Iraq NHDR 2014 Youth: Challenges and Opportunities Facts and Figures The National Human Development Report (NHDR) What is the National Human Development Report? The National Human Development Report is an exercise to assess the level of human development in the country. This assessment is based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of various areas of development such as income, health and education. Who will benefit from the report? The report aims to support the government, which is ultimately accountable for people’s development, in planning and policy making. The report will also be useful to other development actors in Iraq such as the civil society, youth groups and individuals, the international community, donors, and the media. Who prepared the Iraq NHDR 2014? Under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Planning, the Iraq NHDR 2014 was prepared by a team of independent national experts mobilized by Bayt Al Hikma with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Central Statistics Organization and the Kurdistan Region Statistics Office provided technical support and statistics. More details on the report’s partnerships is provided at the end of this fact sheet. Why does the report focus on Youth? Youth is the largest segment of the Iraqi society and demographic trends emphasize the importance of this social segment. Trends in socioeconomic indicators have shown regression in the levels of education and employment which are more relevant to youth than other social segments. Special attention in the national development efforts have to be devoted to these sectors. Political developments in Iraq and the region have shown the restlessness of youth and the urgent requirement to address their needs and aspirations. 1. Development in Iraq Quantitative assessment of development is achieved by means of the Human Development Index (HDI), which represents the aggregated amount of development levels in income, health, and education. The HDI ranges from 0 to 1, the latter of which showing highest development. In Iraq, the HDI value increased from 0.627 in 2008 to 0.694 in 2014. HDI 2008 HDI 2014 0.627 0.694 Geographic Distribution of Development in Iraq: development levels across the Iraq governorates vary. Darker green areas in the map below show the governorates with the higher development. However, most of the Iraq governorates are in the lower middle development level (lighter green). Iraq Human Development in Numbers HDI Value Life expectancy at birth (years) Mean years of schooling (years) Expected mean years of schooling (years) Gross National Income (GNI) per captia (US Dollars purchasing power parity 2012) 0.694 69 8 11 12,738 Multidimensional Poverty (MP): is the measurement of deprivations in a number of development areas such as standard of living, basic services, health, and education. In Iraq, 13.3% of the population suffers from multidimensional poverty. The chart to the right provides a comparison of multidimensional poverty with income poverty in Iraq. Low income HH but not MP poor 10% MP poor but not a low income HH 3% Both MP poor and low income HH 10% Neither MP poor nor a low income HH 77% 2. Gender Differences in Development and Women Empowerment 80% 73% Women Men 72% 70% 60% 50% Aspects of Violence against Women: marriage of underage girls in Iraq: A field study shows that marriages of underage girls are greatly increasing, with 244 marriages (around 30 percent) out of the 764 registered in the Family Court in the Shaab District, eastern Baghdad, during the five first months of 2010 involving girls aged 15–17. 40% 30% Indicator 28% 27% 16% 20% 13% 10% 0% Govrnorate' Local Councils (% Female) Population with at least secondary education (% age 25 and older) Labor participation rate (%) Gender-based differences in Empowerment Indicators Gender Inequality Index Distribution in Iraq Percentage of women who were under 18 when they got married Governorates with highest rate (%) Kurdistan Iraq Muthanna (8.4) Wasit (7.2) Najaf (7.1) 4.5% 4.9% Muthanna (30.4) Najaf (27.9) Maysan (26.9) Dhi Qar (25.6) 19.2% 21.7% Kerbala (3) Diyala (16.6) The Opinions of Girls Aged 10–14 Years on Equality between Them and Their Brothers The Gender Inequality Index (GII) captures development performance due to gender inequality. The GII distribution in Iraq does not follow the HDI as shown in the map to the right. Governorates with GII below national average (0.500) are shown in red. Those above are in green. Most notable is the case of the three more developed governorates in Iraq: Sulaymaniya, Erbil, and Dohuk. Indicator Governorate with lowest rate (Basra) Governorate with highest rate (Sulaymaniya) Iraq 31.4% 80.9% 49.3% They believe they and their brothers are equal In gender equality, Iraq is the lowest among its neighbouring countries except for Saudi Arabia. Country GII < 0.500 Focused group discussions were conducted throughout the country to study gender differences and women empowerment issues. Percentage of women who were under 15 when they got married Governorates with lowest rate (%) GII > 0.500 GII Turkey 0.366 HDI Ranking 90 GII Ranking 68 Decline – Improvement + Iran 0.476 76 107 -31 Kuwait 0.274 54 47 7 Saudi Arabia 0.682 57 145 -88 Jordan 0.482 100 99 1 Syria 0.551 116 118 -2 Iraq 0.557 131 120 11 22 3. Youth Development The Youth Development Index (YDI) was constructed to measure youth development specifically. It comprises 5 indicators: Education, Employment, Health, Participation and Security, and Freedom and Communication. The YDI (0.641) is lower than the national index (0.694). HDI 2014 YDI 2014 0.694 0.641 There is a big gap in development between young males (0.694) and young females (0.535). 1 0.8 0.6 Male 0.4 Female 0.2 0 YDI Education Employment Health Erbil Babel Baghdad Duhouk Kerbala Kirkuk Diyala The young rural female is the most deprived in the Iraqi society. Qadisiya Thi Qar Basra Nineveh Distribution of Youth Development, disaggregated by sex, across the Iraqi governorates. The highest development achievement for youth is in males in the Sulaymaniya governorate. The lowest is in females in Anbar. Wasit Muthana Missan Najaf Anbar 0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 Feedom and Communication Youth Priority Policy Issues Sulaymaniyah Salah al-Din Participation and Security Female Male Education: raising the secondary school enrolment rate for both males and females in Maysan, Wasit, and Muthanna. Employment: raising the youth's economic participation rate (currently, 0.63 for young men and 0.12 for young women in Muthanna, Dhi Qar, and Nineveh) Participation and security: societal participation is very low, 0.06 for young men and 0.07 for young women. Increasing the youth's social and voluntary activities in Anbar, Najaf, and Maysan. Freedom and communications indicators have low value and gender differences: Increasing the acquisition of computers in Muthanna, Diyala, Dhi Qar, and for young women in particular in Muthanna, Dhi Qar, and Najaf. Increasing access to the Internet in Muthanna, Dhi Qar, Wasit, and for young women in particular in Muthanna, Qadisiya, and Maysan. 4. Report Partners UNDP Ministry of Planning Bayt al Hikma Human Development Reports are a flagship product for UNDP. UNDP supports the preparation of HDRs at the global, regional and national levels. For Iraq, UNDP mobilized financial and knowledge resources to support Iraq prepare its National Human Development Reports in 1995, 2008, and this one in 2014. The Federal Ministry of Planning is the main partner that led the preparation of the Iraq NHDR 2014 on the national side. The Ministry of Planning coordinated activities with other line ministries and nominated the National Coordinator who chaired the National Advisory Board for the project. Bayt al Hikma is an independent Iraqi think tank that prepared the Iraq NHDR 2014. Bayt al Hikma mobilized a Senior Economist to lead the author team. It also identified and assigned national development experts to prepare the reports background papers and chapters. ESCWA The Economic and Social Commission for West Asia (ESCWA) provided technical support to the preparation of the Iraq NHDR 2014. It contributed the services of its Regional Advisor and contracted a Research staff to provide training and technical support to the national team of experts. National Statistics Offices (CSO, KRSO) The Central Statistics Office (CSO) and its sister Kurdistan Region Statistics Office (KRSO) provided the data and statistics that supported the reports analysis. It also conducted a Youth Survey to provide additional information that was needed for the report.
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