TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF NORTH

1
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF NORTH
ENGINEERING IN APPLIED SCIENCE FACULTY
ENGINEERING MECATRONICA
SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE
THEME:
“MODERNIZATION OF A LINEAR WOOD DRILL MACHINE”
AUTHORS: Fausto Vinicio Yépez Lima
Vinicio Javier Lema Flores
DIRECTOR: Ing. Fernando Valencia
Ibarra – Ecuador
2015
1
MODERNIZATION OF A LINEAR WOOD DRILL
MACHINE
Yépez Lima Fausto Vinicio
[email protected]
Lema Flores Vinicio Javier
[email protected]
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF NORTH
RESUMEN
The preparation of this work has this
purpose of modernization of a linear
woodworking drilling machine, which is
to streamline processes for vertical
positioning of the table, timber holding
the table using a pneumatic press, and
control of drilling depth using a
mechanical stop.
The vertical positioning of the table
allows to mobilize the bench in both
ascending and descending using manual
controls, but the operator activates the
movement of the table; the distance is
displayed on an electronic device that the
operator has his observation.
The timber holding the table is performed
by a pneumatic system, the operator
activates the pneumatic press with the
ON / OFF control of the machine.
The depth of drilling system select the
standard depth, in this details the type of
furniture and wood type requested, the
operator places the light on the perforated
bar and fixed it with the pin in the hole
indicated.
1. THEORETICAL
FOUNDATIONS
The joinery is a specialization of the
wood
work
oriented
furniture
construction. The term comes from a type
of wood, ebony, considered precious
since ancient times, from an African tree,
hard and heavy, black wood in the center
and white in the cortex.
One of the machines most commonly
used in the industry of processed wood is
horizontal drilling, which has evolved
overtime, many artisanal or industrial
way, this machine is very useful in the
process of building doors, windows and
kitchen cabinets.
Linear drilling machine joinery is
considered high precision machine
building furniture, since its main function
is to make the hole in the parts that are
subsequently bonded with as lug(short
thick piece of wood); therefore
erroneously when drilling both raw
material and production time is lost.
2
1.2.DRILLMACHINEJOINERY
Basically the holes can be of two types:
hand drill that is portable and desktop
drill that easily lose the bit perpendicular
to the material to be drilled, which is
fixed to a work bench.
1.2.1. HAND DRILL
The hand drill is a tool that is used to drill
a variety of materials. The holes are made
by a material removal process using tools
called bits.
1.2.2. DRILL ON BENCH
The drill bench is an electromechanical
machine whose main function is to make
holes or cuts with molds in any material,
whether metal, wood or plastic.
of the table, the timber holding the table
by a press and control of drilling depth by
a mechanical stop.
1.2.4. VERTICAL
POSITION
OF
THE OLD TABLE
For the vertical positioning of the table,
the movement is given by a crank system,
which via as haft coupled to a bevel
transmits force to move a power screw
that moves the table.
Should be noted that the travel distance is
15cm, considering that’s six laps crank
advances 1cm, applying a minimum force
of 1.33[Nm]; machine also not a ruler in
what corresponds to the height of the
table, so to be measured as required using
a tape measure, this process takes the
operator about five minutes.
Figure 2. motion transmission 2.Information system for
vertical positioning.
Source: Author
1.2.5. OLD SYSTEM DEEP
Figure 1. Linear Drilling machine joinery
Source: Author
1.2.3. DESCRIPTION OF OLD
SYSTEM OF DRILLING
This project is oriented to modernize
some processes of linear drilling machine
joinery, such are the vertical positioning
For drilling depth control a mechanical
stop is used, this is done by a rod which
is controlled by a "butterfly" (mechanical
lock) for this control the operator muster
move the rod, measure the distance with a
tape measure enter its axis and set with
"butterfly" at the required distance for
drilling.
3
The operator pushes the mechanical drive
deep until the rod comes into contact with
the stop, it should be emphasized that
some times this "butterfly" yields, so that
the measured distance is no longer
correct, so drilling is wrong.
2. CALCULATION OF POWER
AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
The calculations and the inspection on the
three implemented in the linear drilling
machine joinery systems and selection of
suitable
alternatives
and
resents
mathematical foundation.
2.1. VERTICAL POSITION
Figure 3.Sistema adjustable stops by "butterfly".
Source: Author
1.2.6. OLD SYSTEM PRESS
In the case of the timber holding the
table, this is a purely manual process
where the operator uses a crank system.
This crank system consists of three parts,
two of them together and regulated by
butterflies and for altitude and range, and
the last part is at the end which by a
worm can provide pressure to secure the
tree to the table, should be noted that
must exert a force of 500[N] so that the
tree does not move from his position and
no drilling is done wrong.
Figure 4.Mecanismo for pressing the wood.
Source: Author
Modernizing an actuator which replaces
the crank, which is located under the bed
or table drilling is implemented, it
transmits its power to the bezel through a
gear system, activated movement by a
push button the operator has to view, it is
clarified that the operator has the power
to choose the speed of ascent or descent
of the table, this type using two switches
knobs.
Providing the following advantages:



Optimization of working time.
Minimize
physical
wear
performed by the operator.
Protection operator
The actuator is selected by the
mathematical
foundation
that
is
performed by the transmission ratio, as
shown in Figure 5.
4
Figure 7. Using an electronic scale for the weight of the
bed.
Source: Author
To select the engine, it is necessary to
calculate the force exerted on the bench
power screw:
Figure 5. Diagram mechanical elements of the ratio.
Source: Author
The main factor to account for these
calculations is the weight of the bed, to
meet the same proceeds to separate base
which is attached by bolts to the machine,
as shown in Figure 6; this is done
because the machine is handmade.
where:
F, is the force
m, is the weight of a body
a, is the gravity
Figure 6. Removing bench drilling wood.
Source: Author
Once separated the bed, it is weighed by
an electronic scale, which value
corresponds to 259,2 [lb], as shown in
Figure 7.
After obtaining this value, we proceed to
calculate all necessary forces to the
vertical positioning operate without
problem, where the selection of the
servomotor is explained, as well as their
characteristics.
5
2.1.1. CALCULATIONS OF
RELATIONSHIP OF
TRANSMISSION TO SELECT
THE ACTUATOR
2.1.1.1. Par Torsional to raise a load
ACME power screw is 1 "in diameter,
with five threads per inch, then the
loadmoves1/5 inch per revolution, then
the speed is:
2.1.1.3. Gear transmission ratio between
E3 and E4:
Where:
Angular Velocity:
2.1.1.2. Torque for lowering a load
Par torsional:
For the selection of this servomotor is
considered the torque necessary to raise a
load and speed needed to move:
Linear Velocity:
Screw= 600mm
Time =20sec
6
2.1.1.4. Gear transmission ratio between
E1 and E2:
2.1.2. MOTION DISPLAY
SYSTEM
The display of the distance which runs
the work table of the machine is thanks to
the data (pulses per revolution) that
acquires the portX3, which is the output
of theen coder whose pulses(A and B) are
admitted to a pulse counter, which
displays the distance traveled by said
table, vital in the operator's work.
Angular Velocity:
Internal Encoder Servo Driver:
Encoders
are
electromechanical
transducers converting the rotation axis in
output pulses that can be counted to
measure the shaft speed or shaft angle,
which provides information about the
position and speed of the motor shaft.
Par torsional:
As shown T1 shows the minimum torque
that must have the servomotor, and w1
shows the minimum angular velocity of
the fundamental data for selecting the
servomotor.
Table 1allows to compare the data needed
to work the system of vertical positioning
data of the selected servomotor, fulfilling
the device as required.
The encoder resolution determines the
positioning accuracy of the motor. For
example, the resolution of the servomotor
used for the vertical positioning is 2500
pulses/revolution, in a rotation of motor
shaft (360) can be divided into 2500
parts.
Obtaining an optimal resolution of 0,144°
angle of rotation of the shaft servomotor
for each pulse.
Table 1. Comparative table of data needed and selected
servomotor
Necesary
Par
torsional
[Nm]
1,33
Angular
velocity
[rpm]
360
Selection
2,39
3000
Source:author
Figure 8. Resolución del encoder.
Source:(Servo Motor Glossary Terms, sf)
7
2.1.2.1. Pulse Count
The Servo contains an incremental
encoder whose pulses are not linearzed,
noise displayed on the oscilloscope signal
exceeds these for that reason decided
convenient to use a pulse counter, the
selected
deviceisFH8-6CRNB-F
of
Counter/ Length/ Batch meter myPin
brand, the decision for their great
advantage over any other pulse counter
bends, as this has the power to convert
the pulses admitted to an adjustable
distance scale, allowing visualize the
movement of the actuator, and so that the
location of the bench.
Figure 10. Diagrama Grafcet
Source:Author
2.2.2. PHASE-TIME CHART
This diagram displays
traveled versus time:
the
distance
Table 2. Diagrama fase-tiempo
Source:Author
2.2.3. PATTERN TIRE
Figure 9. Panel de control y visualización del contador
de pulsos, Mypin FH Series
Source:(MYPIN ELECTRICAL CO., LTD, sf)
Figure 11 shows the pneumatics choose
implemented for the pressing operation,
with the respective feed elements,
maintenance, and labor control.
2.2. PRESSING SYSTEM
The pneumatic system basically has the
primary function press the tree to the
table of the bench, for operator safety.
2.2.1. GRAFCET CHART
The following diagram describes the
operation and the actions that the
pneumatic system will perform.
Figure 11. Esquema neumático
Source:Author
8
Table 4.Presión de trabajo, Cilindro de doble efecto
2.2.4. TIRE SELECTION
DEVICES
OF
The various devices that make up the
pneumatic system are selected using the
following parameters
Selecting the pneumatic cylinder:
Load factor depending on the required
application:
Table 3
Source: (FESTO, 2013)
The air press performs a vertical
movement, thus the corresponding load
factor is 0,5.
Significantly for the force with which the
tree to the table is pressed, is obtained by
applying weight on the tree, until it is
completely immobile for further drilling,
this value corresponds to50[kg] or 500[N
]if one takes into account the gravity of10
[m/s ^ 2].
Source:(FESTO, 2013)
Table 5 allows to know the diameter of
the piston necessary operating pressure
and, using the known values of force (F
=500[N]), and available on the network
pressure (6 bar) which is above operating
pressure.
Table 5. Diagrama presión-fuerza
Table 4 provides information on the
respective working pressure of 0,5[MPa]
(5bar), this pressure indicates the margin
between minimum and maximum
permissible pressure required for correct
operation of the pneumatic system.
Source::(FESTO, 2013)
9
Procedure:
Since F =500[N] draw a vertical line to
line 6bar; larger diameter piston
immediately available is 40mm, and is
located between the lines 4 and 5bar, in
the working pressure is adjusted
approximately to 4,5bar.
Table 6. Consumo de aire del cilindro para un ciclo
Festo says that in this diagram has been
considered about 10% of frictional losses.
Air consumption of the air cylinder
and the air volume required
Air consumption is consumed air volume
in the cylinder key to select the data
compressor; the required air volume is
the volume of air required to operate a
load at a given speed.
For which it you must follow these steps:
1)Find the point of intersection between
the working pressure (diagonal line) and
the cylinder stroke from that point draw a
vertical line up.
2)From the point of intersection with the
diameter(diagonal line) of the cylinder
used in one side shows the power
consumption required cycle air cylinder.
Table6 shows the selection described:
Source:(FESTO, 2013)
3) Calculate the air intake tube as in the
previous steps, length of wiring that
connects the cylinder with the valve.
10
Table 7. Consumo de aire del tubo para un ciclo
compressed with which they work, to
select a compressor must take into
account the drop in temperature, leakage
and consumption of intermediate
equipment, and therefore you must select
a sufficient capacity with a discharge that
exceeds the total air consumption.
Festo recommended to select a
compressor with 1.4 times the total air
consumption, and one with a greater
volume if required.
That is why making total consumption of
the pneumatic system of 129 l / min
(ANR), decides to select a compressor
with 2.0 times the total air consumption,
ie twice (258 l / min (ANR)).
It should be noted that classical furniture
factory Chandi "FAMUCLACH", has a
compressor 300 l / min (ANR), 600 [kPa]
(6 bar), which meets the desired
parameters.
Sourcee:(FESTO, 2013)
4) Calculate the total air consumption per
minute as follows:
Total air consumption = (air consumption
of the pneumatic cylinder + air
consumption of the tube) * number of
cycles per minute * number of cylinders
used
Total air consumption = (1,5+20) * 6 * 1
= 129 l/min (ANR)
2.2.5. SELECTION OF
COMPRESSOR
The selection of the compressor is
essential to the operation of the
pneumatic system as it provides the air
Figure 12. Esquema neumático
Source:Author
2.2.6. DESCRIPTION
OPERATION AIR
OF
The compressor serves to feed the system
with compressed air, which enters the
filter maintenance to remove unwanted
particles, entering clean compressed air to
the solenoid valve, the control element.
11
Compressed air enters the solenoid on
channel 1, leaving it in its natural state
for channel 2 to the pneumatic cylinder,
which in this connection remain inside
the stem.
When activating the solenoid coil air
expelled into the air cylinder changes
state, exiting channel 4, causing the stem
to be pressed out of wood, for consistent
air was inside the cylinder channel 3 is
discharged .
This process is controlled by a relay
110V AC, which is activated by the ONOFF contact that is in the control panel.
2.3. SYSTEM OF DEPTH
The system depth stops in the
modernization of the machine straight
punch cabinetry has an important role to
optimize the raw material, used in the
construction of each piece.
2.3.1. STANDARD TYPE OF
FURNITURE
The furniture is commonly built in the
factory FAMUCLACH are three doors
which are comfortable and fitted so that
drilling of parts for processing has been
prioritized, the factory has set different
standards for their respective perforation.
In Table 8 can identify the different
standards (distances) to drill to various
parts to assemble furniture :
Table 8. Profundidad estándar a perforar.
Mueble \
Suave[
Dura[cm MDF[cm
Madera
cm]
]
]
Puerta
2,5
3,5
X
Cómoda
2,0
2,0
1,5
Clóset
1,5
1,5
3,0
Source:Author
2.3.2. DRILL ROD
The cap system is vital in the process of
drilling wood, because through this
process can have different depths of holes
in the wood, the operation of this process
is already mentioned in the article, the old
system was selecting the depth by a sure
pressure (butterfly), but this system was
not as efficient due to the failure of
insurance.
For this reason, the new system
implements a rod with holes, along with
insurance, metal pin, wherein each hole
and brings the right distance for drilling
wood accurately.
For drilling rod has been taken into
account the distances to be drilled, as
shown in Table 9:
Table 9.Cantidad de orificios correspondientes a las
distancias a perforar en la varilla
Quantity
Depth [cm]
1
3,5
2
3,0
3
2,5
4
2,0
5
1,5
Source:Author
12
2.3.3. DISPLAYING THE
CHOSEN STANDARDS
The visualization of the chosen standards
is through a LCD screen, which is set by
the microcontroller PIC 16F876A, whose
digital inputs and outputs are managed
through the selection of standards that the
operator needs to configuring this control
device takes into account the number of
pins that will be used, as well as its
architecture and robustness to work.
Figura 13. Pines de conexión del microcontrolador
PIC16F876A
Source:Author
The family PIC16F87X devices support a
wide range of supply voltages ranging
from 2.0 V to 5.5 V. The voltage which is
feed determine the maximum frequency.


VOH is the voltage delivered by the
terminals in the high state.
VOL is the voltage at the terminals on
low.
The PIC16F876A is chosen due to their
specific characteristics, which are central
to this work, offering their 28-pin
performance, processing speed, safety
and efficiency to display the depth system
is implemented.
Programming the microcontroller:
The maximum power dissipation is 1W is
calculated by the following formula:
Where:



 is the voltage supplied by the
power supply.
IOH is the current supplied by the
outputs of the PIC in the high state.
IOL is the current drawn by the
outputs of the PIC in low state.
The first tests were performed using the
simulation program "ISIS Professional"
or also known as "Proteus" which after
setting the pins of the LCD on the
programming platform "MikroC PRO for
PIC" display standards shown after
selecting the type of furniture and wood
type.
13
Figure 14. Simulación del circuito de selección de
estándares para el sistema de profundidad
Source:Author
Once the simulation successfully circuit,
it is necessary to test the armed circuit
breadboard, for which the compiler
"PICkit2" from Microchip, which
performs an interface between the
recorder PICs and computer, transferring
the program is used carried out in
MikroC 16F876A PIC microcontroller.
Figure 16. Implementación del circuito en protoboard.
Source:Author
Combinations of type and type of wood
furniture which are chosen can be seen in
Table 20.
Table 10.Combinaciones respectivas para salida de
estándares de profundidad
Significado de siglas:
A=Puerta,
Z=MDF.
B=Cómoda,
C=Clóset,
X=Suave,
Y=Dura,
Source:Author
Figure 15. Implementación del circuito en protoboard.
Source:Author
With the proper operation of the circuit
on the breadboard, we proceed to design
the circuit board that carries the operating
system that gives depth using the "PCB
Wizard" software.
The plate design can be seen in Figure
16:
3. SYSTEMS MODERNIZED
Once selected and modernized systems
that make up the linear boring machine
joinery, proceed to link them to each
other, for optimal work.
14
NC -> Normally Closed
IL -> Light indicator
3.2. ASSEMBLY AND
INSTALLATION
Figure 17. Diagrama de bloques de los sistemas
implementados para modernizar la máquina.
Source:Author
The main cabinet is what allows feed all
systems also leads all guards, and
contains one of the most fundamental
parts of control, as is the Servo Driver,
for which it has taken the manufacturer's
recommendations for their respective
installation.
3.1. CONTROL PANEL
The control panel allows the operator to
control all deployed systems and instantly
view vital information that allows the
status of systems, such as the movement
of the servomotor and system deep.
In Figure 18 the distribution of both
control devices, and display devices is
observed:
Figure 19.Conexiones del gabinete del gabinete
principal.
Source:Author
Figure 18.Panel de control con nomenclatura de estado
normal.
Source:Author
Where:
NA -> Normally open
Implemented all components of the
modernization of the linear boring
machine joinery, proceed to check all
connections to the meter, being
successful verification, energizes the
main cabinet, the machine is turned on
with the switch (ON) panel control and
different test runs performed, Figure
20muestra straight punch machine
modernized joinery.
15
Table 11 shows that the modernization of
the linear woodworking drilling machine
optimizes on average 30% of the time
spent in the construction of each piece.
Table 12.Optimización de materia prima requerida para
construir cada mueble en veinte días laborables
Source:Author
Figure 20.Máquina perforadora lineal de ebanistería
modernizada.
Source:Author
Table 12 shows that the modernization of
the linear woodworking drilling machine
optimizes on average 16% of the raw
material used to work twenty (20)
working days.
4. RESULTS
The results obtained in carrying out this
modernization, were clearly positive for
expedite the production process, both at
optimizing working time machine,
operator safety and optimum utilization
of raw material.
That is why the data acquired in tests of
modernization are compared with data
obtained before performing this work:
Implementation shows pneumatic system
favorable in performance operator safety,
this is because neither of the other two
systems are powered by electricity, if the
timber is not pressed.
Therefore the operator must necessarily
turn the tire to perforate the timber and in
turn safeguard the physical integrity
system.
5. CONCLUSIONS
Table 11.Optimización del tiempo de trabajo al realizar
la perforaciones requeridas para construir cada
mueble
Source:Author

The modernization of linear
drilling machine joinery expedite
the furniture production process,
reducing time in the drilling
process raw materials by 30%.

Depth system optimizes the use of
the raw material required to
manufacture each piece, reducing
consumption by 16%, considering
twenty weekdays.
16



Through the force transmission
ratio and speed of the vertical
positioning is optimized.
The
pneumatic
system
implemented
in
linear
woodworking drilling machine
operator protection rises by 12%.
Through testing it was possible to
correct
mistakes
and
shortcomings in the field of
precision,
speed,
pneumatic
clamping and depth, presented in
linear drilling machine, reaching a
1% failure.
6. RECOMENDACIONES

Comply
fully
with
the
maintenance of the machine
straight punch joinery at the
indicated time to avoid major
setbacks in the long term.

We recommend reading this
manual before starting to work for
properly operating.

In case of any damage to the
machine straight punch joinery
are advised to seek qualified
technical assistance or contact the
authors of modernization.

It is important to check the tire
pressure entering the system from
the compressor, which must not
exceed 100 psi, the disregard this
warning may cause damage to
equipment and operator.
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Elementos de Máquinas, P.E (4ta
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México:
Pearson
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 Budynas, R., y Nisbeth, K.(sf).
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Shigley (8va edición): McGrawHill.
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DeWolf, J., Mazurek, D. (sf).
Mecánica de Materiales (5ta
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R.(sf).
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(2011).
ANSI/AGMA
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 Budynas, R., y Nisbeth K. (2008).
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Design. (8va edición). (sl): The
McGraw-Hill Companies.
 KINCO Automation, Ltd. (2011).
CD SERVO User Manual. Shanghai:
KINCO Ltd.
 MYPIN Electrical Co., Ltd. (sf). FH
Series of Counter/Length/Batch
Meter Manual. Guangdong: MYPIN.
17
 Microchip Technology Inc. (2003).
PIC16F87XA Data Sheet 28/40/44Pin
Enhanced
Flash
Microcontrollers.
California:
Microchip Technology Incorporated.
 FESTO AG y Co. (2013). Guía de
productos 2013/2014 (9na edición).
Esslingen: FESTO AG y Co.
Fausto Vinicio Yépez Lima
Was born in Ibarra,
Ecuador, on July 06,
1988.
Completed
his
secondary education
at college: “San
Francisco” in Ibarra,
obtaining
degree in Physics and
 SMC. (sf). Procedimientos de
selección del modelo de cilindro
neumático. sl: SE.

 FESTO AG y Co. (2013).
Informaciones
técnicas.
(6ta
edición). Esslingen: FESTO AG y
Co.

 Schneider Electric Argentina S.A.
(2014). Unidades de mando y de
señalización. Buenos Aires: SE.

 Xinje Electric Co., Ltd. (sf). DS2
series servodrive. Jiangsu: Xinje
Electric Co., Ltd
abachelor´s
Mathematics.
His studies in engineering in Mecatronica
were conducted at the Technical
University of North in Ibarra.
 GSK CNC EQUIPMENT CO., LTD.
(sf). Servo Motor de CA GSK serie
SJT. (sl): GSK CNC EQUIPMENT
CO., LTD
abachelor´s
Mathematics.
His studies in engineering in Mecatronica
were conducted at the Technical
University of North in Ibarra.
Vinicio Javier Lema Flores
Was born in Ibarra,
Ecuador, on March
07, 1990.
Completed
his
secondary education
at college: “San
Diego” in Ibarra,
obtaining
degree in Physics and