnrted and radical ar:l ions to
address tfr,r, .u.f, as extend_
ing the age lirnits for donation, nloy
nor_ io becornc a
realiry in sorne countries. Already
i., ti. Un,t"a Kingdorn,
Australia, and some US states,
the upper og" ,,rn,, of ,O
years tirr not accepting blood
fronr Lnstin! donors has
been removed_ Also e,rtension of
the
age
lirnit to
l,ounge"r
17 years-has been i'rprenrented
i' ,n-" aJno. centers in
l)enmark, the United Kir.rgtiom,
and the United StatesIf current efforts to maintain effectrve
natronal blood
services are not enough to serve
the changing population
dernographrc ancl if increasing
demand,
2. Ilcguil C, Closon MC, Vanriekercklove
triltlon ol transfusior
icrv
3.
use
4.
to the rnanuscnpt submittecl
to TRANSFUSION.
588 TRANSFUsloN vOlume 50,March 201o
e
n
rs.
no
"
r
y.,
i,,
#'::il;1,:'^-,,T
tI[H,:io
277 _ 27
K, Ilurwcn DR. Blood
bf inpatrent erderll,pr.r'uratron rn thc
{Initcd
Transfusron 2007 ;47. 582 _92.
.States.
6-
tlte collectton, testrr.rg and use of
bloocl and blood compo
nents ln Ertrope rn 2004 fdocunlent
on the InternetJ.
Strasbourg. Council of Europe publishing;
2007 lcired clred
2009 Aug il. Avarlable frorn: IJIIL:
http /i wr,nveciqrn.eu/
rnedras/fichiersiNEW_2004 Report
_on the_.pdf
Stalisrical yearbook of Frnland
llorkent-llat.etr B. Report on
200.1. p. 674. .sratrstrcs
Frnland. ldocuntenr on the Internet].
Icited 2009 Aug
Avarlable frorn. URL.http.//pnveb2
stat fi/
hc'alth care nc.e<i.
The au*rors declare that they
have no conflrct-s of interest rel_
L.vant
r i
5
to
country, to nleet what is no\v an
establisl.recl ancl irnpera_
trve
CONFLTCT OF INTEREST
a
p, Baele p.
Concen-
Weils,{W, MoLrntcr pJ, Chapnr,rn
CE, Stainsbl, D, \4rallis Jp
\ilhere does hlooci goz l)rosl)L_Lttvc
observatronal stutiy of
red cell transfusron rn north
Englantl IlMl 2002;1125:g03
Van der poel C, Ianssen I\{p,
ioritoo,i pro,l,
edented nleasures. It m
p
trent database. Tr ansfusr on 2O0i., 17.
Andersorr SA, \,lenls NI, O,Corrnt,ll
pa
ucts cannot be met, we may
neeci to consider unprec_
crererrars,suchasr;"Xll::Xfi ,',""',,:':':,ffi:?n:ilil
collntrles, or even exporting bloocl
fronr country
Palo ll, Ali-lr,lelkl.rla T, IIanhr_la
Il, Iinttr V, Krusrus I, Lep_
irdnen E, l\{ahlarnaki EK, pcrlrorue.nti V, Iiajanraki
A, Rautoncrr J, Salrncnpcra M, Salo li, Salrnen
I, Savolauten ER,
.Sjr;va)l S, Surstcrrna.r I\,1, Sg-1ila
M, Tirnfraar.r A, Vah.imurto
M, i\,Iakr T. l)evcloltnrt,nt of pernranerrt
naf ion:il register of
blood cornponcnt lrsc uttirzrng clt,cttonrc
hospital inforlltatlon s),sfenls. Vox Sang 200{);91:1,10
7.
7
il.
s ahkoiset_;trlka rs u
t /!,LloslLrrja2004_suppea
/ b tml /
.;riJkarsu.pdf
LI S. Census Bureau Clobal population
contpositron
ldocument on the Internetl. \{ras}rrngton, DC.
tJ.S Depart_
ment of Commerce; 2002. p. 49_53.
fcited 2009 Aug ]1.
Available fronr: UIiL. hl
census' gov/ prod/
" "t'\'vw
300.1 pubs /np,or. par.
ff
"