Fauna Ryukyuana

Fauna Ryukyuana
ISSN 2187-6657
http://w3.u-ryukyu.ac.jp/naruse/lab/Fauna_Ryukyuana.html
A novel transmission pathway: first report of a larval trematode
in a tanaidacean crustacean
Keiichi Kakui
Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
E-mail: k_kakui@mail.goo.ne.jp
Abstract. This study reports on the first trematode
parasite observed in any species in the crustacean
order Tanaidacea. Metacercariae occupying the
body cavity of the host (Longiflagrum nasutus)
were detected in 13 of 37 tanaidaceans collected
from Manko Wetland, a Ramsar site on Okinawa
Island, Japan. The morphology of the trematode and
analyses of its 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and ITS1
nucleotide sequences suggest that it belongs in the
family Microphallidae. Definitive hosts are not
highly specific in microphallids, and are chiefly
birds. Tanaidaceans have been reported in stomach
contents from wading birds; L. nasutus was
abundant at Manko Wetland, and is a likely prey for
shorebirds there. This circumstantial evidence
suggests an avian definitive host for the trematode
in L. nasutus.
Introduction
The life cycles of most digenean trematodes are
unknown, as they involves multiple hosts. In the
typical life cycle, digeneans utilise two intermediate
hosts and a definitive host. The first intermediate
host is usually a gastropod, although a few species’
life cycles involve a bivalve, scaphopod, or
polychaete worm (Cribb et al. 2001). Second
intermediate hosts are more diverse, including
crustaceans, annelids, molluscs, fishes, amphibians,
and other groups (cf., Lefebvre & Poulin 2005).
The discovery of representatives of additional
higher taxa acting as second intermediate hosts will
facilitate solving the life cycles of digeneans that
remained intractable because the second
intermediate host has been unknown.
Most species in the crustacean order Tanaidacea
are marine, although a few occur in brackish
habitats or fresh water. Tanaidaceans are typically a
few millimetres long, and primarily inhabit bottom
sediments. They can occur at high densities (e.g.,
146,000 individuals/m2; Delille et al. 1985) and
appear to be important prey items in marine food
webs, where they are consumed by other
crustaceans, fishes, and migratory birds (Larsen
2005). Curiously, though tanaidaceans are abundant,
there are few records of their endoparasites: only
nematodes and acanthocephalan larvae have been
reported (Larsen 2005).
During qualitative sampling for benthic animals
at Manko Wetland, a Ramsar wetland site on
Okinawa Island in subtropical southern Japan, I
collected many specimens of the tanaidacean
Longiflagrum nasutus (Nunomura, 2005), some of
which contained trematode metacercariae. In this
study, I examined the morphology of these
metacercariae and attempted to identify them
through molecular phylogenetic analyses.
Materials and methods
Host sampling. Tanaidaceans were collected from
muddy bottom sediment in shallow water on Manko
Wetland, Okinawa Island, Japan (26°11'41.50"N
127°40'56"E) on 20 November 2013, by washing
sediment through a sieve (0.5 mm mesh).
Thirty-seven individuals were fixed in 4%
paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline
(PBS, pH 7.4) and preserved in PBS. Two infected
animals found among captive tanaidaceans in the
laboratory on 13 January 2014 were fixed in
absolute ethanol and preserved at –20°C.
Morphological observation. Tanaidaceans
were examined for parasite infection by ventral
observation under a Nikon SMZ-10 stereoscopic
microscope. Infected tanaidaceans stored in PBS
were dehydrated in an ethanol series. Two
specimens were transferred into dimethyl sulfoxide,
frozen at 4°C, cut transversely with a hand-held
razor, mounted in glycerine, and observed using
autofluorescence with a Zeiss LSM 510 confocal
laser scanning microscope (CLSM) under the
default setting, the DPSS 561 nm laser. Another six
specimens were dissected with chemically
sharpened tungsten needles to extract parasites. The
parasites recovered were mounted in glycerine and
observed with an Olympus BX51 light microscope
(LM) equipped with Nomarski interference optics.
The eight dissected and five intact tanaidacean
specimens harbouring the parasite were deposited
in the Hokkaido University Museum, Sapporo,
Japan (catalogue number ZIHU 4929) and in the
University Museum Fujukan, University of the
13
Ryukyus (catalogue number RUMF-ZC-3678).
Molecular phylogenetic analyses. One of the
two infected tanaidaceans stored in absolute ethanol
was dissected to extract the parasite. The parasite
was cleaned by brief sonication and pierced with a
needle before DNA extraction with a DNeasy
Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen GmbH). Table 1 lists
the primers used for PCR and cycle sequencing.
DNA amplification conditions were 95°C for 1 min;
30 cycles of 95°C for 30 sec, 50°C for 30 sec, and
72°C for 3 min (18S) or 1 min (28S and ITS1); and
72°C for 7 min. All nucleotide sequences were
determined by direct sequencing with a BigDye
Terminator Kit ver. 3.1 and a 3730 DNA analyzer
(Life Technologies).
Three phylogenetic analyses were conducted to
identify the parasite. In the first, a combined
18S+28S
dataset
was
analysed
by
maximum-likelihood (ML) to place the parasite in a
superfamily. This analysis utilised the aligned
dataset of Olson et al. (2003), which included 170
trematode terminal taxa (available at
http://ftp.ebi.ac.uk in
directory/pub/databases/embl/align: ALIGN_00525
and _00526; see also table 1 in Olson et al. 2003),
sequence data for Collyriclum faba (Heneberg &
Literák 2013), and data for unidentified species.
Alignments were initially carried out independently
for the 18S and 28S datasets, as follows. First, a
pre-alignment was performed with MAFFT version
7 (Katoh & Standley 2013) with the “Auto”
strategy (FFT-NS-i method; Katoh et al. 2002).
Ambiguous sites were then removed by using
trimAl (Capella-Gutiérrez et al. 2009) with the
option “automated1.” Finally, the aligned sequences
were trimmed in MEGA 5.2 (Tamura et al. 2011) to
match the shortest length. Concatenation of the
aligned datasets and selection of the optimal
substitution model were performed with Kakusan4
version 4.0.2012.12.14 (Tanabe 2011). The ML
analysis was conducted in RAxML version 8.0.0
(Stamatakis 2014), assisted by phylogears2 version
2.0.2013.10.22 (Tanabe 2008), and nodal support
values were obtained through ML analyses of 1000
bootstrap pseudoreplicates (Felsenstein 1985).
A second ML analysis was conducted with a
28S dataset that included representatives of the
superfamily identified in the first analysis and
appropriate outgroup taxa (50 terminal taxa; listed
in Appendix 1), to determine the family identity of
the trematode. All procedures were as detailed for
the first analysis above.
A third analysis utilized an ITS1 dataset (17
terminal taxa; listed in Appendix 1) to identify the
trematode’s phylogenetic position within the family
indicated by the second analysis. Sequence
alignment was performed as above. Model selection,
the ML analysis, and bootstrap analysis of 1000
bootstrap pseudoreplicates were carried out with
TREEFINDER, March 2011 version (Jobb 2011).
The optimal substitution models for the three
Table 1. List of PCR and cycle sequencing (CS) primers used in this study.
表 1. PCR 反応とサイクルシーケンシング (CS) で用いたプライマー一覧.
Marker
Primer
Sequence (5´ to 3´)
Reaction
18S
SR1
TACCTGGTTGATCCTGCCAG
PCR & CS
SR6
GTCAGAGGTGAAATTCTTGG
CS
SR8
GGATTGACAGATTGAGAGCT
CS
SR9
AACTAAGAACGGCCATGCAC
CS
SR10
AGGTCTGTGATGCCCTTAGA
CS
SR11
CGCTTACTAGGAATTCCTCG
CS
SR12
CCTTCCGCAGGTTCACCTAC
PCR & CS
EU60F
GAAACTGCGAATGGCTCATT
CS
EU929R
TTGGCAAATGCTTTCGC
CS
18S554f
AAGTCTGGTGCCAGCAGCGCG
CS
18S614r
TCCAACTACGAGCTTTTTAACC
CS
28S
U178
GCACCCGCTGAAYTTAAG
PCR & CS
300F
CAAGTACCGTGAGGGAAAGTTG
CS
900F
CCGTCTTGAAACACGGACCAAG
CS
U1148
GACCCGAAAGATGGTGAA
CS
L1642
CCAGCGCCATCCATTTTCA
PCR & CS
ITS1
1780F
ACACCGCCCGTCGCTACTA
PCR & CS
M5-8
GGCTGCGCTCTTCATCGACA
PCR & CS
14
Source
Nakayama et al. (1996)
Nakayama et al. (1996)
Nakayama et al. (1996)
Nakayama et al. (1996)
Nakayama et al. (1996)
Nakayama et al. (1996)
Nakayama et al. (1996)
Puitika et al. (2007)
Puitika et al. (2007)
Maraun et al. (2009)
Maraun et al. (2009)
Lockyer et al. (2003)
Lockyer et al. (2003)
Lockyer et al. (2003)
Lockyer et al. (2003)
Lockyer et al. (2003)
Galaktionov et al. (2012)
Galaktionov et al. (2012)
[報告] 角井: タナイス寄生性吸虫類の初報告
Fauna Ryukyuana, 17: 13–22.
Fig. 1. (a) Ventral view of a living individual of the
tanaidacean Longiflagrum nasutus, infected with two
larval trematodes (arrowheads) in pereonites 2 and 3;
stereoscopic microscope image. (b) Enlargement from
panel (a). HP, left hepatopancreases.
図 1. (a) ハナダカアプセウデスの第 2, 3 胸節に寄生
した 2 個体の吸虫類幼虫 (矢頭); 生時腹側からの実
体顕微鏡観察像. (b) 拡大図. HP, 左側の中腸腺.
data sets (18S+28S, 28S, and ITS1) determined by
using the Akaike information criterion (Akaike
1974) were GTR+I+G, GTR+I+G, and TVM+G,
respectively.
No
significant
nucleotide
compositional heterogeneity was detected for any
of the data sets (Chi-square test in Kakusan4: P =
0.99995 for 18S+28S combined; P = 0.97865 for
28S; P = 1.00000 for ITS1).
Results
Fig. 2. Trematodes (arrows) in pereonite 2 of a
Longiflagrum nasutus individual, anterior view, CLSM
image. H, heart; HP, hepatopancreas; MG, midgut; VG,
ventral ganglion.
図 2. ハナダカアプセウデスの第 2 胸節に寄生した
吸虫類 (矢頭); 前方からの共焦点レーザー顕微鏡観
察像. H, 心臓; HP, 中腸腺; MG, 中腸; VG, 腹側神
経節.
latter. There were two symmetrical clusters of
vitellaria. Other structures observed (not shown in
Fig. 3) were a pair of testes in the hindbody, the
digestive tract, and the pharynx.
The three aligned datasets (18S+28S, 28S, and
ITS1) were 2991, 1114, and 379 b.p. long,
respectively. The 18S+28S ML tree (Appendix 2)
placed the tanaidacean parasite in a clade
corresponding to the superfamily Microphalloidea,
with moderately high bootstrap (BP) support
(94.3%). Within this clade, the parasite comprised a
clade (BP = 80.6%) with the three representatives
of family Microphallidae (Microphallus primas, M.
fusiformis, and Maritrema oocysta). The 28S ML
tree (Fig. 4a) again placed the parasite in the family
Microphallidae (BP = 87.8%), within a clade
comprising
representatives
of
the
genus
Microphallus (BP = 77%). In the ITS1 ML tree (Fig.
4b), the parasite was basal in a highly supported
clade (BP = 99.1%) comprising Microphallus.
Of the 37 tanaidaceans fixed in the field, 13
individuals harboured trematode parasites, with one
to three parasites per host. The parasites occurred in
the pereonites and/or the somite that bears the
chelipeds (Fig. 1). The parasites occupied the body
cavity of the host, with host’s hepatopancreas
distorted (Figs 1, 2).
The parasites were in the encysted metacercaria
stage (Fig. 3), with the body curled up ventrally
inside the cyst. In situ, the cysts were 238–259 µm
in diameter (n = 5) and 11 µm thick. Under LM
observation, two suckers (oral and ventral) were
observed. An ovary and a genital atrium were
dextral and sinistral to the ventral sucker,
respectively; the cirrus sack connected with the
This study used a DNA barcoding approach to
identify the metacercaria found in a tanaidacean.
The 18S+28S, 28S, and ITS1 trees were congruent
in placing this parasite in a Microphallus clade.
Support for the node grouping the unidentified
parasite with Microphallus was high for the
18S+28S (98.6%) and ITS1 (99.1%) trees. However,
sequence data are lacking for several microphalloid
[Report] Kakui: Trematode metacercaria found in a tanaidacean
15
Discussion
Fig. 3. Encysted metacercaria extracted from Longiflagrum nasutus, LM images, taken in different focus planes (a–c,
relatively shallow, middle, and deep, respectively). CS, cirrus sack; GA, genital atrium; OS, oral sucker; OV, ovary; VS,
ventral sucker; VT, vitellarium.
図 3. ハナダカアプセウデスより摘出した被嚢幼虫; 焦点面の異なる光学顕微鏡観察像 (a–c, それぞれ浅い,
中間, 深い焦点面像). CS, 陰茎嚢; GA, 生殖腔; OS, 口吸盤; OV, 卵巣; VS, 腹吸盤; VT, 卵黄腺.
families and many microphallid genera (Bray et al.
2008), and in both these trees the unidentified
parasite could represent a sister group (sister genus)
to Microphallus.
As all my specimens were encysted
metacercariae, I was unable to observe their
morphology in detail. The various structures I did
observe—a pair of testes in the hindbody, the
digestive tract, two symmetrical clusters of
vitellaria, and a genital atrium—are compatible
with identification as a species in the family
Microphallidae.
The definitive hosts for microphallid trematodes
are not highly specific, but are chiefly birds (Bray
et al. 2008), which are good candidates as the
definitive host(s) for the parasite in Longiflagrum
nasutus. Manko Wetland is a wintering and
migration-staging area for shorebirds and other
water birds. Furthermore, L. nasutus is abundant on
the mudflat, with observed densities of up to 523
individuals per 0.0625 m2 (Naha Nature
Conservation Office 2009). Although the role of L.
nasutus in the food web is unknown, the congener L.
koyonense has been found in the stomach of
catfishes (Angsupanich 2004), and Băcescu & Guţu
(1975) reported two confamilial species,
Discapseudes surinamensis and Halmyrapseudes
spaansi, to be common in the stomach contents of
migratory wading birds on a mudflat. Considering
the abundance and size (up to about 8 mm) of L.
nasutus, this tanaidacean might well be a prey item
for fishes and/or birds. This is the first report of a trematode parasite in
tanaidaceans, which thus constitute a novel
transmission pathway for trematodes. Tanaidaceans
16
comprise around 1200 described species worldwide
(Anderson 2013), often occur at high densities,
inhabit sandy/muddy habitats from mudflats to the
deep sea, and are preyed upon by many fish and
bird species (Larsen 2005). Tanaidaceans could
thus potentially be involved in many trematode life
cycles.
Acknowledgements
I thank the staff of the Manko Waterbird & Wetland
Center for the use of facilities during sampling;
Shoji Sugiyama for information on the population
density of Longiflagrum nasutus on the Manko
Wetland; Hiroshi Kajihara for providing laboratory
facilities; Satoshi Shimano for information on 18S
primers; Matthew H. Dick for reviewing and editing
the manuscript; and two anonymous reviewers for
valuable comments. This research was supported in
part by a Grant-in-Aid from the Research Institute of
Marine Invertebrates Foundation (FY2012–2013).
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[報告] 角井: タナイス寄生性吸虫類の初報告
Fauna Ryukyuana, 17: 13–22.
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があり, ハナダカアプセウデスは採集地, ラム
サール条約登録湿地である漫湖干潟に多産す
る種類である. このことから, 今回見つかった
吸虫類幼虫の終宿主は鳥類であることが考え
られる.
投稿日: 2014 年 8 月 14 日
受理日: 2014 年 11 月 13 日
発行日: 2014 年 12 月 4 日
新規の感染経路: タナイス目甲殻類を利
用する吸虫類幼虫の初報告
角井敬知
北海道大学大学院理学研究院. 〒060-0810 札幌市
北区北10条西8丁目.
E-mail: k_kakui@mail.goo.ne.jp
要 旨 . 吸虫の被嚢幼虫をタナイス目甲殻類 (ハ
ナダカアプセウデス Longiflagrum nasutus) か
ら初めて発見した. 寄生部位は胸節体腔内であ
り, 宿主 37 個体中 13 個体に感染が認められた.
形態的特徴および 3 遺伝子 (18S rRNA, 28S
rRNA, ITS1) の 配 列 情 報 か ら , 本 吸 虫 は
Microphallidae 科 の 1 種 だ と 判 断 さ れ た .
Microphallidae 科吸虫の終宿主特異性は高くな
いが, 主として鳥類だと考えられている. タナ
イス類は鳥類の胃内容物から見出されること
[Report] Kakui: Trematode metacercaria found in a tanaidacean
19
Appendix 1. Digenean species included in the 28S and ITS1 analyses in this study. *Tkatch et al. (2003) synonymised
Floridatrema with Maritrema. †1, Tkach et al. (2003); 2, Olson et al. (2003); 3, Heneberg & Literák (2013); 4,
Galaktionov et al. (2012); 5, Pina et al. (2011a); 6, Pina et al. (2011b); 7, Pina et al. (2007); 8, Al-Kandari et al. (2011);
9, Lockyer et al. (2003).
附録 1. 28S rRNA 遺伝子, ITS1 遺伝子に基づいた系統解析に用いた二生吸虫類の種一覧. * Floridatrema 属は
Tkatch et al. (2003) により Maritrema 属の新参異名とされている. †1, Tkach et al. (2003); 2, Olson et al. (2003); 3,
Heneberg & Literák (2013); 4, Galaktionov et al. (2012); 5, Pina et al. (2011a); 6, Pina et al. (2011b); 7, Pina et al.
(2007); 8, Al-Kandari et al. (2011); 9, Lockyer et al. (2003).
GenBank accession number
Classification / Species
18S
28S
ITS1
References†
AB974359
AB974360
AB974361
This study
AY222147
AY222148
-
AF151919
AF151921
AF480167
AF151918
-
1
1
1
1
AY222154
AY116870
-
2
AJ287554
AY222274
-
2
JQ231122
JQ231122
JQ231122
3
AY222149
-
AF151928
AY220634
-
1
1
AY222152
AY222151
-
AY220620
AY220622
AY220621
AY220624
AY220619
AY220618
AF151925
AF433670
AY220623
-
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-
AY220629
HM584144
1, 4
AJ287534
AY220630
HM584143
1, 4
Maritrema subdolum
-
AF151926
HM584145
1, 4
Maritrema neomi
-
AF151927
-
1
Maritrema prosthometra
-
AY220631
-
1
Maritrema portucalensis
-
-
HQ993044
5
Maritrema heardi*
Maritrema cf. eroliae
-
AY220632
-
1
-
JF826247
-
8
Microphallus abortivus
-
AY220626
HM584159
1, 4
Microphallus basodactylophallus
-
AY220628
-
1
Microphallus primas
AJ287541
AY220627
HM001303
2, 6
Microphallus similis
-
AY220625
HM584156
1, 4
Metacercaria in this study
MICROPHALLOIDEA
LECITHODENDRIIDAE
Lecithodendrium linstowi
Prosthodendrium longiforme
Ophiosacculus mehelyi
Pycnoporus heteroporus
EUCOTYLIDAE
Tanaisia fedtschenkoi
PACHYPSOLIDAE
Pachypsolus irroratus
COLLYRICLIDAE
Collyriclum faba
PROSTHOGONIMIDAE
Prosthogonimus ovatus
Prosthogonimus cuneatus
PLEUROGENIDAE
Allassogonoporus amphoraeformis
Brandesia turgida
Candidotrema loossi
Loxogenes macrocirra
Parabascus joannae
Parabascus duboisi
Pleurogenes claviger
Pleurogenoides medians
Prosotocus confusus
MICROPHALLIDAE
Maritrema arenaria
Maritrema oocysta
20
[報告] 角井: タナイス寄生性吸虫類の初報告
Fauna Ryukyuana, 17: 13–22.
Microphallus fusiformis
AJ287531
AY220633
-
1
Microphallus kurilensis
-
HM584140
HM584168
4
Microphallus sp.
-
HM584142
HM584161
4
Microphallus calidris
-
HM584125
HM584151
4
Microphallus piriformes
-
HM584122
HM584154
4
Microphallus pseudopygmaeus
-
HM584126
HM584147
4
Microphallus pygmaeus
-
HM584133
HM584153
4
Microphallus triangulatus
-
HM584139
HM584162
4
Gynaecotyla longiintestinata
-
-
DQ118021
7
AY222155
AY116871
-
2
AJ287539
AJ287498
AJ287590
AY222153
AY157175
AY222273
AY222271
AY222272
-
9
2
2
2
AJ287476
AJ287482
AJ287584
AY222268
AY222269
AY222270
-
2
2
2
AJ287572
AY222275
-
2
AY222160
AF151935
-
2
AJ287517
AY222278
-
2
AY222158
AF433673
-
2
RENICOLIDAE
Renicola sp.
ZOOGONIDAE
Lepidophyllum steenstrupi
Deretrema nahaense
Zoogonoides viviparus
Diphterostomum sp.
FAUSTULIDAE
Antorchis pomacanthi
Bacciger lesteri
Trigonocryptus conus
PLAGIORCHIOIDEA
OMPHALOMETRIDAE
Rubenstrema exasperatum
BRACHYCOELLIDAE
Brachycoelium salamandrae
PLAGIORCHIIDAE
Glypthelmins quieta
MACRODEROIDIDAE
Macroderoides typicus
[Report] Kakui: Trematode metacercaria found in a tanaidacean
21
Appendix 2. (a) ML tree from an analysis of the 18S+28S dataset (2999 b.p.), including sequences from the encysted
metacercaria in Longiflagrum nasutus. (b) Enlargement from panel (a). Bootstrap values > 50% given near nodes; black
circles indicate nodes with 100% bootstrap support.
付録 2. (a) 18S rRNA 遺伝子と 28S rRNA 遺伝子の結合配列情報 (2999 塩基) に基づく最尤系統樹. (b) 一部拡
大図. 50%より高いブートストラップ値を分岐点に示す. 黒丸は 100%のブートストラップ値を表す.
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[報告] 角井: タナイス寄生性吸虫類の初報告