Brief History of Mele.cwk

Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Ka Haku Mele
Composing Hawaiian Song
The term "haku" was originally applied to the sorting and arranging of
feathers in patterns seen in feather cloaks and other feather works.
As a style of lei making, "haku" is done by braiding the stems together
without any external binding material.
As a poet, the "haku mele" was an arranger of words, well trained in the
lore of the land and skillful in both the ordinary and the figurative use of
the Hawaiian language. The Hawaiian poet celebrated the land and the
life in and of that land. Nature and culture were intertwined as the
haku mele wove the poetic lei, capturing the very essence of Hawaiian
Ancient Hawaiians were very poetic people, seen by the abundant poetic
literature and prose works available. These poetic texts, whether
composed in the style of the ancient chant or shaped by western
influence, represent an authentic and priceless record of our social and
cultural history, revealing qualities of the Hawaiian mind and
Hawaiians had a fascinating way of reflecting on the events that took
place in everyday life: a birth of a child, a love affair, a good or bad
feeling towards a chief. They would listen to the sounds of nature, like
the ocean or the wind, imitating the rhythms found or the feelings felt
through these experiences. This eventually became their music.
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Ka Inoa:
Haku Mele
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
After the missionaries arrived in Hawai‘i in the 1820s, Hawaiians were faced with many
challenges. The use of the English language quickly spread throughout the islands, the
printing press was introduced, and music took on a revolutionary change with the
Christian hymnals, new rhythms and added tonalities. Yet, despite the extreme impact
of these innovations, many of the older chants survived.
Over a hundred years had passed after Cook’s arrival before scholars began to record
and translate life in pre-literate Hawai‘i. By that time, much of the old had been pushed
aside by foreign influence. Many of the elders who could have assisted in recalling and
translating these literary works had long departed, and most of the younger generation
were ignorant of the old ways.
Translations of poems were also a problem. None could take the place of the poem’s
original voice, in its primary language, understood by its native audience.
The songs of the past and the present tell the story of our people and of our changes.
As with our past oral tradition, songs and chants are passed down from generation to
generation. These songs, which are made up of words, the nature that surrounds us,
and a binding spirit of aloha, are the keys to our culture and the windows to our souls.
In Dorothy Kahananui’s "Ancient Hawaiian Music," she writes
"In view of the role which old time cultural practices still play in island life, it seems
proper to say in closing:
Ua Pau, ua hala läkou
Koe no nä hana no‘eau
Their days are over,
They have all departed,
Their artistic handiwork live on."
We have many of these works before us, and it is our task to teach the younger
generations of their importance. By studying both the literary poetry and prose works
of our ancestors, and by being well equipped with the techniques of the skillful poet, we
can assure the continued life of our ancestor’s song for generations to come.
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
poem, song, the act of singing
There are 2 major categories:
mele oli - chants sung
mele hula - chants as accompaniment to the hula
Mele Hula can be distinguished by the more regulated rhythm with which the mele
hula were performed in time to the measured music of the dance, whereas the chanter
of the Mele Oli was free to improvise his own style, to depart from an established
pattern of phrasing by shortening or lengthening different lines to his own preference.
haku mele - a composer, a “weaver” of songs
ka‘u mele vs. ko‘u mele (the composerÿs song vs. the song of the one honored)
Mele Oli - subcategories:
mele kuo - songs of praise
mele ka‘ao - the recitation of traditional myth and legend, storytelling
Chants as history/genealogy:
mele ko‘ihonua - recited as poetry (chanted genealogy containing long lists of
names of the generations of chiefs descended from the gods.
mele mo‘okü‘auhau - recited as narration
Mele a Paku‘i
Song of Ka-Haku-Ku‘i-Moana
Chant of Kamahualele: Eia Hawai‘i, he moku, he kanaka
mele pule (replaced by the hïmeni-hymn)
He Mele no Käne (eulogizing Käne and the wai ola-the elixer of eternal life and youth)
Chants of verbal combat:
mele küamuamu -reviling
mele au‘a - refusal of a request
mele ho‘oki‘eki‘e - boasting
mele nemanema - critisism
mele ho‘onaikola - sarcasm
(Johnson, Rubellite Kawena A Brief Introduction to Hawaiian Poetry)
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Kanikau: laments and dirges (‘uwe helu - enumerated chant of wailing)
ho‘ouwëuwë - to cry, to weep, to wail
‘uhane - song for the soul
kümakena - dirge
kükapihe - to cry out
mänewanewa - violent grief
Songs which honor:
mele kupuna - songs honoring ancestors
kä makua - in honor of parents
mele ali‘i - in honor of chieftains
mele kamali‘i - in honor of children
Songs showing aloha:
mele ho‘oipoipo or mele aloha- love song
mele hä‘awi - a giving chant
mele mahalo - expressing gratitude
mele noi - to request a favor
mele ho‘onani - to glorify someone or someplace
mele hi‘ilei - to wear a child as a wreath
mele pai punahele - to praise children as favorites
Songs of the hula tradition:
mele wehe puka - chant to open the door
mele kähea - chant to call
mele komo - chant of invitation
mele inoa - name chant
mele ‘äina - chant in praise of a place
(Johnson, Rubellite Kawena A Brief Introduction to Hawaiian Poetry)
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Aia i hea ka wai a Käne?
He Mele no Käne:
The Water of Käne:
He ui, he ninau:
E ui aku ana au ia oe,
Aia i hea ka Wai a Kane?
Aia i ka hikina a ka La,
Puka i Haehae,
Aia i laila ka Wai a Kane.
A query, a question,
I put to you:
Where is the water of Kane?
At the Eastern Gate
Where the Sun comes in at Haehae
There is the water of Kane.
E ui aku ana au ia oe,
Aia i hea ka Wai a Kane?
Aia i Kaulana a ka la,
I ka pae opua i ke kai,
Ea mai ana ma Nihoa,
Ma ka mole mai o Lehua;
Aia i laila ka Wai a Kane.
A question I ask of you:
Where is the water of Kane?
Out there with the floating Sun,
Where the cloud-forms rest on Oceanÿs breast,
Uplifting their forms of Nihoa,
This side the base of Lehua;
There is the water of Kane.
E ui aku ana au ia oe,
Aia i hea ka Wai a Kane?
Aia i ke kuahiwi,
I ke kualono,
I ke awawa,
i ke kahawai;
Aia i laila ka Wai a Kane.
One question I put to you:
Where is the water of Kane?
Yonder on mountain peak,
On the ridges steep,
In the valleys deep,
Where the rivers sweep:
There is the water of Kane
E ui aku ana au ia oe,
Aia i hea ka Wai a Kane?
Aia i kai, i ka moana,
I ke Kualau, i ke anuenue
I ka punohu, i ka ua koko,
I ka alewalewa;
Aia i laila ka Wai a Kane.
This question I ask of you:
Where, pray, is the water of Kane?
Yonder, at sea, on the ocean,
In the driving rain, in the heavenly bow,
In the piled-up mist wraith, in the blood-red rainfall
In the ghost-pale cloud form;
There is the water of Kane.
(No Kaua‘i mai këia mele)
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
E ui aku ana au ia oe,
Aia i hea ka Wai a Kane?
Aia i luna ka Wai a Kane.
I ke ouli, i ke ao eleele,
I ke ao panopano
I ke ao popolo hua mea a Kane la, e!
Aia i laila ka wai a Kane
One question I put to you:
Where, where is the water of Kane?
Up on high is the water of Kane,
In the heavenly blue, in the black piled cloud,
In the black black cloud,
In the black mottled sacred cloud of the gods;
There is the water of Kane.
E ui aku ana au ia oe,
Aia i hea ka Wai a Kane?
Aia i lalo, i ka honua, i ka Wai hu,
I ka wai kau a Kane me KanaloaHe waipuna, he wai e inu,
He wai e mana, he wai e ola,
E ola no, ea!
One question I ask of you:
Where flows the water of Kane?
Deep in the ground, in the gushing spring,
In the ducts of Kane and Loa,
A well spring of water, to quaff,
A water of magic power- The water of life!
Life! O give us this life!
Heavenÿs eastern gate; the portal in the solid walls that supported the heavenly
dome, through which the sun entered in the morning.
When the setting sun, perhaps by an optical illusion drawn out into a boatlike
form, appeared to be floating on the surface of the ocean, the Hawaiians named
the phenomenon Kau lana ka la-the floating of the sun.. Their fondness for
personification showed itself in the final conversation of this phrase into
something like a proper name, which they applied to the locality of the
Pae opua i ke kai
Another instance of name-giving, applied to the bright clouds that seem to rest
on the horizon, especially to the west.
Nihoa(Bird island)
This small rock to the northwest of Kaua‘i, though far below the horizon, is here
spoken of as if it were in sight.
A red luminous cloud, or a halo, regarded as an omen portending some sacred
and important event.
Ua koko
Literally bloody rain, a term applied to a rainbow when lying near the ground,
or to a freshet-stream swollen with the red muddy water from the wash of the
hillsides. These were important omens, claimed as marking the birth of tabu
Wai kau a Kane me Kanaloa
Once when Kane and Kanaloa were journeying together Kanaloa complained of
thirst. Kane thrust his staff into the pali near at hand, and out flowed a stream
of pure water that has continued to the present day. The place is at Keanae,
(Emerson, Nathaniel B. Unwritten Literature of Hawai‘i, the Sacred Songs of the Hula)
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Meiwi o ka Mo‘olelo
pili wahi/‘ohana: ha‘i aku i kahi o ka mo‘olelo
inoa ‘äina: ha‘i ‘ia ka inoa o kekahi wahi
ku‘ina: linked words (...pau ka ‘ike. ‘Ike...)
pïna‘i: ‘ölelo mau i kekahi hua‘ölelo
helu: e helu i kekahi mau mea (‘o ka manini, ka weke, ka nenue,....)
poko: short phrases
‘äpahu: long sentence-short phrase (ua kuke ke käne i ka moa, a mo‘a.)
puana‘ï: quotes
kua a alo: opposites (...pi‘i a‘e ma luna, eli i lalo.)
‘ölelo no‘eau: ‘ölelo hoihoi o nä küpuna
ho‘opuka kumuhana: ka hana ma ka mo‘olelo (ua hele i ka lawai‘a.)
mëheuheu: nä mea kahiko (laulima...)
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Nä Wehi Mele
1. Inoa
2. Hö‘ailona
‘O ‘oe ia e ka Lani nui Mehameha
E hea aku ana i ka ‘iwa kïlou moku lä...
3. Alolua
i uka, i kai
i luna, i lalo
*he ko‘iko‘i ke ka‘ina o ke alo ‘ana a he mana‘o ko laila
4. Ka‘ina
Hilo Hanakahi
Puna paia ‘ala
Ka‘ü ka makani...
Lili‘u ë, noho nani mai
b. helu
c. ‘apuki
5. Kani
‘o ke kiawe, ‘o ka milo, ‘o ke kou, ‘o ka hau
me ka niu ha‘a i ke one
pä‘ina, ‘ai, hiamoe
a. pïna‘i
‘o ke kama, kama, kama o ka hulinu‘u
‘o ke kama, kama, kama o ka huliau
b. ku‘ina
E walea pü aku me ‘oe
i ka hana no‘eau ho‘oipo
A he ipo ‘oe na‘u i aloha
ka ‘ano‘i a ku‘u pu‘uwai
c. hoehoene ‘eä lä, ‘ë ië ië, ë
d. ho‘öho ‘Ä, ‘Ö, Kä, Kähähä
e. nïnau
I hea käua e la‘i ai?
na Kalani Akana, 2/96 no ka Papa Haku Mele a Puakea Nogelmeier/UH Mänoa
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Kekahi Mau Loina O Nä Mele Hawai‘i
Nä Hua‘ölelo
Ho‘okohu ke külana o ka ‘ölelo me ke külana o ke mele
(ma‘ema‘e=‘a‘ole lepo?; Püpü a‘o ‘Ewa - nu‘a - naue - alahula)
Ka ‘ölelo mähuahua
(uluwehiwehi ‘oe i ka‘u ‘ike lä; lihaliha wale ke momoni aku; Püpü a‘o ‘Ewa; a e; a i kou nani)
He mau mana‘o no ka ‘ölelo ho‘okahi
(mana; i ka lau o ke käwelu,...)
Nä Kani
Ke kupina‘i ‘ana
(‘Eha ë, ‘eha lä, ‘eha i ke ku‘iku‘i a ka Ulumano; ‘O ke kama, kama, kama, kama i ka huli nu‘u)
Ke kani hoene
(ea lä, ea lä, ea; Aloha ë, ië, ië, ië; lä)
Ka ho‘öho
(‘a‘ole a koe aku ë, ‘Ä;)
Nä Ku‘ina o Loko
Ka ‘ölelo e ku‘i ana i kekahi lälani me kekahi ma o ke kani like
(e ho‘olale mai e walea - E walea pü aku me ‘oe)
Ka ‘ölelo e ku‘i ana i kekahi lälani me kekahi ma o ka mana‘o pili
(ka ‘ano‘i a ku‘u pu‘uwai - Ka hali‘a, ka hä‘upu, ka ‘i‘ini)
Ka mana‘o kü‘ë/päna‘i
(uka/kai; loko/waho; wela/anu)
Ka nïnau a pane
(Iä wai ka hope, ka uli o ka wa‘a? I nä hoa ali‘i o Pele; He ui, he nïnau. I hea ka wai a Käne?)
Ka lelele ‘ana o ka mana‘o, a ‘ikena paha ma ka ma‘awe ho‘okahi o ka mana‘o
Lele wale - (‘O Wai‘ale‘ale lä a i Wailua - Hukia a‘ela i ka lani ka papa ‘auwai...)
Ma ke ka‘ina - (Ho‘i, ‘ai, a moe aku; ‘e‘e, noho, a hoe aku,)
Ka Pilina‘ölelo
Ka helu papa ‘ana/ka‘ina o ka mana‘o pili
(kou mu‘o, kou ao, ko liko...; ko Keawe, hono a‘o Pi‘ilani,...)
Ka ha‘i poko ‘ana (ka painu-piko ‘ole, ke kikino-painu ‘ole, käpae ‘ia ke ai a pëlä aku)
E kü e hume a pa‘a i ka malo; Püpü a‘o ‘Ewa i ka nu‘a o nä känaka; ‘o ‘oe nö ka‘u i aloha
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Nä Aka
Ka ho‘ohana ‘ana i ke aka
(Kaulana nä pua; ka ‘iwa kïlou moku lä)
Ka ho‘ohana ‘ana i inoa no ka mana‘o o loko
(He aloha no Ahulili, he lili paha ko iala; Ke ua maila i Mä‘eli‘eli, ke ho‘owa‘awa‘a maila)
Ka mana‘o äkea/‘a‘ole kuhi ‘ia ka mea nona/näna ke mele
(Koe ka He inoa nö _______;)
Ke kuhi ‘ana i kahi hana a mo‘olelo paha o waho o ke kumuhana
(Ka ‘iwa kïlou moku lä; e inu i ka ‘awa a Käne i kanu ai i Hawai‘i; ke alahele no Ka‘ahupähau)
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Beamer, Nona:
Nä Mele Hula, A Collection of Hawaiian Hula Chants
Lä‘ie, The Institute for Polynesian Studies, Bringham
Young University-Hawai‘i Campus, 1987, Vol I
Elbert and Mahoe: Nä Mele o Hawai‘i Nei, 101 Hawaiian Songs,
Honolulu, University of Hawai‘i Press, 1970
Emerson, Nathaniel B.:
Pele and Hi‘iaka, A Myth from Hawai‘i, Honolulu,
‘Ai Pöhaku Press, revised edition, 1993
Emerson, Nathaniel B.:
Unwritten Literature of Hawai‘i, Washington D.C.,
Government Printing Office, 1909
Fornander, Abraham:
Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities, and Folklore,
Legend of Halemano, Honolulu, Bishop Museum Press,
1915, Vol 5
Handy and Pukui: The Polynesian Family System in Ka‘ü, Hawai‘i,
Japan, Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., 1972
Johnson, Rubellite Kawena:
Kahananui, Dorothy M.:
A Brief Introduction to Hawaiian Poetry,
Lecture Notes, Honolulu
(found in HAW 484 text - Nogelmeier, SP98)
Music of Ancient Hawai‘i, A Brief Survey, Hilo,
The Petroglyph Press, 1960
Kamae, Eddie and Myrna: Words, Earth & Aloha, The Source of Hawaiian
Music, Honolulu, Hawaii Sons, 1995 (VHS)
Kauwela 2001
Makahiki ÿEhä
Haku Mele
Nakuina, Moses K.:
Ka Inoa:
Ka Lä:
Ka Wä:
Ipumakani a La‘amaomao, Moolelo Hawaii o Pakaa a
me KuaPakaa, Honolulu, Kalamakü Press
Pukui, Mary Kawena:
Nä Mele Welo, Songs of Our Heritage, Honolulu,
Bishop Museum Press, 1995
(arranged and edited by Pat Namaka Bacon and Nathan Napoka)
Pukui and Korn:
The Echo of Our Song, Chants and Poems of the
Hawaiians, Honolulu, University of Hawai‘i Press,
Roberts, Helen:
Ancient Hawaiian Music, Honolulu, Bishop Museum
Press, 1926
Kauwela 2001