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.d§€³ ¹Zn¿Y `Ìe¿ƒ d¨Å ¾ËY ¾Ì] ħ€— ®Ë ÉZÅÊ«Ôe
¶·MÉ{ ‰Á Z] ½Z¿ ¹|À³ { cZ¨ Êy€] gYÂe Ä ·Z˜» :½YZ°¼Å Á ÊÀ̌»Y
€fŒÌ] ÉZÅʇ€] ,–ËY€‹ Á{ ¾Ì] Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á cÁZ¨e
ʇYÁ Ä] –ËY€‹ Á{ ¾Ì] {€°¸¼Ÿ cÁZ¨e Ã|¼Ÿ į {Y{ ½ZŒ¿
.(2 µÁ|m) d‡Y Ã{Â] ÃZ̳ { ċÂy {Y| e
cZ¨ ļŠÉY€] (GCA) ʻ¼Ÿ ɀË~a \̯€e
{Y» ¾ËY { į {Y{ ½ZŒ¿ ÄnÌf¿ ¾ËY .|»M d‡{ Ä] Y{ÊÀ »
Á Äf‹Y{ {ÂmÁ sԏY ÉY€] Ê]Ây ¶Ìˆ¿Zfa ,Ê°Ìf¿ƒ
½ZŒ¿ Ê^‡ZÀ» Ê°Ìf¿ƒ ÂÀe cZ¨ ¾ËY €œ¿ Y ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ
€iY Ã|ÀÅ{ ½ZŒ¿ GCA Y{ÊÀ » €iY ½{Â] ÓZ] .|ÀÅ{Ê»
ʌËY‚§Y { ʌËY‚§Y ¶]Z¬f» €iY 0ÓZ¼fuY Á ZŽƒ ʌËY‚§Y
½Y‚Ì» Ã|ÀÀ¯ ½ZÌ] d̏y ¾ËY .(Griffing, 1956) d‡Y
{Y» ¾Ì] { €iY ¾ËY Äq €Å .d‡Y d¨ ÊuԏY ‰Y
d̬§Â» †¿Z‹ į d‡Y ÊÀ » ½Y|] ,|‹Z] €fŒÌ] ÊuԏY
ÂÀe ¶Ìˆ¿Zfa Á Ã{Â] €fŒÌ] dÌ ¼m { d¨ ½M sԏY
ɀ̳ÁY|¿Y cZ¨ €fŒÌ] {» { .d‡Y €fŒÌ] Ã{Z¨f‡Y ¶]Z«
\̯€e †¿ZËYÁ Y €fŒÌ] Z̈] GCA †¿ZËYÁ ,Ã|‹
Ç|ÀÅ{ ½ZŒ¿ €»Y ¾ËY į {Â] (SCA) ʏy ɀË~a
dÌ^·Z£ †¿ZËYÁ Ä] d^ˆ¿ ʌËY‚§Y †¿ZËYÁ €fŒÌ] d̼ÅY
Z] į Y{ÊÀ » †Ë€fÅ ½Y‚Ì» į d‡Y Ê·Zu { ¾ËY .{Â]
ÉY€] ,{‹ʻ ŽzŒ» (SCA) ʏy ɀË~a \̯€e
½ƒ ¶¼Ÿ d¨³ ½YÂeÊ» ¾ËY€]ZÀ] .{Â^¿ Y{ÊÀ » cZ¨ \¸£Y
€iY ¾ÌÀr¼Å .{Â] ʌËY‚§Y c Ä] cZ¨ Y ÉZ̈] ÉY€]
ÉY€] –Ìv» { SCA Á –Ìv» { GCA ¾Ì] ¶]Z¬f»
Ä] {€°¸¼Ÿ {» { Z»Y .{Â^¿ Y{ÊÀ » cZ¨ Y ÉZ̈]
{ GCA ¾Ì] ¶]Z¬f» €iY ,ʟY d¨ ¾Ë€f¼Æ» ½YÂÀŸ
{» { į ɀ´Ë{ ÉZʼnY‚³ { .{Â] Y{ÊÀ » –Ìv»
ʌËY‚§Y †¿ZËYÁ €fŒÌ] d̼ÅY ‚Ì¿ Ã|‹ €ŒfÀ» ¹|À³
Joshi et al., ) {‹ʻ Ã|ÅZŒ» Ä^¸£ †¿ZËYÁ Ä] d^ˆ¿
2004; Sayar et al., 2007; Mojarrad and
.(Ghannadha, 2008
4
Mather and Jinks, ) ‚°ÀÌm Á €f» ‰Á Y Wr Á Vr
ʧ€ » Y‚§Y ¹€¿ Y cÔaÉZ] GGE Ä˂ne ÉY€] Á (1982
(Yan and Kang, 2003) ²¿Z¯ Á ½ZË –‡Âe Ã|‹
.|‹ Ã{Z¨f‡Y
hv] Á lËZf¿
¶·MÉ{ ŠËZ»M †¿ZËYÁ Ä˂ne
Á{ { ZÅÊ«Ôe Á ¾Ë|·YÁ ÊbÌe¿ƒ cY€Ì̤e \ˀ“
ʇ€] .d‡Y Ã|‹ ÄËYY 1 µÁ|m { ŠÀe Á µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹
¾Ë|·YÁ cY€Ì̤e ÄÀ»Y{ į |Å{Ê» ½ZŒ¿ µÁ|m ¾ËY ʸ¯
cZ¨ .{Y{ Y€« ZÅÊ«Ôe cY€Ì̤e Ã{Á|v» { 0Z^ˀ¬e
\ËY€“ ¾Ë€fŒÌ] ÉYY{ {€°¸¼Ÿ Á ¶°¿Y|a µÂ— ,ÊÅ|¸³
{Y» { cZ¨ ¾ËY ÂÀe Ã|ÀÅ{ ½ZŒ¿ į |¿{Â] cY€Ì̤e
Ä] ¶·MÉ{ †¿ZËYÁ Ä˂ne ÄnÌf¿ .d‡Y Ã|‹ Ã{Z¨f‡Y Ê°Ìf¿ƒ
Ê°Œy ŠÀe .d‡Y Ã|‹ ÄËYY 2 µÁ|m { ²Ą̀ˀ³ ‰Á
µÂ— ,Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á ‚m Ä] cZ¨ ļŠ€] ʸ¯ — Ä]
ŠÅZ¯ .d‹Y~³ €ÌiZe ċÂy { Är¸^À‡ {Y| e Á ®ŒË
|{ 26 µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹ Ä] d^ˆ¿ ŠÀe –ËY€‹ { {€°¸¼Ÿ
|{ 40-20) –‡Âf» ŠÀe c|‹ ÄÀ»Y{ { į {Â]
Z̈] cÁZ¨e .(Blum,2011) {€Ì³Ê» Y€« (ŠÅZ¯
d‹Y{ {ÂmÁ (ZÆ¿M F1 Á ¾Ë|·YÁ) ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ì] ÉY{ÊÀ »
¾ËY { Ê]Zzf¿Y ¾Ë|·YÁ į d‡Y ¾ËY Ã|ÀÅ{ ½ZŒ¿ į
ÂÀe ZÆ¿M Ã|ÀÀ¯ µ€fÀ¯ ÉZŶ·M Á cZ¨ ¾ËY €œ¿ Y ŠËZ»M
.|¿Y{ É{Zˁ
ŠËZ»M ¾ËY { Ã|‹ ɀ̳ÁY|¿Y cZ¨ €fŒÌ] {» {
į É— Ä] .{Â^¿ Y{ÊÀ » –Ìv» Á `Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ì] ¶]Z¬f» €iY
{ €iY ¾ËY {€°¸¼Ÿ Á Z¨eY d¨ Á{ ÉY€] ZÆÀe Â¼n» {
€³Y į |Å{Ê» ½ZŒ¿ lËZf¿ ¾ËY .|‹ Y{ÊÀ » |{ 5 t˜‡
cZ¨ ªË€— Y {€°¸¼Ÿ sԏY ÉY€] Ê°Ìf¿ƒ {Y» ¾ËY Y
–Ë€‹ Á{ €Å { Y ŠÀ˂³ ½YÂeÊ» {‹ Ã{Z¨f‡Y –^e€»
Äf^·Y .d‡ÓZ] –ËY€‹ Á{ { ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ÉY|ËZa Y€Ë {Y{ ¹Zn¿Y
–‡Âf» ŠÀe c|‹ ŠËZ»M ¾ËY { į d‹Y{ €œ¿ { |ËZ]
Á {€°¸¼Ÿ d¨ {» { ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ì] Y{ÊÀ » cÁZ¨e .{Â]
c Ä] į ÊËZŊËZ»M €´Ë{ { ½M Z] –^e€» cZ¨
Topal et al., ) d‡Y Ã|‹ ‰Y‚³ ‚Ì¿ Ã|‹ ¹Zn¿Y ¶·MÉ{
2004; El-Maghraby et al., 2005; Sayar et al.,
½|Œ¿ Y{ÊÀ » Ä] ÄmÂe Z] .(2007; Khan et al., 2010
1391 / µÁY ÃZ¼‹ /¹Á{ µZ‡ /cÔ£ cZ¬Ì¬ve
5
ZÅF1 ¾Ì] Á ¾Ë|·YÁ ¾Ì] cY€Ì̤e ÄÀ»Y{ Á ÊbÌe¿ƒ cY€Ì̤e \ËY€“ -1 µÁ|m
d¨
trait
ÄnÀa {Y| e
Tiller number
ċÂy {Y| e
Spike number
{ Är¸^À‡ {Y| e
ċÂy
Spikelets in
spike
Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á
Thousand
weight
Z¨eY
Height
¶°¿Y|a
Peduncle
®ŒË µÂ—
Awn length
ÊÅ|¸³
Flowering
ʳ|̇
Maturity
Ä¿Y{ ½|‹ €a ÃÁ{
Grain filling
period
{€°¸¼Ÿ
Yield
Table 1. Genotypic coefficient of variations among parents and F1 genotypes
µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹
ŠÀe –ËY€‹
Normal
Stress
condition
condition
cY€Ì̤e \ˀ“
cY€Ì̤e \ˀ“
cY€Ì̤e ÄÀ»Y{
cY€Ì̤e ÄÀ»Y{
ÊbÌe¿ƒ
ÊbÌe¿ƒ
ZÅF1 cY€Ì̤e ÄÀ»Y{
¾Ë|·YÁ
¾Ë|·YÁ
Genotypic
Genotypic
Range
of
F1s
Range of
Range of
of Coefficient
coefficient of
parents
parents
variation
variation
cY€Ì̤e ÄÀ»Y{
ZÅF1
Range of
F1s
10.7
10-19.1
10-18
14.7
6.6-16.5
8-13
4.95
9.5-14.2
8.6-13.6
13
6.3-14.1
7-10.4
6.6
14.3-19.4
15.1-19.1
6.9
14.4-18.2
6.9-8.5
10.1
28-43.4
29.1-43.6
8.6
30.7-41.3
26.8-42.5
9.6
74.8-102.3
73.4-105.9
8.8
67.4-88
64.8-93
14.1
27.6-46
30.2-47.6
13.7
22.1-39.1
25.6-40.4
0.9
6.6-7.9
7-8.3
5.8
6.7-8.6
6.9-8.5
14.9
11-20.8
8.5-17.3
15.4
9.1-18.9
7.2-16.7
4.9
40.1-48
38-9-48.6
2.9
36.5-45.4
37.5-46
6.7
24.1-32.7
26.2-35.1
6.3
25.6-33.4
25.2-35
16.8
11-24.5
10.2-23.2
4.1
9.5-16
8.6-15.5
¶·MÉ{ ‰Á Z] ½Z¿ ¹|À³ { cZ¨ Êy€] gYÂe Ä ·Z˜» :½YZ°¼Å Á ÊÀ̌»Y
6
{ ħ€— ®Ë 7×7 ¶·MÉ{ { ZÆ¿M F1 Á ¾Ë|·YÁ { Ã|‹ ɀ̳ ÁY|¿Y cZ¨ †¿ZËYÁ Ä˂ne cZ ]€» ¾Ì´¿ZÌ» €Ë{Z¬» -2 µÁ|m
.µZ»€¿ Á Ê°Œy ŠÀe (–Ìv») –ËY€‹ Á{ { ¹|À³
Table 2. ANOVA mean squares of traits measured in parents and F1s in a 7×7 diallel mating design in wheat at
normal and stress conditions.
Ä¿Y{ ½|‹ €a ÃÁ{ { ¹€³) {€°¸¼Ÿ
(cm) Z¨eY (cm) ¶°¿Y|a (cm) ®ŒË µÂ— (Á) ÊÅ|¸³ (Á) ʳ|̇
(Á)
(ÄeÂ]
Awn
Flowering Maturity
Height (cm) Peduncle
Filling period
Yield
(cm)
Length (cm) (day)
(day)
(day)
(g/plant)
Äm{
É{YM
df
ÄnÀa {Y| e
Tiller
number
ċÂy {Y| e
Spike
number
–Ìv»
1
Environment
–Ìv» ½Á{ ­Â¸]
4
Blocks into
Environment
`Ìe¿ƒ
27
Genotype
–Ìv» × `Ìe¿ƒ
Genotype × 27
Environment
Z˜y
107
Error
GCA
6
{ Är¸^À‡ {Y| e
ċÂy
Spiklets in
spike
Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á
(¹€³)
Thousand
weight (g)
476**
317.4**
3.3 ns
22.5 ns
4111**
514**
1.78 ns
297**
1907**
674**
836**
36.4
15.7
3.5
39.2
67.1
5.8
5.08
28.5
6.5
45.2
8.2
22.6**
11.35**
9.5**
85.6**
381.2**
143.3**
0.85**
33.1**
27**
33.2**
31**
4.13 ns
4.07 ns
1.1 ns
14.6 ns
24*
6 ns
0.29 ns
7.6 ns
5.6 ns
13.5 ns
26.3*
6.15
5.3
1.16
15.7
12.8
4.4
0.25
7.6
7.07
12.2
16.1
cY€Ì̤e ž]ZÀ»
S.O.V
SCA
–Ìv» × GCA
Condition ×
GCA
–Ìv» × SCA
Condition ×
SCA
**
**
**
**
**
**
21
79
6.4 ns
22.05
8.25 ns
31.5
3.14**
299
24.6 ns
1563
49.9**
565
22.8**
1.7
0.59**
115
10 ns
87.9
11.8*
64
23.7*
78.2**
17.4 ns
6
3.25 ns
7.38 ns
1.65 ns
13.4 ns
23 ns
7 ns
0.41 ns
1.3 ns
5.9 ns
6.7 ns
69.2**
21
4.35 ns
3.19 ns
0.93 ns
15 ns
22*
5.5 ns
0.25 ns
9.1 ns
3.8 ns
14.8 ns
14.4 ns
ns: Non significant.
**
**
**
Y{ÊÀ » €Ì£ ns
* and **: significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability level, respectively
ÉY{ÊÀ » cÁZ¨e WS ÃÁ€³ ÉZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ÉGCA į Ê·Zu
€œ¿ ¾ËY Y ÉY{€‡ `Ìe¿ƒ {» ¾ËY { .{Y|¿ ½ZŒ¿ €¨ Z]
ÄnÀa {Y| e Ä°ÀËY Z] į |‡Ê» €œ¿ Ä] Ê^·Zm `Ìe¿ƒ
Á d‡ÓZ] ‚Ì¿ ZÆ¿M ÉÁZ] ½Y‚Ì» ,|À¯Ê» |Ì·Âe É{Zˁ
€] ,|À¯ ¶¬fÀ» ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ €´Ë{ Ä] Y d̸]Z« ¾ËY |¿YÂeÊ»
.{Y{ ɀf¼¯ ÁZ] ÄnÀa {Y| e į Y€Ì‹ `Ìe¿ƒ ¥Ôy
¾Ë€fÆ] ÉY{€‡ `Ìe¿ƒ d¨ ¾ËY sԏY ÉY€] ¾ËY€]ZÀ]
€œ¿ {» d¨ €œ¿ Y kZf¿ ¾Ë€fÆ] |Ì·Âe ÉY€] .d‡Y
Y ʻ¼Ÿ ɀË~a \̯€e ¾Ë€fŒÌ] į ÊÀË|·YÁ ÊfˆËZ]
Barnard et al., ) {Y{ Ê«Ôe €´Ë|¼Å Z] |ÀÅ{Ê» ½ZŒ¿
ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ë€fÆ] ċÂy { Är¸^À‡ {Y| e €œ¿ Y .(2002
,€Ë¯ `Ìe¿ƒ ÊuԏY ÉZÅÄ»Z¿€] { ɀ̳Z¯ Ä] ÉY€]
ŽzŒ» lËZf¿ Y į —½Z¼Å .|¿{Â] WS-82-9 Á Y€Ì‹
{ ċÂy Á ÄnÀa É{Zˁ {Y| e ÉYY{ į ÊËZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ d‡Y
€³Y .|¿{Â] ¦Ì “ ċÂy { Är¸^À‡ {Y| e €œ¿ Y |¿{Â] ÄeÂ]
Ä] d^ˆ¿ ɀf¼¯ ÁZ] ÉZÅÄnÀa {Y| e Y€Ì‹ `Ìe¿ƒ Äq
Y €fŒÌ] ½M ċÂy { Är¸^À‡ {Y| e Z»Y d‹Y{ ÉY{€‡
ÊËZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ Ä] Äfˆ¿YÂe Y ½Y‚Ì» ¾ËY Á {Â] ÉY{€‡ `Ìe¿ƒ
.|À¯ ¶¬fÀ» Äf§ZË Ê«Ôe ZÆ¿M Z] į
**
.0/01 Á 0/05 t˜‡ { Y{ÊÀ » \Ìe€e Ä] ** Á*
Á ÓZ] ɀË~adiYÁ Ã|ÀÅ{ ½ZŒ¿ ½ƒ ʌËY‚§Y €iY ½{Â] ÓZ]
Ê¿ƒ ¦Ì “ ¶]Z¬f» €iY ÄnÌf¿ ‚Ì¿ Á ½M €] –Ìv» €f¼¯ €iY
{ÂmÁ ¾ËY Z] .{‹ ŠÀ˂³ { €ŒÌ] d̬§Â» Ä] €nÀ» Á Ã{Â]
Ã{Z¨f‡Y Zņ¿ZËYÁ ¾ËY ÉÁ{ €Å Y |ËZ] ÊuԏY ÉZʼnÁ
ÉY€] ʏy ɀË~a \̯€e .(Topal et al., 2004) |À¯
¾ËY Ä°ÀËY Ä] ÄmÂeZ] .|»M d‡{ Ä] Y{ÊÀ » cZ¨ Y Êy€]
ÉY€] |ˀ^ÌÅ ¹|À³ |Ì·Âe Á d‡Y †Ë€fÅ Ä] •Â]€» €iY
½M Y ½YÂeʼ¿ ¾ËY€]ZÀ] ,dˆÌ¿ ʸ¼Ÿ ÂÀŠʟY Ã{Z¨f‡Y
į Êe { Äf^·Y .{¼¿ Ã{Z¨f‡Y ºÌ¬fˆ» — Ä]
dÌ^·Z£ ÉÂXe) ZŽƒ dÌ^·Z£ €iY ¶Ì·{ Ä] †ËÁ€fÅ
į d‡Y ÊÀ » ½Y|] ,|‹Z] dÌ^·Z£ ©Â§ Ä¿ Á (†ËÁ€fÅ
|ÀÅ{Ê» ½ZŒ¿ Y †ËÁ€fÅ ¾Ë€fŒÌ] į É|·YÁ Á{ ½YÂeÊ»
{Y| e ¾Ë€fŒÌ] į É{Y€§Y Ã|ÀËM ÉZŶˆ¿ { Á Ã{Y{ Ê«Ôe
¾Ë|·YÁ †ËÁ€fŠʇ€] .{€¯ [Zzf¿Y |¿Y{ Y [¸˜» ¶·M
.|‹ |ÅYÂy ¹Zn¿Y cÔaÉZ] Ä˂ne lËZf¿ d¼ˆ« {
Á{ { ZÅÃ{Y{ ¾Ì´¿ZÌ» …Z‡Y €] ¾Ë|·YÁ GCA €Ë{Z¬»
{Y| e €œ¿ Y .d‡Y Ã|‹ ÄËYY 3 µÁ|m { ʌËZ»M –ËY€‹
Á ¾Ë€fŒÌ] ÉY{€‡ `Ìe¿ƒ ,ÄeÂ] { ċÂy {Y| e Á ÄnÀa
{ .|¿{Y{ ½ZŒ¿ Y Y{ÊÀ » GCA ¾Ë€f¼¯ €Ë¯ `Ìe¿ƒ
1391 / µÁY ÃZ¼‹ /¹Á{ µZ‡ /cÔ£ cZ¬Ì¬ve
7
.–ËY€‹ Á{ ¾Ì´¿ZÌ» ÉY€] 7×7 ¶·MÉ{ Ê«Ôe { Ã|‹ Ã{Z¨f‡Y ¾Ë|·YÁ GCA €Ë{Z¬» -3 µÁ|m
Table 3. GCA values of parents in 7×7 diallel mating design for means of two conditions
¾Ë|·YÁ
Parents
Är¸^À‡ {Y| e
ÄnÀa {Y| e ċÂy {Y| e
ċÂy {
Tiller
Spike
number number Spiklets in
spike
2}M
Azar 2
€Ë¯
Kavir
Y€Ì‹
Shiraz
ÉY{€‡
Sardari
ws-82-9
ws-82-7
- 0.51
- 0.34 ns
0.1 ns
-0.38 ns
0.51
-0.36*
ws-82-13
0.02 ns
- 0.33 ns
- 0.16 ns
Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á
(¹€³)
Thousand
weight
Z¨eY
¶°¿Y|a
(€f»Êf¿Z‡) (€f»Êf¿Z‡)
height peduncle
®ŒË µÂ—
(cm)
Awn
length
ÊÅ|¸³
ʳ|̇ ½|‹ €a ÃÁ{
(Á) Ä¿Y{
(Á)
(Á)
flowering maturity Filling
period
{€°¸¼Ÿ
{ ¹€³)
(ÄeÂ]
yield
0.47 ns
0.52 ns
-1.42**
2.3**
7.9**
6.28**
-0.2*
-0.4 ns
-ns1
- 0.7 ns
- 0.4 ns
-2.1**
-0.85*
0.88**
1.8**
-2.6**
-1.3**
0.29**
-1.3**
0.2 ns
1.5**
1.5*
0.63 ns
- 0.13 ns
0.54**
-1.5**
0.8 ns
-1.14**
0.07 ns
1.5**
1.8**
0.2 ns
- 1.1 ns
1.84**
1.08**
0.01 ns
-2.3**
5.04**
1.97**
0.09 ns
2.4**
1.15*
-1.1*
-0.6 ns
3.2
-1.4**
1.33 ns
-6.9**
- 0.24
-3.63**
0.06 ns
-0.1 ns
-1.2
-1.3**
-1.97
0.25 ns
-0.9
1.5**
-2.2**
-5.6**
-1.96**
-0.2*
0.32 ns
-0.43 ns
-0.59 ns
1.9**
- 0.8 ns
0.56 ns
-
ns
**
**
ns
ns: Non significant.
**
ns
Y{ÊÀ » €Ì£ ns
* and **: significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability level, respectively
d^j» €ÌiZe į ɀ´Ë{ cZ¨ €œ¿ Y ¶Ì·{ ¾Ì¼Å Ä] Á Ã{Â^¿
¾Ë€fÆ] 2}M `Ìe¿ƒ .{Y{ Ê]Ây dÌ “Á |¿Y{ {€°¸¼Ÿ €]
Ä°ÀËY ¶Ì·{ Ä] .d‡Y ¶°¿Y|a µÂ— ŠËY‚§Y ÉY€] `Ìe¿ƒ
ÀÌy} Ä] {Z« ‚fÀ‡Âf§ ÊËZ¿YÂe ½{Â] YY{ €] ÃÁԟ ¶°¿Y|a
¶Ë— d‡Y Ä¿Y{ Ä] ½M µZ¬f¿Y Á {Ây { ÊËY~£ {Y» ɁZ‡
¾ËY •Z^eY .|À¯Ê» {Zˁ Y Ê°Œy ŠÀe Ä] ¶¼ve ½M ½{Â]
d‡Y Ã|‹ ‰Y‚³ Ô^« Ê°Œy ŠÀe Ä] ¶¼ve Z] d¨
Y .(Ahmadi et al., 2009; Bazargani et al., 2011)
ŽyZ‹ Y €Ë¯ `Ìe¿ƒ ½YÂeÊ» ‚Ì¿ ®ŒË µÂ— €œ¿
½M { Ä°ÀËY Ä] ÄmÂe Z] ÃZ̳ { ®ŒË {ÂmÁ .dˆ¿Y{
–ËY€‹ ÉY€] [¸˜» Êf¨ |¿YÂeÊ» {‹ʻ ¹Zn¿Y ‚fÀ‡Âf§
¾Ë€eÓZ] ÉY{€‡ `Ìe¿ƒ .{‹ Äf§€³ €œ¿ { Ê°Œy ŠÀe
{ Á {Y{ ½ZŒ¿ ÊÅ|¸³ Ze Á ÉY€] Y ʻ¼Ÿ ɀË~a \̯€e
— Ä] |‹Z] Äf‹Y{ ”u `Ìe¿ƒ ¾ËY į ÊËZÅÊ«Ôe
lËZf¿ .|f§YÊ» €ÌyZe Ä] ÊÅ|¸³ ÃÁ{ Á 2/4 –‡Âf»
Y Z»Y ,{Y{ ½ZŒ¿ ʳ|̇ xËZe Z] ÊËÓZ] Ê¿YÂz¼Å ÊÅ|¸³
¾Ë€fÆ] d¨³ ½YÂeÊ» Ê°Œy ŠÀe Ä] ¶¼ve €œ¿ ʬ¿
Á |¿ÁÊ» ¶³ Ä] €e{Á į |ÀfˆÅ ÊËZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ,ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ
¹Zn¿Y Y {Ây ʳ|̇ ,Ä¿Y{ ½|‹€a ÃÁ{ ½{€¯ ÃZe¯ ½Á|]
d‡Y ¾°¼» į d‡Y ¶Ì·{ ¾ËY Ä] kZfÀf‡Y ¾ËY .|ÀÅ{Ê»
ʸÌy į |À‹Z] Äf‹Y{ {ÂmÁ …{Á Z̈] ÉZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ
ʸÌy Ä¿Y{ ½|‹ €a ÃÁ{ ½{€¯ ÃZe¯ Z] Á Äf§ ¶³ Ä] žË€‡
Y Y€§ ºˆÌ¿Z°» { ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ¾ËY Äq €³Y .|À‡€] ‚Ì¿ žË€‡
**
.0/01 Á 0/05 t˜‡ { Y{ÊÀ » \Ìe€e Ä] ** Á*
¾ËY { į d‡Y ʼƻ cZ¨ Y Ê°Ë Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á
d¨ ¾ËY ÊeZ^Ÿ Ä] .{Y{ ½ZŒ¿ É{Zˁ Z̈] ÂÀe ŠËZ»M
`Ìe¿ƒ ÉY€] ¹€³ 42/4 Ze Y€Ì‹ `Ìe¿ƒ ÉY€] ¹€³ 29/4 Y
µÁ|m { ½YÂeÊ» Y ÊÆ]ZŒ» ÄnÌf¿ .{Â] €Ì¤f» WS-82-9
ÉYY{ WS-82-9 `Ìe¿ƒ į É— Ä] .{€¯ Ã|ÅZŒ» 2
Ã{Â] d¨ ¾ËY ÉY€] ʻ¼Ÿ ɀË~a \̯€e d̸]Z« ¾Ë€fŒÌ]
Äf‹Y{ {ÂmÁ |·YÁ ¾ËY į ÊËZÅÊ«Ôe { ¾Ì´¿ZÌ» — Ä] Á
Ã{Y{ ½ZŒ¿ ŠËY‚§Y ¹€³ 3/2 Y|¬» Ä] d¨ ¾ËY ½Y‚Ì» d‡Y
.d‡Y Ã|‹
ÊuԏY ‰Y ¾Ë€eÓZ] ¶°¿Y|a µÂ— Á Z¨eY {» {
ÉZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ‚m į {€¯ Ã|ÅZŒ» 2}M `Ìe¿ƒ { ½YÂeÊ» Y
ÄÀ˂³ ¾Ë€fÆ] WS-82-7 `Ìe¿ƒ .{Â] ŠËZ»M ¾ËY |À¸] Za
ÃZe¯ į Zn¿M Y .d‡Y ÊÅZe¯Za ÉY€] ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ sԏY ÉY€]
Y ©€ e Á €Ìz^e ½Y‚Ì» ÃZ̳ Äjm ½{Â] ®q¯ Á ½{Â]
Ä] ,|À¯Ê» ŠÀe –ËY€‹ Ä] Z³Z‡ Y `Ìe¿ƒ Á Ã{Y{ ŠÅZ¯
½YÂÀŸ Ä] `Ìe¿ƒ ¾ËY į ʸËÓ{ Y Ê°Ë |‡Ê» €œ¿
Á µZÆ¿ ÄÌÆe Á sԏY cZ¬Ì¬ve Ĉ‡Â» { ¶¼vf» `Ìe¿ƒ
½{Â] ®q¯ Äf^·Y .|‹Z] ÉZ³Z‡ ¾Ì¼Å Ã|‹ |Ì·Âe ~]
{€]Ê» ÓZ] Y d‹Y{€] ŽyZ‹ Äq €³Y ÃZ̳ Äjm |u Y ŠÌ]
€f¼¯ |Ì·Âe ½Y‚Ì» Á €f¼¯ ‚fÀ‡Âf§ ¶Ì·{ Ä] ‚Ì¿ {€°¸¼Ÿ Ê·Á
Blum, ) dˆÌ¿ [¸˜» Á |Å{Ê» ½ZŒ¿ |Ë|‹ ŠÅZ¯
į {€¯ ɀ̳ÄnÌf¿ ½YÂf] |ËZ‹ ¶Ì·{ ¾Ì¼Å Ä] .(2011
ÃZe¯ Za |u Y ŠÌ] Y€Ë |‹Z] €fÆ] €œ¿ ¾ËY Y €Ë¯ `Ìe¿ƒ
¶·MÉ{ ‰Á Z] ½Z¿ ¹|À³ { cZ¨ Êy€] gYÂe Ä ·Z˜» :½YZ°¼Å Á ÊÀ̌»Y
ŠÅZ/¯ µZ/»€¿ –ËY€/‹ Ä/] d^/ˆ¿ {€°¸¼Ÿ Z] –^e€» cZ¨
WS- Á €ËÂ/¯ `/Ìe¿ƒ Á{ .(Blum, 2011) |/Å{Ê» ½ZŒ¿
–ËY€‹ { {€°¸¼Ÿ ŠËY‚§Y ÉY€] ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ë€fÆ] ‚m 82-9
Äq €³Y WS-82-13 Á WS-82-7 `Ìe¿ƒ Á{ .|¿{Â] µZ»€¿
Ä/] Z/»Y ,|¿Â‹Ê» É|À] Ĭ^— ¶¼vf» ÉZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ½YÂÀŸ Ä]
,ÃZ/̳ Ä/jm ½{Â/] ®/q¯ Á |/u Y ŠÌ/] Ê/‡{Á ¶Ì·{
ÉY€] Ê ^À» ½YÂÀŸ Ä] |À¿YÂeÊ» ZÆÀe Á |¿Y|¿ ÊËÓZ] {€°¸¼Ÿ
.|¿Â‹ Ã{Z¨f‡Y Ê°Œy Ä] ¶¼ve ÉZŽƒ
¶·MÉ{ ŠËZ»M cÔaÉZ] Ä˂ne
dÌ “Á ½YÂeÊ» ÊfuY Ä] cÔaÉZ] Ä˂ne {
Á {€¯ Ã|ÅZŒ» SCA Á GCA ½Y‚Ì» €œ¿ Y Y ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ
ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ¹Y|¯ {Y{ ŽÌzŒe ½YÂeÊ» ‰Á ¾ËY { ¾ÌÀr¼Å
Äf‹Y{ Ê]Ây ʏy ɀË~a \̯€e |À¿YÂeÊ» €´Ë|¼Å Z]
{» { Ä˂ne ¾ËY .(Yan and Kang, 2003) |À‹Z]
Ä] .|Àf‹Y{ €ÌiZe ÃZ̳ {€°¸¼Ÿ { į d§€³ ¹Zn¿Y ÊeZ¨
Ä] Ã|‹ ɀ̳ ÁY|¿Y cZ¨ Z] {€°¸¼Ÿ Ę]Y Y|f]Y \Ìe€e ¾ËY
®¼¯ Z] µZ»€¿ Á ŠÀe –ËY€‹ Á{ { Ä¿Z³Y|m c
Ę]Y µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹ { .|»M d‡{ Ä] ¹Z³ Ä] ¹Z³ ½Â̇€³
:(|ÀfˆÅ {Y|¿Zf‡Y \ËY€“ ļÅ) |»M d‡{ Ä] €Ë c Ä]
(1)
YN=0.25TW+0.91EN-0.71TI+0.29SF
:{Â] €Ë c Ä] ŠÀe –ËY€‹ { Ę]Y ¾ËY
(2)
YS=0.44TW+0.87EN+0.28AW+0.44SF
µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹ { {€°¸¼Ÿ \Ìe€e Ä] YS Á YN ½M { į
{Y| e SP ,ċÂy {Y| e EN ,Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á TW,ŠÀe Á
®ŒË µÂ— AW Á ÄnÀa {Y| e TI ,ċÂy { Är¸^À‡
.d‡Y
{Y| e d¨ Ä] •Â]€» cÔaÉZ] Y{¼¿ (a) 1 ¶°‹
ŠËZ»M –ËY€‹ Á{ €Å ¾Ì´¿ZÌ» ÉY€] Y ċÂy { Är¸^À‡
,|‹ Ã{Y{ ½ZŒ¿ ‚Ì¿ 2 µÁ|m { į —½Z¼Å .|Å{Ê» ½ZŒ¿
¾Ë€fŒÌ] ÉYY{ WS-82-9 Á €Ë¯ ,Y€Ì‹ ÉZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ
¾ËY ÉY€] GCA ¾Ë€f¼¯ ÉYY{ 2}M `Ìe¿ƒ Á GCA
€Ë¯ `Ìe¿ƒ Y{¼¿ ¾ËY { Ä°ÀËY Ä] ÄmÂe Z] .|¿{Â] d¨
d‡Y ¾ËY Ã|ÀÅ{ ½ZŒ¿ ,d‡Y Äf§€³ Y€« Y€Ì‹ €fˆe ®Ë{‚¿
\̯€e €´Ë|¼Å Z] |À¿YÂeÊ» Ê]Ây Ä] `Ìe¿ƒ Á{ ¾ËY į
.|ÀËZ¼¿ |Ì·Âe ɀe€] kZf¿ Á Äf‹Y{ ÊËÓZ] ʏy ɀË~a
8
ª§Â» d‡Y µÂ¼ » Z» Œ¯ { į ¶§ €yM Ê°Œy
Ô¼Ÿ Ä¿Y{ ½|‹ €a ÃÁ{ ½{€¯ ÃZe¯ ¶Ì·{ Ä] Z»Y ,|ÀfˆÅ
ª˜À» ¾ËY Z] .{Y{ |ÀÅYÂy ½ZŒ¿ {Ây Y ɀe ¾ÌËZa {€°¸¼Ÿ
€œ¿ { WS-82-9 `Ìe¿ƒ Y `Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ë€fÆ] ½YÂeÊ»
ÃÁ{ Z»Y ,{Y{ žË€‡ ʳ|̇ Á ÊÅ|¸³ Äq €³Y į d§€³
Ä] Á d‡Y Ã{€¯ š¨u –‡Âf» |u { Y {Ây Ä¿Y{ ½|‹ €a
Ä°ÀËY Ä] ÄmÂe Z] .{Y{ ‚Ì¿ Ê]Ây Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á ¶Ì·{ ¾Ì¼Å
½YZ°¼Å Á {€n» ʇ— ªÌ¬ve { ÉY{€‡ `Ìe¿ƒ
{Â] ­€fŒ» €“Zu ªÌ¬ve Á (Mojarrad et al., 2009)
|À¿Z» Ã|‹ €¯} ªÌ¬ve { `Ìe¿ƒ ¾ËY Z] ÉZÅʳ„ËÁ
ªÌ¬ve { ÊÅ|¸³€Ë{ Á |À¸] ¶°¿Y|a µÂ— ,{Zˁ ċÂy {Y| e
.|Ë{€³ Ã|ÅZŒ» ‚Ì¿ €“Zu
¾Ì/] ¶/]Z¬f» €/iY Ä/°ÀËY Ä/] Ä/mÂe Z] {€°¸¼Ÿ {» {
ÉZ//ÅÄ//˂ne { d//‡Y Ã|//‹ Y{Ê//À » –Ì//v» { `//Ìe¿ƒ
Ä/˂ne Á cZ¨/ Ê»Â/¼Ÿ ɀË~/a \/̯€e ½Y‚/Ì» Ä¿Z³Y|m
d¨/ Ä/¿Z³Y|m †¿Z/ËYÁ Ä/˂ne .|‹ Ä^‡Zv» ½M †¿ZËYÁ
€Ë{Z/¬» ½M µZ^¿{ Ä] Á ŠÀe Á µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹ { Ä¿Y{ {€°¸¼Ÿ
Ã|/‹ Ä/ËYY 4 µÁ|/m { –ËY€/‹ Á{ ¾/ËY { ¾Ë|·YÁ GCA
Y{Ê/À » cÁZ/¨e Z/Å`/Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ì/] ŠÀ/e –ËY€/‹ { .d‡Y
€/iY {ÁÊ» Zœf¿Y ÄnÌf¿ ¾ËY Y į ˜¿Z¼Å Á |Œ¿ Ã|ÅZŒ»
{ Z/»Y .{Â^¿ Y{ÊÀ » ‚Ì¿ ʏy Á ʻ¼Ÿ ɀË~a \̯€e
Á Ã{Â/] Y{Ê/À » ZÌ/ˆ] cÁZ¨e ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ì] µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹
Á `Ìe¿ƒ €iY ½{Â^¿ Y{ÊÀ » .{Â] ÓZ] Z̈] ‚Ì¿ GCA ºÆ‡
Z/Žƒ –ËY€/‹ ¾/ËY { į {Y{ ½ZŒ¿ ŠÀe –ËY€‹ { GCA
¾/ËY { ¶/Ì·{ ¾Ì/¼Å Ä] Á |¿{€°¿ Y|Ìa Y {Ây ½ZÌ] d€§
|/Àq €/Å .d/‡Y ¾ÌËZ/a cZ¨ ɀË~adiYÁ Ó¼ » –ËY€‹
µZ/¼ŸY –/‡Âf» ŠÀe ŠËZ»M ¾ËY { į {‹ Ê» ÉÁM{ZË
ÉY€/] ŠÀe –ËY€‹ { ɀË~adiYÁ Á GCA €iY ŠÅZ¯ .|‹
Sirault et ) d‡Y Ã|‹ ‰Y‚³ 0Ô^« cZ¨ €´Ë{ Á {€°¸¼Ÿ
ŠËY‚/§Y Ä/] {€/°¸¼Ÿ x/‡Za ,€/´Ë{ cZ/^Ÿ Ä] .(al., 2008
.d/‡Y {Zˁ \̋ Z] Á ʘy Ę]Y c Ä] Y|f]Y [M ½Y‚Ì»
Ã|‹ €f¼¯ \̋ ¾ËY {Á €eÓZ] É|u Y [M ½Y‚Ì» į Ê¿Z»
{ ¶Ì·{ ¾Ì¼Å Ä] .|f§Yʼ¿ ©Z¨eY {€°¸¼Ÿ { É{Zˁ €Ì̤e Á
{ [M ½Y‚/Ì» { ®/q¯ ÉZ/ÅÊfyYÂÀ°ËZ/¿ ,ŠÀ/e –ËY€‹
{ ±‚/] cY€/Ì̤e h/ŸZ] ,Ä/Ÿ‚» t˜/‡ { ÃZ̳ …€f‡{
.|/À¯Ê» {Zˁ Y Z˜y †¿ZËYÁ Á Ã|‹ cZ¨ €´Ë{ Á {€°¸¼Ÿ
Á {€/°¸¼Ÿ ɀË~/ad/iYÁ ŠÀ/e –ËY€/‹ { ¶Ì·{ ¾Ì¼Å Ä]
1391 / µÁY ÃZ¼‹ /¹Á{ µZ‡ /cÔ£ cZ¬Ì¬ve
9
ZÆ¿M F1 Á ¾Ë|·YÁ { µZ»€¿ Á ŠÀe –ËY€‹ Á{ { Ä¿Y{ {€°¸¼Ÿ cZ ]€» ¾Ì´¿ZÌ» -4 µÁ|m
Table 4. Mean squares of grain yield at stress and normal conditions in parents and their F1
cY€Ì̤e ž]ZÀ»
S.O.V
`Ìe¿ƒ
Genotype
­Â¸]
Block
Z˜y
Erorr
GCA
SCA
É{YM Äm{
µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹
ŠÀe –ËY€‹
df
Normal condition
Stress condition
**
27
45.5
12 n
2
13.8 ns
2.6 ns
54
20.8
11.2
**
17.9 ns
10.4 ns
129.5
21.5 ns
6
21
µZ»€¿ Á ŠÀe –ËY€‹ Á{ { ¾Ë|·YÁ GCA €Ë{Z¬»
GCA values of parents at stress and normal conditions
`Ìe¿ƒ
µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹
ŠÀe –ËY€‹
Genotype
Normal condition
Stress condition
- 0.5 ns
- 0.19 ns
3**
0.1 ns
-2.3**
- 0.01 ns
-2.3**
1.1 ns
2.9**
- 0.8 ns
- 0.05 ns
0.9 ns
- 0.86 ns
- 1.05 ns
2}M
Azar 2
€Ë¯
Kavir
Y€Ì‹
Shiraz
ÉY{€‡
ns
Sardari
ws-82-9
ws-82-7
ws-82-13
Non significant.
* and **
.Y{ÊÀ » €Ì£ ns
Significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively.
¶·MÉ{ ŠËZ»M Ê°Ìf¿ƒ ÉZŀf»YZa {ÁM€]
Ä] ,¶·MÉ{ ÉZÅÃ{Y{ Ê°Ìf¿ƒ ÂÀe Ä] •Â]€» ÉZŀf»YZa
Ä^‡Zv» (Mather and Jinks, 1972) ‚°ÀÌm Á €f» ‰Á
½Â̇€³ –y ÄnÀa {Y| e {» { .|‹ ÄËYY 5 µÁ|m { Á
®Ë {|Ÿ Z] \̋ cÁZ¨e Á Ã{Â] €¨ Y cÁZ¨f» Ê^̋ ÉYY{
µ|» į d‡Y ¾ËY Ã|ÀÅ{ ½ZŒ¿ į dˆÌ¿ Y{ÊÀ » ‚Ì¿
dËZ¨¯ d¨ ¾ËY ÉZÅÃ{Y{ {» { dÌ^·Z£ -ʌËY‚§Y
½ZŒ¿ į {Â] 0/77 d¨ ¾ËY { dÌ^·Z£ Äm{ .|À¯Ê»
{ .{Â] d¨ ¾ËY µ€fÀ¯ { ½ƒ ¶¼Ÿ Ê^ˆ¿ dÌ^·Z£ Ã|ÀÅ{
Á Ä¿Y{Y‚Å ½Á ,ċÂy { Är¸^À‡ {Y| e ,ċÂy {Y| e {»
dËZ¨¯ dÌ^·Z£ -ʌËY‚§Y µ|» µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹ { {€°¸¼Ÿ
ÉY€] Y{ÊÀ » ɁZf‡ ÊaY €iY {ÂmÁ µZ¼fuY Á |À¯Ê¼¿
c Ä] ½YÂeʼ¿ ¾ËY€]ZÀ] Á {Y{ {ÂmÁ cZ¨ ¾ËY µ€fÀ¯
.0/01 Á 0/05 t˜‡ { Y{ÊÀ » \Ìe€e Ä]
** *
Á
\̯€e ‚Ì¿ ÉY{€‡ €fˆe Z] €Ë¯ `Ìe¿ƒ ,½M €] ÃÁԟ
{Y| e ŠËY‚§Y ÉY€] ½YÂeÊ» į {Y{ ½ZŒ¿ Ê]Ây ɀË~a
Ã{Z¨f‡Y €Ë¯ `Ìe¿ƒ Y ,ÉY{€‡ `Ìe¿ƒ { ZÅÄr¸^À‡
€Å ¾Ì´¿ZÌ» ÉY€] ċÂy {Y| e Ä] •Â]€» (b) 1 ¶°‹ .{€¯
ċÂy {Y| e ÉYY{ į ÉY{€‡ `Ìe¿ƒ Y .d‡Y –ËY€‹ Á{
ċÂy º¯ {Y| e ½{€¯ ¥€—€] ÉY€] ½YÂe Ê» d‡Y ÊËÓZ]
{» { .{€¯ Ã{Z¨f‡Y WS-82-9 Á 2}M `Ìe¿ƒ Á{ {
Á WS-82-9¾Ì] ɀË~a \̯€e ¾Ë€fŒÌ] Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å ½Á
.(c 1 ¶°‹) d‹Y{ {ÂmÁ Y€Ì‹ Á 2}M ,€Ë¯ ÉZÅ `Ìe¿ƒ
¦Ì “ Ä¿Y{Y‚Å ½Á €œ¿ Y Y€Ì‹ `Ìe¿ƒ Ä°ÀËY Ä] ÄmÂe Z]
Ê«Ôe ½M sԏY ÉY€] ‰Á ¾Ë€fÆ] |‡ Ê» €œ¿ Ä] ,d‡Y
.|‹Z] WS-82-9 `Ìe¿ƒ Z]
¶·MÉ{ ‰Á Z] ½Z¿ ¹|À³ { cZ¨ Êy€] gYÂe Ä ·Z˜» :½YZ°¼Å Á ÊÀ̌»Y
{ .{€/¯ Ã{Z¨f‡Y €Ë¯ Á WS-82-9 ÉZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ Y ½YÂeÊ»
Ê«Ôe ½M sԏY ÉY€] Ê«Ôe ¾Ë€fÆ] Ä¿Y{ ½|‹€a ÃÁ{ {»
`/Ìe¿ƒ WS ÃÁ€/³ Y Â/¼n» { .{Â/] WS-82-7 ׀˯
Ä/ˆËZ¬» { ŠËZ»M ¾ËY { .{Â] `Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ë€fÆ] WS-82-9
{ `/Ìe¿ƒ ¾/ËY ¦ /“ d¨³ ½YÂf] |ËZ‹ ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ €´Ë{ Z]
`Ìe¿ƒ ¾ËY .{Â] ÃZe¯ ¶°¿Y|a µÂ— Á º¯ ÁZ] ċÂy {Y| e
Z/] Y€Ë .d‹Y{ Ê]Ây Z̈] dÌ “Á ®ËƒÂ·ÂÀ§ cZ¨ €œ¿ Y
Äf/‹Y|¿ ÊÅZe¯ ½|‹€a ÃÁ{ Z»Y d‹Y{ žË€‡ ÊÅ|¸³ Ä°ÀËY
Ä/¯ ÉÂ/— Ä] Ã|¿Z‡€¿ ¹Z¼eY Ä] žË€‡ Y {Ây É|‹ ÃÁ{ Á
ÃÁ{ µÂ/— Á Á 69 ¾Ë{Á€/§ µÁY Y ½M É|‹ ÃÁ{ µÂ—
€/œ¿ ¾/ËY Y Ê/³„ËÁ ¾/ËY .{Â/] Á 26 ½M { Ä/¿Y{ ½|‹€a
|/u Y ŠÌ/] Ê/‡{Á ¶/Ì·{ Ä/] Z/ÅÄ/¿Y{ į {Y{ d̼ÅY
ÉZ/Å`/Ìe¿ƒ d¨³ ½YÂeÊ» Â¼n» { .|¿Â‹Ê¼¿ Ã|̯Á€q
Ê]Â/y ÉZ/ÅÄ/zŒ» ÉY{€/‡ Á €Ë¯ ,2}M |À¿Z» ʼË|«
Z/Æ¿M Y |/Ë|m ÉZ/Å`/Ìe¿ƒ sÔ/Y { ½YÂ/eÊ/» į |¿Y{
WS ÃÁ€/³ ¾Ì/] { ‚/Ì¿ WS-82-9 `/Ìe¿ƒ .{€¯ Ã{Z¨f‡Y
Ê°/Œy ŠÀe –ËY€‹ { dŒ¯ Ä̏Âe ÉY€] `Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ë€fÆ]
.d‡Y
ÉY‚´‡Zb‡
Š//z] Y |//À¿Y{Ê//» ¹Ó {Â//y €//] Ä//·Z¬» ½Z³|//¿Z´¿
Ä/ËÁ Ä/] ~/] Á µZÆ¿ ÄÌÆe Á sԏY Ĉ‡Â» cÔ£ cZ¬Ì¬ve
~/] ¾f/‹Y~³ Z/ÌfyY { ÉY€/] ½Z/̨n¿ {³ €f¯{ ÉZ«M
{Â//» { ÊËZ//¼ÀÅY ¾Ì//Àr¼Å Á WS ÃÁ€//³ ÉZ//Å`//Ìe¿ƒ
.|ÀËZ¼¿ €°Œe ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ [Zzf¿Y
10
.{ ¾Ì/¼ze ¶/·M É{ ‰Á Z/] Y Ê/°Ìf¿ƒ ÉZŀf»YZa ªÌ«{
¶°¿Y|/a µÂ/— Ä/] •Â]€» ÉZŀf»YZa €´Ë{ Á ½ƒ ¶¼Ÿ ÃÂv¿
ÉZ/ŀf»YZ/a ‚/Ì¿ 5 µÁ|/m { .{Â] ÃZ̳ Z¨eY ÄÌ^‹ Z̈]
{ Ä/¯ |Å{Ê» ½ZŒ¿ ®ŒË ÉY€] Ã|‹ Ã{ ¾Ì¼ze Ê°Ìf¿ƒ
d/Ì^·Z£ Ä/m{ .|/À¯ Ê» dËZ¨¯ dÌ^·Z£ -ʌËY‚§Y µ|» ½M
Ä/] €f/ŒÌ] ½ƒ ¶/¼Ÿ |/Å{Ê/» ½Z/Œ¿ į {Â] ®Ë Y €fŒÌ]
{ SCA €iY Ê^ˆ¿ ½{Â]ÓZ] .d‡Y Ã{Â] dÌ^·Z£ ©Â§ c
¾/ËY ‚Ì¿ (1µÁ|m) ¶·M É{ ÉZÅ Ã{Y{ †¿ZËYÁ Ä˂ne µÁ|m
µÂ— Z] ®ŒË ¾Ë€e¶Ë— ÉYY{ €Ë¯ .|À¯Ê» |ÌWZe Y Äf°¿
Z/] ®/ŒË ¾Ë€e ÃZe¯ ÉYY{ 2}M `Ìe¿ƒ Á €f»Êf¿Z‡ 8/1
.d‡Y €f»Êf¿Z‡ 6/7 µÂ—
į µMÃ|ËY `Ìe¿ƒ ®Ë į {Y{ ½ZŒ¿ ʸ¯ — Ä] lËZf¿
|/‹Z] Ê°/Œy ŠÀ/e Z/] –^e€/» [¸˜» cZ¨ ļŠÉYY{
Ä/‹Ây €fŒÌ] {Y| e |Ì·Âe ÉY€] `Ìe¿ƒ ¾Ë€fÆ] .{Y|¿ {ÂmÁ
d§€³ €œ¿ { ÉY{€‡ Á 2 }M ÉZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ ½YÂeÊ» Y ÁZ]
½YÂ/eÊ» ,ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ €ËZ‡ Z] ZÆ¿M SCA €Ë{Z¬» Ä] ÄmÂe Z] į
sÔ/Y ÉY€/] Y €Ë¯ × 2}M Á Y€Ì‹ × ÉY{€‡ ÉZÅÊ«Ôe
{ Är¸^À/‡ {Y|/ e sÔ/Y ÉY€/] .{€/¯ {ZÆÀŒÌa d¨ ¾ËY
Á {€/¯ Ã{Z¨f‡Y WS-82-9 Á Y€Ì‹ ,€Ë¯ Y ½YÂeÊ» ċÂy
Ä/¿Y{ Y‚/Å ½Á sÔ/Y ÉY€/] .{Y{ Ê/«Ôe ÉY{€‡ Z] Y ZÆ¿M
Ä/] Ä/mÂe Z/] Á {€¯ Ã{Z¨f‡Y WS-82-9 `Ìe¿ƒ Y ½YÂe Ê»
Y {Â/‹Ê/» ÄÌ/Âe Z/Å`/Ìe¿ƒ €ËZ/‡ Z/] ½M SCA €Ë{Z¬»
ÉY€/] WS-82-9 × 2 }M Á WS-82-9 × €ËÂ/¯ ÉZÅÊ«Ôe
ŠËY‚/§Y ÉY€/] .{Â/‹ Ã{Z¨f‡Y Ä¿Y{Y‚Å ½Á ŠËY‚§Y Á sԏY
|/¿YÂeÊ/» Ê°/Œy ŠÀ/e Ä] ¶¼ve €œ¿ Y į ¶°¿Y|a µÂ—
ÉY€/] .{€/¯ Ã{Z¨f/‡Y 2}M `Ìe¿ƒ Y ½YÂe Ê» |‹Z] [¸˜»
‚Ì¿ Ä¿Y{ ½|‹ €a ÃÁ{ ¾ÌÀr¼Å Á ʳ|̇ Á ÊÅ|¸³ sԏY
1391 / µÁY ÃZ¼‹ /¹Á{ µZ‡ /cÔ£ cZ¬Ì¬ve
11
b
Which wins where or which is best for what
a
Which wins where or which is best for what
Which wins where or which is best for what
d
Which wins where or which is best for what
c
e
Which wins where or which is best for what
½Á (c) (–ËY€‹ Á{ ¾Ì´¿ZÌ») ċÂy {Y| e (b) ,(–ËY€‹ Á{ ¾Ì´¿ZÌ») ċÂy { Är¸^À‡ {Y| e (a) :cZ¨ ÉY€] cÔaÉZ] Y{¼¿ -1 ¶°‹
Ê ¸“ |Àq ¶yY{ ZË ZŅY { ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ .µZ»€¿ –ËY€‹ { ÄnÀa {Y| e (e) ŠÀe –ËY€‹ { ®ŒË µÂ— (d) (–ËY€‹ Á{ ¾Ì´¿ZÌ») Ä¿Y{ Y‚Å
WS- :W9 ,WS-82-7 :W7 ,ÉY{€‡ SA ,Y€Ì‹ SH ,€Ë¯ KA ,2}M AZ :Y |ÀeZ^Ÿ ZÅ`Ìe¿ƒ .|¿YÄf§€³ Y€« ½M Y ½Á€Ì] Zŀfˆe Á
WS-82-13 :W13 ,82-9
Figure 1. Biplot graph for traits: (a) Spikelet number per spike (mean of two conditions), (b) Spike number
(mean of two conditions), (c) Thousand grain weight (mean of two conditions), (d) Awn length in drought stress
condition (e) Tiller number in normal condition. Genotypes are either located at corners or in polygon while
testers are outside of polygon. Genotypes consisted of: AZ, Azar2; KA, Kavir; SH, Shiraz; SA, Sardari; W7,
WS-82-7; W9, WS-82-9, W13: WS-82-13
¶·MÉ{ ‰Á Z] ½Z¿ ¹|À³ { cZ¨ Êy€] gYÂe Ä ·Z˜» :½YZ°¼Å Á ÊÀ̌»Y
12
½Z¿ ¹|À³ 7×7 ¶·MÉ{ s€— { ‚°ÀÌm Á €f» ‰Á Z] Ã|‹ {ÁM€] Ê°Ìf¿ƒ ÉZŀf»YZa -5 µÁ|m
Table 5. Estimated genetic parameters by Mather and Jinks method in 7×7 wheat diallel design
ɀË~a diYÁ
ÉZÀ^» €]) ʏy
(ÄeÂ] 10 ¾Ì´¿ZÌ»
d¨
Á ½Â̇€³ \ˀ“
[€“¶Zu
ZŶ·M Ê¿YÁY€§
dÌ^·Z£ Äm{
5Degree of
Allel
frequency
product
dominance
0.7
0.12
0.36
1 {|Ÿ
¾Ì´¿ZÌ»
cZ ]€»
½Â̇€³
Regression
coefficient and it’s
significant
difference from 1
Regression
mean
squares
0.77
0.99 ns
17.2**
0.14
0.9
0.65 ns
1.8 ns
0.97
0.03
0.67
0.84 ns
1641**
0.97
0.03
0.72
0.93 ns
312
0.86
0.16
0.91
0.27
0.11 ns
0.8
0.12
0.8
0.33 ns
7.4 ns
0.52
0.2
1.3
0.95 ns
0.04**
0.76
0.11
0.79
0.83 ns
23
0.71
0.18
0.95
0.78 ns
20.6
0.46
0.21
1.33
1.03 ns
17
0.12
0.76
1.82
0.61 ns
13.1**
0.55
0.08
0.93
0.53 ns
4.6 ns
Narrow sense
heritability (per 10
plants mean)
Trait
ÄnÀa {Y| e
Y ½M Y{ÊÀ » cÁZ¨e
Tiller number
ċÂy {Y| e
Spike number
ÄeÂ] Z¨eY
Plant Height
¶°¿Y|a µÂ—
**
Peduncle length
ċÂy { Är¸^À‡ {Y| e
*
Spikelet no. per spike
Ä¿Y{Y‚Å ½Á
Thousand grain weight
®ŒË µÂ—
Awn length
ÊÅ|¸³ xËZe
**
Flowering time
ʳ|̇ ½Z»
**
Maturity time
Ä¿Y{ ½|‹ €a ÃÁ{
**
Grain filling period
ŠÀe –ËY€‹ { {€°¸¼Ÿ
Yield in stress condition
µZ»€¿ –WY€‹ { {€°¸¼Ÿ
Yield in normal condition
ns
*
Non significant.
**
and : Significant at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively.
.Y{ÊÀ » €Ì£ ns
.0/01 Á 0/05 t˜‡ { Y{ÊÀ » \Ìe€e Ä] ** Á*
13
1391 / µÁY ÃZ¼‹ /¹Á{ µZ‡ /cÔ£ cZ¬Ì¬ve
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15
Cereal Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012
Inheritance of some traits in bread wheat using diallel method at
normal and drought stress conditions
Hosseinali Ramshini1Ï, Mehdi Fazel Najafabadi1 and Mohammad Reza Bihamte2
1. Assist. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy Sciences and Plant Breeding, Aburaihan Campus, Tehran
University, 3. Prof., Agriculture and Natural Resources Campus, Tehran University
(Received: August 6, 2012- Accepted: October 30, 2012)
Abstract
Breeding for drought tolerance is one of the most efficient ways for preventing yield loss in dry
conditions. Diallel method is one of the best methods for genetic evaluation of germplasm before
starting of breeding program. In this experiment seven bread wheat genotypes including old genotypes
and elite lines were crossed in a half diallel mating design. Parents and F1s were planted at stress and
normal condition in a RCBD design with three replications. In addition to pheonologic recording,
morphological traits and grain yield were measured after harvest. Analysis of variance for diallel
experiment showed that the effect of GCA effect was significant for all traits that imply there is
significant additive effect in controlling of all traits. Results showed that each genotype is good
considering one or some traits. Using biplot analysis, parents with high SCA were recognized for
different traits. For spikelets number per ear, ear number and thousand weight crosses Kavir×Shiraz,
Sardari×Shiraz and Azar2×WS-82-9 had the highest SCA. Mather and Jinks graphical analysis
showed the adequacy of additive-dominance gene action model. Degree of dominance was between
from 0 to 1 for most traits which showed the gene action is almost partial dominance. Some genotypes
like WS-82-9, Sardari and Kavir can be used for improving of traits thousand weight, ear number and
spikelets in ear in both conditions, respectively. Also WS-82-9 is an elite line that can be acceptable
genotype for dry condition.
Keywords: Gene action, General and specific combining ability, Narrow sense heritability
*Corresponding author: ramshini_h@ut.ac.ir