.The name

南 極 に 生 き る微 生 物 た ち
今 中忠行、福 田青郎
立 命館大 学 生¨
MC´ 00Fga″ r′
sJ″ ′
4″ ″κ
“
`icα
Tadariimanaka and Wakao Funda
D"″ ″θ″′夢 iθ ″ ″ο′
gス (lθ ふ
た
ι
ι
tt Rお z″ ι
ノ
ん
α
″こ
スルars″
σ
た
,θ 9ノ ち
′ 肋た″ι
“
“
獅 e climate in Antarctica,with its extreme cold,dryness,stЮ ng winds,seasollally strong UV radiation md low concentration
of organic materials,makcs it difflcu■ for most organisms tO suttain life.Howcver,a great d市 ersity of microorganお 印s has
been foulld in icy envrollmlents,such as pe.lua■ ost,polar oceans,snow,lake ice,sea ice,cryoconite holes,and inside of the
rocks.EnvironIIllental samples were collected by the summer party of the 46th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedttion in
20042005,and about one thousand of microorganisms are isolatedお m these samples ci3・
1)・
Among them,we in“ duce
thc phylogenetically novel microorganisms in this presentation.
Io Novel bacteria isolated hm meshwater lakes.
A Graln‐ stain― negative,non― sporc‐ fol.1ling,ncln‐ motilc,irregularly crcular,acrobic/micЮ aerObic appendaged bacterium
(Strain 120… lT)Was isolatcd■ om Naga‐ Ike,one of the ieshwater lakes in the Skarvsnes ice¨ ice area of Antarctica(Fig.lA,
2A)1).Strain 120‐ lT grew between 5 alld 35° C,with optimunl groⅥ 伍 at 30° C.Red colonies werc folllled On plate mediuln
and the carotelloids were prcsent in the cells.Comparat市
characteristics of strain 120‐
e analyses of 16S rRNA gene scquences and physiological
lT indicate that stram 120‐ lT is a phylogenetically llovel bactc五 田 ,and that tt represents a novel
species in a ncw genus, Rみ ο滅91tp″ ″ み
gen.nov., in the order滋 ″οbialcs, family Rみο″οbttθ ιαθ.The name
“
ιクレ gen.nov.sp.nov.is proposed as the typc species ofthis new gelllus.
のり ″′
“
Anothcr rod‐ shaped,aerobic
bacterim (strain 107¨ E2T)was iS01ated fbm fLshwater samples containing microbial mats
Rttoab′ な。
″″ みお
collected at a lakc in Skarvsnes,Antarctica Ktemporary lake nalne,Lakc Tanago lke)cig.2B)の
5 and 25° C,with
.Strain 107‐ E2T
an optimum of23° C.Morcover,colony fol.1lation was observed on agar media even at…
5°
grew betteen
C.No gronth was
obscⅣ ed in media contalining organic compolmds at high conccntrations,which indicated that strain 107‐
E2T was an
oligotroph.In the late stationary phase,strain 107‐
E2T produced a dark brown water‐ soluble punent.Esterase,amylase and
prOtcase production was Obscrved.AntimicrobiaHytic activれies for Graln‐ negative bactcria and yeast wcre obseⅣ ed.Analysis
of the 16S rRNA gene scqucnces revealed that strain 107‐
E2T belonged to the genus Zパ οらαθ′
r,and low DNA― DNA
ι
recognized species ofthe genusら な
οわ
α
ι
′
ι
″
relatcdness values with closcly rclated species distingulshed stl・ ain 107¨ E2T,om
.
The phylogcnetic situation and physiological characteristics indicated that strain 107‐ E2T should be classiied as a
reprcsentativc ofa novcl species ofthe genusら
なοろαCtα,for which the name Z.ο ::"″リ カた需 sp.nov.is proposed.
II.Novel bacterla isolated iom white rOck collected in the Skallen■ egion.
Interestmgly,the mterior of the whitc Юck was coloful(8Teen,pht yel10W and browo,Suggestng the c対
CryptOend01ithic conlmullity containing cyanobacteria(Fig。
lB)。
stence of a
Whcn autOtrophic bacteria wcre scrccncd iom thc crushed
rock under light condttions,a green fllamentous bacterium● amcd Strain 262-1)coVered with several heteЮ trophic bacte五 a
、
vas obtained.By the cultivation of thesc bacteria undcr dark conditions,more ian 10 diObrent bacte五 al species including
strains 262‐ 7T and 262‐ 8T were obtained 3,4).
Strain 262‐
7T grcw at temperatures be加 een 4 and 30° C,with Optimal goⅥ 伍
at 25° C(Fig.2C)3).strain 262‐ 7T showed an
unprecedcnted range ofmorphological diヤ ersity in rcsponse to 8TOwth condttions,Cells grown in liquid mediulln were crcular
or ovoid with smooth surfaces m the lag phase(Fig.2Cl).h the exponential phasc,ovoid cclls宙
obseⅣ cd.Cells in thc stationary phaso posscssCd 10ng tentacle‐
cells gro、 v■
th short pnections were
likc p“ jections mtcrtwincd intricatcly(Fig.2C2)・ By cOntrast,
On agar platc mediuln or in liquid media containing organic compounds at low concentration exhibtted short‐
long― rod‐ shapcd
morphology(Fig.2C3)・
1随 CSe
and
pttjections and morph010gical variations clearly differ iom thosc of
pre宙 Ously described bacteria.Accoroing to the phylogenetic pos■
ion,physiological characteristics and ullllque morphology
variations,strain 262‐ 7T slЮ uld bc classifled as a representative of a novel genus of the family身 ,ル ,電ο
″ο″α
αθ.A novel
`わ `θ
′
ι
″″クル磁α″′″gen.nov.,sp.nOV.was proposed,and the novel species was
夕 ο
ψ力οわαθ
“and fomation ofullique proJections.
nalned aner its morphological d市 ersity
genus and spccies with the nallnc Pο
Cclls of strain 262… 8T are ovoid to rOd― shaped and otten occur in pails or chains(Fig.2E)1)4).Flagella could be obscⅣ
atomic forcc microscopy(Fig.2D2)・
illdicated that strain 262‐
COmpar江 市e analyses of 16S rRNA gcne sequenccs and pけ
ed by
si010gical characteristics
8T was a plylogeneticalけ nOVel bacterium that should be classited in a new gcnus of the falnily
R力 οdosp″ ′
〃αεθαθ,fOr Which the name Cο ″s″ ノ
ι′
′
bα
θ′α″
`′
力ιzs gen.nov.,sp.nov.is proposed.
`arθ
﹂峰
一一
一 一一
一 r
・
ヽ
・
・
一.
一
一 ・・
一一
.
.
馨黎︰ ユ・
惰
B褥
一
│==
鏃轟註
鶉
│■ it撃
℃
=lγ
t'..
│「 Ъ轟機爾爾鸞纏野
■■■‐
‐│
,■
_
‐‐■│‐ ■
=■ mats constrllcted on the bottom of ieshwatcr lake in the Skarvsncs region.
Fig l.Habitants ofmicroorganisms.(A)MicrObial
(B)The、 vhite rOck collccted in the Skallen region.
Fig.2.Miё rographs Of microorgallisms isolatcd■ om Antactica.(A)R力 ο″θ′なο″9,力
pθ ″″σ ′ 120‐ lT.(B)ぁ ′
Sθ わαε
′
ιr
"η
ο′ ″9′ 乃′
θ第 107¨ E2T.(C)′ οろ″ηοろη力οみαι′
θ′″″ルカηα″ゥOr 262‐ 7T;Cl,cell in tlle lag phase;C2,Cell
`ルin tlle stationary phase;
`gο
C3,Cells
grown on agtt plate medium.(D)Cο 浴 ″た
`め
αθ′
θ′α″α′αたが 262… 8T.(A)― (Dl),scanning electron micrographs(scalc
bars,l μnly;(D2),atOmiC fOrce micrographs(SCale bars,2
μm).
References
l)F鵬 〔
uda,W.,Yamada,K.,Miyoshi,Y.,Okuno,H。
′ ″″力ο
s ttψ θ
,Atomi,H.and lmallaka,T.Rttο αο
κ″θ
ル″gen.nov.,sp.
ι
`gο
.Syst.Evol.Microbi01.62,194-1950,2012.
nov.,an appendaged bacterium isolated Jlonl a teshwater Antarctic lake.Int.」
2)Fukuda,W.,KiFnura,T.,Artti,S.,Miyoshi,Y.,Atomi,H.and lmanaka T.ら イοbα θ″′ ο′igο
bacterillllll isolated iOnl a■ eshwater lake in skaⅣ
r7・
リ カた雰 sp.nov.,a
snes,Antttctica.Int.J.Syst.Evol.Microbiol.63,3313-3318,2013.
3)FLkuda,W.,Chino,Y.,Araki,S.,Kondo,Y.,Imanaka,H.,K“ ai,T.,Atomi,H.and lman7aka,T.Pο
″クル滋 ακι
ル′gen.■ Ov。 ,sp.nov.,a polymorphic bacterium isolated iom anね
″
″″οψ 力οらαε′
Кtic white rOck.Int.J.Syst.Evol.Microbiol.
64,2034-2040,2014.
4)Yamada,K.,Fukllda,W.,Kondo,Y.,Mサ oShi,Y.,Atomi,H.and lmanaka,T.Cο
′
雰″′
αめα6′ θ′αれ′
α″θ′
た2rs gen.nov.,sp.
nov.,ac,ptoendolithic lnicro― organism iOm Antarctic white rOck.Int.J.Syst.Evol.Microbiol.61,1973-1980,2011.