Contents_J_files/FR17-2_ Anker &

Fauna Ryukyuana
ISSN 2187-6657
On the presence of the anchialine shrimp Calliasmata pholidota Holthuis, 1973
(Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Barbouriidae) in Shimoji Island, Ryukyu Islands,
Arthur Anker1 & Yoshihisa Fujita2, 3, 4
Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore
University Education Center, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan
Marine Learning Center, 2-95-101 Miyagi, Chatan-cho, Okinawa 904-0113, Japan
Corresponding author (E-mail: [email protected])
Abstract. Calliasmata pholidota Holthuis, 1973, a
rare anchialine shrimp previously known from the
Red Sea, Tuvalu and Hawaii, is recorded for the
first time from Japanese waters based on four
specimens collected in a near-shore submarine cave
of Shimoji Island, Miyako group, Ryukyu Islands.
This record significantly extends the geographical
range of this species in the northwestern Pacific.
The shrimp genus Calliasmata Holthuis, 1973,
originally placed in the Hippolytidae (Holthuis
1973, 1993) and once referred to the Lysmatidae by
Christoffersen (1987), but recently transferred to
the Barbouriidae based on molecular data (De
Grave et al. 2014), contains three species, viz. C.
pholidota Holthuis, 1973 from the Indo-West
Pacific, and C. rimolii Chace, 1975 and C. nohochi
Escobar-Briones, Camacho & Alcocer, 1997, from
the western Atlantic (Holthuis 1973; Chace 1975;
Escobar-Briones et al. 1997). All three species are
restricted to crevicular anchialine habitats, such as
land-locked pools, deep cracks and near-shore
submarine caves (Maciolek 1983; Escobar-Briones
et al. 1997). The Indo-West Pacific C. pholidota
was hitherto known from only three distant
localities: Egypt (Sinai Peninsula), Tuvalu
(Funafuti Atoll) and the Hawaiian Archipelago
(Maui and Hawai’i).
In January and March 2013, the second author
collected four adult specimens of C. pholidota in a
Akuma-no-yakata (= Devil’s Hole), on Shimoji
Island in the Miyako group of the Ryukyu Islands,
southwestern Japan. These specimens represent the
first record of C. pholidota from Japan and also a
significant range extension of the species into East
Asia. The material is deposited in the Ryukyu
University Museum, Fujukan, University of the
Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan (RUMF) and Muséum
National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France
(MNHN). Postorbital carapace length (pocl, in mm)
was measured along the mid-dorsal line from the
postorbital margin to the posterior margin of the
Family Barbouriidae Christoffersen, 1987
Genus Calliasmata Holthuis, 1973
Calliasmata pholidota Holthuis, 1973
[New Japanese name: Irau-mo-ebi]
(Fig. 1)
Calliasmata pholidota Holthuis 1973: 37, figs. 12,
13, pl. 1, fig. 2, pl. 2, fig. 1; Hobbs et al. 1977:
16; Maciolek 1983: 607, 609, Table 1; De Grave
et al. 2014: 500, 501.
Materials examined. Japan, Ryukyu Islands,
Shimoji Island, submarine cave “Akuma-no-yakata”
(Devil’s Hole): 1 male (pocl 7.2 mm),
RUMF-ZC-2633, SCUBA diving, bait trap, 1–2 m
deep, leg. Y. Fujita, 15 March 2013; 1 female (pocl
8.6 mm), RUMF-ZC-2634, same collection data as
for previous specimen; 1 female (pocl 9.0 mm),
RUMF-ZC-2635, same collection method as for
previous specimens, leg. Y. Fujita, 17 March 2013;
1 female (pocl 9.8 mm), MNHN-IU-2014-4231,
SCUBA diving, hand sampling with plastic
container, 1 m deep, leg. Y. Fujita, 28 January
Description. For detailed description and
illustration of morphology see Holthuis (1973).
semitransparent with bright red chromatophores
concentrated largely in anterior portion of carapace
and organized in patches and diffuse bands on
abdomen; eyestalks reddish, with conspicuously
white corneas; antennular peduncle mostly red,
flagellum colourless; antennal basicerite and
scaphocerite with red patches; third maxilliped
mostly red, especially distally; first pereiopod
mostly whitish, with some red on distal areas of
merus and carpus, chela largely hyaline-white;
Fig. 1. Calliasmata pholidota Holthuis, 1973: female (cl 9.8 mm) from Shimoji Island, Miyako group, Ryukyu Islands,
Japan (MNHN-IU-2014-4231). A, entire animal, lateral view; B , same, dorsal view. Photographs by Y. Fujita.
図1. 琉球列島宮古諸島下地島から採集された Calliasmata pholidota Holthuis, 1973 (新称: イラウモエビ): 雌
(頭胸甲長 9.8 mm) (MNHN-IU-2014-4231). A, 全体側面; B , 全体背面. 写真:藤田喜久.
[報告] アンカー・藤田: イラウモエビ(新称)の下地島からの報告
Fauna Ryukyuana, 17: 7–11.
Fig.2. Underwater views of the Akuma-no-yakata submarine cave at Shimoji Island. A, tunnel near entrance; B,
innermost part of the cave with a large air pocket; C, substratum at the innermost part of the cave; D, collecting survey
in the innermost part of the cave. Photographs by Y. Fujita (A-C) and K. Yokoi (D).
図 2. 下地島の海底洞窟 (悪魔の館) の水中景観. A, 洞窟入り口付近; B, 洞窟最奥部の空洞域; C, 洞窟最奥部
付近の景観; D, 洞窟最奥部における採集風景. 写真:藤田喜久 (A-C), 横井謙介 (D).
second to fifth pereiopods and pleopods colourless,
whitish; uropods and telson with well-defined red
lines and patches (Fig. 1A, B).
Habitat. The submarine cave popularly known
as “Akuma-no-yakata” (= Devil’s Hole) is located
on a reef slope at Shimoji Island (24˚49’22.51”N,
125˚08’07.84”E), which almost entirely consists of
Ryukyu Limestone. The entrance to the cave lies at
a depth of about 35 m (Fig. 2A); it is continued by a
stepwise tunnel, about 70–80 m long, without a
“frontage road”, and in total darkness. The
innermost part of the cave ends in an air pocket (Fig.
2B–D). The water temperature and salinity were not
recorded, but the divers noted that the water in the
innermost part of the cave was very clear with
occasional layers or areas of lower temperature,
indicating a thermocline or a halocline (or both),
and suggesting that at least the inner parts of the
[Report] Anker & Fujita: Calliasmata pholidota from Shimoji Island
cave are anchialine in nature. Three of the four
shrimp specimens were collected with baited traps
in the innermost portion of the cave, while the
remaining individual was found walking on the
cave bottom. Two uncommon crabs, Atoportunus
gustavi Ng & Takeda, 2003 (Portunidae) and
Neoliomera cerasinus Ng, 2002 (Xanthidae), were
also found in the cave (Fujita et al. 2013). Other
decapods inhabiting various portions of this cave,
including four caridean and two stenopodidean
shrimps, four lobsters, and several hermit crabs,
will be reported upon elsewhere.
Remarks. The specimens from Shimoji Island
agree very well with the detailed description and
illustrations of Calliasmata pholidota provided by
Holthuis (1973). The largest of the four specimens,
a female of pocl 9.8 mm (MNHN-IU-2014-4231),
was examined in some detail. This female has a
bilateral variation in the number of segments in the
ischium, merus and carpus of the second pereiopod
(P2), with 8, 25 and 38, respectively, in the right P2,
and 3, 23 and 37, respectively, in the left P2. There
is also variation in the armature of the merus of the
third pereiopod (P3), with 2 spines in the right P3
and no spines at all in the left P3. In contrast, the
merus of the fourth pereiopod (P4) presents 1 spine
on each side; the number of spines on the ischium is
also stable, namely 1 spine on each the right and
left P3 and P4.
The phylogeography and genetic structure of the
widely disjunct populations of C. pholidota remain
to be studied. The species’ uncommon and fragile
anchialine habitats are increasingly threatened by
human activities (mainly development and
destruction / pollution of limestone caves). Shimoji
Island, where marine and anchialine caves appear to
harbour a surprising diversity of rare decapod
crustaceans (Fujita et al. 2013; present study; Y.
Fujita, pers. obs.), is included within the Irabu
Prefectural Natural Park. In Hawaii, C. pholidota
receives some degree of protection as most
anchialine pools known to contain this and other
endangered species of anchialine shrimps are found
on state land (Hawaii) or within natural area
reserves (Maui). Although C. pholidota was listed
as a candidate for Endangered Species Act
Protection by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in
1999, a more recent evaluation concluded that
listing is not warranted because there was
“insufficient information on the species status
throughout its range to determine whether this
species warrants protection under the Act” (US Fish
and Wildlife Service 2006). Nevertheless, the
( issued a petition to
list C. pholidota as a federally endangered species.
We thank Tohru Naruse (University of the
Ryukyus) and four skillful divers, Kensuke Yokoi,
Go Tomitani, Yusuke Yamada and Naoki
Shirakawa, for their assistance during the
exploration of the Akuma-no-yakata cave. We also
thank Sammy De Grave and an anonymous
reviewer for reviewing the manuscript. The present
material was collected during the “Irabu and
Shomoji Islands Biodiversity Research Project”,
supported by 2012-13 grants from the KAIGIN
Environment Fund, managed by the Okinawa Kaiho
Bank, Ltd. The first author is also grateful to Peter
K.L. Ng and Koh Siang Tan (National University of
Singapore) for supporting taxonomic and faunistic
studies on various groups of decapod crustaceans.
Chace, F.A.Jr., 1975. Cave shrimps (Decapoda:
Caridea) from the Dominican Republic.
Proceedings of the Biological Society of
Washington, 88: 29–44.
relationships of hippolytid genera, with an
assignment of new families for the
Crangonoidea and Alpheoidea (Crustacea,
Decapoda, Caridea). Cladistics, 3:348–362.
De Grave, S., C.P. Li, L.M. Tsang, K.H. Chu &
T.Y. Chan, 2014. Unweaving hippolytoid
Hippolytidae): resurrection of several families.
Zoologica Scripta, 43: 496–507.
Escobar-Briones, E., M.E. Camacho & J. Alcocer,
1997. Calliasmata nohochi, new species
(Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae), from
anchialine cave systems in continental Quintana
Roo, Mexico. Journal of Crustacean Biology,
17: 733–744.
Fujita, Y., T. Naruse & Y. Yamada, 2013. Two
submarine cavernicolous crabs, Atoportunus
gustavi Ng & Takeda, 2003, and Neoliomera
cerasinus Ng, 2002 (Crustacea: Decapoda:
Brachyura: Portunidae and Xanthidae), from
Shimojijima Island, Miyako Group, Ryukyu
Islands, Japan. Fauna Ryukyuana, 1: 1–9. (In
Japanese with English abstract)
Hobbs, H.H.Jr., H.H. Hobbs III & M.A. Daniel,
1977. A review of the troglobitic decapod
crustaceans of the Americas. Smithsonian
Contributions to Zoology, 244: i–v, 1–183.
Holthuis, L.B., 1973. Caridean shrimps found in
land-locked saltwater pools at four Indo-West
Pacific localities (Sinai Peninsula, Funafuti Atoll,
Maui and Hawaii Islands), with a description of
one new genus and four new species.
Zoologische Verhandelingen, 128: 1–48.
Maciolek, J.A., 1983. Distribution and biology of
Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps. Bulletin
of Marine Science, 33: 606–618.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2006. Endangered
and threatened wildlife and plants; review of
native species that are candidates or proposed
for listing as Endangered or Threatened; annual
notice of findings on resubmitted petitions;
annual description of progress on listing actions.
Federal Register, 71, No. 176: 53756–53835.
[報告] アンカー・藤田: イラウモエビ(新称)の下地島からの報告
Fauna Ryukyuana, 17: 7–11.
エビ (新称) (甲殻亜門: 十脚目: コエビ
下 目 : Barbouriidae)
ア ー サ ー ・ ア ン カ ー ・藤 田 喜 久
2, 3 4
Tropical Marine Science Institute, National
〒903-0213 沖縄県中頭郡西原町字千原1 琉球大学
〒904-0113 沖縄県北谷町宮城 2-95-101 NPO 法人
通信著者 (E-mail: [email protected])
要 旨 . アンキアライン (陸封潮溜) 環境に生息
Calliasmata pholidota Holthuis, 1973 を琉球列島
宮古諸島下地島の海底洞窟から採集された 4 個
体に基づき報告した. 本種はこれまでに紅海
(シナイ半島), ツバル, ハワイ諸島から記録
されており, インド太平洋域において飛び石状
の分布を示している. 本報告は, 標本に基づく
本種の日本からの初めての記録となる. また,
本研究で検討された雌標本 (RUMF-ZC-2635)
を基準標本とし, 本種の新標準和名として「イ
ラウモエビ (伊良部島・下地島地域の方言名に
由来する)」 を提唱する.
投稿日: 2014 年 9 月 5 日
受理日: 2014 年 10 月 8 日
発行日: 2014 年 12 月 4 日
[Report] Anker & Fujita: Calliasmata pholidota Holthuis, 1973, from Shimoji Island