一 245 一
CHAPTER 1 : lntroduction
CHAPTER ll : Courtly Love Conventions
In The Faerie Queene Book I
CHAPTER M: Structure Of Love
In The Fαerie Queene Book 工
CHAPTER IV : Conclusion
According to Prof. E. B. Fowler, “Plato binds love in indis-
soluble bonds with beauty and virtue. Thus he defines love as
the desire for the everlasting possession of the Good” , and
a}so as the beautiful. i) E, Spenser, therefore, might have
1) Ei B. Fowler, Spenser and the System of Courtl.y Love, Phaeton
Press, New York, 1968, p. 4.
thought of love as one of the indispensable elements in The
Faerie Queene (F. Q.) which aims to portray the accomplishment of various virtues.
As Spens6'r ,himself states in.the 'evo6ation of Book 1 :
“Fierce warres and ,faithfvll loues.sba}1 moralize my song” (1.
proem. 1.), we can hotice thb various stories or episodes of
}ove, w.hich cohtain'siundry aspects of love, as w ell as those
of w ar.一 For faithful love is just as necessary as fierce w ar
for knightly excellence. 2)
There are some scholars who remark that the theme of chaste
love may be regarded'
曹?the main thread of the other Books i3)
rather than of Book 1. Moreover Book 1 may also be said to
be “the most openly Christian and doctrinal, dealing with man's
relations with God, illustrated in a sor.t of. Pilgrim's Progress
through the world of error, doubt, sin, temptation, pride, des-
pair, and culminating in the clear allegory of the Red Cross
Knight's fight with and victory over the dr.agon, representing
Satan.”4) Though we admit-all of this , yet the abundant words
of love, or the.images relating to love are vividly observed
throughout Book 1, which helps to make it more readable. And
1) All citations are ,from J. C. SMITH, ed. SPEiVSER' S F4ERIE
QUEENE, Oxford, 1964 (First published in 1909).
2)K。thleen舳i。m,,.Sρ lln・・〆・F・。rte Q・。bn。, Tん6 VV。rld。ノGl。。8,
Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1966, p. 6.
3) 一“The thgme of chaste .lov.e is introduced in Book ll, developed in
detail in Books I皿and】V, reapPears in Book V, and is a leading
motive of Book VI.” M. P. Parker, The Allegory of the FaeTie
Queene, Oxford Univ. Press, 1960, p.66.
4) P.C. Bayley, ed., Spenser The FaeTie Queene Book 1, Oxford
Univ. Press, 1966, pp. 9-10.
一 247 一
the theme of love 一 here we think of the many aspects of love,
from the love of God to beastly lust 一 may be considered to be
one of the main threads organizing this Book.
The present essay, therefore, attempts to consider the
problem of the structure of the love episodes in Book 1.
Thus we shall focus our interest in the poetic actuality of
Spenser's }ove lan'
№浮≠№?on the literal level rather than on the
idea hidden behind the images. Before discussing the subject, it
seems fruitful to summarize the courtly love conventions which
are noticed in Thg F. Q., Book 1.
The present chapter tries to make a survey of the courtly
love conventions, making reference to the relevant elements in
Book 1 of The F. Q.
Prof. Fowler remarks that both the Ovidian and the Platonic
philosophies of love are noticed in The F. Q.. The Ovidian phi-
losophy of love seems to have rela'
狽奄盾?with the courtly conven-
tions of love, which are rather adulterous. The Platonic conception
of love, on the other hand, does not “contemplate love between
the sexes. The Renaissance Platonism starts with beauty in
woman at the lowest rung of the Ladder of love and mounts by
successive stages to the concept of abstract Beauty in God”.
Fowler con,c, ludes that Spenser personally embraced the Platonic
philosophy of love and adhered to it to the end of his career.
We can realize his conclusion through reading The E Q..
'Thus though Spenser applied the'
モ盾浮窒狽撃?conventions of love
to The F. Q., he does not seem to have accepted the funda-
mental tenet of the courtly system that love and marriage are
incompatible. We are not otherwise '
≠b撃?to understand the happy
betrothal of the Red CToss Knight and his Lady Una after con一
quering the dragon.
As the background for understanding the love episodes in The
F. Q., we shall summarize the courtly love conventions in the
light of the explanations of Prof. W. N'elson i)and, predominantly,
of Prof. E. B. Fowlet. 2)
The courtly love conventions bring the lovers both joy and woe,
happiness and melancholy. Love brings the purification of the
lovers' spirit, and stimulates the valiant and noble deeds'of the
lover. Love causes dreamS, doubts and fears of every sort,
timidity, jealousy, and mental anguish especially in the absence
of the beloved. As the effects of love the following symptoms
can be seen; 'fluctuations of heat and cold, los,s of sleep, loss
of speech, pain and suffering which lead to sighs, tears, illness
of eventually death as the final effect.of love. The lover often'
grows pale and trembles.
The courtly systems make the loyer render every courteous
service to his lady; .the lover believe s. no evil of .the beloved,
holds unswerving loyalty, keeps habitual merriment and gaiety,
keeps secrecy, tries to be humble・to his lady, and defends his
lady's honor. ln,this way the lover becomes a p risoner in the
hands of his lady.'
Nelson remarks that the play of the eyes, the haughtiness of
the lady or the distinction between the true love and the beastly
lust. can often be n'oticed in some narratives of the amorists in
the Middle Ages.
Now ive shall trace some of the courtly love'conventions in
1) Wilh'am Nelson, The Po e try of EDMUIVD SPENSER, Columbia
Univ. Press, 1963, p.105.
2) E. B. Fowler, op. ci t., pp. 1 一45.
一 249 一
the Book 1 of The F. Q..
Spenser seems to especially make much of the distinction
between true IQve and .beastly lust, of the play 6f the eyes, the
haughtiness of the lady, the suffering of the lover, the sickness
of jealousy, the stimulation to noble deeds, and the purification
of the !over's spirit.
For example, true love is apparently allegorized in the Lady
Una, w. ho strayed in wilderness and wastefull deserts to seek
her knight who had deserted her. This aspect of love will be
discussed in detail in chapter M.
Beastly lust is shown in niuny episodes. First of all, early in
the journey, the Red CToss Knight (R. C. K.) is forced to dream
of loves and lustful play, “that njgh his manly hart did melt away,
bathed一,in. wanton blis and wicked joy” . The story in which
Sansloy exposes his fleshly lust for Una accompanied with
at.tempted yiolence iS narrate. d at length. The gen.eral law of
courtly love excludes such a “vilain” as one who exhibits coarse
ユust with violence. This a,spect of lust is also displayed by
Satyre, who happened to find Thyamis, “making her person
thrall untp,his beast}y kind”, ,and by Lecherie as well, the third
Qf Lucifera's t;qine, who was an inconstant man, “loved all he
savv, and }usted after .all, that he did loue”. The aspect of lust
plqys an impor.tant role in Book 1.
We can find some scenes including the play of the eyes. When
Fidessa laments her sad, friendless, upfortunate condition, the
R. C. K.
…in great passion 'all this while did dwell,
More busying his quicke eyes, her face to view,
Then his dull eares, to heare what she did tell;
(1.ii. 26. ltalicized by the present author. )
一 250 一
This scene of the play of the eyes teUs the knight's weakness
in believing apPearatices, lacking the ability to discern the truth.
Another picture of'tllis aspect is presented by lawless Sαnslo忽,
Who by her c】eanly garment catcllin91101d,
Her from her Palfrey pluckt,んeγvisa8・θto 6θんol(1.
(1.iii・40. Italicized by the present author.)
The aspect of the haughtiness of a lady is seen ill the
narration about五uC ife ra in the house of Pride, and about
Terωin's lady. Sir Te rω in
… lou'd,…aLadie gent,
That him againe lou'd in the Ieast degree:
For she was proud, and of too high intent,
And loyd to see her louer languish and lament.
The episode of Terωin also traces the eventual course of the
effect of courtly love. Namely the knight Terwin, deprived of
his lady's grace, runs on ‘‘the only one avenue of relief
death” at the Cave of Despαiア.
According to Fowler,“jealousy is recomm6nded by mediaeval
writers on courtly love as a sure means of increasing the lover's
affection. Spenser, however, holds quite the opposite view. He
denounces the passion. as destructive of all love”.1)Thus Fowler
points out the.
@sickness of jealousy when the R. C.κ. was‘‘burnt.
with gealous fire”, seeing the counterfeit Una in the embrace of
asupposed lover. The sickness of jealousy is narrated in the
episode about Hipl)olitus, too.
HipPolytus a.. iolly huntsman was,…
1 ) lb id., p. 15.
一 251 一
But Ladies loue as losse of time forbore:
His wanton stepdame loued him the more,
But when she saw her offred sweets refused
Her loue she turnd to hate, and him before
His father fierce of treason false accused,
And with her gealous termes his open eares Sbused.
(1. v. 37.)
The stirpulations to noble deeds as the effect of love are seen
in the stories of the R, C. K.'s desire to conquer the huge dragon
and other foes, and in the story of Arthur's rescue of the R.
C.K.. For example, at the beginning of the quest, the R. C. K.
and Una found the Cave of ErroT in the Wandering Wood. ln
spite of the Lady's warning, the knight begins to challenge the
monster Error to fight. ln this case we may be able to think
that the knight's love for the lady partly makes his valor increase,
and partly because he does so owing to his inmaturity as a knight
-in other words the knight has not yet the principle of humility
or the sense of inferiority towards his lady enough to follow his
lady's advice and suspend the challenge.
As for the suffering of the lover, one of the effects of love,
it is expressed in the Lady Una, Prince ATthur and Terzvin,
etc. But Fowler criticizes the aspects of pain and suffering as
well as jealousy as trite and colorless, being generally emp16yed
in the love literqture. i)
Sighs and tgars, the most common conventional effects of love,
are impressively observed in the Lady Una's lament to see the
?of her knight's defeat. The tear is also shed from Prince
1) lb id., p. 17.
ATthuT's,eyes when he f6und the Faerie Queene had disappeared.
Sansloy makes use of the sigh in courting Una and assailing her
chastity, but-in vain.
The present chapter tries to clarify the structure,of lgve. in
Boo.k 1 of TH.E F. Q.. Right at the .ou'tse.t we shall mqke a list
of specification about the episQdes of loye, or the conte){t.s of
love observed in this Book.
First of all we .c4n.obserye the love language between' the R.
C. K. and-the Lady Una: 1. i.. 45 一55, ii. 3 一 6, etc・ ; Dug6sa's
unfaithful Jove with Sansfoy (1. ii. 13, 14, 25, iv. .42, 45-47, v. 23.),
with the R. C. K. (1.ii.21? 22, 26-30, 45, iv. 2, 177 18, vi. 2,.
vii. 3, 4, 7, xii. 26-31.), with her betrothed Lgrd (1.ii. 23,
24. ), with Fradubio ( 1 . ii, 40 一42. )一, with Sansioy ( L iv. 45 T51,
v. 19..) , a. pd with Orgogtio ( 1 . vii. 14 一16. viii. 5 , 20 , 2.1, 25. ) ; an
episode of love between Fradubio and Fraelissq (1.ii. 31,35m3.9.)
;.an episode about Kirkrapine. and Abessa ( 1 ..iii. 18-23. ) ,; speech
betwee.n Una qnd false R. C...K. disguised by 4, rchimago (1.iii.
26-33.); Sanslozl's tenacious lust fQr Una (1.iii.40-44, yi. 3 L
9 , 46 一47, viL 20. ,) : a sto ry of Leche Tg, one of Lucife ra's six sage
Cognsellours (1.iv.24-26.);a Stepmother's onesided love.for
her s.on, Hippolytus, and her jealousy against him (,1.,v. 37T・ 39.)
;an. episode of Syluanus' love for Cyparisse (1-vL 17.);.,
Nymphes' jealousy against Una”s h.eavenly grace (1.vi..18.);Ioye
of Thyamis for her spouse, Therion (1.vi. 21, 22.); SatyTe”s
lust for Thyamis (1.vi. 22, 23・);Thyamis
maternal love to一
一 253 一
Sa ty rane ( L vi. 28. ) ; A rthu r's courte sy to Una ( 1 . viii. 26. ) ;
friendship between A rthur and the R. C. K. (1 . viii. 39, 40,'ix.16,
18.);ArthuT's love for the Queen of Faeries (1.ix. 7 一18.) ;
TeTzvin's onesided lbve for his Lady (1. 'ix.27-30) ;conjugal
love between ChaTissa and her husband (1. x. 4.);friendship
between Caelia and Una (1. x. 8, 9.);friendship and courtesy
be tween Un a, the R. C. K., Fidelia, and Speranza ( 1 . x. 15. ) ';
Now we shall make an attempt to speculate on the problem of
the structure of love episodes in Book 1. Book 1 is full of
pictures narrating various aspects of love. We might, therefore,
be able to infer how the aspects of love are organized into the
structure in which Holiness takes the top seat. As C. S.Lewis
suggests, the various aspects of love seem to be separated on
the basis whether it is virtuous or vicious i)一according to' Prof.
S.Murphy's remarks, whether it is the love “appropriate to the
pursuit of heaven” or the love “bound to the earth”.2) The
virtuous love includes such aspects of love as follows;love of
God (Holiness), faithful love, friendship, courtesy, etc. The
vicious love contains on the other hand the aspects of unfaithful
love, lust, jealousy, hatred, credulity, and so forth. ln Book 1,
we may be able to illustrate the'following structure which organizes the various aspects of love.
C.S. L,ewis, THE ALLEGORY OF LOVE, OxfoFd Univ. Press,
1936, 1967, p.330.
Susanne Murphy, ‘Love and War in Spenser's The Faerie
Queene',Eterne in Mutabilitie, ed. by K. J. Atchity, Archon
Books, 1972, p.133.
一 254 -
Holiness(Love of God)
(the highest
rung of the
Ladder of
C・y・t・・yi F・ithf・I I・v・ F・iend・hip
し ロ
. l
Unfaithful love
/\ i
l ICredulity haughtiness l (the lowest
(A、。lid line、ig。ifi。、,he cl。、e and f。mili。,.
A dotted line sig璽蔑ifies the oPPosite relation・)
As is seen in this diagram,
we center faithful love an陛ong the
various aspects of love. Oll that occasion the representative of
faithful love is the Lady Unα.1)At the same time Unα's love is
considered to be the norm of faithful love. In other words the
various aspects of love other than fidelity are constructed around
Una's faithful Iove, sometimes in exquisite contrast to it.
Now we shall extract the narrations about Unα, who seems to
exhibit the norm of faithful love. But before discussing t}le
problem, we have to point out that〔ノnαseems to be drawn
partly as an ‘‘exact and appealing” symbol of the
and beauty of abstract truth, 2)and partly as.an ea止thly woman
wh・i・i・1・v・with an ea・thly man・F・・σ・αi・・pce d・.ceiv・d
by ・1 Tchimα80 who is disguised as her 」R・C・K・・ In this case it
may be said that Unαwas misled by her earthly, passionate love
1)H.S. V. Jones,、4 SPEIVSER H刈VDBOOK, New York,1930, P.156
2) Jbid., p.155.
一 255 一
for her R. C. K.. Neverthless faithful love is apparently repre-
sented by Una.
First, as the norm of t'aithful love, we can cite.her behavior,
when the R. C. K. deserted her, because he believed true the
scene of the counterfeit〔ノnα's wanton lustand lewd embracement
with a young Squire, both of whom had been made from spirits
in Hell by the magic of ti:ITchimago. When true Una saw that she
was left alone by the R. C. K.,
Then gan she waile and weepe, to see that woefull stowre.i )'
(1. ii. 7.Italicized by the present author. )
Yet she most faithful Ladie all this while
Forsaken, wofull, solitarie mayd . . .
In wildernesse and wastfull deserts strayd,
To seeke her knight;
(1.iii. 3.)
Thus Una endures the toils searching for her knight without
doubting him at alL Prof. Aubrey De Vere appraises Una very
highly, remarking “the wound of an insulted love is not
exasperated by self-love, arid therefore it heals”.2)
Secondly, how 疋ノnαkeeps her constant heart in difficult
1 ) The alliteration of /w/ here seems to be expressing effectively the
onomatopoetic sound of crying. The collocation of weepe and waile
is also observed in Una's lamentation to s'ee the sign of her knight's
defeat. (1. vii.'39.)
2) Aubrey De Vere,.‘The Character of Una', Vario. Edi., VoL 1.,
p.497. By the way Vere ranks Una am6ng Homer's Andromach and
Nausicaa, Chaucer's Cecilia, Griselda, the lmogen of Shakespeare,
or the Beatrice of Dante.
situation she is in is narrated in the long, lustful picture in which
Sansloy intends to win her chastity in vain. At the beginning of
his lawless deed,
With fawning wordes he courted her a while,
And looking louely, and oft sighing sore,
Her constant hart did tempt with diuerse guile:
But wordes, and lookes, and sighes she did abhore,
As rocke of Diamond stedfast euermore.
(1.vi. 4.Italicized by the pr'esent author.)
Thirdly when the knight SatyTane kept Una goodly company,
she could not delight in this new acquaintance but tormented her
dear heart with anguish. For
. . . she all vowd vnto the Redcrosse knight,
His wandring perill closely did lament,
(1. vi. 32.)
It is touchingly narrated how Una, with her constant heart, did
lament and grieve when she saw the sad sight which suggested
that the R. C. K. was defeated, and when she was told that.the
knight had fallen now into the deep dungeon.
At last when feruent sor,row slaked was,
She vp arose, resoluing him to find
A liue or dead: and forward forth doth pas,
All as' the Dwarfe the way to her assynd:
And euermofe in constant carefull mind
She fed her wound with fresh renewed bale ;
(1. vii. 28. Italicized by the present author. )
一 257 一
Considerable. ('nineteen) stanzas are spent fo'r the narration with
respect to Una's lamentation on this contex.t. '(vii. 20-25,'27,
28, 38-42, 48-52, viii. 28.) The main vocabula'ry expressing
Una's grief is as follows: (noun) ‘sorrow; ‘griefe;‘patience;‘bale;'
‘paine; ‘cold; ‘death; ‘swownd; ‘Tragidie; ‘fear; ‘misfortunes; ‘harmes;
‘woe; ‘reliefe; ‘anguish; ‘Smart; ‘despaire; ‘plaint; etc. ; (adjective)
‘sad; ‘sorrowfull; ‘pitteou's; ‘storming; ‘bleeding; ‘faint; ‘dolefull;
‘loathed; ‘deadly; ‘wofull; ‘tempestuous; ‘thrilling; ‘heauy; ‘bjtter;
‘carefull; ‘helplesse; ‘ruefull; e.tc. ;' (ve'rb) ‘larpe'nt; ‘mourne; etc.
The word ‘sad'modifies‘bresti ‘sight;'‘reliques; and‘tongue: The
adjective‘bleeding”collocates with ‘s'niart; and‘wordsl-i) 'Thus we
are forced to realize how great Una's lamentation is, and how
true and genuine Una's love for the R. C. K. is. This context
makes us feel Una not only as a heavenly being but as an earthly lovable 'wdmanl
FoUtthlY, sPeaking ・to Prinee Arthur, Una herSelf expresses
her faithful iove for her knight. Und 'is sure of' her knight's faith,
. : . al} vnweeting, an .Enchaunter bad
His i se'nc'e abused, and made him to miSdeeme
My loyalty, not s.uch as it did seeme;
That rather death aesire, then such de'spight
Be iudge ye heau'ens, that all things right esteeme,
Ho'w 1 him lou'd, and loue'with all my might,
So thoughp 1 eke of' him, anq thinke 1 thgugh} .aright
,(1'. vii. 49.)
1)' The last usage (the collocation of ‘bleeding' with',‘words')is record一一
ed in the OED as the earliest citation.
.Lastlyσηαexllibits tlle lleavellly love for her knight wllen
Prince ArtんuT rescues the R. C.κ. out of the deep dungeoll of
Orgo8・lio. As Prof. Edward Dowden poillts out, before the R. C.
ready taken him to her heart, with only tears for his piteous
aspect, and llo word of reproach”.1)At long lastひna is re一
warded for her long suffering by her knight's exclaim to}}er;
Of・i・e・}, vi・gi・・f・11・f heaue・ly light・
Whose Wondrous faitん, exceedillg earthly race,
Was firmest,fixt in'mine extremest case・
(1.ix.17. Italicized by the present author.)
Now we shall focus on the love of the R. C. K. in contrast
with that of the'Lady Una. The R. C. K.'s weakness in faith is,
on the contrary, revealed at once by ATchimago. Believing what
he saw is true一 that wanton scene of embracement by the
counterfeit Una and a false Squire-the R. C. K. de.serted' Una
suffering “grief and anguish over the supposed unfaithfulness of
ひnα”,although he kept a fundamental law.of chivalry, showing
courtesy to his supposed Lady. Thus as a knight the R. C. K.
appears to be true. lt seems very difficult for an ordinary man
to believe'his beloved's faith in face of such a vivid, amorous
ernbrace of his supposed lady and another man. And the R. C. K.
・was an ordinary man yet. ln other words he needed something
more to be a mighty guardian of Holiness. lf he had been disci-
plined as a true guardian of Holiness, he cbuld have “understood
more of Truth than what was expressed in the physical nature of
1 ) Edward Dowden, ‘The Character of Una' Vario. Edi・,
VoL 1., p.498.
→K.‘‘endures the pain and shame which are needful, びna has al-
一 259 一
Soon after the R. C. K. d6serted Una, he makes a journey
with Fidessa (Duessa). With this context of the credulity of the
R. C. K., the episode of Fradubio's love is paralleled, and warns
of the consequence of too easily believing appearances, an aspect
of unfaithful love. Prof. A. C. Hamilton points out that Firadubio's
story stands as a brief allegory of the knight's fall and resto一一'
ration which is later rendered in Christian terms.2) Fradubio
had loved Fraelissa, a gentle fair }ady. But one day travelling
with her, he met a knight who was taking Duessa as his Dame.
So as to determine which lady was more beautiful, they began
to fight with each other. Fraclu6io won the battle, and took '
Duessa as a “prise martiall”. “So doubly lou'd of Ladies vnlike
'faire”, he wanted to compare “ whether in beauties glorie did
exceede”. Through Duessa's magic, Fradubio doubted the beauty
of Fraelissa, and selected Duessa as his Lady. Fradubio tells
that he was changed into a tree (as the result of credulity),and '
that he can not be restored until he is bathed in a living well.
Thus Fradubio's ePisode of love co'uld be considered to be a
warning to the R. C. K. of the danger of unfaithfu} credulity.
But he was too weak as yet to speculate on the meaning of
Fradubio's naration. To use Prof. Jones' words,3) “In spite of
Frad・bi・'・w・・ni・g・・h・ ・xhibi…i・his rel・・i…wi・hル・んim・8・
and Dusssa, Corceca's blindness of heart, and in his relations
withひπα, Sαns/bガs infidelity. That is, with respect to the faith
Sivhich he professes, the R. C. K. is guilty of both the sin of ex一一
1 ) S. Mu rphy, op. git., pp. 134-135 .
2)A,C. H・miltQn, THE∬RUCTσRE OFみしムEGOR四N Tん・F・・ri・
Queene. Oxford, ].961, 1970, p.65..
3) H. S. V. Jones, op. cit., p. i57.
cess and the sin of deficiency.”
One dqy when t.he R..C. K., disrobed. of the Red, Cross qrms,
is taking a rest tQge.ther with Fidessa, he is assailed. b.y
Orogl,io, the Pride gf Life,. and is thrown into中e deep dungeon.
Whe.n he is resc.u.gd by. Pringe A rthur. .and Una's fidelity and
devotion is justified, the R. C. K. is “exposed to distress gf
mind.” For since the R..C. K. had been sedu.ced to fgllow
Fidessa's foul desires, apd therefore bet.rayed his fai-th, he re-
ceivgd, a,deep injury in his ,conscience by 1?espair's reproachful
speech・..C.Qnsequentlγ.中e knight would have committed syic ide
but for the lrady Upa's help. Prof. Dowden. inte;.prets this ey. ent
as follpws.; .“in his sorrow for wrong-doing there is some of, that
lax self-pity which. prefer$ the easy way of despair and death
t・th・h・ゆess・f Sp・enu・u・di・cipli・.・,”1)Th・k・ight'・1・x・elfpi.ty in this case ・seems to be cQntrasted with the lack Qf self-
pity in the Lady Una's hard situation.
In, tht House of Holiness the' R. C. K. has to receive the very
strict, painful purification in order to be an accomplished guardian of Holiness.There “
??learns that his faith which. had at first
been a .matter of. impulse must, now. be a ground of discipline. ln
a word he must now be .schooled in the faith”.2) On the top df'
th.e steep .and high hill, the R. C. K., Saint, Geqrge, asks-Con-
Bv. t. deeds Qf .armes rnust 1, at last be faine, ・',
And Ladies, loue .to leaue s,o' dearely bought?
Cqnte,mplation replies,
What need of armes, where ,peace qoth ay remaine,
1) C. S. Lewis, op. cit. p. 315.
. . . and battailes none are to be fought?
As foT loose loues aTe vaine, ancl vanish into nought.
(1.x.62. ltalicized by the present author.)
Concerning love, especially earthly love, this last verse of Con一
templation seems to appear as one of the main orientations in
The F. Q. Book 1.
Duessa's love is typical of the opposite aspect of Una's true,
virtuous love. i) The nature of Duessa's love is wanton, unfaithful, false, and therefore vicious. We'may infer the real
character of Duessa in Una's speech to Arthur.
. . . him(the R. C. K.) chaunced false Duessa meete,
Mine onely foe, mine onely deadly dread,
Who with her witchcraft and misseeming $weete,
Inueigled him to follow her desires vnrp, eete.
1.vii. 50. Parenthesized by the present author.)
We can discern Duessa's viciousness in contrast with Una's
virtuousness as the norm of faithful love. While Una, continues
to seek her knight without loving others, Duessa changes her
.lover one after another. /
Prince A rthu-r exhibits every aspect of virtuous love 一 the
love of God, chastity, fast friendship and courtesy. The love of
God is realized in his rescuing of the R. C. K. out of the
Orgoglio's dungeon. Prof. Hamilton sees the figure of Christ in
1) Edward Dowden, op. cit., p.498.
2) H. S. V. Jones, op. cit., p. 158.
this image. i) His chastity is shown in the story of his desire
towards the Faerie Queene. Fast friendship is offered to the
R.C. K. by him and coutesy is displayeq in.his aiding Una. '2)
At the House of Holiness, courtesy, and friendship are exchanged b6tween 17idelia, ,Speranza, Una, and the R. C. K.. As
for Charissa, one of the three sisters in the House of Holiness,
Prof. Fowler 3) interprets that she,is “in the realm of religious
love”, and Prof. Murphy 4)sees a symbol of an ideal love relation-
ship・between mother and offspring. Murphy remarks that
Charissa's love relationship “parallels that illustrated earlier in
the case of Error, whose children drew both life aBd death from
their parent”. But this ideal love relationship .between mother and
offspring is also contrasted with the unnatural relationship be-
tween Thgamis and SatgTane. Thya7nis willy-nilly bore a lustful
Satyre the son, Satyrane.
The aspects of }ove which are already一 mentioned earlier in con-
nection with the courtly love conventions are not repeated here.
Among them credulity, hanghtiness, lust, infidelity, jealousy and
hatred will be included in the category of vicious love.
We have tried to speculate on the
problem of the structure of
love in Book 1 of The F. Q.. ln the
course of this discussion we
have been deeply impressed with the
Lady Una's heavenly love
一 263 一
for her knight without self-pity in the mids of adversity, or with
her grace, her religious love with which she consoles her knight
with no word of reproach at the time when he was rescued, in
spite of her long suffering. Spenser wrote The F. Q. in order
to “fashion a gentleman or noble person in vertuous and gentle
discipline”. Beyond the Elizabethan age, and even until now we
can derive valuable suggestions from The F. Q. about the most
precious in the world, love.