CARNATION Botanical name: Dianthus caryophyllus Family: Caryophyllaceae Origin: Southern Europe (France) & National flower: Spain Introduction in India: Around 1980 2011--12: 59 ha 2011 Area in HP during 20122012-13: 65 ha 2010--11: 74 ha 2010 2009--10: 52 ha 2009 2008--09: 40 ha 2008 Why carnation became so popular? Excellent vase life Wide range of flower colours and forms Ability to withstand long distance transportation Rehydrate easily Lighter weight Dr Ravinder Nath with carnation grower Sh. Sudhir Sharma at Dhadhol Sh. Inder Singh Thakur, Jukhala Dr Mushtaq Mohammad, leading grower cum motivator of flower cultivation in HP Different types of carnation Border or outdoor carnations Greenhouse or florist or perpetual carnations Different types of border carnations Self (Single colour) Fancies (yellow or white background mottled with various colours) Picotees (White or yellow with narrow bands) Bizarres (2 or 3 colours) Flakes (Clear ground flaked with one colour) Marmaison (Plants with stiff massive habit, with broad leaves fully double flowers, pink, well filled centre and fragrant flowers) Different types of florist carnations Standard: Ability to produce single large sized bloom if timely disbudding and proper nutrition is applied. Better adapted in cool climate. Different types of florist carnations Spray: Ability to produce small to medium sized numerous flowers and bloom size do not increase irrespective of disbudding and best fertilizer application. Better adapted in warm climate than standards. Different types of florist carnations Micro carnations Mini carnations Micro Mini Different types of florist carnations Standard cultivars: Red: Scania, Tanga, Red William, Granda, Espana, Master, Killer. Pink: Pamir, Nora, Lena, Sharina, Pink Sim, candy, Manon, Oriana. Yellow: Pallas, Raggio di Sole, Candy, Yellow Dusty, Murcia, Tahiti. White: White Sim, Roma, Candy, Calypso, Sonsara. Orange: Tangerine Sim, Orange Triumph. Others: Charmeur, Aurthor Sim, Toledo, Solar, Laurella, Vanessa. Indian cultivars: Arka Flame and Arka Tejas Arka Flame Different types of florist carnations Spray cultivars: Red: Rony, Karma, Enzo, Etna, Peach Delight, Vermillion Protruding. Pink: Annelies, Barbara, Silvery pink, Madea, Karina, Medley. Yellow: Yellow Odeon, Alicetta, Lior, Goldilocks. White: White Royallete, Tibet, Iceland, Excel, Equisite, White Lilia. Others: Twinkle, Exquisite, Kissi, Luna, Mirage, Macarena. Micro carnations: Eolo, Pink Eolo, Wiko. Mini carnations: Lima, Orca, Roland. Climatic Factors Light: Photoperiod (long days over 16 hours) and intensity (100 watts bulb spaced at 10.5m at 1.5m height) Temperature: Night ( winter: 1010-11o C, spring: 12.7o C and summer: 1313-15.4o C) and day ( 1818-23o C) Ventilation: Free circulation of air Relative humidity: 5050-60%. CO2: 500500-1500 ppm Propagation of carnations Seeds (only to develop new cultivars) Terminal stem cuttings (8(8-10 cm long with 446 leaf pairs) Micro--propagation Micro Carnations propagation by terminal stem cuttings Terminal cutting of 88-10 cm long is taken. Shear off lower most 11-2 leaf pairs. Give sharp cut below node. Dip the cuttings in a solution of Dithane M. 45 (0.1%) + Bavistin (0.1%) for 5 min. Put the lower end of cuttings in a solution of NAA or IBA 500 ppm for 5 sec. Plant the cuttings in sterile sand at a spacing of 3 x 3 cm. Spray water 44-5 times in a day so that 90% or more humidity is maintained. Temperature: 2020-30oC is ideal. Rooting occur in 33-4 weeks. Transfer these rooted cuttings to a hardening chamber in mini portable tunnels (3 x 1.5 x 15 m :: w x h x l) in a sterilized medium (sand: soil: FYM: rice husk one part each) for about 33-4 weeks. Management factors affecting growth and flowering of carnations Soil or medium condition Spacing Nutrition Pinching Disbudding De--shooting De Plant support (staking) Ideal soil for growing carnations Light texture loam or sandy loam soil which is well drained and aerated. Soil pH: 66-7 Optimum planting time N.I. plains: Sep.Sep.-Oct. Low hills: Sep.Sep.-Nov. Mid hills: Jan.Jan.-Feb. High hills: Mar.Mar.-April Northern hemisphere: AprilApril-Sep. Southern Hemisphere: Sep.Sep.-April Staggered planting at 15 days interval ensure regular supply of cut flowers. Optimum planting density and spacing Ordinary: 2525-32 plants/m2 High : 40 plants/m2 Standards: 20 x 20 cm Spray: 30 x 30 cm Optimum level of major nutrients N: 5.4%, P: 0.31%, K: 3.8% Standards: FYM: 5 kg, N: 30g, P: 20g, K: 10g/ m2 Spray: FYM: 5 kg, N: 40g, P: 20g, K: 10g/ m2 Fertigation schedule 500 m2 Day 1: 19/19/19 - 800g Day 2: plain water Day 3: 0/52/34 - 700g Day 4: plain water Day 5: Ca(NO3)2 - 800g Day 6: plain water Day 7: 13/0/45 - 400g Day 8: plain water Day 9: MgSO4- 350g + MicronutrientMicronutrient- 300g Day 10: plain water Optimum level of soil moisture • Optimum soil moisture is 300300-500 cm tension • Irrigation twice/thrice in a week is optimum Pinching in carnations In pinching terminal growing shoot about 22-3 cm long is removed to overcome apical dominance and to promote side branching when the plants are at 66-8 leaf pair stage. Types of pinching in carnations Single pinching: In single pinching terminal growing shoot about 22-3 cm long is removed once in all the shoots. Pinch and a half: First pinching is done in all the shoots. When the side shoots are 66-8 cm long and this stage occur at 4040-50 days after pinching, then half of the shoots are again pinched. This increases the duration of flowering. Pinch plus pull pinch: First pinching is done in all the shoots. Later on keep removing the shoots by pulling up to 2 months, so as to get single large peak flowering. Types of pinching in carnations Double pinching: First pinching is done in all the shoots. When the side shoots are 66-8 cm long and this stage occur at 4040-50 days after pinching, then again do the pinching in all the shoots. This delays the flowering and flower quality is also poor. In marguerite and annual carnations pinching is done at 40 and 60 days after transplanting. De--shooting in carnations De When the side shoots after pinching are 33-5 cm long then retain 33-5 shoots per plant in standard cultivars. When the side shoots after pinching are 33-5 cm long then retain 66-10 shoots per plant in spray cultivars. Disbudding in carnations Disbudding is the removal of visible (5(5-10 mm diameter) undesirable buds. In standard cultivars terminal bud is retained and all the lateral buds are removed. In spray cultivars terminal bud is removed and lateral buds are retained. Staking in carnations Wire mesh, plastic nets, string or bamboo canes are used to support plants. Wire mesh or plastic nets having inner size of 1010-15 cm squares are placed on the ground in three layers, which are erected at 20, 35 and 50 cm above the ground level with the growing plants. String or rope is erected in three rows at the same distance along the rows. Weeding in carnations Three-four hand weeding. ThreeChemicals viz., oxidiazon and napropamide @ 2.2 and 4.5 kg a.i. per hectare are good in greenhouse. In open fluchloralin (basalin) and pendimethalin (stomp) @ 1.0 a.i. per hectare each are effective. Optimum stage of harvesting carnation flowers Standard cultivars for local market are harvested when flowers are half opened or at painting brush or outer petal is perpendicular to stem, while for distant market cross is developed on buds and colour is visible. Spray cultivars are harvested for local market when two flowers have opened and others have shown colour, while for distant market when 50% flowers have shown colour. For loose flowers fully open flowers are harvested. Qualities the carnation cut flowers According to Society of American Florists: Bright, clean and firm flowers and leaves Fairly tight petals near the centre of the flowers. Symmetrical flower shape and size representative of the cultivar. No calyx splitting. No lateral buds or suckers. No decay or damage. Straight stem and normal growth Different grades of carnation cut flowers Parameter Grade Grade Grade Bud dia (mm) Tight Blue/ Fancy 50 Red/ Standard 44 Green/ Short None Fairly tight 62 56 None Open 75 60 None Stem length (cm) 55 43 30 Local grades of carnation cut flowers A: over 45 cm B: 3030-45 cm C: less than 30 cm Packaging of cut flowers In bundles of 10, 12, 20 or 25. In corrugated card board boxes of 120 x 60 x 30 cm (L x W x H) accommodates about 800--1000 cut flowers 800 of carnation. Wrap flower bunches in cellophane sleeves. Post Harvest Management Ideal pulsing solution in carnations: STS 0.5 mM + BA 25 ppm + sucrose 5% for 20 minutes Ideal holding solution in carnations: Sucrose 2% + 88-HQC 200 ppm Important diseases of carnations Wilt (Fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi) dianthi) Foot-- rot (Phytophthora, Foot (Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiarum) sclerotiarum) Stem rot (Fusarium (Fusarium roseum) roseum) Flower bud rot (Alternaria (Alternaria dianthi) dianthi) Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas caryophylli) caryophylli) Rust (Uromyces (Uromyces caryophyllinus or U. dianthi) dianthi) Flower blight (Botrytis (Botrytis cinerea) cinerea) Fairy ring spot (Heterosporium (Heterosporium echinulatum) echinulatum) Viral diseases Important insectinsect-pests of carnations Aphids Red spider mites Heliothis caterpillars Nematodes Red spider mites in carnation Nematodes infestation Thrips attack in carnation Important disorders of carnations Calyx splitting Grassiness Sleepiness Splitting at nodes and bushiness Small narrow leaves and tied tips Calyx splitting Fluctuation of temperature Night temperature should not be below 10oC Use of more nitrogenous fertilizers More during spring than winter Vary from cultivar to cultivar. Do rubber banding before flower opening. Grassiness No flower production. Genetically related disorder. Vary from cultivar to cultivar. Remove and destroy all such plants Sleepiness There is temporary or permanent wilting of flowers. It is due to exposure to ethylene or water stress or higher temperature. Spray STS 0.4mM before harvesting As a replacement for STS keep cut flowers in 11-MCP (Methyl Cyclo Cyclo--Propene) 1010-20 ppb for 66-12 hours Splitting of nodes Poor shoots developed through gaps. Poor flower quality. Boron deficiency. Apply boron @ 2g/m2. Tinting is done in carnations A concentrated liquid or powder colour is mixed in small amount of warm pure water (37oC) and stems are placed in it. The colour develops in different patterns on the petals after 1010-24 hours. Optimum yield of carnations Standard: 44-6 stems/plant Spray: 88-12 stems/plant Average yield 200200-300 flower stems/m2/year.
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