G052. 倒置 ◆倒置には慣用から当然行われる倒置と、意味を強めるために行われる倒置とがある。 (1)慣用上必然の倒置： (a)疑問文中の配語 What is this? Have you a pen? (b)引用文の前後にある伝達動詞 “Good morning, Mr Brown,” said he. Said the policeman, “Come, say no more.” (c)条件を示す if が省略された文 Were I a bird, I would be flying in the air. (= If I were a bird, ... ) Had he been your friend, he would have helped you. (d)there, here を用いて存在を示す構文 Here are some desks. There lived an old monkey. (e)古英語での命令文・願望文(現代では祈願文には may を使う) Listen you to me. Long live the King! (f)so, neither, nor で始まる文 So did I. I did not see him. Neither did she. (g)感嘆文 What a fine study you have! How tall you are! (h)the 比較級 + the 比較級 The smaller it is, the more expensive it is. ※普通はどの言語でも重要な情報は前の方に置かれる。言い換えれば、英語では平生主語が 一番大事な情報だとも言える。平叙文に限らず、命令文・祈願文・疑問文などの多くの形に おいて、英語では主語が最初に来る。それ以外の要素を最初に出すことを倒置と言う。 (2)強調のための倒置： (a)述語動詞を強める倒置 All stopped talking. Come the steps up the stairs! Give up I never could! (b)目的語を強める倒置。普通語順は”S+V”のまま He made a fortune: this he did without any difficulty. That you should put into practice first of all. He came first; that I know. Who came to settle here first, we don’t know. Scientist he was not! Bright it was with all these beautiful flowers! (c)補語を強めるための倒置。”C+V+S”の語順になる場合が多い Great was her surprise when she heard the news. ※現代英語ではこの(a)(b)のような単純な倒置形は稀で、述語動詞または助動詞 が主語より前に置かれることが多い。 He now had enough money, and nothing else did he want. Blessed are the poor in heart. Mysterious is man and wife. (d)副詞語句を強める倒置 Up went the kite! Carefully and with great caution they proceeded. Happily did they lived together! Away went the cars at full speed! Little did his father dream that he should meet his son again! Out they ran. Off ran the dog like a shot! ※英語では特に否定の副詞を強調して文頭に置きたがる傾向があるため、こうした 倒置は否定詞に関して多く見られる。特に否定詞の場合には動詞と主語の倒置も ほとんどの場合で起こる。 Not even a day can we live without water. Never have I seen such a tall tree. Never passed a day without his father coming to see him. Not till then did he realize the value of friendship.
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