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M Ikpe and A Nteegah (2014) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-1, issue-4: xxx-xxx
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M Ikpe and A Nteegah (2014) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-1, issue-4: 129-138
DOI: 10.3126/ijssm.v1i4.10944
Research Article
Marius Ikpe1* and Alwell Nteegah2
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria
Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
*Corresponding author email: [email protected]
Social insecurity has in recent time constituted a major hurdle to the Nigeria authorities. Theoretically, it is believed to have a strong
negative link with Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and levels of economic growth. This in Nigeria’s context ranges from Niger Delta crises,
to the un-going Boko-Haram Islamists Militants insurgency. Given paucity of empirical literature on this line of investigation into this form
of socioeconomic problem, this study empirically examines the link amongst social insecurity, FDI and growth of the Nigerian economy.
The study adopted the Augmented Cob-Douglas production function in its analysis, introducing the variable (social insecurity) into the FDI
model and subsequently traces its impact on economic growth. Result indicates that social insecurity stimulates the inflow of foreign
technology, rather than inhibit it. The paper attributes this to merging of these distinct forms of social insecurity in the study and
consequently recommend an explicit examination of these forms of social insecurity-FDI association in Nigeria.
Key words: Macro-econometric modeling, Social insecurity, Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth, Augmented CubDouglas Production functions.
the determination of levels of growth of the economy
where it exist should be of great importance for policy.
Social insecurity remains one factor that scares investible
According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and
funds from any economy where it exists, as investors want
Development (UNCTAD), about US$1.4 trillion
to be sure of the security of their investments where ever
investment capital circulates globally. This figure indicates
they choose to invest. This is given the fact that insecurity
that capital in the global economy is volatile with a lot of
is a risk factor which investors all over the globe dread so
indicators considered by investors before they decide to
well. Insecurity is an uncertainty which is not only
invest in any given economy. One of these indicators
considered bad for business, but also sends warning
strongly considered is security of lives and investments.
signals to will-be investors to take their investible funds to
The Niger Delta crises which began in the early 1990s and
another country with a better records and atmosphere of
degenerated in 2008 into kidnapping and adoptions of oil
security (chejina,2011). Insecurity has in recent times
workers, and most recently the Boko Haram Islamic sect
constituted a major hurdle to the Nigerian authorities. This
insurgence whose activities led and still leading to lose of
in Nigeria ranges from the Niger Delta crises (1990s to
lives through suicide bombings and reckless shootings and
2009) to the most recent and ongoing Boko Haram Islamic
destruction of lives and properties, constitute two major
sect insurgence. Foreign investors now see Nigeria as a
insecurity challenges in Nigeria in recent times. These two
high risk country to invest, and this is taking its toll on
major threats to the security of lives and investment led to
businesses and consequently the growth of the Nigerian
huge FDI outflows from Nigeria and hindering of
economy via short and medium term negative impact on
subsequent inflows: There were huge FDI outflow from
the flow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). Insecurity
Nigeria in 2008 to 2009 as a result of Niger Delta crises,
and FDI is in theory known to have a significant negative
and most recently according to the world investment report
correlation, and the extent to which this effect transmits to
of UNCTAD, The Nigerian economy recorded a reduction
in FDI from US$8.65 billion in 2009 to US6.1 billion in
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M Ikpe and A Nteegah (2014) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-1, issue-4: 129-138
2010 due to the fear of Boko Haram. These quantum of
loses of FDI can easily be measured by the reoccurring
daily huge losses of stocks which serves as the barometer
for measuring the growth of the economy. In terms of
opportunity cost, critical sectors of the economy that could
have gotten increased funding in the budget, is known in
recent times to have lost such to huge allocation to the
security sector as the authorities redoubles efforts to put
the situation under check.
Currently as it stands in Nigeria, there is a paucity of
empirical literature on the effects of social insecurity on
the flow of international investments, as most data on the
issue have been of the sunspot nature. On the other hand,
Roy and Van den Berg (2006) points out a lack of
consensus on growth effects of international investments
globally. Though more widely studied, but so far the
accumulated evidence is still not clear, furthermore, not all
empirical evidence support the hypothesis that FDI as an
aspect of international investment plays a positive role in
diffusing technology and stimulating economic growth, so
it becomes clear that FDI- growth relationship is complex
and calls for more research efforts. As a result, it becomes
necessary to have empirical knowledge of what the
economy has lost and unfortunately still losing as a result
of these social menaces. Such empirical evidence will no
doubt provide the necessary guide and tonic needed to spur
the authorities to a more result oriented action, as they
redouble efforts at finding a lasting solution to the problem
of social insecurity in Nigeria. Again, knowledge from a
detailed study of the insecurity situation in Nigeria is most
likely needed as it will serve as a spring board for dealing
with the social security needs of the Nigerian state at
present and in the future. In the light of these, the paper
assesses the effects of social insecurity on the long run
growth of the Nigerian economy, through its effect on FDI
flows to Nigeria within the period under investigation.
Review of Related Literature
Insecurity and FDI Flows in Nigeria
The significant presence of Foreign Direct Investments in
Nigeria’s industrial sector began in the 1970s. FDI
activities in Nigeria over these period has been in the
primary sub-sector of the industrial sector, where they are
involved in oil and gas productions and recently the
services sector since the liberalization of the telecom
sector. Statistics has it that 50% of FDI inflows to Nigeria
from major investors over the period 1996 to 2000 had the
primary sector as their most important destination. On the
African front according to UNCTAD (2000), Sub-Saharan
African countries attracted US$5582 million FDI inflows
in 2000; representing 0.44% global FDI flows, and 2.3%
of total inflows to developing countries. Of these, Nigeria
accounted for US$1000 million. On the stock of FDI
(accumulated inflows) which is arguably a better measure
than flows, rose progressively for Nigeria from 2.6% of
GDP in 1980 to 50.5% of GDP in 1999 (Te Velde, 2001).
A lot of indicators are considered by investors before they
decide to invest in any given economy; among these are
corruption, political stability, security, as well as level of
infrastructural development. In a renewed efforts at
improving in Nigeria’s records on these indicators, the last
Obasanjo regime made efforts at bringing about
improvements in these areas as observed, thereby creating
an enabling environment for inflow of foreign
investments. This accounted for the relatively higher FDI
inflow to Nigeria over the period 1999 to 2007. However,
crises in the Niger Delta which deepened, culminating into
kidnapping and abdoptions of foreign oil workers in 2004,
continued unabated till 2008-2009. This development led
to the closure of firms, while those that did not close, ran
skeletal operations instead, as western countries called for
their nationals to leave the region. The government
amnesty programme became the panacea for the problems
in the region at the time(2009).
As the nation moved a step away from the Niger Delta
crises, came the barbaric activities of Boko-Haram Islamic
sect insurgency. The group who has claimed responsibility
for many shootings and bombings across Nigeria,
especially across northern states, including the United
Nation’s building at Abuja, massacre of Madala Christian
worshipers and ambush of security personnels on duty and
many other killings, has scared away investors from
Nigeria. According to the world investment report of
UNCTAD (2000), the Nigerian economy recorded a
reduction in FDI from US$8.65billion in 2009 to US$6.1
billion in 2010 due to the fear of Boko Haram. The
Nigerian tourism sector which is worth some N80 billion
annually has lost more than half of its value due to terrorist
attacks. These are in addition to a US$1. 2 billion business
investment funding deal lost in the real sector by a
supposedly indigenous firm, due to the Independence Day
FDI-Economic Growth Association
Review of past works herein are carried out from two
perspectives; first, the study ex-rays past studies, most of
which are cross country studies whose debate was on the
potential benefits accruable from FDI. Secondly the study
looked at specifically Nigerian studies-an extension of the
The debate on the issue of multinational corporations
(MNCs) activities generating or not generating adequate
spillovers required to spur growth in host economies led
Alfaro L (2003) to argue that empirical evidence for FDI
generating positive spillovers for host countries is
ambiguous at both micro and macro levels. The paper
further concludes that FDI flows into the different sectors
of the economy (primary, manufacturing and services)
exert different effects on economic growth; FDI inflows to
the primary sector tend to have a negative effect on
growth, whereas FDI inflows in the manufacturing sector-
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M Ikpe and A Nteegah (2014) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-1, issue-4: 129-138
a positive effect on growth. Evidence from the service
sector is ambiguous. Hanson (2001) argues that evidence
that FDI generates positive spillovers for host countries is
weak. In a review of micro data on spillovers from foreign
owned to domestically owned firms, Gorg and Greenwood
(2002) concluded that the effects are negative. Lipsey
(2002) takes a more favourable view from reviewing the
micro literature and argues that there is evidence of
positive effects. Surveying the macro empirical research
led Lipsey to conclude however that there is no consistent
relation between the size of inward FDI stocks or flows
relative to GDP and growth and further argues that there is
need for more consideration of the different circumstances
that obstruct or promote spillovers. The divergent views on
this issue by scholars is unending; for instance, positive
spillover effects were reported as part of Caves (1974)
pioneering work in Australia, and by Kokko (1994) in
Mexico, while Haddad and Harrison (1993) findings in
Morocco and Aitken and Harrison (1999) in Venezuela do
not support the positive hypothesis. Furthermore,
Blomstrom and Kokko (2003) conclude from their review
of the literature that spillovers are not automatic, and local
conditions influence firms’ adoption of foreign technology
and skills.
Within the context of the Nigerian economy, a number of
studies found a positive relationship between FDI and
economic growth in Nigeria. Amongst these studies are
Aluko (1961), Brown (1962), Obinna (1983), and
Oseghale and Amonkhienan (1987). However , later
studies like those by Oyinlola (1995), Ariyo (1998),
Adelegan (2000) saibu et al (2011) reports a negative
effect of FDI on economic development in Nigeria. Saibu
et al (2011) quotes Akinlo (2004) as haven found that
foreign capital has a small and not statistically significant
effect on economic growth in Nigeria. But how does one
reconcile this with the fact that since 1970s, growth of the
Nigerian economy has depended largely on crude oil
production than non-oil. Onodugo et al (2013) recent study
findings, revealed a very weak and infinitesimal impact of
non-oil export in influencing rate of change in economic
growth in Nigeria. The study as a result, concludes that
Nigeria’s level of growth is largely driven by foreign
In summary, the focus amongst Nigerian studies was on
spillover effects of FDI, as well as FDI-growth impact.
Among these, Asiedu (2006) reported political stability as
one of the important factors that account for the inflow of
FDI in Nigeria. So far, no attempt has been made on the
investigation of the effect of insecurity, and more
specifically on the Niger Delta crises as well as the current
Boko Haram Islamists Militants insurgence on the flow of
FDI in Nigeria, and by extension, how this has affected the
growth of the Nigerian economy within the period under
investigation. This forms the important existing gap in
literature which the study intends to fill.
FDI and Industrial Development in Nigeria
The believe that FDI can have important positive effect on
host countries’ development effort in addition to the direct
capital financing it supplies, is however not automatic
because, certain conditions has to be met: for FDI to
positively contribute to the growth and development of
host countries’ industrial sector, the economy in question
must have a well taught-out growth stimulating industrial
policy which will not only be on paper but strictly
implemented and enforced. Secondly, the operating
multinational firms must be interested in the growth and
development of the economy where they chose to operate.
Lastly though not the least, there must be a balanced
spread in the presence of FDI among the various subsectors of the industrial sector, and most importantly, a
significant presence in the manufacturing sub-sector.
In Nigeria, the problem is never the absence or lack of
good policies, but bad and poor implementation of existing
laws, and lack of enforcement where need be. Most
multinational firms in Nigeria for instance, hardly meet the
entry requirements at the point of entry, but are licensed
to operate; greater number of the firms in their operational
structure are highly capital intensive. One can here
imagine the nature of impact that such firms do have on
the industrial development of a highly labour intensive
economy like Nigeria. When viewed in another
perspective; the government are often times short-changed
on two fronts; through tax exemptions and other juicy
incentives offered to these multinational firms aimed at
attracting them to invest in the economy, and also through
tax evasions by way of connivance with state agents by
those firms that have out-stayed the number of years spelt
out in their initial tax exemptions but could not
successfully renegotiate for further exemptions.
Furthermore, because the multinational firms are often not
interested in the development of the Nigeria economy,
they often times indulge in a number of sharp practices
which over times has hindered meaningful efforts geared
towards the development of the Nigeria industrial sector.
One of the ways the Nigerian industrial sector could have
benefited from the activities of multinational firms is
through reinjection of profits. It is however unfortunate
that rather than reinjection of profits, the MNCs are
grossly engaged in massive repatriation of profits to their
parent firms in Europe and America through overinvoicing. The consequence of this practice is the fact that
MNCs by this means, take away investment funds from
Nigeria in multiples of the initial sum they brought in and
the economy is made worse –off subsequently. Concerted
efforts at addressing these ills by the Nigerian authorities
are often met by pull-out threat from the firms. This
action, more often than not leads government into
compromising its stand.
As important as the foregoing factors are, is also the issue
of creating linkages amongst the various sub-sectors of the
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industrial sector, from the activities of multinational firms.
Alfaro L (2003) argues that FDI can convey great
advantage to host countries, but warns that such gains
might differ across primary, manufacturing and services
sub-sectors. The paper notes that the often mentioned
benefits from FDI such as, transfer of technology and
management know-how, introduction of new processes
and employees training tend to relate to the manufacturing
sub-sector, than mining and agricultural sub-sectors.
Hirschman (1958) has earlier emphasized that not all subsectors have the same potential to absorb foreign
technology or to create linkages with the rest of the
economy. The paper went further to note that linkages are
weak in agricultural and mining, and warns that in the
absence of linkages, foreign investments could have
limited effect in spurring growth in an economy.
In Nigeria, because MNCs are interested in exploiting
Nigeria’s abundant oil and gas, has found the primary subsector as their most important destination point in the
industrial sector, where 50 percent of the stocks of FDI in
Nigeria are rooted. There has however been an increase in
the inflow of FDI into the service sub-sector, since the
privatization of state utilities- particularly the telecom subsector. Overtime, there has been an insufficient presence
of FDI in the manufacturing sub-sector. Unfortunately, the
primary sub-sector of the industrial sector which accounts
for over 50 per cent of stocks of FDI in Nigeria, and the
services sub-sector that are recently becoming another
point of attraction, in the literature are known to have little
potential for spurring growth and subsequent development
of a given industrial sector. As a result, FDI which would
have been a source of valuable technology and know-how
in fostering linkages with local firms, which could have
helped jumpstart the Nigerian industrial sector on the path
of diversified and sustainable growth and development,
has contrarily undermined efforts at developing the sector
by way of sharp practices and other unhealthy mode of
operations in Nigeria. However, in the midst of these, the
fact still remains that, Nigeria since the 70s, has not seized
from being a mono-product economy – depending largely
on oil production for growth and development. The extent
to which social insecurity has alters its growth progress is
what this study set out to unravel.
Data and Methodology
The study focuses on the Nigerian economy within the
period 1981-2010 using time series data for analysis. Data
for the study are sourced from the central Bank of
Nigeria’s statistical bulletin and National census Board.
Annually, the CBN publishes data on GDP, gross capital
formation, FDI, and public capital expenditure. Per capita
income is calculated as a ratio of GDP to population
(population sizes are sourced from National Census
Board). Degree of openness of the economy is calculated
as ratios of export plus import to GDP, while labour force
is calculated as percentage of those in the working age
bracket, from the population figures published by the
census board.
To model links amongst social insecurity, FDI and
economic growth in Nigeria, the study adopts the
Augmented Cobb-Douglass production function. This
method of analysis follow Demello (1996) as adopted by
Saibu et al (2011) in modeling the effect of FDI and
financial development on economic growth in Nigeria.
Same method has also been employed by Ghosh Roy and
Van den Berg (2006) in the modeling of the relationship
between FDI and economic growth in U.S.A. First we
model the impact of social insecurity on the flow of FDI to
Nigeria, then, subsequently model the impact of FDI on
economic growth in Nigeria.
Model 1
In modeling the impact of social insecurity on FDI flows
to Nigeria, our specification specifically follow that by
Gosh Roy and Van den Berg (2006).
 RGDP 
 + α3 (IOP) +
 N 
FDI = α0 + α1gr (RGDP) + α2 
μ……………………………….. (1)
The introduction of a time dummy (SO-IN) as proxy for
social insecurity transforms equation (1) to:
 RGDP 
 + α3 (IOP) +
 N 
FDI = α0 + α1gr (RGDP) + α2 
α4SO-IN + μ………………………….(2)
Where gr(RGDP),
 RGDP 
 N  , (IOP), (SO-IN) are
growth rate of real Gross Domestic product, real per
capital GDP (ratio of Real GDP to size of the
population), degrees of openness and dummy, as proxy for
social insecurity.
It is of note here that in the theory, as much as economic
growth is stimulated by FDI, on the other hand, FDI is
known to follow growth hence reason for the inclusion of
gr(RGDP) in model (1). Real per capita GDP represents
market size of the domestic economy. It is an important
factor often considered by multinational firms, especially
those producing largely, for domestic consumption. MNCs
also consider the extent to which foreign investments are
restricted within the domestic economy where they
operate, and also the ease of importation of needed
machinery and raw materials for their production, as well
as exportation of their products where need be. This is
where the degree of openness of the economy included in
the model is justified.
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M Ikpe and A Nteegah (2014) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-1, issue-4: 129-138
α1, α2, α3, shall be greater than zero, while α4 < 0. SO-IN
shall assume value 0, for pre- crises period and 1, for postcrises period. Its value will be greater or less than zero.
Model 2
In our modeling of the impact of FDI on economic growth
in Nigeria, we begin with the familiar sources of growth
Gr (Y) = β0 + β1 Gr (KD) + β2 Gr (KF) + β3 Gr (L)
………………………… (3)
Where, Gr (Y), Gr (KD), Gr (KF), Gr (L) are growth rates
of real gross domestic product. Domestic capital stock,
foreign capital stock, and labour force respectively.
Equation (3) is similar to the well-known sources of
growth equation specified as:
G(Y) = GA +(β+φγ) GKD+ (θφγ) GKF + (θφγ) GL
…………………………….. (4)
Equation (4) is drivable from a neoclassical production
function, where G is the growth rates for real output (Y), A
is the economic environment, KD denotes the domestic
capital stock, KF denotes the foreign capital stock (FDI)
and L represent labour force. α, β, γ are the elasticities of
domestic labour force, domestic capital and foreign capital
derivable from the output function where Y = AL α KDβEY.
θ and φ denote the marginal and inter-temporal elasticities
of substitution between local and foreign capital
derivable from FDI externality function (E), where E = (L,
KD, KFθ)φ.
Our specification in equation (3) is not in any way
different from the specification in equation (4). In our
splitting of capital stock into accumulated FDI and all
other capital, we follow Most and Van den Berg (1996) in
their examination whether the source of investment
financing matters in developing countries.
The general formulation of equation (4) after taking into
consideration of the macroeconomic environment or factor
endowment is specified as:
∆Y = β0 + β1∆PRIV + β2∆PUB + β3∆KFDI + β4∆IOP + β5∆L +
V ………………… (5)
Priv is private domestic investment, Pub denotes public
investment, KFDI represents FDI, IOP is index of openness and
L denotes labour force, Y represents real GDP and V is the
error term (all variables are expressed in logarithmic
More specifically:
∆log RGDP = β0 + β1∆logPriv + β2 ∆logPub + β3∆logKFDI
β5 ∆log
Theoretically, a priori expectation is that all parameters
will be positive, but considering the fact that on the
average, Nigeria’s industrial sector is at its infant stage of
development relative to its trading partners; under this
circumstance, openness is expected to impact negatively
on growth. On the other hand, sign which the coefficient
of labour assumes will largely depend on the absorptive
capacity of Nigeria’s industrial capital relative to the
growing labour force. Where the growth of labour
outpaces the capacity of growth in industrial capital
needed to absorb such level of growth in labour – the
coefficient of labour will under such circumstance be
negative – order wise, it will have a positive sign.
Estimation-Analysis of Results
The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation technique
was employed in the estimation, after making sure that the
variables in their behaviours conform to the assumptions
of the Classical Normal Linear Regression Model
(CNLRM). Efforts were also made to ensure that the
models adhere to the principles of parsimony using AIC
(Akaike Information Criterion) and SBC (Swartz Bayasian
In our estimation, conscious effort was accorded to the fact
that macroecnomic aggregates are known to exhibit
random walks and regression models using such nonstationary variables are likely to generate “spurious”
results. To overcome this expected undesirable outcome,
stationarity properties of variables in the model were
examined using the popular Phillips-Peron stationarity test.
The result indicates that in model (1), FDI, grRGDP and
IOP are stationary at levels. The index of social insecurity
(SO-IN) is stationary at first difference, while
 RGDP 
 N 
is stationary at second level of differencing. From model
(2), RGDP, KFDI and IOP are stationary at levels, while
Priv, Pub and L became stationary at the first level of
From the result (test of stationarity), test of cointegration
became an overriding requirement for both models. This is
necessitated by the coinciding of order of integration of
each of the dependent variables and two of the explanatory
variables in the models respectively. Result of Johansen
cointegration test (for FDI model) revealed the presence of
cointegration, as test statistics rejects the hypothesis of no
cointegration, but indicates
the presence of one
cointegrating equation at both 5% and 1% levels of
significance. The story is however not the same, for the
economic growth model, as test statistics failed to reject
the hypothesis of no cointegration at both 5% and 1%
levels of significance respectively. The outcome suggests a
long run relationship between FDI and the set of
explanatory variables in the FDI model and absence of
lung run relationship in the economic growth model.
Implication here is the fact that analysis herein will be
based on Error Correction model (for the FDI model) and
log run regression model (for the economic growth
Result of the long rum FDI regression function as
specified in Table 1 shows that three (grRGDP, IOP, SOIN) out of the four explanatory variables are statistically
significant at 5% level of significance-infact, IOP and SOIN are statistically
significant, while grRGDP is
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(explanatory variables), only IOP has the theoretically
expected sign. Adjusted R2 of 0.95 reveals a very strong
explanatory power of the explanatory variables, thus
providing strong empirical support for the fitness of the
regression line. F-statistics of 149.74 shows that, the
explanatory variables are non zero at 95% level of
confidence. On the other hand, a Durbin –Watson statistics
value of 1.55 indicates the presence of negative
autocorrelation, which is however attributable to the
characteristics of the data used. When examined in the
context of the Error correction model (ECM) as specified
in Table 2 of the appendix, the model maintained its initial
long run order of significance (i.e grRGDP, IOP and SOIN are statistically significant at the conventional level of
significance). The theoretical signs of the variables were
maintained, changes only occurred in the absolute values
of the coefficient as a result of adjustment to short run
equilibrium; under the short run, a unit change in grRGDP
is expected to effect a 0.5% change in FDI flows in the
opposite direction, a unit change in IOP (the index of
openness) is expected to change FDI flows by 10% in
same direction, whereas a unit change in the level of SOIN (social insecurity) will most likely change the level of
FDI flows by 190.3% in the same direction. The
coefficient of the ECM which shows the rate at which
Table 1: Result of Long run FDI model
Dependent variable
 RGDP 
 N 
equilibrium can be restored in the event of disequilibrium
is positive. It suggests that one period lag value of FDI is
above its equilibrium value. The implication is the fact that
a negative change in FDI is required each period, to the
extent of an infinitesimal value (0.00001%) for
equilibrium to be restored. Other virtues of the model
include its strong coefficient of multiple determinations,
high value of F-statistics and negative serial
Results of long run economic growth model Table 2, as
drawn from our specification in equation (6), reveals that
only one out of the five coefficients is statistically
significant at the conventional 5% level of significance.
Only three of these (pub IOP and L) have the theoretically
expected signs. The multiple determinations (i.e. adjusted
R2) of 0.94 indicate a strong explanatory power of the
model in accounting for changes in economic growth. The
result of the F– statistics shows that the independent
variables are non-zero at 95% level of confidence. The
value of the Durbin- Watson statistics reveals the presence
of negative autocorrelation in the model, which can be
attributed to the quality of data used. Autocorrelation
problem according to Gujarati and Sangeetha (2007) is a
data deficiency phenomenon which the researcher has no
choice over-being a secondary data.
R2 0.96, AdjR2 0.95
F-statistics 149.7434, D-Watson 1.55
Note: * Indicates significant at 5% level of significance.
Table 2: Result of long rum Economic Growth model
Dependent variable
Independent variables/constant
R2 0.95, Adj R2 0.94
F- Statistics 91. 34, D-watson 0.7
Note: * Indicates Significant at 5% level of significance.
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Table 3: White Hetroscedasticit Test on Economic
Growth model
of Auxiliary
df n.R2
21 12.567408
Result of white hetroscedasticity test as presented in Table
3, failed to reject the hypothesis of no hetroscedasticity in
the data. The statistical implication is the fact that the
homoscedasticity assumption of CNLRM has not been
violated, so the variances are constant overtime. From the
correlation matrix, it was observed that the pair-wise
correlation between Pub and KFDI, Pub and IOP as well as
KFDI and IOP are high, suggesting that there may likely be
collinearity between these pairs of variables. One known
way of alleviating this problem is to drop some of the
variables, but the study chose not to because, that may lead
to specification bias which has its own consequences. The
remedy here may be worse than the “disease” itself. A
collinearity problem even when severe is essentially a data
deficiency problem which the researcher has no choice
over, being a secondary data. The best option to get around
this, which is really not a problem according to Blanchard
(1967), is not to resort to creative techniques, but instead
“do nothing”. A collinearity problem even when severe, is
essentially a sample phenomenon which violates no
regression assumption- it is not a serious problem when it
comes to prediction (Gujarati and Sangeetha, 2007; Ichoku
et al, 2013). The Jarque-Bera (JB) test of normality rejects
the hypothesis that the residuals are normally distributed;
with a JB statistics of 1.486761 and the probability of
obtaining such value is given to be 0.4755. However it is
necessary to keep in mind that the sample size of 30
observations for the study may not be considered large
hence, the result outcome.
Result of FDI model reveal that the main variable of
interest (social insecurity) positively affects inflows of
Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria within the period
under investigation. It is statistically significant in
influencing the rate of change in the flow of foreign
technology to the extent of 207.2 per cent in the long run
Table 4: Result of FDI Error Correction Model
Dependent variable
Independent variables/constant
 RGDP 
 N 
and 190.3 per cent in the short run, for every one unit
change in the level of social insecurity. It is however
surprising that; social insecurity positively stimulates the
inflow of foreign technology, rather than inhibit it. We had
expected social insecurity to inhibit inflow of foreign
technology but, instead it was found to has a stimulating
effect on the aggregate – well, that is the result from this
study. The coefficient of grRGDP is statistically
significant at the conventional level of 95 per cent level of
confidence, but negatively weak in influencing the rate of
change in FDI inflows (a unit change in the level of
grRGDP changes FDI inflows in the reverse direction). To
appreciate this result outcome, one need to consider that,
though the result supports earlier evidence that, primary
sector FDI has a negative relationship with growth,
Nigeria within the study period experience two distinct
insecurity problems (the Niger Delta crises and current
Boko-Haram Islamists insurgence). These two separate
social security threats most likely have distinct impact on
growth. The Niger Delta Crises for instance, disrupted oil
production activities within the Niger Delta region. The
implication of this is the fact that greater percentage of
FDI inflows during the crises period are most (in relative
terms) likely non-oil FDIs whose assumed positive
contributions to the growth of the Nigerian economy may
not in any way be enough to cancel the huge negative
impact of oil FDI outflows. On the other hand, the BokoHaram Islamists insurgence is currently having its effect
on the northern region assumed to be home to many of
Nigeria’s non-oil investments, discouraging the flow of
non-oil FDI than oil FDI and thus compounding the
attendant adverse effect. A reconciliation of the distinct
specific impacts of these two separate insecurity problems,
and having in mind that oil FDI adds more content to the
growth of the Nigerian economy being considered, leaves
us with the negative relationship observed between FDI
and grRGDP. The result if literally interpreted means that
instead of FDI following growth as theory stipulates, the
reverse is the case for Nigeria. However, we will rather not
stretch this further here but, will offer explanations to this
in section “6” of the study.
R2 -0.97, AdjR2 -0.96
F-statistics -132.0643, D. Watson -1.192886
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Furthermore, the result reveals a positive significant
impact of the index of openness of the economy (IOP).
The impact of the aggregate is however weak in
influencing the rate of change in the level of FDI (a unit
change in IOP changes FDI by 9.5 per cent in the long run,
but 10 per cent in the short run) meaning that the degree of
openness of the economy is not an important factor to be
considered in altering the level of FDI. The strong
negative coefficient of real per capita income which is
index of market size of the economy, points to the
importance of per capita income in altering the levels of
FDI in Nigeria within the period. The insignificant impact
of the aggregate is an indication that greater proportion of
international investments in Nigeria are not necessarily
producing for the domestic market. The result, most likely
has reflected what it ought to be if the market conditions
were right.
When we consider the economic growth model, it was
discovered that the index of openness of the economy
again exerts a positive significant impact, this time on
economic growth. The strength of its impact is very weak
in influencing the rate of changes in the levels of economic
growth of the Nigerian economy (4.3 per cent changes in
the level of economic\ growth for every unit change in the
degree of openness). Apart from openness, other variables
are revealed to be insignificant in their influences on the
rate of changes in the levels of growth in Nigeria within
the period being investigated. Private domestic investment
(Priv) for instance, negatively influences the rate of
changes in economic growth by 148 per cent, for every
unit change in the level of private domestic investment.
The outcome is not unconnected with the crowding out
effect which the domestic private investment often suffers
from public investment under the Nigerian context, for a
considerable number of periods. Ordinarily, one had
expected private domestic investment to improve in the
area of market share and by so doing improve its
contribution to the growth of the economy, but this was
unfortunately not to be. However, when critically
examined, the state of infrastructures and instability which
goes beyond the social instability here being investigated
has made private domestic investments counterproductive
to the growth of the Nigerian economy.
On the other hand, public investment (Pub) though
maintained the theoretically expected sign of positive
influence on growth, but weak in its impact- 8.1 per cent
changes in levels of growth, for every unit change in the
level of public investment. To explain this, we draw
insight from Ikpe and Nteegah (2013) which earlier
reported that the degree of impact of fiscal deficits of
economic activities depends on the extent to which funds
set aside for deficits financing is channeled to productive
investments through the development of needed and
maintenance of exiting social infrastructures. Considering
the fact that deficits funds are often times diverted to
private investments abroad, while some fractions are used
for external debt servicing, gives rise to the situation
where rather than adequately stimulate the levels of
economic activities, fiscal funds instead create a nonadequate impact on the growth of the economy. Foreign
investment capital (KFD1) was discovered to exert a weak
negative influence on growth, given that economic growth
is expected to change by 2.4 per cent (in reverse direction)
for every unit change in KFDI. The conformity of this
outcome with the negative coefficient recorded for RGDP
in the FDI model, confirms the bi-directional relationship
between FDI and economic growth. Furthermore, the
result supports the assertion by Alfaro L., (2003) that FDI
inflows to the primary sector tend to have a negative effect
on growth. Among past studies, Choong and Lim (2009)
for Malaysia, and Saibu et al (2011) for Nigeria, had
earlier reported similar negative impact of FDI on growth.
However, as to whether the interpretations offered by these
past studies actually reflect realities on ground is a
different matter altogether (for clarifications of this
interpretation issues, we refer the reader to section six of
this study). Labour force (L) exhibited a similar result with
FDI. As an insight, we recall that Onodugo et al. (2013)
had earlier noted that the growth of Nigerian labour force
has outpaced growth of the industrial capital needed to
absorb the increasing levels of growth in labour. As a
result, Nigeria industrial sector is considered to be at the
stage of diminishing returns from labour, hence the
negative coefficient recorded for the aggregate.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The economic argument that seems to suggest in both
theory and practice that international investment is good
for growth, therefore policy makers should focus on
keeping the domestic environment attractive to Foreign
Direct Investments, even when this growth effect though
more widely studied, but the fact that evidence
accumulated so far remains unclear, led to the study of this
nature. As important as the foregoing, is also the most
important need to incorporate into the methodology
literature, the distinct picture which social insecurity
problem has given to the Nigerian scenario. Findings from
the study revealed the complex state of the Nigeria
situation. We had expected a negative impact of social
insecurity on inflow of FDI to Nigeria. Instead of this,
result indicates that social insecurity has a stimulating
impact on FDI inflow to Nigeria. This development, the
paper attributes to our merging of separate forms of social
insecurity problems in the investigation. Evidence from
the result of this investigation indicates that the two forms
of social insecurity under focus have distinct
characteristics as well as impact on the flow of FDI to
Secondly, negative impact of FDI on growth tends to
portray the fact that FDI is not important for altering
growth and subsequent development in Nigeria. But the
question which must be asked is, how true can this be? In
response and to put things straight, the often reported
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M Ikpe and A Nteegah (2014) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-1, issue-4: 129-138
negative association between primary sector FDI and
growth as is the outcome of this study and as reported by a
number of past studies (Alfaro, 2003; Choong and Lim,
2009; Oyinlola, 1995; Ariyo, 1998; Adelegan, 2000; Saibu
et al., 2011), provide misleading information when
wrongly interpreted. Unfortunately these studies and some
others carried out in the context of developing economies
had wrong interpretation of this result. Explanations for
this are not far-fetched. Most studies in developing
economies like Nigeria had employed the use of inflows as
a measure of levels of FDI, instead of stock of FDI
(accumulated inflows). This is as a result of the fact that,
empirical data for accumulated inflows is not readily
available for these economies. Researchers under this
circumstance, have no choice than to use that which is
available. However, these studies probably out of naivety,
failed to take cognizance of the fact that FDI impacts on
growth directly through its level of stock, rather than
inflows which is commonly used. This is the main reason
why Te Velde (2001) earlier argued that stock is arguably
a better measure than flows. Flows (inflow and outflow)
jointly alters the level of stocks, thereby determine the
level of stocks at any point in time. Given this data
limitation, it boils down on researchers to as a matter of
need, overcome this observed shortcoming by means of
right interpretation of result outcomes.
Trend in result of past studies in Nigeria is a clear pointer
to this line of argument. While earlier studies in Nigeria
report a positive association between FDI and economic
growth, later studies report a negative association. Earlier
studies’ findings were positive because these studies were
carried out during Nigeria’s period of relative political as
well as social and economic stability. The implication of
this is the fact that, there were more FDI inflows than
outflows. Meaning that the level of stocks of FDI
increased progressively over the period, hence the result
obtained. On the other hand, later studies (including result
of this particular investigation) indicate a negative
association, because of relative high degree of social
insecurity, as well as political and economic instability.
The implication of these on the economy is mass exodus
of foreign investors out of Nigeria-much more than
inflows. The major consequence of this on the economy is
a progressive decline in levels of Nigeria’s stock of FDI,
hence the negative impact on economic growth.
On the bases of reasons highlighted above, the study
recommends an explicit examination of the forms of social
insecurity – FDI association in Nigeria. This is aimed at
hopefully addressing the unexpected result outcome
observed in the nature of impact of social insecurity on the
flow of FDI in the FDI model. Secondly, this paper
recommends a place of emphasis on stocks of FDI, rather
than flows, in the examination of impact of FDI on
economic growth of nations. To this effect, in economies
where there is insufficient data on stocks (developing
economies), detailed literature can serve as a guide for
better result interpretation. Last and most importantly, this
paper advocates tightening of the nation’s borders, close
collaboration in security matters with neighbouring
countries, as well as synergy amongst stakeholders, as a
way of proactively dealing with social insecurity problem
in Nigeria. A close, sincere and transparent collaboration
amongst political party stakeholders, irrespective of party
affiliations, where issues to be discussed should be the
way forward for the nation, could help.
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