Health behaviour and eating habits among foreign students at the

Health behaviour and eating habits among foreign
students at the Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Benjámin Ede Kiss 1,2, Katalin Kelemen 1,2, Vera Ferro-Lebres2, Juliana Almeida de Souza2, Antonío José Gonçalves Fernandes3
of Dietetics and Complementary Medicine - Faculty of Health Science - University of Pécs
2Departamento das Tecnologias de Diagnóstico e Terapêutica in área de estudo Dietética e
Nutrição - Escola Superior de Saúde– Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
3Departamento Ciências Sociais e Exactas - Escola Superior Agrária - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
1Department
: kiss1207@freemail.hu, katjes91@hotmail.com
1. Introduction
2. Methods
Several studies have addressed to assess the eating habits of university
For our cross-sectioned study the data was obtained from an online survey.
students, but only few studies are about the eating habits of foreign students.
53 of the 89 students who started their studies in the second semester at the
Previous studies found that the eating habits are changing in a negative way
academic year of 2013/2014 completed the questionaire. The questionaire
because of the limited availability and poor quality of familiar foods 1, 2.
contains questions about anthropometric data (weight, height), the health
The objective of this study was to determine the eating habits of the students
related behaviour (smoking-, sporting habits) eating habits (eating times) and
before their arrival to Portugal. This is the first part of a longitudinal study,
a food frequency questionnaire3 (FFQ). We calculated the weekly frequency
our final aim is to estabilish the changes on the eating habits and health
of consumption for each food group according to the study of Vereecken’s
behaviour of students from abroad during their scholarship.
and his co-workers.4 For the staistical analyses we divided the variables into
half. For FFQ’s questions we defined the two groups as major consumers
3. Results
(Maj.) and minor consumers (Min.). We used the BMI classification
pursuant to WHO’s system.5
27
Number of cases (n)
30
22
We accomplished the statistical analyses with SPSS version 22.0. We used
25
descriptive statistics, Chí-square-test with Fisher's exact test, Pearson’s
20
Males
Females
15
10
2
0
2
5
correlation and t-test to analyse the data.
0
Red meat
0
Olive oil
Fish and
seafood
Oil seeds
and nuts
Sweets
Alcoholic
beverages
100%
Underweight
(< 18,5 kg/m2)
Normal weight
(18,5-25,0 kg/m2)
Overweight
(25,0-30,0 kg/m2)
90%
Graph 1: The distibution of BMI according to WHO’s classification system
(n=53, p=0,045, r=0,276)
Less
frequently
sporters
80%
70%
Potatoes
Energy drinks
Cereal
Olive oil
Sodas
60%
More
frequently
sporters
100%
50%
90%
40%
80%
Females
70%
Males
60%
30%
20%
10%
50%
0%
40%
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
30%
Graph 3: Significant results of the FFQ according to sporting behaviours (n=53)
(Red meat: p=0,005; Olive oil: p=0,047; Fish ans seafood: p=0,013; Oil seeds and
nuts: p=0,048; Sweets: p=0,020; Alcoholic beverages: p=0,017)
20%
10%
0%
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
Maj.Min.
4. Conclusion and Discussion
Graph 2: Significant results of the FFQ according to genders (n=53) (Potatoes:
p=0,009; Energy drinks: p=0,020; Cereal: p=0,023; Olive oil: p=0,025; Sodas: p=0,001)
Our results show that the nutritional status of foreign students at Instituto
24 male and 29 female students took part in our research from 13 different
Politécnico de Bragança is considered to be normal.
countries, 6 faculties. The mean of their age was 21,87 ± 1,52 years. The mean
According to our results those people who did sports more frequently were
of the BMI was 21,85 ± 2,09 kg/m2. Pursuant to BMI classification males had
eating in a healthier way, but we didn’t observe any outstanding differences
significantly higher BMI (Graph 1). 35 participants smoke. The weekly
between genders.
frequency of vegetable consumption is 4,04 (males: 3,79; females: 4,25). The
Compared to the Portuguese students’ consumption values in Vereecken’s
weekly frequency of fruit consumption is 5,04 (males: 5,19; females: 4,91).
and his co-workers study4 the fruit and vegetable consumption is higher in
The mean value of the meals is 3,53 ± 1,07. Males consume potatoes and
our sample.
energy drinks significantly more often and they consume cereal, olive oil and
vegetables 5 times a day6. We observed that foreign students ate significantly
sodas significantly less often than females as shows Graph 2. More frequently
less often (p<0,05) than this guideline.
sporters consume red meat, olive oil, fish and seafood significantly more often
and they consume oil seed and nuts, sweets and alcoholic beverages
significantly less often than less frequently sporters (Graph 3). 10 students
study at the Faculty of Health Science but there are no significant differences
between them and the other stundents according to the eating habits and the
health behaviour.
The recommendation of WHO is to consume fruits and
References
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the effect of living away from home for the first time, on the diets of Greek students studying in Glasgow, Appetite, 50 (2-3): 455-463, 2008.
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4Vereecken A., De Henauw S., Maes L.: Adolescents' food habits: results of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, British Journal
of Nutrition, 2005, (94): 423-431, 2005.
5World Health Organization: 2014 Global Database on Body Mass Index, BMI classification apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html
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(WHO Technical Report Series, No. 916).