Writing Instruction for Students with Angelman Syndrome Erin Sheldon, M. Ed. This webinar • What does writing instruction look like for students with Angelman syndrome? • How do we plan and implement this instruction in the individual education plan? The Bridge Students with Angelman Students with Angelman Students with Angelman The Bridge Students with Angelman The Bridge Students with Angelman The Bridge Students with Angelman Emergent writing • Most students with Angelman syndrome are emerging writers • Students learn they are writers by imitating the writing behaviours of the people around them • Students think most carefully about print when writing with the alphabet • Students combine letters, symbols, words, drawings, and pictures in their emergent writing • Writing is cognitively very similar to using an AAC device • What a student with Angelman can write is likely the best window into what that student knows about the alphabet Oral and Written Language Development (Koppenhaver, Coleman, Kalman & Yoder, 1991, adapted from Teale & Sulzby, 1989) (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) Receptive Communication/ Listening Reading Writing Expressive Communication/ AAC Rule of thumb: ! Its not writing if its not translating the student’s thoughts. The Developmental Writing Scale Essential to develop emergent writing skills and understandings: • Access • Daily opportunity • Authentic purpose: it helps get things done! • Modelling • Instruction Access • Language and vocabulary • The letters of the alphabet • Select an “alternative pencil” that places the LEAST demands on the student’s motor skills Pinterest: Accessing the Alphabet Dr. Caroline Musselwhite Word Wizard • Full alphabet, A-Z or QWERTY • Says letter name or letter sound • Speaks word or sentence • Supports alphabet awareness, phonological awareness, alphabet exploration, emergent writing and spelling, text-tospeech to share responses Top 40 Abilipad • • • • • • • • Writing app Text to speech, predicted text Add photos for context Adapted, personalized keyboards for alternative pencil Digital alphabet flipcharts as keyboard Share via app, email, or screenshot and publish E-mail writing samples home for family to decipher Supports early and conventional writing, motivation, selfcorrection, problem-solving for spelling Be Cautious About the Energy Spent on Form vs. Function Slide from Dr. Gretchen Hanser Jonah Note Dad Slide from Dr. Caroline Musselwhite Alphaboard Slide from Dr. Caroline Musselwhite Co:Writer for iOS • High-quality word prediction, particularly for phonetic spellers • Spell check • Text to speech • Export text to other apps • Seamlessly integrates with Co:Writer and SOLO literacy suite Daily opportunity • Report on my day at school or what I did over the weekend • Write a note to a friend • Help generate the grocery list • Update my Facebook status • Report on what I am learning • Re-write or add to a book • Caption photos Journal • Scribbling is essential! • If it starts with “I”, there is no right or wrong answer • Always select a photo or remnant for context • Use the AAC system to establish and clarify meaning Kid in Story Creator • Can add any child to any background • Insert favourite characters or celebrities • Insert friends or family into non-fiction text • Insert historical figures into story • Any photo, Keynote, PowerPoint, or PDF can serve as the background • Teach prepositions: on, oﬀ, under, over • Teach geography Authentic purpose • Helps me accomplish one of MY goals • Invites interaction and engagement from other people • Shows off what I know My People by Maggie ! •This template is from the Center for Literacy & Disability Studies at Chapel Hill, NC A is for Alyssia. F is for my Family. G is for Girl Guides. H is for Harry. J is for Jordyn. M is for Maisy and Maggie. S is for Sarah. Modelling • We use the child’s alternative pencil to accomplish our own authentic writing tasks Instruction • Using the alphabet across the day • Instructional feedback • Video modelling as we use their alternative pencil Vote by letter Magnetic Alphabet for Tablets Magnetic Alphabet (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) Scribbling: Before / During / After • BEFORE: Set a purpose for scribbling • • DURING: Give reinforcement feedback ! • AFTER: Give informative feedback • Scaffolds learning • Helps students make connections to meaning (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) Scribbling: Before • BEFORE: Set a purpose for scribbling – Supports student in topic-setting – Gives us a context to make guesses about possible meaning – Can use photos, post-its with possible topics, journal • BEFORE: Model scribbling for the student – Use the student’s ‘pencil’ – Write on a similar but slightly different topic (so the student can’t copy your ideas) – Read what you wrote, then turn over (no copying!) (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) Scribbling: During • DURING: Give reinforcement feedback – Helps students keep going – Helps students produce enough text for feedback – Be sparing!!! – We want to reduce prompt-dependency!!! (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) Reinforcement Feedback (Erickson & Hanser, 2010) • • • • • • Good writing! Awesome work. You really paid attention. Great job! Excellent work. Your mom will be really proud of you. ! • Good for confidence, but doesn’t teach them how to think and write (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) Scribbling: After • AFTER: Give informative feedback – Scaffolds learning – Helps students make connections to meaning (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) Plan A: Supporting Beginning “Scribblers” • Attribute Meaning to Student’s Attempts – We do this naturally for typically developing children – Gives meaning to students’ random attempts to build their cognitive understanding of actions. – Not always as natural for children with significant disabilities. Focus may be on extinguishing the external behavior. ! • Make links between writing & student experiences Adapted from Gretchen Hanser (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) Plan B: Informative Feedback (Erickson & Hanser, 2010) • I see some letters from your name. Let’s find them. ! • Point to one of your letters. Let’s see if it is in someone’s name. ! • You have a lot of “c”s in your writing. Let’s find all of them. ! • Let’s see if we can write some more words with some of your letters. (Slide by Caroline Musselwhite) 89 Maggie: Topic = Ruby Bridges Gretchen Hanser's alternative pencil and deaf-blind resources www.aacintervention.com http://spedapps2.wikispaces.com/ Questions? ! !
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