Labour Banks Establishment - 全国労働金庫協会

Labour Banks’ Establishment - 1
Labour Banks’ Establishment
1. Labour Banks’ Foundation
Japan’s labor banks had their origins in the banks established in Hyogo and Okayama
Prefectures in 1950. However, the purposes for establishing the two banks differed.
When the new labor union movement arose in Japan following the country’s defeat in World
War II, labor unions perceived a need for financial institutions owned by workers themselves, and
active efforts to establish one led to the creation of the Hyogo Labour Bank (currently known as
the Kinki Labour Bank). Also, the need for consumer-livelihood cooperatives to have their own
finance branch resulted in the establishment of the Okayama Labour Bank (the current Chugoku
Labour Bank).
The environment surrounding workers at the time had a great impact with regard to the Labour
Banks’ establishment.
Japan was in a rush to rebuild its economy at the time, and funds that financial institutions
collected from the nation’s citizens were all invested in the nation and corporations, with none lent
to workers. As such, workers had no recourse but to borrow from loan sharks and pawnshops
at high interest rates and had a hard time with interest burdens and harsh collection methods.
Moreover, labor unions needed funds while engaged in job actions (strikes) for improved
working conditions. Therefore, there was a need for a financial institution that would finance living
allowances while disputes were in progress and wages were not being paid.
Also during these postwar times, when food was scarce, numerous consumer-livelihood
cooperatives were launched with the goal of obtaining inexpensive and good quality consumer
goods, but financial institutions would not readily offer these consumer unions financing at the
This situation led to a growing movement to establish self-run financial institutions to provide
funding for consumer cooperative enterprises, hastening the establishment of Labour Banks.
Labour Banks were rapidly founded across the country following the establishment of Labour
Banks in Hyogo and Okayama Prefectures, with the total coming to 47 in regions throughout
Japan with the establishment of the Okinawa-ken Labour Bank in 1966 (which was delayed due
to the U.S. forces’ occupation).
2. Enactment of the Labour Bank Law
Japanese financial institutions are all established in accordance with the law, receiving
business licenses from the national government as well as supervision and guidance.
Because there was no law pertaining to labor banks at the time Labour Banks were established
in Hyogo and Okayama Prefectures in 1950, they were set up in accordance with the Small and
Medium-Sized Enterprise Cooperatives Act.
However, this law was meant to cover financing for small and medium-sized businesses, and
this led to difficulties in operating Labour Banks because the law’s objectives were unsuited to
Labour Banks, whose membership consisted of labor organizations (labor unions, consumerlivelihood cooperatives, etc.) and whose management was conducted by representatives of
such organizations.
労働金庫の設立 - 1
1. 労働金庫の創設
日本の労働金庫は 1950 年に兵庫県と岡山県に設立されたのがはじまりです。しかし、この
2 つの労働金庫の設立の目的は違っていました。
庫 ( 現中国労働金庫 ) です。
えが必要であり、争議期間中 ( 賃金は支給されない ) の生活資金を融資してくれる金融機関が必
兵庫県と岡山県に労働金庫が設立されて以来、急速に全国に労働金庫が設立され、1966 年の
47 の労働金庫が設立されました。
2. 労働金庫法の制定
1950 年に兵庫県と岡山県に労働金庫が設立された当時は、労働金庫に関する法律がなかった
Labour Banks’ Establishment - 2
This led to an increasing awareness of the need for a special law appropriate for Labour
Banks. In 1951, the National Association of Labour Banks was founded and led the campaign
for the establishment of the Labour Bank Law.
A draft of the Labour Bank Law was submitted to the Diet, but along with many difficulties,
such as the dissolution of the Diet and no confidence votes, it was repeatedly rejected and
resubmitted, finally coming into being in August 1953.
In this way, the Labour Bank Law was not something conferred by the national government but
rather something that workers achieved through united, collective efforts. Labour Banks have
been operated under this law up to the present day.
労働金庫の設立 - 2
このため労働金庫に合った特別の法律が必要だという気運が高まり、1951 年に全国労働金庫
再提出が繰り返されるなど多くの困難がありましたが、1953 年 8 月にようやく成立を見るこ