対乳児発話(マザリーズ)を処理する親の脳活動と経験変化 - CRN

[email protected]$?HG;&CO+'
ƮǮ ¸ľ ʽùŧȉĠī ɴ'CNīȆȓeg”ʾ
ʅȩÈ˅619-0225 ¦ʒŐƨǒńʼnƨǒńô 4-1-1
[email protected]
ɑƖ
NFD1N1-ȻÉɢ3Ġ§ŸōÉ0ķ+¹əɈ,IùƝ
0Ĝʻ,źƇM)%ʪŠ,ɟ€`‹”d-Ā4JI2ɟƒ3əɢďDƏäď
Ǵ/(%;<:+2Ď,ɒGJȴɅǰģMăL
0ñGȕ+ÓI€`‹”
dMðïIŸōÉBťđFȷ-JəɈ2ǥŢDŮâ2Ǹʌ92ŝʫǐǽJ
+IɟŸ,IĠ§0ǐǽ%Ȇȓ3Ľ/€`‹”d,ɟůČ3
/N,KLJŽ'2ʻ8H,KˈŸÉ0əɈM°F-IůČ2GL
J,KˈȻÉȧʺDǰģňÁ§ň3I2&KˈȄG
ȄG
¹(+>
€`‹”d2ƒWpd‚MȊȧȍī2ȖėGƹɝ%țȶG2ȆȓMȥ©ŸōÉ
2əɢǸʌ0øL!+ĝäIɕ2ȽÎÒǩʋȏMDžĩǾ£·ǭ2ɖǛGÏȵI
1
[email protected]
ŸōÉ0ɟI-Ȍ%'Ġ§3ůɫI/0ʠLG
źƇM)%ǣǡ2ʪŠʽ‹d‚řãźƇʾ,ɟ
[1-3]
Ĝʻ/H
ƕƪɢ,3
NFD1
[4]
N1-(%ȻÉɢʽōÉɢʾB¹LJI €`‹”dʽmotherese, Džɕɢʾ-BĀ4
JI2Ǩɭ3ŸɟMý@;<:+2əɢďDƏäď,ɒGJÁ§ň3IB22
ȴɅǰģMăL
ñMȕ-GumÌʂ2ƒWpd‚I-ȵGJ+I
[5-11]
ŸōÉB€`‹”dMĤN,ȷ#2%A€`‹”d0FIəɈ2ǥŢDŮâ2Ǹʌ
92ŝʫ0ǐǽ%ȆȓȫGJ+I
€`‹”d¬Ğ0B|PkQ”dʽparenteseʾ{v”m”[ʽbaby talkʾ‡”
bWŒcw”iʽmusical speechʾ/.-BF4JIīɌǺ03ƢBœȖǺ/ůÿø
2ķŸÉǸɟʽinfant-directed speech >%3 IDSʾĤ>-J+I
[12]
ƪ
ȑ,3š;.ɿ:IȊȧīǺPzŽ”i2ȨưG€`‹”d-Ȫ•I
TR=0
€`‹”d0FIǸɟ2ĝä3Ŏȟċ0F7ƏǎDɢśʪŠ/.2ĝäI
ķŵ§Ǹɟʽadult-directed speech >%3 ADSʾ-dž:%ėø¬—2ǡŤſGJI
[13-32,3,33-35]
“1 ĉȅǸɟ
“ƏȞ,2”dʜ
“ȪɢǺ0éȤ
“kʈ
“ȷïHƙƘȂ/ɟƒ
“ȰHɽğ
“Ñʜ
“Ĝ2wjiʻ
“ɳăğ
“wji2ȟċĠ
“ōÉɢʿȻÉɢ2¹ǭ
“ʪŠ2řɧ
“÷əɢ2ǡŤʽƕƪɢ2ǜĜäœĎɢ2ĜɧȡŕŸɟʾMʡİ/ȟċ,ĝɧ
–ɛ2ǡŤMɷ>€`‹”d03¬—2ÙǛſGJI
ˆÙǛˀˇ ÎIJLG/+BʪŠŮĖ&,ůČMƅǗ,I
ʽǐůćɵɜó
ųA/.ʾ
[36-38]
ˆÙǛˁˇ ʩĜ&,/ɓɔǺɘɔǺ/ŸHBƤǭʽĠ/ñ2ʞʝĠ
/ɸƀH~lQgjiʾ/L'ɓɔ“ȸɔ“ɘɔ2ùƧ%ÊÞ
I%AǩɗD
[39,40]
ˆÙǛ˂ˇ qRd0řʽqRdǪę,3€`‹”d2ƒȷïHDʾ
ȶȾµBqRdǪę,ɠŘ2őøř/I
2
[42]
[41]
ɟ
UR9F
€`‹”d03.2F/ǀȼI2&KˈǨЬ—2˃)2ǀȼȵGJ
+I
ˆǀȼ 1˅űŮMÔHD°Iˇ
əɈ2Ȅɫ/ŸÉƧÖƧ,3űٝ/^‡p]”a‰ŸDŽ-/IĮʤ
ĞĎɢ2€`‹”d,(+BŸÉʽ5 ‘ƣÉʾ0ȷ!%ėøɜóIF/ɟƒ2
€`‹”d,3ŸÉ3ţș?ĚȋǂIF/ɟƒ2€`‹”d,3˜ũűŮ
Ě
[37]
ùƽ0€`‹”d0Ž”tc“xQŒg”M+ʽ/L'¶Mɟ+
IÔG/ʩĜ0+ʾB(%Ĝ2€`‹”dMŸÉ0ȷ!I-ɜóIF
/ɟƒ2€`‹”d,3ŸÉ2ǐɓƝʟĚȋǂIF/ɟƒ2€`‹”d
,3ǐɓƝʟǖI
[38]
ɋâžƾ&,/ǫǩžƾBĝäI-ȄGJ+I
º4€`‹”d2ȸï0F(+ťżƍǖIÜʱɈ2ȽǏMɚǗI-€`‹”
d0ý>JIũ2űŮ2ř0Ũ+ȽǏt”ĚIʽ9 ‘ƣÉʾ
[43]
/.ȄGJ
+I
¶€`‹”dGMNJA+I2ˈé0Ĝ2wji&,3/ũűŮʖɑ
2F&ĮʤűŮM•ĭ0%ǢŲ,ŸÉ0ɟ%ėøʽ6 ‘ƣʾ€`‹”d,
(+BĤ>/ķŵ§Ǹɟ,(+BũűŮMæÔ02!+ɟ!4ŸÉ
3€`‹”dFHBĤ@-I
[44]
/L'wji2ĝɧ3Ȩưɨ,(+ŸÉ
0Ĥ>JI€`‹”d2æÔƬ®,BŦɑƬ®,B/ɟȶ2Ŏȟċ/űŮɍǨʖɑ
2F&2š2ɣƘGBÔIF0űŮǺÄʨG€`‹”dMƁ
%Ȇȓ3>&>&Ľ/ğ3ű٬ĞG2PzŽ”i,I
ˆǀȼˁ˅ŸÉ2ʏĤMÙǭ%ȉ¯Ǻ/DH-Hˇ
ķŵ§Ǹɟ0dž:ŸōÉ3€`‹”dMĤ?
[45]
ũűŮMȈ
[46]
J3ȸɔʥİ
[9]
2ŸÉ0ķ+¹Ÿɟ2€`‹”d,(+B Ãȸ&ʖő2rlQY…jzMɮ
(%ōÉ0ķ+ɟ€`‹”d,(+Bù,I
ɟ%§2ʴMʜɔ+I
ʆI
[48]
[47]
[46]
BŸÉ3€`‹”d,
2íŨ2ɄG0ɟȶ2€`‹”dM½
ŸōÉ3)B€`‹”dMĤ@-3ʣG/ƝƧ0F(+ĝäIƑǫÉ1 ‘ƣ
É2ʭ3ȄG/ģŬGķŵ§Ǹɟ,ɟIFHB€`‹”d,ɟGJ
IƒMĤ@
[49-51]
ĵ+IƝ,ƑǫÉ2ÜʱɈ3€`‹”dMȷ%Ɲ2ƒʻ
3
ǓâI
[52]
-K 1 ŹMɻIʭ€`‹”d92ʏĤ3³—I
ĝä0ʠ+3•ɰ%Ėþ/Ï7ʏĤŶI-Ȇȓ
IȆȓI
[42]
[53]
[53,42]
1 Ź¬ʢ2
D#,3/-
¨š3ǡ0 9 ‘ƣɬʢ2ʀɞȆȓƦ>JIȾÔ2Džɕ2€`‹”
d0ķIʏĤ3ɀÿǔ-K,Iʨǹ-0ƑǫÉ3Džɕ2€`‹”dFH
BDžɕ2ķŵ§ǸɟMĤN,ȷ
ʢ0/I
[55]
[54]
[email protected]/I23 4 ‘ƣ¬
ÜʱɈ2ȽǓâBDžɕ2€`‹”d,2?–ƗI
[56]
>%•ñ0€`‹”d-ə(+BŸÉ2Ǹʌ--B0ɳĝäIŸÉ2Ĥ?B
Ǹʌ0Ũ+ĝäI˂‘ƣ2ŸÉ3Ǹɟ2ȦLH—ʢwji0/IF/ʽųA
IF/ɟƒ, comfortingʾ€`‹”d0ķ+ɄíŨI
[57]
36 ‘ƣÉ,3ųA
IF/€`‹”dGɜóIF/ʽapprovingʾ€`‹”d0Ĥ?ĝLIG
0 69 ’ƣÉ,3ɜóIF/€`‹”dGžȈF/ʽdirectingʾ€`‹
”d0Ĥ?ĝLI
[58]
–Ɨwji—ʢwjiʙʛǢwji
JB 48 ‘ƣÉ2
ǐůMŖ)I6 ‘ƣÉ0/(+3A+ųAI€`‹”d-ɜóIF/€`
‹”dMŔØI-,I
[60]
[59]
Ƣš0ŵ§3ķŵ§ǸɟMĤ@-ȄGJ+I
ˆǀȼ˂˅ŸÉ2ǐůM6)+īȳM½ʆ!Iˇ
€`‹”d3ŸōÉ2ǐůM6)ʅøīȳM½ʆI-ȄGJ+Iº
4ķŵ§Ǹɟ-ʍ(+€`‹”d3ȰHɽ0FIáưř)>H€`‹”d
€`‹”d-ʯ0ƆȈI-2 ĉǽ2€`‹”d,ǐɓƝʟĚIùƽ0€`‹
”dķŵ§Ǹɟ-ʯ0ƆȈ+BŸōÉ3 2 dzǽ2ķŵ§Ǹɟ0BɄíŨIF
0/I/L'ƢÖ0€`‹”dƆȈJI-#J0ȫÛǚ0BɄíŨI
F0/Iʁ0ķŵ§Ǹɟ€`‹”d2ʯ,ƆȈI-2 dzǽ2€`‹”d0ķ
IíŨ3³—I
[61]
ƢÖ2ÛǚȺť-L,I>%ŸÉ3úÜMĀ4J%
H¡Ü0Ġ§-ɓȭøL!M%HI-Ǡµ92ÌùǐɓMD/I
`‹”d,ɟI-ɓȭøL!M/-BÌùǐɓMIF0/I
[63]
[62]
€
)>H€
`‹”d3úÜMĀ4JI-DɓȭøL!-ùF/áưʽƘȈǺ/ŸHÛǚ
ostensive cueʾMŽ)
-K,Ǭš)2Džɕ3ɳ“ʘÌ0€`‹”d³—I-ȄGJ+I
[64,65]
Ǭš)2DžɕMB)ŸōÉ3ʅøīȳMIʤʽº˅Ĝȷ%GV„i…Ó
Ick”b2ƒM¡Ü0ûʾDžɕ2Ĝ0FIīȳáư³•ƒª2ģŬ2Ĝ,3ʅ
øīȳʆ@
[66,67]
DžɕʜƧǺ/)2ėø3ʽ1 Ō¬–ʾª2ģŬ2Ĝ0F
IīȳáưB³/I
[68]
,3DžɕʜƧ2Ǭš)&-ŸōÉ2īȳáư#2B2
4
³/I2-ə4#,3/2ŸōÉ%'3ǰŬ2Ĝ,ʅø[email protected]
ɕÃŋ/ėøʾ
[69]
ùƽ0ǟɕ)2ėøǟɕ2Ĝ,2ʅøīȳ³/I
[70]
ŸōÉ2ʅøīȳ0ŝʫMì<23€`‹”d2³—#2B2,3/ɕ2űðŬ
ŝʫIF&
[71]
ˆǀȼ˃˅əɢǸʌM½ʆˇ
əɢȳŢÜ,(+B€`‹”dŸÉ2ʩĜŔØMIJƙ0I-MȈ%Ȇȓ3
ƍğIDžʩ2Wk_‹”ä
éɢ2ɡɫ
[76-80]
[72]
ʩȞʽaŠyŒʾ2ŔØ
Əǎˆpjm2ÕHÓ
[81,82]
[73,74]
éɢ2ÕHÓ
[75]
/.,IJG3€`‹”d2ǡŤ
ʽ–ɿʾ,Iʻwji“ĝɧIwji0F(+ŸōÉ2ǐůDűŮ2^‡p]
”a‰M½ʆ))#2•ƒ,ȷïHƙƘȂ/ɟƒʽhyper-articulationʾƏȞ,
2”d0F(+ʩĜŔØMIJƙ0+IƏȞ,2”d3.0Ə2ÕJǽ
I2ŸHMÔHD°I-,IĮʤ710 ‘ƣÉ,3əɢǺ0
ǃÔȞäJ%Əȗ-#,/ƏȗMŔØǃÔȞäJ%ƒMʏ8
G03ķŵ§Ǹɟ,3/€`‹”d,ɤ>J%ƏȗMĤ@
[82]
[81]
ª0Bǵ±éɢʽº˅mYyZ^s/.ʾʟƐ/ȫ•ʅ2ʩĜG,BŸ
Éʽ8 ‘ƣʾ3ȪɚīǺ/ňǴGéɢMÕHÓ-ȄGJ+I
[83]
)>H%-
éɢ-éɢ2ʟ0”d/+BȰHɽȷ%÷éɢMÕHÓ-,I
-K€`‹”d,ɟJ%•ʅ2ǵ±éɢʩĜMȷ%ėø7 ‘ƣG,BÕHÓ
-óȼ,I
[75]
ķŵ§Ǹɟ,ʩĜMȷ%ėøéɢ2ÕHÓ3,/
(%ʩĜ2řãʽcmcP[emʾŮĖBŸōÉƼƏɗƯIʤ2Ÿ
H-/(+I79 ‘ƣÉ0ķɢʱ0řãI§ņəɢMȷ!+ʯŨ!I-
ŸÉ3řãMŸH0éɢMƹÓIF0/I
[84]
ʂŋ2əɢ,B€`‹”d0
[76]
F(+řãMɠŘ!I-ŸÉ3Ĥ@-ȄGJ+Iʽ7.5 ‘ƣÉʾ ȽǏǗĭ,B
ŸÉȄ(+IéɢM€`‹”d,ȷ!I-ȽǏt”–Iʽ6 ‘ƣÉʾ13 ‘
ƣÉ0/I-ȄG/éɢ,(+B€`‹”d,ȷ!I-ȽǏt”–(%
€`‹”d0FIɠŘ0F(+əɢīȳMʆA%ėøĹƭķŵ§Ǹɟ,ȷ3
[85]
2
ɢ2ǩɗ/.0ŭŝʫMì</2,KˈȜ3ü2F&űŮ2ʻ8H0F
(+ƽ/őø2€`‹”dŸōÉ0û(+ɟJ2őø2ğƽŬȰHɽ
JI-,ʩĜ2ljäDɛŴ2čĭäM½ʆI
[78]
ĜMȰHɽȷ-ʣGJ%ʩĜƹÓ//I
d0F(+ǩɗőǖI
[86]
ʁ0ğƽŬ2³NJ>(%ʩ
[77]
•ƒŵ§2ėø3€`‹”
1960 Ō«¬ʢ€`‹”d2Ȇȓßʃ%ǩǯ2•)0i‰‚cY”2ǫŵƏǎD
5
əɢȼÞ2ǫŢŬʽǫ>J)2ȼÞʾ0ķIPik”f(%F&
[87]
€`‹
”d0FIəɢÊÞ3əɢ-+˜ĬË,H&G#əɢȼÞ3ǫŢǺ,I3
&-2Ř0ķ+€`‹”d2ƏǎƼʄDəɢǺŮĖ3īȳȶ0-(+æÔ,I
-2Ř,I2ɨ 3ǨĐBȫ+I0ɋLJ+I23Džɕ2əɢÊÞ
[2]
-ŸōÉ2əɢȼÞ-2ǾʠMƃIȆȓ,I VR
IK4'
€`‹”d3ƽ/əɢď“Əäď,ȴɅǰģăL
?GJI%AšDzÌʂ2ɟ
ƒum-ǫǠ0ÅL(%ɟƒ&-ŚÖȵGJ+%1970 ŌšçG
1980 ŌÜç0+€`‹”d2/əɢ“Əäȥ©J%p‡”ZpPŃ2WŒ
[88]
‹ɢʽKaluliʾ
đē
[89]
ȡĎq”cY…ŽŠRoŅ2ǮɁ0´@Px‹W“Pƒ‹W2ŀ´
\Ok€Š0´@€†ƓÎ2YiTɢʽQuiché, K’iche’ʾ
[90]
,I
WŒ‹2§ʌ3ŸōÉ0əɈMƋ14/G/-¿+IF&&G
#ȻÉɢ2F/‘ĩ.B(=’əɈM¹L
Ġ§-ùŜŕM¹-ĖþJ+I
[88]
2ɨƏ,3 baby talk -ɢ¹LJJɢśʽȻÉɢʾMž2ʪŠ
Mž2×ǝ-/ĭȲƟƛ/2,I
Px‹W“Pƒ‹Wđå2Ėþ,3ŸōÉ3ŋ0Ġ§%'2ɺ2œť0+Dž
ĩ¢§H0/I-3A(%0/#&
[89]
#2%AŸōÉ3ŋ0ķŵ§Ǹɟ0
GJ+HĠ§%'3ŸōÉ0ʠIɟ3IŸōÉ0û(+ɟMI-
/%>0Ō–2ĩ.BŸōÉM>-0ɟIȏő&#,IDžɕ3
ŸōÉ-ȬĴ/DH-HMIǀ¯Ľ/2,ɧƲʦ23ȇ,K
Įʤ0DžɕŸōÉ-ûø(%Ɲ€`‹”dM¹.3ɧ:GJ+/
2đē2ĩ»%'3ļīƳ,2ɩȲœƋŊ2ɳă0ʎÕ0ȜGJ/#,I
2đēƢɯł[Šc0Ł+I%AƋȻ{Œ³2êĊ#J-BDžĩ
Ǿ£·ǭ,ʴMɒøL!%DH-HM!
0ŵʜ%G/23ÔG/
YiTɢ,2Ėþ3–ɛˁ)2ɧƲ-ʍʩĜɗƯMɋ(+I
[90]
YiT2Əä
,3ǾŸ0ĺƌ2ŪMȈ%AĜʻ0ɟ#&)>Hķŵ§Ǹɟ,Ĝ2wjiʻ
/IJ3€`‹”d2ǡŤ2•),Iʻwji,2ɟƒ-±+IY
iTɢ,3€`‹”d/-FHBķŵ§Ǹɟ-2åØ)*GYiT
ɢ2€`‹”d-ķŵ§ǸɟMdž:[email protected]§Ǹɟ2ƒwjiʻ#&ʽň
13.6HzʾYiTɢ2€`‹”dȾµɇɢ2€`‹”dFHB 15.05Hz ʻ#/2,
0YiTɢ2ķŵ§ǸɟĜʻ,IÔI#J,BYiTɢ2€`‹”d
,3ªəɢ2€`‹”d0?GJIF/DŰȎMGLšƄɢ/.
6
?GJķŵ§Ǹɟ-2ʍBĖþJ+I,ĖþJ%€`‹”d3ŸÉ
,3/ōÉʽ1 Ź 10 ‘ƣ2 Ź 10 ‘ƣʾMǾŸ0ɟ%€`‹”d,ɗƯMɋ(+I
€`‹”dƢBĜʻ/ǫš 6 ‘ƣÜš,ÏîʚɗƯ“džɹIŦɑK
–ɛ˂)2Ėþ3ŸōÉ2əɢǥŢ0€`‹”d3Ŧɑ/-IȖė2§ʌɄ
ŖǭIƏǤ,I–ɿ%F0–ɛ2Ėþ&,3
€`‹”d/
əɢ“ƏäI-3əÕJ/ĖþG 30 Ō¬–%(%ǨЀ`‹”d2ĭȲ
BɧƲƒǎDǀĈBŵǞ+%¨#ʀɶɧƲ/G70G/IxQ”Œn
”[MɋŦɑI€`‹”dƪŚ0um˜ĝ/Ǩɭ/22ă0ȜI-
,I&K#2–,əɢǥŢ0I€`‹”d2ŞÝŦɑƬ®/2ɏàǺŞ
Ý/2MƉA+ă:&
WR!
J5
€`‹”d2ƢBœȖǺ/ĀȎķŸÉǸɟʽinfant-directed speech, IDSʾ,I-–
ɿ%
[12]
œȖ&,/ƪɳM)%Ā7ƒ,I-țȶ3ū)>H.N/ʩ
ĜǸ!GJ%2ʽÓÞʾMƁI2,3/ȾÔ¨ɥ0û(+ɟ+
I2#2ÎǺ/ĦãMăʳ0+I2,IÜȞ,YiTɢ2€`‹”dķŵ§Ǹɟ2wji±+HåØ)*G-ȥ©%
[90]
#J3ÓÞʩĜMɗƯ
IʣH0+±+I2,(+
ɥ0û(+ɟ+I23Ƙȇ0Ǵ/(+
I
ÓÞ-+€`‹”d0±+IʩĜ0ķ|jmǸɟʽpet-directed speechʾIw
ji2ʻDűŮ2őø3±ʂ(+Iʍ3Ǹɟ2ƘȂʽhyper-articulationʾ
0(%
[14]
ùDžɕȾÔ2|jm0û(+ɟ%Ɲʽķ|jmǸɟʾ-ȾÔ2Ÿ
Éʽ6 ‘ƣʾ0€`‹”d,ɟ%Ɲ2Džʩ Pʽ/a/ʾRʽ/i/ʾSʽ/u/ʾ2ʩĜMɗƯ
#J$J2ʩĜ.2ȏőɼ2ʍ(+I2MDžʩȔʟ-F4JIȔʟ–
,Ǘĭ%-Kķ|jmǸɟ,ɟJ%P“R“SFHB€`‹”d,ɟJ%P“
R“S2ƒƘȂ,(%Ğϧû2Ǹɟʽforeigner-directed speechʾ,3|jmû
Ǹɟ-ʁ2tg”0/I
[91]
/L'Ǹɟ2ƘȂ0ʠ+3€`‹”d-ù
3(H+I•ƒwji2ʻDűŮ2őø3ķŵ§Ǹɟ-ùG³(%
Ȍ%'3ǾŸ0û(+ɟʤ0ǾŸ2əɢǩɗÞMƅʘ(%–,ȄG
ɟMɧƎ+I2,I
7
ȄG
Ǹ
XRH".,81
>>,€`‹”dMȷïIŸōÉ2ÄGÈɋȆȓMȥ©+%G3
ɟȶ,Iɕ0ȁǽȧʺÁ§ňG€`‹”d2ğƽŬMȵIƪ2ɤ?ȷ
!2ʤƔ0ÇDĥIŸōÉ0ķ+3Džɕ3€`‹”d2ʪŠ2ĝɧMřAI
[92]
>%ȉ¯Ǻ/đ²DȧǕǢŲDžɕ2€`‹”d2ɳ“ʘMĝä!IG0ĩ.
B2Ǹʌ0ʠIɕ2Ȅɫ€`‹”d0BŝʫMF<
[93-95]
^‡p]”
a‰IǢnjʽʷ¡ȁơƪ2ɤ?ȷ!V„i…ʉ7ʾD^‡p]”a‰
2øɚƝʟǡ0€`‹”d0ŝʫMF<F&
[94]
}Œ„0FIŝʫBĖþJ+IVYama-}Œ„30ƩƷȊȧ
ȣ0ÆÔħƝ2ĩįîȮDŸLjÔǍM½ÆMB)-ȄGJ+IœƱ
Ȋȧȣ0BÆûȉ¯ɋâ0ʠ™I-2Ėþ 10 Ō;.ȫ+IVYama
2}Œ„ʘ03Á§ňIVYama2ʘğDžɕ;.ŸÉʽ6 ‘ƣʾ0
ķI€`‹”d2ǸɟʘDũűŮB(%ƄɘɋâŸÉMʼɂIF/ʸȻɋ
âĚI
[96]
•ƒ,ȢȊǶǩīǺ/ŝʫBȄGJ+IÜɿ2Ǭš),3€`
‹”d2Ǹɟʘ2³—¬Ğ0BŸÉʽ34 ‘ƣʾ2ɋâ0øL!%ɋâɧȞ2³—Ÿ
É2ǸĜ0ķIŨȜ2ʈI
ɟʘBĽ/
[97]
[64]
>%űŮMɍəɈDəɢŮĖM-B/(%Ǹ
G0Ĝ2wji2ğƽŬĽ/džɹǺxŠjm/ɟƒMI
Ż)Ɋ2ƥǭDļœMŢ+IƝ3ƉĆJI
2¹ǭ³—+I-2ĖþI
[98]
[65]
ȪøĢɧǷ2DžɕB€`‹”d
YR$?HG;&
ɕ3.2F/ůČMB(+€`‹”dM¹ŸōÉ0ɟ+I2&K
ŸōÉMÜ0%ɕ2ʻƇű>%3ĩ.B0əɈM°F-ůČMɍ+I
/G4ȻÉȧʺ0FIʍDǰģňÁ§ň(+B˜ūɬ,3/țȶ%'3Ƚ
ǓâMɚǗI-,ăʳMƹɝI-0%
[99]
ĠȽ3Ňõ0ÔJ+I•ɃǺ0¿GJ+I;.ŇȽ-õȽ2Æ0Ġ/
ʍ3/#J,B(5/ǀȼ2Ƹ?Ô3I
[100]
əɢǀȼ3ŇȽʽõÙ
2ėøʾűŮǀȼ3õȽ-Ġ>/ʍ,IBɕ€`‹”d0F(+Ÿō
É0əɢM°F-+I/GŇȽ2əɢʗǓâI&KBűŮ2ʻ8H
,ɟ+I2/GõȽDűŮ0ʠIȽǓâɒGJI3
++ȆȓMʆA%
8
&2F/­ɣM%
YRS AB3:
țȶ%'3ȻÉȧʺ2ƤǜDŬň0FI€`‹”d2ʍMɧ:I%A06 )2Ǵ/
I\Œ”zʽ1ʾɕ2ȧʺ2/ǰŬ-ʽ2ʾģŬʽ3ʾǫš 612 ‘ƣ2ąɢƧŸÉ2ǟ
ɕ-ʽ4ʾDžɕʽ5ʾ¢ɢƏƧōÉ2Džɕʽ6ʾļī•ŌǫÉȘ2Džɕ0ɧƲèÞM¼ʲ
%ȻÉȧʺMȪÚI%AąɢƧŸÉ¢ɢƏƧōÉȚ•ĩ,Iɕ0ëß+B
G(%ëߧƍ3#J$J 20 úȏő,fMRI M¹€`‹”d0LIȽǓâMɧ
:%ŚÖ3Ɏȱ2œ,€`‹”dMɟ+BGȽǓâMɖĶI-MɚDZ%
2&ñMâ-íâ,ʱâȽ2¿öMǃɖĶI-,/
B€`‹”d3Ġ0ɟ-ǡŤ2%AɎȱ2œ,€`‹”dMɟƒǎ3Ɛ
Ū%
1996 ŌRg‹P“tŒ€Ġī2 Giacomo Rizzolatti ƋƂG2\Œ”z0FHŠ”p‡
”ŽǸɒJª§2â·Mɒ%&,#2â·MƿÂIF/ȽǓâI
-ƘG0J%
B(%
[102]
[101]
Bâ·Dʊâ2ȧʺMȒ@-Ǔâř/I-Ėþ
țȶ%'32Š”p‡”Ž2ÆMÙǭëßȶɎȱ2œ,€
`‹”dMȷ-€`‹”dMɟ--ùƽ2ȽǓâMɖǗ,I-ȵ%ʩǙ0
3€`‹”d2ÍĒº-+J/Ĝ2€`‹”dG€`‹”dMîʚ%
țȶ%'3G0Á§ň0)+BƹɝI%AëßȶËĂ0 5 ĠĊĩ2ŬƶƹƲ
ʽvj\˄ʾMɋ(%ǡ0ȉ¥ŬDǓâŬMȈĞûŬ0ȁǽ+€`‹”d
2ȽǓâ-2ʠʅMƃ(%
2Ȇȓ,ȁǽ%23€`‹”d2ǡŤ2'ʪŠʽ‹d‚řãźƇʾɢśʽȻÉɢōÉɢʾ,I#J$JMķŵ§Ǹɟ-džɹI%AʪŠM 2 gR
zʽ€`‹”d-ķŵ§ǸɟʾɢśM 2 gRzʽ€`‹”d-ķŵ§Ǹɟʾǭů2!2
2¢ɑĊʓȱ0F(+4 Ȑʶ2ʩĜMîʚ%/L'ʪŠBɢśB€`‹”d
ʪŠBɢśBķŵ§ǸɟʪŠ€`‹”dʿɢśķŵ§ǸɟʪŠķŵ§Ǹ
ɟʿɢś€`‹”d2 4 Ȑʶ,I#J$J2ʩĜÛǚM 64 îʚøɚ 4 ! 64 = 256
ȐʶMǭů%2–,#J$J2ëßȶ03 2 Ȑʶ2ɦʳMɋ(+BG(%ˀ)
A3ʪŠ&0ȁǽ+ȷ+%ʩĜ€`‹”dķŵ§ǸɟMŔØ+B
G(%)>Hɢś3ǜɓIL,Iˁ)A2ɦʳ3ʁ0ɢś&0ȁǽ+
€`‹”dķŵ§ǸɟMŔØʪŠ3ǜɓIɦʳˀ,3–ɛ-€`‹
”dɦʳˁ,3-€`‹”d-/I
YRT AB27
€`‹”dMȷ%-2ȽǓâMɧ:%Ȩưĩ.B2əɢǸʌ0Ũ+Džɕ2ȽǓ
9
âBĝäI-Ô(%
[99]
ëß% 6 )2\Œ”z2œ,•dz€`‹”dM¹2
3ąɢƧŸÉ2Džɕ,ƢBĜʻǡŤǺ/€`‹”dMɟ
[103]
#JMíƚ%F
0əɢʗ,ƢBʻȽǓâMȈ%ʽɦʳˀ˅ʪŠ2ŔØʾǡ0ŇȽ“əɢʗ2œ,
BòÍǺəɢʗ-+ȄGJIyŽ”WʗʽBrodmann 44/45 ʗʾ-STŒpj]ʗ
ʽBrodmann 20/40/42 ʗʾ,(%>%€`‹”d2ʪŠ&,/ȻÉɢ0ķ+
BəɢʗříŨ%ʽɦʳˁ˅ɢś2ŔØʾʨǹ-0ùƝƧ2ŸÉMB)ǟ
ɕ,3ȽǓâɒGJ/(%¨ĉëß%DžɕG3ËĂĸƺĨ,ǟɕ-3ȻÉ0
ƈLIƝʟ0ňI%ADžɕ-ǟɕ2ȽǓâ2ʍ3#J$J2ȻÉƝʟ2ʜ2
ʍMíƚ+IóȼŬȵGJ%>%ɕ2ȧʺ2/ǰģ,BȽǓâ3ɒGJ
/(%ʽČˀʾ
ǁ0ʻȽǓâMȈ%2¢ɢƏƧōÉ2Džɕ,(%şģGĮʤ0ĩ.B0
ɟI-€`‹”d2Ĝʻ3ǖ(+I>&€`‹”d2ʪŠDȻÉɢM
¹ƝƧ,I
[104]
ļīǫ2Džɕ,3B3DȾÔ2ĩ.B0€`‹”d3¹L
ȽǓâMɖĶ+B€`‹”d0>(%íŨ/(%/L'ķŵ§Ǹɟùȏő0íŨ/(%2F0Džɕ2ȽǓâ3ĩ.B2ŵʜ-Ì0ĝä
+-Ô(%ʽČˁ˂ʾ
G0țȶ%'3ëßȶËĂ2ŬƶƹƲMɋȉ¥ŬDǓâŬMȈĞûŬ
€`‹”dMȷ+I-2ȽǓâ0.2ȏőŝʫIMɧ:%#2ȨưąɢƧ
ŸÉ2DžɕG&,ĞûŬʻ§;.Ǹɟʊâ0LIʊâʗřǓâ%ʽČ
˃ʾ5 ĠĊĩ2ª2ʮǽ0ʠ+3.2\Œ”z,BƤů/Ǿʠ3/(%
ąɢƧŸÉ3əɈMɟ!/0BLG
DžɕG2əɢʗǓâI--3
é/ILJŽ'2ʻƇ,€`‹”dMɟ2,3/ŸÉ0¶-əɈM°F+
IůČ2ɍJ,H>%ùǸɟʊâ0LIʊâʗǓâ%-GȽÎ
,3a‡”g”ʽŠ”p‡”ŽʾÆ+I-ȵGJI
¬–3ȽǓâ0)+2ň,IɧƲȾµ3ʩĜ2ȷïHF7ŔØɦʳMɋ(%
L,IɋâŵȯʽíŨƝʟ-ǃȜǦʾ03\Œ”zʟ2ň3/(%ɦʳˀ2
ʪŠŔØɦʳˁ2ɢśŔØ-B0Ƞé/ɦʳ,I2,ǻ;<ǘǛM-(+>
(%ġ¤áư2óȼŬBI
ƪɨƏ2Ðʱ,ƢBœȖǺ/éɢķŸÉǸɟʽinfant-directed speechʾ,I-ɿ:%
[12]
0BʠLG
țȶ€`‹”dʽDžɕɢʾ-Ā7ȫ%ǩǯ0I/L
'ąɢƧŸÉ2DžɕƢBķŸÉǸɟM¹#JE0əɢʗ2ȽǓâBƊű,
(%G,IąɢƧŸÉ2ǟɕ,3ȽǓâ2ĚĠɡAGJ/(%%A0
|PkQ”dʽɕɢʾ-3ʽĽ/-BȽȍīǺ03ʾĀ:/
10
YRU [email protected]%6[
€`‹”d,3.N/ʩĜǸ!GJ%2,3/ȾÔ¨
ɥ0û(+ɟ
+I2#2ÎǺ/ĦãĠÕ&-2ȌɒM–,ɿ:%ÎǺ/Ħã2ĝä
/L'€`‹”d“„”n0ÕHơIȽÎcRjiMɒ)I-3,/ˈ
țȶ%'3Ïő fMRI l”gMɗƯ+cRjiMƃ-0%
[105]
,țȶ%
'3¶cRji0/I23ȻÉȧʺ--B0Ɗű0ĝäI&K-­ɣMȖ+
%#+¬—˃)2Ƭ®MË+ǘ%Ƚʑ²J4#JcRjiBJ/
-ȵ%ɕȧʺ2/ģŬ,3€`‹”d-ķŵ§Ǹɟ,Ǔâ2ň/ąɢ
ƧŸÉ2Džɕ,3ɢśFHBʪŠ2ŝʫřʽʪŠ2áưʾ¢ɢƏƧōÉ2Džɕ
,3ɢś-ʪŠ2›ƒ2ŝʫIʽɢś!ʪŠ2¥£·ǭáưʾļī•ŌǫÉȘ2
Džɕ,3€`‹”d-ķŵ§Ǹɟ,Ǔâ2ň/,IʽČ˄AʾɗƯMɋ(%Ȩ
ư2 4 Ƭ®MË+ǘ%Ƚʑ²•)&H#J3Ƚ2ǔʑõÄ2ĔŏƴʽĿ
Ǣƴʾ,(%ʽČ˄Bʾʨǹ-0ŇÄ2ĿǢƴ3sR‹XŒ2əɢʟÕHơ
cRji-+ĖþJ+I
[106]
ŇõíķÄõÄ2ĿǢƴ3€`‹”d2„”n“Õ
HơcRji,IóȼŬ3I
YRV *N</5)1
•dz2ăʳǛ3Ġ§€`‹”dMǸ%2,3/ȸï%Ɲ2ȽǓâMɚǗ
%Ǜ,IMRI 2œ,€`‹”dǡƤ2hRoj[/ñ2â·Mɋ-íâ,ʱ
âȽ2¿öMǃɖĶI-,/%A2Ɇȹ2ȝ,(%J3€
`‹”dMȸï%&,(+Bƕŋ2ǸɟȧʺMíƚ%ȽǓâGLJI2ÜƆI2ÜƆMŠ”p‡”Ž0ʲ(+>(%óȼ/G4€`‹”d
MǸɟ%Ɲ2ȽǓâ-ȸï%Ɲ2ȽǓâMdž:•ȿI-Mȇɡ!14/G/
Š”p‡”Ž2ĪĐʟʍ(+J4țȶ%'2Ȇȓ3ɗʕĝƠMɾGJIØ2
ɗʕ-+ª§2ɟ€`‹”d0ķIʍāűGJIƕŋǺ0€`‹”dM
¹4¹;.ȾÔ2€`‹”dMȳŢ+ª§2€`‹”dMȷ-,
ȾÔ-2ʍMƹÓʽĜɳʪŠ/.ʾȽǓâ3#2ʍMɍǨ+I&BJ
/ƢB€`‹”dM¹ąɢƧŸÉ2Džɕ,ȾÔ-ª§2ʍMʵɉ0ƹÓȽ
ǓâBʻ/(%2BJ/ƞDŽ€`‹”dM¹L/ɕȧʺ2/ǰģDļī
ǫÉȘ2Džɕ,3ƹÓÞ³ȽǓâ0BíƚJ/(%-ɗʕBóȼ,
I
ąɢƧŸÉ2Džɕ-ǟɕ,?GJ%ʍ3–ɿ2ʂHȻÉƝʟ2ʜ2ʍMíƚ
11
+IóȼŬIG03ÓǬšȻɜ2}Œ„sŠc2ʍMíƚ+
IóȼŬBIJG2óȼŬMƹɝI%A03/ʸȻȶǟɕ2ıŒǰŬ¾
Ȼě/.-džɹMI-,ȻÉƝʟ2óȼŬMƹɝ,I&K>%ÓǬȧʺ3/
ʸĩMȻɜ2Džɕ,ȽǓâMɚǗJ4}Œ„sŠc2óȼŬMƹɝ,I
ZRD
€`‹”d-ǨɭMťǩīǺȊȧȍīǺ0Àȃ+%ǡØ/Ǩɭ,3/
F0ūB(-Ġ/ɓǛGƁI-,Ƶŏ0I23^‡p]”a
‰2ɧƎȼÞ,I-țȶ3ȵ+I>
ĠÕ/23ǽ2Ü0I§2ĪĐ,
Iǁ0ĠÕ/23#2§-.D(+^‡p]”a‰MŽȫ!I,I
§ŜǾŸ,3€`‹”dMɟ2ʦ232ǩǯ&ŌijHMǾŸ0€`‹
”dʽ(=ɟƒʾM¹2BşG2ǐůMŖƝ03ɦʳ2txU”€cM–
ɔʔ{ŒM–I-,IG&
[107]
%-ķŵ§Ǹɟ,(+BƑə
ɈÓ+%GʪŠMɧƎI€`‹”d,Bķŵ§Ǹɟ,B2 ĉǽ0Ó+%éɢ,
3ȅʧ0³wji,ɟ
[108]
ǾŸ2ȼÞMƅʘH^‡p]”a‰M
Žȫ!IɧƎȼÞĔǼ0IG#űŮ2ÌƤDDžĩʟ2ùƧɋâɍŮâ·
ɘɔ2€Œi„”hŒ/ŮĖ°ʌóȼ/2&K
ʁ0ə4^‡p]”a‰2ɧƎȼޞ§0-(+3€`‹”d3Ś%
HÜ2Ǩɭ,3//"ʎÕ/€`‹”dMɟ!//"ɧƎȼÞ³—+I
2#2§MǩɗI–,à0/IȆȓ¶FHŦɑ,I2ƒûŬ,ȆȓMȫ
I-€`‹”d-ǨɭMFHǔȄI-0/I&KȀǩ3ŋ0ŗȶ2
Ä0I2&
LM
ƪɨƏ,ȥ©%ȆȓMʇɋI0%HžĻʬ>%ʹĘJĩÈǫʽǩä
īȆȓŷʾŧƫǑĩÈǫʽĕǧĠīʾÌùȆȓȶ,I Donna Erickson ÈǫʽƜāʩƻ
ĠīʾǮœĄNjÈǫʽǩäīȆȓŷʾȏœÈǫʽǩäīȆȓŷʾR. Allen Waggoner Èǫ
ʽǩäīȆȓŷʾ–ʗɲ•ÈǫʽǩäīȆȓŷʾ0ťFHűɪ%>ƪɨƏ3Əȍ
ǿȍȆɱʽƑīɌʰē #24119004«ɍ˅ļɐɋʐʾ2àŵMð%
12
(E4>
[1]
Ferguson, C. A. Baby Talk in Six Languages. American Anthropologist 66, 103-114 (1964).
[2]
Saint-Georges, C. et al. Motherese in interaction: at the cross-road of emotion and
cognition? (A systematic review). PLoS One 8, e78103 (2013).
[3]
Soderstrom, M. Beyond babytalk: Re-evaluating the nature and content of speech input to
preverbal infants. Developmental Review 27, 501-532 (2007).
[4]
Mazuka, R., Kondo, T. & Hayashi, A. Japanese mothers' use of specialized vocabulary in
infant-directed speech: infant-directed vocabulary in Japanese. in The Origins of Language
(ed N. Masataka) 39–58 (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
[5]
Fernald, A. et al. A cross-language study of prosodic modifications in mothers' and fathers'
speech to preverbal infants. Journal of Child Language 16, 477-501 (1989).
[6]
Lee, S., Davis, B. L. & Macneilage, P. F. Segmental properties of input to infants: a study
of Korean. Journal of Child Language 35, 591-617 (2008).
[7]
Lee, S. A., Davis, B. & Macneilage, P. Universal production patterns and ambient language
influences in babbling: a cross-linguistic study of Korean- and English-learning infants.
Journal of Child Language 37, 293-318 (2010).
[8]
Masataka, N. Motherese in a signed language. Infant Behavior and Development 15,
453-460 (1992).
[9]
Masataka, N. Perception of motherese in Japanese sign language by 6-month-old hearing
infants. Developmental Psychology 34, 241-246 (1998).
[10]
Segal, O., Nir-Sagiv, B., Kishon-Rabin, L. & Ravid, D. Prosodic patterns in Hebrew
child-directed speech. Journal of Child Language 36, 629-656 (2009).
[11]
Shute, B. & Wheldall, K. Pitch alterations in British motherese: some preliminary acoustic
data. Journal of Child Language 16, 503-512 (1989).
[12]
Saxton, M. What's in a name? Coming to terms with the child's linguistic environment.
Journal of Child Language 35, 677-686 (2008).
[13]
Bryant, G. A. & Barrett, H. C. Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: evidence
for universals. Psychological Science 18, 746-751 (2007).
[14]
Burnham, D., Kitamura, C. & Vollmer-Conna, U. What's new, pussycat? On talking to
babies and animals. Science 296, 1435 (2002).
[15]
Cristia, A. Phonetic enhancement of sibilants in infant-directed speech. Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America 128, 424-434 (2010).
13
[16]
Englund, K. & Behne, D. Changes in Infant Directed Speech in the First Six Months. Infant
and Child Development 15, 139-160 (2006).
[17]
Fais, L., Kajikawa, S., Amano, S. & Werker, J. F. Now you hear it, now you don't: vowel
devoicing in Japanese infant-directed speech. Journal of Child Language 37, 319-340
(2010).
[18]
Fernald, A. Intonation and communicative intent in mothers' speech to infants: is the
melody the message? Child Development 60, 1497-1510 (1989).
[19]
Fernald, A. & Mazzie, C. Prosody and focus in speech to infants and adults. Developmental
Psychology 27, 209-221 (1991).
[20]
Fernald, A. & Simon, T. Expanded intonation contours in mothers' speech to newborns.
Developmental Psychology 20, 104-113 (1984).
[21]
Green, J. R., Nip, I. S., Wilson, E. M., Mefferd, A. S. & Yunusova, Y. Lip movement
exaggerations during infant-directed speech. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
Research 53, 1529-1542 (2010).
[22]
Grieser, D. L. & Kuhl, P. K. Maternal speech to infants in a tonal language: Support for
universal prosodic features in motherese. Developmental Psychology 24, 14-20 (1988).
[23]
Igarashi, Y., Nishikawa, K., Tanaka, K. & Mazuka, R. Phonological theory informs the
analysis of intonational exaggeration in Japanese infant-directed speech. Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America 134, 1283-1294 (2013).
[24]
Inoue, T., Nakagawa, R., Kondou, M., Koga, T. & Shinohara, K. Discrimination between
mothers' infant- and adult-directed speech using hidden Markov models. Neuroscience
Research 70, 62-70 (2011).
[25]
Katz, G. S., Cohn, J. F. & Moore, C. A. A combination of vocal fo dynamic and summary
features discriminates between three pragmatic categories of infant-directed speech. Child
Development 67, 205-217 (1996).
[26]
Kuhl, P. K. et al. Cross-language analysis of phonetic units in language addressed to infants.
Science 277, 684-686 (1997).
[27]
Liu, H. M., Tsao, F. M. & Kuhl, P. K. Acoustic analysis of lexical tone in Mandarin
infant-directed speech. Developmental Psychology 43, 912-917 (2007).
[28]
Mahdhaoui, A. et al. Computerized home video detection for motherese may help to study
impaired interaction between infants who become autistic and their parents. International
Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 20, e6-18 (2011).
[29]
Nwokah, E. E., Hsu, H. C., Davies, P. & Fogel, A. The integration of laughter and speech in
14
vocal communication: a dynamic systems perspective. Journal of Speech, Language, and
Hearing Research 42, 880-894 (1999).
[30]
Ogle, S. A. & Maidment, J. A. Laryngographic analysis of child-directed speech. European
Journal of Disorders of Communication 28, 289-297 (1993).
[31]
Papoueek, M., Papoueek, H. & Symmes, D. The meanings of melodies in motherese in tone
and stress languages. Infant Behavior and Develoopment 14, 415-440 (1991).
[32]
Reilly, J. S. & Bellugi, U. Competition on the face: affect and language in ASL motherese.
Journal of Child Language 23, 219-239 (1996).
[33]
Stern, D. N., Spieker, S. & MacKain, K. Intonation contours as signals in maternal speech
to prelinguistic infants. Developmental Psychology 18, 727-735 (1982).
[34]
Swanson, L. A., Leonard, L. B. & Gandour, J. Vowel duration in mothers' speech to young
children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 35, 617-625 (1992).
[35]
Trainor, L. J., Austin, C. M. & Desjardins, R. N. Is infant-directed speech prosody a result
of the vocal expression of emotion? Psychological Science 11, 188-195 (2000).
[36]
Elena, S. & Merideth, G. Infants infer intentions from prosody. Cognitive Development 27,
1-16 (2012).
[37]
Fernald, A. Approval and disapproval: infant responsiveness to vocal affect in familiar and
unfamiliar languages. Child Development 64, 657-674 (1993).
[38]
Papousek, M., Bornstein, M. H., Nuzzo, C. & Papousek, H. Infant responses to prototypical
melodic contours in parental speech. Infant Behavior and Develoopment 13, 539-545
(1990).
[39]
Iverson, J. M., Capirci, O., Longobardi, E. & Cristina Caselli, M. Gesturing in mother-child
interactions. Cognitive Development 14, 57-75 (1999).
[40]
O'Neill, M., Bard, K. A., Linnell, M. & Fluck, M. Maternal gestures with 20-month-old
infants in two contexts. Developmental Science 8, 352-359 (2005).
[41]
Colombo, J., Frick, J. E., Ryther, J. S. & Coldren, J. T. Infants' detection of analogs of
'motherese' in noise. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 41, 104-113 (1995).
[42]
Newman, R. S. & Hussain, I. Changes in Preference for Infant- Directed Speech in Low and
Moderate Noise by 4.5- to 13-Month-Olds. Infancy 10, 61-76 (2006).
[43]
Santesso, D. L., Schmidt, L. A. & Trainor, L. J. Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) and
heart rate in response to affective infant-directed (ID) speech in 9-month-old infants. Brain
and Cognition 65, 14-21 (2007).
[44]
Singh, L., Morgan, J. L. & Best, C. T. Infants' Listening Preferences: Baby Talk or Happy
15
Talk? Infancy 3, 365-394 (2002).
[45]
Fernald, A. & Kuhl, P. Acoustic determinants of infant preference for motherese speech.
Infant Behavior and Development 10, 279-293 (1987).
[46]
Santarcangelo, S. & Dyer, K. Prosodic aspects of motherese: Effects on gaze and
responsiveness in developmentally disabled children. Journal of Experimental Child
Psychology 46, 406-418 (1988).
[47]
Schachner, A. & Hannon, E. E. Infant-directed speech drives social preferences in
5-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology 47, 19-25 (2011).
[48]
Werker, J. F. & McLeod, P. J. Infant preference for both male and female infant-directed
talk: a developmental study of attentional and affective responsiveness. Canadian Journal
of Psychology 43, 230-246 (1989).
[49]
Cooper, R. P. The effect of prosody on young infants' speech perception. Advances Infancy
Res 8, 137-167 (1993).
[50]
Cooper, R. P. & Aslin, R. N. Preference for infant-directed speech in the first month after
birth. Child Development 61, 1584-1595 (1990).
[51]
Pegg, J. E., Werker, J. F. & McLeod, P. J. Preference for infant-directed over adult-directed
speech: Evidence from 7-week-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development 15, 325-345
(1992).
[52]
Saito, Y. et al. Frontal cerebral blood flow change associated with infant-directed speech.
Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 92, F113-116 (2007).
[53]
Hayashi, A., Tamekawa, Y. & Kiritani, S. Developmental change in auditory preferences
for speech stimuli in Japanese infants. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
44, 1189-1200 (2001).
[54]
Hepper, P. G., Scott, D. & Shahidullah, S. Newborn and fetal response to maternal voice.
Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 11, 147-153 (1993).
[55]
Cooper, R. P., Abraham, J., Berman, S. & Staska, M. The development of infants'
preference for motherese. Infant Behavior and Development 20, 477-488 (1997).
[56]
Naoi, N. et al. Cerebral responses to infant-directed speech and the effect of talker
familiarity. Neuroimage 59, 1735-1744 (2012).
[57]
Niwano, K., Sugai, K. A. Acoustic determinants eliciting Japanese infants' vocal response to
maternal speech. Psychological Reports 90, 83-90 (2002).
[58]
Kitamura, C. & Lam, C. Age-Specific Preferences for Infant-Directed Affective Intent.
Infancy 14, 77-100 (2009).
16
[59]
Kaplan, P. S. & Owren, M. J. Dishabituation of visual attention in 4-month-olds by
infant-directed frequency sweeps. Infant Behavior and Development 17, 347-358 (1994).
[60]
Johnson, D. M., Dixon, D. R., Coon, R. C., Hilker, K. & Gouvier, W. D. Watch What You
Say and How You Say It: Differential Response to Speech by Participants With and
Without Head Injuries. Applied Neuropsychology 9, 58-62 (2002).
[61]
Kaplan, P. S., Goldstein, M. H., Huckeby, E. R. & Cooper, R. P. Habituation, sensitization,
and infants' responses to motherse speech. Developmental Psychobiology 28, 45-57 (1995).
[62]
Gergely, G., Egyed, K. & Király, I. On pedagogy. Developmental Science 10, 139-146
(2007).
[63]
Senju, A. & Csibra, G. Gaze following in human infants depends on communicative signals.
Current Biology 18, 668-671 (2008).
[64]
Bettes, B. A. Maternal depression and motherese: temporal and intonational features. Child
Development 59, 1089-1096 (1988).
[65]
Kaplan, P. S., Bachorowski, J.-A., Smoski, M. J. & Zinser, M. Role of Clinical Diagnosis
and Medication Use in Effects of Maternal Depression on Infant-Directed Speech. Infancy 2,
537-548 (2001).
[66]
Kaplan, P. S., Bachorowski, J. A., Smoski, M. J. & Hudenko, W. J. Infants of depressed
mothers, although competent learners, fail to learn in response to their own mothers'
infant-directed speech. Psychological Science 13, 268-271 (2002).
[67]
Kaplan, P. S., Bachorowski, J. A. & Zarlengo-Strouse, P. Child-directed speech produced
by mothers with symptoms of depression fails to promote associative learning in
4-month-old infants. Child Development 70, 560-570 (1999).
[68]
Kaplan, P. S., Danko, C. M., Diaz, A. & Kalinka, C. J. An associative learning deficit in
1-year-old infants of depressed mothers: Role of depression duration. Infant Behavior and
Development 34, 35-44 (2011).
[69]
Kaplan, P. S., Dungan, J. K. & Zinser, M. C. Infants of chronically depressed mothers learn
in response to male, but not female, infant-directed speech. Developmental Psychology 40,
140-148 (2004).
[70]
Kaplan, P. S., Sliter, J. K. & Burgess, A. P. Infant-directed speech produced by fathers with
symptoms of depression: effects on infant associative learning in a conditioned-attention
paradigm. Infant Behavior and Develoopment 30, 535-545 (2007).
[71]
Kaplan, P. S., Burgess, A. P., Sliter, J. K. & Moreno, A. J. Maternal Sensitivity and the
Learning-Promoting Effects of Depressed and Non-Depressed Mothers' Infant-Directed
17
Speech. Infancy 14, 143-161 (2009).
[72]
Vallabha, G. K., McClelland, J. L., Pons, F., Werker, J. F. & Amano, S. Unsupervised
learning of vowel categories from infant-directed speech. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 13273-13278 (2007).
[73]
Karzon, R. G. Discrimination of polysyllabic sequences by one- to four-month-old infants.
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 39, 326-342 (1985).
[74]
Karzon, R. G. & Nicholas, J. G. Syllabic pitch perception in 2- to 3-month-old infants.
Perception and Psychophysics 45, 10-14 (1989).
[75]
Thiessen, E. D., Hill, E. A. & Saffran, J. R. Infant-Directed Speech Facilitates Word
Segmentation. Infancy 7, 53-71 (2005).
[76]
Bortfeld, H. & Morgan, J. L. Is early word-form processing stress-full? How natural
variability supports recognition. Cognitive Psychology 60, 241-266 (2010).
[77]
Kirchhoff, K. & Schimmel, S. Statistical properties of infant-directed versus adult-directed
speech: insights from speech recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 117,
2238-2246 (2005).
[78]
Singh, L. Influences of high and low variability on infant word recognition. Cognition 106
(2008).
[79]
Singh, L., Nestor, S., Parikh, C. & Yull, A. Influences of Infant-Directed Speech on Early
Word Recognition. Infancy 14, 654-666 (2009).
[80]
Song, J. Y., Demuth, K. & Morgan, J. Effects of the acoustic properties of infant-directed
speech on infant word recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 128,
389-400 (2010).
[81]
Hirsh-Pasek, K. et al. Clauses are perceptual units for young infants. Cognition 26, 269-286
(1987).
[82]
Kemler Nelson, D. G., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Jusczyk, P. W. & Cassidy, K. W. How the prosodic
cues in motherese might assist language learning. Journal of Child Language 16, 55-68
(1989).
[83]
Saffran, J. R., Aslin, R. N. & Newport, E. L. Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants.
Science 274, 1926-1928 (1996).
[84]
Curtin, S., Mintz, T. H. & Christiansen, M. H. Stress changes the representational
landscape: evidence from word segmentation. Cognition 96, 233-262 (2005).
[85]
Zangl, R. & Mills, D. L. Increased Brain Activity to Infant-Directed Speech in 6- and
13-Month-Old Infants. Infancy 11, 31-62 (2007).
18
[86]
Bard, E. G. & Anderson, A. H. The unintelligibility of speech to children. Journal of Child
Language 10, 265-292 (1983).
[87]
Macwhinney, B. A multiple process solution to the logical problem of language acquisition.
Journal of Child Language 31, 883-914 (2004).
[88]
Schieffelin, B.B. The Study of the Development of Communicative Competence. in
Developmental Pragmatics (ed E. Ochs and B. Schieffelin) 80-97 (Academic Press., 1979).
[89]
Heath, S. Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms.
(Cambridge University Press, 1983).
[90]
Ratner, N. B. & Pye, C. Higher pitch in BT is not universal: acoustic evidence from Quiche
Mayan. Journal of Child Language 11, 515-522 (1984).
[91]
Uther, M., Knoll, M. A. & Burnham, D. Do you speak E-NG-L-I-SH? A comparison of
foreigner- and infant-directed speech. Speech Communication 49, 2-7 (2007).
[92]
Ikeda, Y. & Masataka, N. A variable that may affect individual differences in the
child-directed speech of Japanese women. Japanese Psychological Research 41, 203-208
(1999).
[93]
Hoff, E. & Tian, C. Socioeconomic status and cultural influences on language. Journal of
Communication Disorders 38, 271-278 (2005).
[94]
Hoff-Ginsberg, E. Mother-child conversation in different social classes and communicative
settings. Child Development 62, 782-796 (1991).
[95]
Rowe, M. L. Child-directed speech: relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child
development and child vocabulary skill. Journal of Child Language 35, 185-205 (2008).
[96]
Gordon, I., Zagoory-Sharon, O., Leckman, J. F. & Feldman, R. Oxytocin and the
development of parenting in humans. Biological Psychiatry 68, 377-382 (2010).
[97]
Herrera, E., Reissland, N. & Shepherd, J. Maternal touch and maternal child-directed
speech: effects of depressed mood in the postnatal period. Journal of Affective Disorders 81,
29-39 (2004).
[98]
Wan, M. W., Penketh, V., Salmon, M. P. & Abel, K. M. Content and style of speech from
mothers with schizophrenia towards their infants. Psychiatry Research 159, 109-114 (2008).
[99]
Matsuda, Y. T. et al. Processing of infant-directed speech by adults. Neuroimage 54,
611-621 (2011).
[100]
Schirmer, A. & Kotz, S. A. Beyond the right hemisphere: brain mechanisms mediating
vocal emotional processing. Trends in Cognitive Science 10, 24-30 (2006).
[101]
Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Gallese, V. & Fogassi, L. Premotor cortex and the recognition of
19
motor actions. Cognitive Brain Research 3, 131-141 (1996).
[102]
Aglioti, S. M., Cesari, P., Romani, M. & Urgesi, C. Action anticipation and motor
resonance in elite basketball players. Nature Neuroscience 11, 1109-1116 (2008).
[103]
Amano, S., Nakatani, T. & Kondo, T. Fundamental frequency of infants' and parents'
utterances in longitudinal recordings. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119,
1636-1647 (2006).
[104]
Ogura, T. How the use of ‘non-adult words’ varies as a function of context and children’s
linguistic development. in Studies in Language Science Vol. 5 (ed M. Nakayama) 103-120
(Kuroshio Shuppan, 1996).
[105]
Matsuda, Y.T. et al. Auditory observation of infant-directed speech by mothers:
Experience-dependent interaction between language and emotion in the cortico-basal
ganglia network. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8, Article907 (2014).
[106]
Crinion, J. et al. Language Control in the Bilingual Brain. Science 312, 1537-1540 (2006).
[107]
Bunce, V. L. & Harrison, D. W. Child- or adult-directed speech and esteem: effects on
performance and arousal in elderly adults. International Journal of Aging and Human
Development 32, 125-134 (1991).
[108]
Fisher, C. & Tokura, H. The Given-New Contract in Speech to Infants. Journal of Memory
and Language 34, 287-310 (1995).
20
FDUpn_".
I4p6F
…‰|P
E
z{ˆƒ‚}P
'E
I4p:F
FDUpn_?.
1.
Iƒb9Bi€‘U6’l€‘U7’€wŽN]‘G6’p]‘G7’}jD
Iƒb9Bi€ƒŠ‘+14#Š !/*)$Š’ZjD‘"02&~’
#
0
o
“``”
“††”
%An “jjj” “Š‹Š‹”
S
6
12
(3W)
20
I
I4
“††]jkf”
“Š‹Š‹]di”
I04
I+9@
F
0
6
12
p„‚cV_
&
$
Ž
)
<
20
p„‚c
cvqhtw
fmrŒ„‚o
!eoK_
YX][email protected]
~ye†Oas6yOaƒqˆs
7yOqˆ\€‚
_LEs…8Jai€FC
=
0
}
6
12
p„‚p
R
}
20
}
(3W)
}
FDUpn_
".
I4p
6F
I04*p
6F
&$)<Cp
6F
Z X ] † ~ ‡  € o u w E 7 q M A
`jDZIƒb9Bi€g:ƒ^bWBi€‘KjDdO
RŒYjD
’SQ5VnBui€€wŽN]jD
I4p
6F
'E
LP
()
p (%)
IDS – ADS
R = 0.824
R = 0.774
]
O(;
(@H)
.p-8/
[ X ] † ~ ‡  € o u w E 7 m
]
.p-8/
. mp Q Iƒb9Bi€<;,%.4'zq‚‹A‡Df|vjD
jDXMH][khr‹^
J: DUouklxwBD7
(A)
(B)
T,p5?
T,mI+p
>5?
†~‡€p
T,
†~‡€pI+
pn
U
FD ".
_
p
4
I 6F
*
4
I0 6F
p
Cp
<
1) F
$
6
&
\X]†~‡€pv2ay‚
‘A’,[email protected]
twjD‘=„’
[email protected]
twjD-*(4
x}‰>G}3Tmc