Processing Plants for the Production of Gelatine Concentrating and separating with technologies by GEA Wiegand and GEA Filtration engineering for a better world GEA Process Engineering Processing plants for the production of gelatine GEA Wiegand GmbH and GEA Filtration have the process engineering knowhow for filtration, concentration, and sterilization in the gelatine and glue industries. With more than one hundred years of experience in thermal and mechanical separation technology, we have been significantly involved in the development of efficient gelatine and glue process lines. Our strength is our experience gained with more than 180 realized installations in the gelatine industry worldwide. Today, GEA Wiegand and GEA Filtration globally rank among the leading suppliers of customized processing plants, across many industries including gelatine. Combining modern membrane processes with efficient evaporation plants, we provide the market with state-of-the-art process solutions. Our goal is to deliver the best possible technical and commercial solutions to achieve the goals for the tasks and requirements of our customers. Gelatine and glue are high-quality natural products. The technical range of applications of gelatine in the food, nutriceutical, pharmaceutical, and photo industries is extraordinarily wide. Concentrated glue broths are mainly used in the adhesives industry. Contents Production of gelatine 4 Creative plant designs 2 Membrane filtration, high-concentrator (finisher) and sterilization (DSI) 6 Evaporation plant, high-concentrator (finisher) and sterilization (DSI) 8 Thermal sterilization of gelatine broths 9 Processing of secondary flows 10 Overview on our complete range of products 11 Processing plants for the production of gelatine Tailor-made designs Range of services GEA Wiegand is a technology company within GEA Group and is recognized worldwide for its plants for evaporation, distillation, membrane filtration (GEA Filtration), its vacuum systems, jet pumps, mixers, steam jet cooling systems and gas scrubbing systems. More than 200 qualified employees at the headquarters in Ettlingen design the process engineering Our range of services includes consultation, planning, calculation, design, manufacture, delivery, quality control and commissioning. After-market service and membrane spare part deliveries round off the range. systems. The company distributes its products worldwide via a well-organized network of GEA companies, sales offices and agencies. With more than 12,000 delivered plants worldwide GEA Wiegand has reference plants in most of the countries. In detail, this implies C onsultation and creation of a plant design, taking into consideration the customer-specific and product-specific requirements Performing laboratory tests and pilot tests for the determination of physical properties data allowing the design of apparatus, equipment and systems Detail design and quality-tested monitoring of the appropriate production facility Delivery, installation, monitoring and commissioning Development / optimization of processes Expansion and modernization of existing plants Consultation regarding energy efficiency Research and development GEA Wiegand has its own research and development centre with numerous laboratories and pilot plants for Evaporation Membrane filtration Distillation Fermentation Mixing Gas scrubbing Several process steps can be combined into one overall process solution at the pilot scale, where it can be tested and optimized, e. g. hybrid systems (consisting of membrane filtration and evaporation), several different kinds of membrane filtration as well as process combinations with other technologies. Most laboratory plants are mobile and can be used both in the research centre and for tests at the customer’s facilities. Experimental hall in the GEA Wiegand research and development centre 3 Production of gelatine Raw materials and processes GEA Wiegand plants Gelatine is extracted from leather waste, veal, bovine, and porcine hides, bones, and fish skins. The raw materials are chemically treated in the extraction. The cross-connections between the chain molecules in the collagen protein of the raw materials are split using acids or caustic solutions. The high-molecular collagen fragments are then extracted with warm water as glue or gelatine. Depending on the treatment process, this takes place in several steps at different pH values and temperatures. For gelatine production, GEA Wiegand delivers GEA Filtration membrane filtration plants and evaporation plants for the process steps of clarification, desalination, concentration, and sterilization. After extraction, fat and particles are separated from the gelatine solution in high-performance separators. The subsequent fine clarification is usually performed with diatomaceous earth (Kieselgur) filters. These can be advantageously replaced by membrane filtration. This type of clarification, however, depends on the gelatine to be processed. In the microfiltration plant very durable ceramic membranes are used, which are characterised by high separation efficiency and long service life. In particular for ceramic membranes, cleaning solutions for protein / fat mixtures considerably reduce the cleaning time. In the further process, the extractions are clarified, desalinated, concentrated, if necessary, sterilized, dried and packed. Quality features For the numerous fields of application of gelatine and glue broths different qualities are required. The quality characteristics of product clarity, colour, pH value, viscosity, gel strength, swelling behaviour and solubility depend on the raw material and on the manufacturing process and require a high-quality and flexible processing line. Viscosity Viscosity is one of most important parameters for gelatine and glue broths. For gelatine it ranges from 100 mPas for high qualities to 20 mPas for low qualities (measured according to international standard) at a concentration of 6.66 % and a temperature of 60 °C. The viscosity depends on the salt contents and on the pH value of the solution. The influence of temperature and concentration on the viscosity has a crucial significance for the design of evaporation plants. Below, essentially the following process designs are used 1a Desalination, pre-concentration by means of membrane filtration, high concentration by means of evaporation, sterilization (pages 6-7) 1b Pre-concentration and desalination by means of membrane filtration, high-concentration by means of evaporation, sterilization (pages 6-7) 2 Desalination, pre-concentration and high-concentration by means of evaporation, sterilization (page 8) Gelatine (gel) strength Gel strength is a further parameter for the quality of glue and gelatine; it is specified as Bloom or Bloom number. The gel strength ranges between 50 Bloom for low-value gelatine broths and 320 Bloom for higher-value gelatine broths. To minimise the loss of Bloom during processing, the gelatine and glue broth must not be exposed to an elevated thermal load. Ultrafiltration plant for different gelatine qualities for the capacity increase of an existing concentration plant 4 Processing plants for the production of gelatine Process design 1 For design 1a and for design 1b, ultrafiltration plants and nanofiltration plants are used for pre-concentration. The salt contents and the contents of short-chain proteins / peptides are reduced by means of membrane filtration. If the ultrafiltration is expanded by a diafiltration effect, the ion exchanger for desalination can be replaced completely or in part, depending on the required final salt content (process design 1b). In both designs a directly heated forced circulation evaporator as high-concentrator as well as a sterilization unit are arranged downstream. The permeate from the membrane filtration process can be returned into the process after a corresponding treatment, as it is the case for the condensate from the evaporation plant. Process diagram Process design 2 In design 2, even for the pre-concentration an evaporator is used which, depending on the energy situation of the customer, either has a multi-effect design and is directly heated or is designed with mechanical vapour recompression, which is the steam-saving version. The diagram shows the general flow of the gelatine process. GEA Wiegand’s scope of delivery is colour-coded. The following pages provide you with detailed descriptions of the technological systems, illustrated by examples of implemented plants. Raw materials Pre-treatment Acid / alkaline treatment Hydrolysed gelatine solution Extraction Clariﬁcation Process design 1a Process design 1b Desalination GEA Wiegand / GEA Filtration technologies Microfiltration Process design 2 Desalination Ultrafiltration Desalination Pre-concentration Nanofiltration Pre-concentration Pre-concentration Pre-concentration Ultrafiltration with diafiltration Falling film evaporator Forced circulation evaporator Sterilization unit DSI Final concentration (Direct steam injector) Sterilization Extrusion / cooling Drying Spray drying 5 Membrane filtration, high-concentrator (finisher) and sterilization (DSI) Low-viscosity glue and gelatine broths from the extraction have a solids content of 2 – 6 % DS. After the pre-concentration with a membrane filtration plant, the solids content amounts to 10 – 20 % DS. For further concentration, forced circulation evaporators are used. To keep the temperature load as low as possible, the membrane filtration plant works at a product temperature of 55 °C and the evaporation plant under vacuum at 50 – 65 °C. Depending on the quality and on the raw material, glue is concentrated to 35 – 50 % DS, high-quality gelatine to 24 – 35 % DS. The membrane filtration plants can be equipped in addition with a diafiltration effect to reduce the salt contents. In the membrane filtration plant, polymeric spiral wound modules in sanitary design are used. These membranes have been well-proven for years, they are long-lasting and robust. With the evaporation plant, the desired or the max. possible final concentration of the gelatine discharge is adjusted. Crucial parameter for the max. possible final concentration is the product viscosity. For the design of the plant, a special focus is put on the fact that there is as little dead space as Ultrafiltration plant for pre-concentration, capacity: 12,000 kg/h possible in order to ensure that hardly any product is retained in dead corners. Our plant combination consisting of pre-concentration and final concentration is always designed such that the customer’s advantage regarding operating and investment costs is as favourable as possible. CIP solution Permeate 5 4 3 Process water 7 1 Safety filter 2 Heat exchanger 3-5 Filtration effects 6 Heat exchanger 7 Cleaning tank Live steam / hot water 6 2 Product 1 Diafiltration water Cooling water Gelatine (pre-concentrated) 6 Processing plants for the production of gelatine The gelatine concentrate is sterilized by means of a direct steam injection (DSI). The DSI sterilization unit can be coupled with an evaporation plant at low cost. The vapour condensate from the evaporation plant is used in the process as diafiltration water. Excess vapour condensate can be treated together with the permeate of the membrane filtration plant in another membrane filtration process and then be recycled into the process. Special features Optimal plant combinations from one single source thanks to membrane technology by GEA Filtration and thanks to GEA Wiegand’s know-how in the field of evaporation technology High-quality gelatine regarding gel strength, colour and odour thanks to membrane filtration Low thermal load Combination of pre-concentration and diafiltration to desalinate gelatine Extremely low gelatine losses thanks to the use of state-ofthe-art plant technology with spiral wound modules Suitable for all conventional spiral wound modules Very energy-efficient processes Compact, modular plant design Completely automated operation with GEWI Flex control system Long service life of the plants Evaporation plant (finisher), evaporation rate: 1,000 kg/h Live steam Vapour 5 1Forced circulation evaporator 2Separator 3 DSI unit 4Separator 5Condenser 6 Vacuum pump 4 2 3 Cooling water Air bleed 1 Concentrate Condensate 6 Condensate Gelatine (pre-concentrated) 7 Evaporation plant, high-concentrator (finisher) and sterilization (DSI) There are many combination options within the evaporation plant. Often, the prices for steam and electrical energy are the decisive factors regarding the plant design. If the steam production costs are low, multi-effect evaporation plants, perhaps with thermal vapour recompression, can be taken into consideration. In case of high steam costs, the evaporation plant can be heated by means of a mechanical vapour recompressor. In this case, the plant does not require steam during operation, only for the start-up or for a downstream-arranged high concentrator small quantities of steam are required. Falling film evaporator plant with mechanical vapour recompression for pre-concentration, evaporation rate: 10 t/h The falling film evaporator which in the example below is used for pre-concentration, stands out for a low temperature load and extremely short residence times and in this case it ensures gentle product treatment during evaporation. The pre-evaporator is heated by means of a mechanical vapour recompressor. Due to the high product viscosity, for further concentration a forced circulation evaporator is used. The heating element is designed as tube bundle unit with special pipes or as plate unit. In this case, too, the process chain ends with the direct steam sterilization. Special features Low operating cost, since the plant designs can be adapted flexibly to the energy situation Product-friendly operation under vacuum at temperatures between 50 and 65 °C Short residence time of the product in the plant Long service period between the cleaning cycles Low-maintenance operation and low spare part costs Long service life of the plants Vapour Live steam 2 1 Preheater 2 Falling film evaporator 3 Separator 4Mechanical vapour recompressor 5Forced circulation evaporator (plate) 9 6 8 7 3 Cooling water Air bleed 5 4 10 11 6 Separator 7 DSI-unit 8 Separator 9 Condenser 10Condensate level tank 11 Vacuum pump Concentrate G elatine (pre-concentrated) 1 Live steam condensate Condensate Product 8 Thermal sterilization of gelatine broths Gelatine is sensitive to heat due to its protein structure. At temperatures of more than 140 °C and contact periods exceeding 10 seconds a considerable destruction of the protein bonds can be observed. The temperatures of 120 – 145 °C which are required for sterilizing must therefore be achieved as quickly as possible and be rapidly lowered again after a certain holding period (3 – 6 seconds, this means max. temperatures with min. holding period). Only in this way, can the damage to the important properties of gelatine, such as gel strength, viscosity and colour be minimized. During the direct high-heating, steam is injected into the gelatine broth by means of a DSI-unit (DSI = direct steam injector). In this way, the product is suddenly heated and flashed against a low pressure after a very short holding period and in this way, it is cooled again just as quickly. Advantages of high-heating by means of direct steam injection No product damage Min. holding period Min. change of the product properties Possibility of integration into existing evaporation plant No service life problems Operating as an independent (“stand alone”) system possible Degradation in % This sterilization process shows significant advantages compared to an indirect high-heating by means of heat exchangers. In case of indirect high-heating (pictured lower right, curve 2) the holding time at high temperatures is much longer. ˚C 160 5 130 – 140 ˚C 140 4 110 – 2 ˚C 100 80 10 0 ˚C 70 – 8 0 1 5 Curve 1 60 40 ˚C 20 50 – 60 ˚C 0 Curve 2 120 120 3 90 – Sterilization unit 10 15 20 25 30 % Gelatine Guideline values for the degree of degradation of a gelatine solution with a heating time of 5 seconds 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 Seconds Comparison of the heating curve for direct (1) and indirect (2) heating common in the food industry 9 Processing of secondary flows In the conventional gelatine production, so-called water phases occur during the extraction with downstreamarranged fat recovery. These secondary flows contain even a certain amount of proteins in addition to fat. Usually, these water phases are introduced into a waste water treatment plant without being exploited. With a plant combination of microfiltration and nanofiltration for protein recovery these secondary flows can be profitably used. In the first step, the fats and the suspended solids are removed from the occurring water phases. Subsequently, the proteins or amino acid chains are concentrated by means of nanofiltration and later, it is further concentrated in the already existing evaporator. Permeate flows from already installed plants can be introduced for treatment. Plant combination of microfiltration with ceramic membranes and nanofiltration with spiral wound modules. Feed rate: 5,000 kg/h Permeate as process water E.g. permeate from ultrafiltration CIP solution Process water 1 Safety filter 2 Heat exchanger 3 Ceramic microfiltration 4Tank 5Tank 6 Safety filter 7 Heat exchanger 8Nanofiltration, spiral wound modules 9 Heat exchanger 5 8 4 3 Live steam 1 R esidues from extraction Cooling water Gelatine Residues / fat 10 2 6 7 9 Processing plants for the production of gelatine If the quality of the process water is not sufficient, it is possible to install in addition a reverse osmosis plant for the rinsing waters, vapour condensates and permeate flows which then will be used in various ways in the production or as cleaning water. The concentrate is discharged to the waste disposal. Special features Increase the overall yield of proteins / gelatine Strong reduction of the waste water quantities / relief of the waste water treatment plants Recovery of process water for production Reduced CIP times and costs by use of highly effective cleaning solutions for protein-fat mixtures with ceramic membrane filtration plants Long service life of the plants Residues from extraction Process efﬂuent / CIP solution Pre-treatment Pre-treatment GEA Filtration technologies Hydrolisation Clariﬁcation Microfiltration Pre-concentration Concentration Nanofiltration Reverse osmosis back to the extraction back to the gelatine process Concentrate Process water Overview on our complete range of products Evaporation plants Heat recovery systems Membrane filtration plants - GEA Filtration Vacuum degassing plants Replacement membranes (polymer and ceramic) Gas scrubbing systems Plants for distillation / rectification Project studies, energy optimization, Alcohol production lines engineering Vacuum / steam jet cooling systems Service, after-sales service Jet pumps, mixers, preheaters Multi-stage steam jet vacuum pumps / hybrid systems www.gea-wiegand.com 11 We live our values. Excellence • Passion • Integrity • Responsibility • GEA-versity GEA Process Engineering www.gea.com GEA Wiegand GmbH / GEA Filtration GEA Process Engineering Inc. / GEA Filtration Am Hardtwald 1, 76275 Ettlingen, Germany Phone: +49 7243 705-0, Fax: +49 7243 705-330 [email protected] 1600 O’Keefe Road, Hudson, WI 54015, USA Phone: +1 715 386 9371, Fax: +1 715 386 9376 [email protected] © GEA Wiegand GmbH. All rights reserved. P12E 122013 HINKEL360 GEA Group is a global engineering company with multi-billion euro sales and operations in more than 50 countries. Founded in 1881, the company is one of the largest providers of innovative equipment and process technology. GEA Group is listed in the STOXX® Europe 600 Index.
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