Seismic Interferometry - Bioscience Graduate Studies

GEO 5920-003/6920-004 – Seismic Interferometry (3 credits)
Spring 2014
Lecture: FASB 101, 12:25-1:45 p.m., T, H
Instructor: Fan-Chi Lin (Assistant Professor, Dept. of Geology & Geophysics)
Office: FASB 271
Phone: 581-4373
Email: [email protected]
Office Hours: M, W 10:30-12:00. I will be available most other time as well. If you
want to meet with me, please email me first to make sure that I am available.
Course Description: Prerequisite: Basic Physics, Calculus, and Seismology knowledge
and some programing experiences. Introduction to seismic interferometry. Extracting
Green’s function from a diffusive wavefield. Recent development of seismic ambient
noise and coda interferometry. Ambient noise and surface wave tomography. Temporal
variation, hazard related topics, and industrial applications. Potential field experiment
with Zland nodes*.
1. Policies
Grades: Final grades are based on following weights:
Project proposal (10 %)
Class participation (10 %)
Homework (20 %)
Midterm (20 %)
Final presentation (20 %)
Project report (20 %)
Project: Each (graduate level) student will conduct a seismic interferometry research
project of his/her own interest. In the first two weeks, please arrange an appointment with
the instructor to discuss the topic. The research project can overlap with individual thesis
research (preferred). A 30 minutes presentation should be given in the fourth week (1/28
or 1/30) on the project background and proposed research. A 30 minutes presentation on
the final result should be given in the final’s week (4/20 or 4/24). A paper style final
report with full list of references is due on 4/20. Comments and suggestions for revision
are possible for those turn the reports in at least a week earlier.
Seismic Interferometry
Homework: Homework is designed to train the basic data analysis capability for seismic
interferometry. At the end of the class, the students are expected to be able to download
data from IRIS data center and perform noise cross-correlation on USArray data.
Homework must be turned in to my email/office by 5 pm of the day they are due. 10 %
will be marked off for each day they are late.
Midterm: A ~30 minutes oral exam will be held on the week before spring break. The
instructor will meet with each student individually. Questions about various seismic
interferometry concepts taught in the class will be asked. Students are expected to be able
to derive relevant but basic equations. Topics related to individual research project will
also potentially be asked.
2. Class Goals
Seismic interferometry has become one of the fastest growing research areas in
Seismology in recent years. Primary focus of this class is to introduce basic concept of
seismic interferometry and discuss recent development of the technique. In particular,
how seismic interferometry can be used to better resolve earth structure will be discussed.
At the end of the course, the student is expected to be able to:
Understand the basic concept of seismic interferometry
Conduct basic research in seismic interferometry
Know the recent development and ongoing directions of seismic interferometry
3. Sources of information:
Considering that seismic interferometry is a very active research topic, there isn’t really a
good textbook available. Most of the material taught in the class will come from recently
published papers. An incomplete list of the references can be found below.
Background and Motivation: Theory and Experiment on Diffuse Waves
Lobkis and Weaver, JASA, 2001. On the emergence of the Green’s function in the
correlations of a diffuse field.
Snieder, Phys Rev E, 2004. Extracting the Green's function from the correlation of coda
waves: A derivation based on stationary phase.
Campillo and Paul, Science, 2003. Long-Range Correlations in the Diffuse Seismic
Seismic Interferometry
Tsai, GJI, 2010. The Relationship Between Noise Correlation and the Green's Function in
the Presence of Degeneracy and the Absence of Equipartition.
Transition to Imaging with Ambient Noise
Shapiro and Campillo, GRL, 2004. Emergence of broadband Rayleigh waves from
correlations of the ambient seismic noise.
Shapiro et al., Science, 2005. High resolution surface wave tomography from ambient
seismic noise.
Sabra et al., GRL, 2005. Surface wave tomography from microseisms in Southern
Processing Ambient Noise Data for Tomography
Bensen et al., GJI, 2007. Processing seismic ambient noise data to obtain reliable broadband surface wave dispersion measurements.
Lin et al., GJI, 2008. Surface wave tomography of the western United States from
ambient seismic noise: Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity maps
Directionality of Ambient Noise
Stehly et al., JGR, 2006. A study of the seismic noise from its long-range correlation
Yang & Ritzwoller, G^3, 2008. The characteristics of ambient seismic noise as a source
for surface wave tomography.
Industrial Applications
Lin et al., Geophysics, 2013. High-resolution 3D shallow crustal structure in Long Beach,
California: Application of ambient noise tomography on a dense seismic array.
Mordret et al., GRL, 2013. Azimuthal anisotropy at Valhall: The Helmholtz equation
Mordret et al., Geophysics, 2013. Helmholtz tomography of ambient noise surface wave
data to estimate Scholte wave phase velocity at Valhall Life of the Field.
Schuster, Cambridge University Press, 2009. Seismic Interferometry (active source
Body Waves in Ambient Noise
Seismic Interferometry
Gerstoft et al., GRL, 2008. Global P, PP, and PKP wave microseisms observed from
distant storms.
Zhan et al., GJI, 2010. Retrieval of Moho-reflected shear wave arrivals from ambient
seismic noise.
Poli et al., Science, 2012. Body-Wave Imaging of Earth’s Mantle Discontinuities from
Ambient Seismic Noise.
Lin et al., GRL, 2013. Extracting Seismic Core Phases with Array Interferometry.
Temporal Variation
Zhan et al., GJI, 2013. Spurious velocity changes caused by temporal variations
in ambient noise frequency content.
Brenguier et al., Science, 2008. Postseismic relaxation along the San Andreas fault at
Parkfield from continuous seismological observations.
Brenguier et al., Nat. Geosci, 2008. Towards forecasting volcanic eruptions using seismic
Prieto et al., JGR, 2009. Anelastic Earth structure from the coherency of the ambient
seismic field.
Lawrence et al., JGR, 2011. Attenuation tomography of the western United States from
ambient seismic noise
Lin et al., GRL, 2011. On the reliability of attenuation measurements from ambient noise
Tsai, JGR, 2011. Understanding the Amplitudes of Noise Correlation Measurements.
5. Seismic Interferometry – Spring 2014 Schedule (preliminary)
Week 1-2 (1/7-1/26): Introduction of seismic interferometry
Week 3 (1/21-1/23): Green’s function extraction with ambient noise
Week 4 (1/28-1/30): Project Proposal
Week 5-6 (2/4-2/13): Ambient noise tomography
Week 7 (2/18-2/20): Temporal variation
Week 8 (2/25-3/4): Body waves
Week 9 (3/6): Midterm
Week 10 (3/11-3/13): Spring Break
Week 11 (3/18-3/20): Industrial applications
Seismic Interferometry
Week 12 (3/25-3/27): Seismic hazard related topics
Week 13 (4/1-4/3): Attenuation
Week 14-15 (4/8-4/7): Hot topics and ongoing research (e.g. Ice, Volcano, and H/V ratio)
Week 16 (4/20-4/24): Final presentation and final report.
6. Additional Notes
Statement Concerning Disabilities: “The University of Utah seeks to provide equal
access to its programs, services and activities for people with disabilities. If you will
need accommodations in the class, reasonable prior notice needs to be given to the Center
for Disability Services, 162 Union Building, 581-5020 (V/TDD). CDS will work with
you and the instructor to make arrangements for accommodations.”
Faculty and Student Responsibilities: “All students are expected to maintain
professional behavior in the classroom setting, according to the Student Code, spelled out
in the Student Handbook. Students have specific rights in the classroom as detailed in
Article III of the code. The Code also specifies proscribed conduct (Article XI) that
involves cheating on tests, plagiarism, and/or collusion, as well as fraud, theft, etc.
Students should read the Code carefully and know they are responsible for the content.
According to Faculty Rules and Regulations, it is the faculty responsibility to enforce
responsible classroom behaviors, beginning with verbal warnings and progressing to
dismissal from class and a failing grade. Students have the right to appeal such action to
the Student Behavior Committee.”
“Faculty… must strive in the classroom to maintain a climate conducive to thinking and
learning.” PPM 8-12.3, B.
“Students have a right to support and assistance from the University in maintaining a
climate conducive to thinking and learning.” PPM 8-10, II. A.
Seismic Interferometry