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Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32,Part (B), No.3, 2014
The 4th International scientific Conference on Nanotechnology& Advanced Materials
&Their Applications (ICNAMA 2013)3-4 Nov, 2013
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano Electronic Devices
Dr .Hanan A. R. Akkar
Electrical Engineering Department, University of Technology/Bagdad
Email:[email protected]
Sarmad Khalooq
Electrical Engineering Department, University of Technology/Bagdad
Recent developments in nanotechnology have demonstrated that it is feasible to
manufacture Nano electronics devices using Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) because the
mobility between the channels is increased while the switching delay is decreased.
The devices based on Nano scale objects with well-defined structure and original
electronic properties are great interest for the development of innovative electronic
circuits. In this paper, a proposed design of carbon Nano tube transistors, Nano
RAMS, Nano wires, Nano Flip Flops and Nano Diodes are presented. The Carbon
Nano Tube Field Effect Transistor (CNT FET) leads to an area reduction, density of
carbon Nano tube as well as the power consumption is decreased when it is compared
with MOSFET. The comparison between Nano CMOS and CNTFET shows that
CNTFET is very promising and superior technology for circuit design access time
reduction with temperature increasing which is opposite to the Nano CMOS behavior
delay. The results obtained are useful in characterizing and evaluating performance of
Nano devices and related circuits. The results proved that CNTFET appears to be the
best device in future for VLSI. The modeling and simulation has been implemented
using MATLAB program.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nano Electronics, CMOS Technology, Carbon Nano
‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ اﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﯿﺔ‬
‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒ""ﺮ أﺳ""ﺘﺨﺪام أﻧﺎﺑﯿ""ﺐ اﻟﻜ "ﺎرﺑﻮن اﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮﯾ""ﺔ ﻣ""ﻦ اﻷﺳ""ﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت اﻟﻮاﻋ""ﺪة ﻓ""ﻲ ﻣﺠ""ﺎل اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﯿ""ﺎت ﻓ""ﻲ‬
‫ ﻗ""ﻮة‬،‫اﻟﻤﺴ""ﺘﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﻘﺮﯾ""ﺐ ﻧﻈ""ﺮﴽ ﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺼ""ﮭﺎ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﯿ""ﺔ اﻟﻤﻤﺘ""ﺎزة ﻣﺜ""ﻞ ﺗﺤﻤﻠﮭ""ﺎ ﻟ""ﺪرﺟﺎت ﺣ""ﺮارة ﻋﺎﻟﯿ""ﺔ‬
‫ ﺗﻮﺻ""ﯿﻠﯿﺔ ﻛﮭﺮﺑﺎﺋﯿ""ﺔ ﺟﯿ""ﺪة واﻟﺘﻮاﻓ""ﻖ ﻣ""ﻊ اﻟﻤ""ﻮاد ذات اﻟﻌﺎزﻟﯿ""ﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯿ""ﺔ‬،‫ ﺣﺮﻛﯿ""ﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﯿ""ﺔ‬، ‫وﺻ""ﻼدة ﻛﺒﯿ""ﺮة‬
‫ ﺣﯿﺚ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼ"ﻨﯿﻒ أﻧﺎﺑﯿ"ﺐ اﻟﻜ"ﺎرﺑﻮن اﻟ"ﻰ‬.‫ ﺗﻢ درا ﺳﺔ أﻧﺎﺑﯿﺐ اﻟﻜﺎرﺑﻮن وأﻧﻮاﻋﮭﺎ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬.‫وﺑﺄﻗﻄﺎر ﺻﻐﯿﺮة‬
‫( وأﻧﺎﺑﯿ"ﺐ اﻟﻜ"ﺎرﺑﻮن‬SWCNT)‫ﻧ"ﻮﻋﯿﻦ أﺳﺎﺳ"ﯿﻦ وھ"ﻲ اﻷﻧﺎﺑﯿ"ﺐ اﻟﻜﺎرﺑﻮﻧﯿ"ﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮﯾ"ﺔ ذات اﻟﺠ"ﺪار اﻟﻮاﺣ"ﺪ‬
‫ ﺣﯿﺚ ﺗﻢ اﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻘ"ﺎت أﻧﺎﺑﯿ"ﺐ اﻟﻜ"ﺎرﺑﻮن ﻟﺘﺼ"ﻤﯿﻢ ﺗﺮاﻧﺰﺳ"ﺘﻮر‬,‫( وﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺘﮭﺎ‬MWCNT)‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة اﻟﺠﺪار‬
‫ ﻧ""ﺎﻧﻮ‬،‫ ﺑﻮاﺑ""ﺔ اﻟﻨ""ﺎﻧﻮ‬،‫ اﻟﻤﻔﺘ""ﺎح اﻟﻨ""ﺎﻧﻮي‬،‫ اﻟﺼ""ﻤﺎم اﻟﺜﻨ""ﺎﺋﻲ اﻟﻨ""ﺎﻧﻮي‬،‫( ﺑﺎﻧﻮاﻋ""ﮫ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔ""ﺔ‬CNTFET) ‫ﻧ""ﻮع‬
‫ ﺗ"ﻢ ﺗﺤﻠﯿ"ﻞ ﺧﺼ"ﺎﺋﺺ‬.CNTFET ‫ ﻧﻄﺎطﺎت اﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮ ﺣﯿﺚ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ھﺬه اﻻﻧ"ﻮاع ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤ"ﺎد ﻋﻠ"ﻰ‬،RAM
‫ ﺣﯿ""ﺚ ﺗﺒ""ﯿﻦ إﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿ""ﺔ‬،‫اﻟﺘﺮاﻧﺰﺳ""ﺘﻮر ﺑﺎﺳ""ﺘﺨﺪام ﺑﺮﻧ""ﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛ""ﺎة اﻟﺤﺎﺳ""ﻮﺑﯿﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎرﻧ""ﺔ ﻣ""ﻊ اﻻﻧ""ﻮاع اﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﺪﯾ""ﺔ‬
.‫ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧ"ﺔ ﻣ"ﻊ أﻻﻧ"ﻮاع اﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﺪﯾ"ﺔ اﻟﺘ"ﻲ ﺗﺴ"ﺘﮭﻠﻚ طﺎﻗ"ﺔ أﻗ"ﻞ‬1nA ‫ﻋﻤﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﺘﯿﺎرات ﻗﻠﯿﻠﺔ ﺗﺼﻞ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻨﺎﻧﻮ أﻣﺒﯿ"ﺮ‬
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
‫ ﺑﻤﺴ""""ﺎﻋﺪةاﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿ""""ﻲ‬،CMOS ‫ ﻧ""""ﺎﻧﻮ‬،MOSFET ،CNTFET ‫أﺟﺮﯾ""""ﺖ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧ""""ﺎت ﺑ""""ﯿﻦ‬
‫ ﻣﻦ ﺣﯿﺚ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ واﻟﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ وﻗﺖ وﺻ"ﻮل أﻛﺜ"ﺮ ﻣ"ﻦ‬CNTFET ‫ ﺣﯿﺚ ﺑﯿﻨﺖ اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺗﻔﻮق‬MATLAB
.VLSI ‫ أﻓﻀﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻲ‬CNTFET‫ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣﺎ ھﻮﻋﻠﯿﮫ ﺣﯿﺚ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ أﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬
anotechnology is the first major worldwide research initiative of the 21 st
century that acts as both the basis for technology solutions across a range of
industrial problems or as a related for the convergence of other enabling
technologies like biotechnologies, computational sciences, physical sciences,
communication technologies, cognitive sciences, social psychology and other social
sciences. Semiconductor industry is ready to downscale Complementary Metal Oxide
Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors which has formed denser, cheaper, faster, smaller,
and functionality richer electronic devices. However, further scaling becomes more
challenging with any new technological node as CMOS physical gate length which
has reached the nanometer geometry scale (1–100 nm). Nano scale CMOS devices
start to be influenced by quantum mechanical properties effects. Furthermore,
manufacturing problems in patterning small size transistor, increasing cost in creating
the chip and increasing in power density dissipation are some other problems faced
by semiconductor industry. These are the causes that CMOS devices are predicted to
end their services at the end of next decade. This technology base was first discussed
in the last half of the 20 th century technically by Fynman in 1960 and commercially
by Drexler in 1986 and took decades to generate significant public investment with
huge public investments to support scientific researches [1]. Therefore, literature
survey for many previously published researches is presented as follows:S. D. Pable, et al, investigates the performance analysis of sub-threshold circuits,
improves in speed of logic gates using CNFETs, investigated the characteristics of
CNFETs in Sub-threshold region [2]. S. Salahud Din, et al, characterize the main
CNTFET performances on-current (Ion), Ion/Ioff ratio and inverse sub threshold
slope S according to the dispersion on the nanotube diameter [3]. K. Hess, et al,
proposed a semi-classical model for the performance investigation and optimization
of the double gate carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (DG-CNTFET) [4]. Finally
C. Chen, et al, compare a multi channel of CNTFET with the single-channel
CNTFET in terms of ON current, trans conductance, switch performance and also
the reliability and yield of the device [5]. CMOS transistor scaling and performance
will continue at least until the middle of the next decade. Recently, a lot of interest
generated has been generated and good progress has been made in the study of novel
silicon and non-silicon Nano electronic devices, including Nano wire, Field Effect
Transistors FET, carbon Nano tube FET [6].
Nano devices can be classified, based on the phenomena driving their operation
into three classes namely electrical-dependent, magnetic-dependent, and mechanicaldependent. The electrical-dependent Nano devices are based either on ballistic
transport, tunneling or, on electrostatic phenomenon. In the case of ballistic transport
the electrons travel without resistivity in a material. In the case of tunneling, the
electrons can pass through a potential energy barrier at some level of energy as results
of a quantum-mechanical process. In the case of electrostatic, the interaction of
electrons happens with the presence of electric field. Integrated circuit doubles every
24 months, and it has been the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
over 30 years the sustaining of Moore’s Law, however, requires continued transistor
scaling and performance improvements [7].
In this paper a proposed design of carbon Nano tube transistors, Nano RAMS,
Nano wires, Nano Flip Flops, and Nano Diodes are presented. The Nano electronic
device which is formed from CNT proved that it is better than ordinary devices.
Generally, these Nano devices have some advantages compared to CMOS transistors,
for instance, higher mobility electrons, smaller size, and lower power consumption.
On the other hand, there are some disadvantages, for example, low temperature
requirement, immature fabrication techniques, and vulnerable to noise due to low
power operation. In the following subsections, we explain the basic concept of
operation, advantages, disadvantages, and present the current analysis for each Nano
device considered in this paper.
Interconnect for integrated circuits have traditionally been fabricated out of metals
like copper and aluminum. However, with the continued downscaling of the cross
section, alternative possibilities are being considered. Perhaps the most well-known
are metallic carbon nano tubes for which a novel transmission-line model has been
proposed which were applied by Burke to evaluate potential applications. Recently, a
performance comparison between metallic CNTs and Cu wires was done regarding
their interconnect applications based on Burkes study [8].d
One way to increase the speed of the nano wires is to increase the number of
modes or the number of sub bands. Geometrically, the number of sub bands is limited
by the diameter and band structure of the specific nano wire. For a given dimension
for the nano wire, it may be worthwhile to examine how a parallel combination of
many nano wires, occupying the same amount of space as conventional interconnects,
compare with them in performance. For a specific example, let us choose the metallic
carbon nano tube. For simplicity, we shall assume that when we put the metallic
CNTs in parallel, they are no interacting in nature. For low field transport we shall
assume a mean-free path ƛ=1.6µm estimated from experimental data. For high field
transport electrons require a finite length, Lt travel before they acquire the energy
(0.16 eV) to emit an optical phonon [9]. Then the total length that the electron travels
is ( + ℎ ) ℎ
ℎ = 30
. The resistance of a metallic CNT can be modeled
[1 +
Low field
High field
… (1)
… (2)
Where L is the length of the wire, v is the applied voltage and L = 0.16L/V. We
have assumed that V=0.5v for the high field transport, the effect of ballisticity of
CNTs is evident. The nanotube resistivity is only affected by the contact resistance up
to a significant length.
CNTFET which is closely similar to MOSFETs in terms of construction and
operation the only difference is that the channel is formed using CNT wire instead of
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
the bulk substrate as shown in Figure (1) [10]. The type of electrodes that used
CNTFET is classified into three categories the Schottky-barrier (SB) CNTFET,
Partially gated (PG) CNTFET and doped-S/D CNTFET as illustrated in Figure (2).
Figure (1) Schematic structures a CNTFET [10].
The Schottky-barrier (SB) CNTFET is shown in Figure (2a), where, in this type of
CNTFET an intrinsic CNT is used in the channel region. This is connected to metal
Source/Drain and forms Schottky barrier sat the junctions. Carbon nano tube
transistors operate as unconventional Schottky barrier transistors in which transistor
action occurs primarily by varying the contact resistance rather than the channel
conductance. These types of FET require careful alignment of the Schottky barrier
and gate electrode which leads to manufacturing challenge. Also the presence of
Schottky barrier lowers the on-current [11].
Figure (2) Different types of CNTFET: (a) Schottky-barrier (SB) CNTFET, (b)
Partially gated (PG) CNTFET (c) doped-S/D CNTFET [11].
The Partially Gated (PG) CNTFETPG-CNTFET, shown in Figure (2b), is a
depletion mode CNTFET in which the nano tube is uniformly doped or uniformly
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
intrinsic with ohmic contacts at their ends. PG-CNTFETs can be of n-type or p-type
when respectively n-doped or p-doped. In these devices the gate locally depletes the
carriers in the nano tube and turns off the p type (n-type) device with an efficiently
positive (negative) threshold voltage that approaches the theoretical limit for roomtemperature operation. The on-current of such devices is given as ID (on) = q ρ vt
where ρ is the carrier density per unit length and vt is the unidirectional thermal
velocity [11]. The Doped- Source or Drain (S/D) CNTFET presented in Figure (2c)
are composed of three regions. The region below the gate is intrinsic in nature and the
two unrated regions are doped with either P-type or n-type. The ON-current is limited
by the amount of charges that can be induced in the channel by the gate and not by
the doping in the source. They operate in a pure p- or n-type enhancement-mode or in
a depletion-mode, based on the principle of barrier height modulation when applying
a gate potential. The current voltage curve can be divided into two regions: linear and
saturation. Drain current in the linear region of CNTFET can be described as
Id =
μ Cox (Vgs − VT)Vds −
Id= Kn [2(Vgs-VT) Vds-Vds^2/2]
Where Kn is conductance of CNTFET, W is the width of CNTFET, L is the length
of CNTFET, μ is mobility of carriers, Cox is gate capacitance. We can also obtain
saturation current of CNTFET by replacing Vds (sat) = Vgs – VT. Then the
expression of saturation current of CNTFET can be written:
Id(sat) = K (
… (4)
The Applications of CNTFET in order to demonstrate the veracity of CNTFET;
we employed it to design various digital circuits such as Nano logic gates, Nano flip
flops, NanoRam, Nanocounter circuit etc. Figure (3) shows an exemplary logic gate
(inverter) comprising of P-type and N-type CNTFETs. They are coupled together in
series between a high supply voltage (VDD) and a low supply reference VSS, as
shown. The first CNTFET which is biased to conduct holes, functions as a driver
transistor with its gate providing an inverter input VIN. The second transistor which
is biased to conduct electrons, functions to facilitate an active load with its gate
coupled to a supply VGG for appropriately biasing it, so that the output provides
suitable low and high values when VIN is high and low respectively.
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
Figure (3) Structure of Nano NOT gate [12].
Figure (4) shows an exemplary Nano NAND gate comprising of CNTFETs. It
comprises of driver CNTFETs coupled together in parallel between a high supply
reference (VDD) and a series active load transistors, which is coupled to a low supply
reference VSS, as shown the gates of the driver transistors provide first and second
NAND gate inputs respectively and a gate output is provided at the drain of third
transistor as shown. Either input or any one of the inputs LOW (e.g., 0V) then the
output is HIGH (approaching VDD); if both inputs are HIGH, then the output will be
Figure (4) Structure of 2 inputs CNTFET NAND gate.
Nano RAM (NRAM) is a nonvolatile NEMS memory device formed by
suspending a metallic CNT over a trench which contains a base electrode. The off
state is characterized by the CNT lying flat across the trench where elastic energy
keeps the tubes in place. The on state occurs when the CNT is bent into the trench
and makes contact with the base electrode. In the on state, the van derails force
between the CNT and the trench floor creates a strong molecular attraction,
overpowering the elastic energy. Since these interactions are purely molecular, no
power is consumed when the memory is at rest. Programming is accomplished by
applying either attractive or repulsive voltages at the CNT and base electrode. This
creates an electro-mechanically switchable [11]. The benefits of Nano RAM are
permanently nonvolatile, high speed similar to DRAM/SRAM, High density similar
to DRAM and UN limited life time.
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
MATLAB program was written to implement equations (1) and (2) where, Figure
(5) shows the algorithm for Metallic CNT wire which is depend on two equations
(1 and 2) for low field and high field. As a result in Figure (6), the upward turn of the
resistivity curve occurs much later for a CNT compared to the Cu wire. This is why
CNT shows a smaller resistance compared to Cu wires for larger lengths. For very
short lengths the resistivity for CNT is higher due to higher contact resistance
resulting from smaller number of modes compared to the Cu wire. The bottom line is,
if enough CNTs can be put in parallel, the performance may be comparable or better
than the Cu wire.
Initiate length (L), blank constant
(h), mean free path (λacc),
Charge of electron (e)
Change L
If the
depends on
Evaluate high
field resistance
equation (2)
Evaluate low field
resistance equation
Plot R
Figure (5) Flowchart of Metallic CNT Wire to simulate equation1
and equation (2).
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
x 10
R e s is ta n c e ( O h m )
1.5 1.75
Length ( µm)
High field
Low Field
R e s is ta n c e ( o h m )
Length (µm)
Figure (6) MATLAB results of resistance (a) length of metallic
CNTs (b) Cu interconnect.
MATLAB program was written to implement equations (3 and 4) where, Figure
(7) shows the algorithm for CNTFET characteristic which is depend on two equations
first represent the operation of CNTFET in linear region and second represent the
operation of CNTFET in saturation region.
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
Initiate conductance Kn, Threshold
voltage Vt, voltage gate-source Vgs,
voltage drain-source Vds
Change Vgs
If Vgs<Vt
Change Vds
If Vds>VgsVt
Current of
Current of CNTFET in
saturation region as in
equation (4)
Current of CNTFET in
linear region as in
equation (3)
Plot (I, Vds)
After Vds
reached to final
After Vgs
reached to final
Figure (7) Flowchart of CNTFET Characteristics.
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
Used MATLAB to simulate the characteristics of the transistor implemented using
three different technology models as shown in Figures (8, 9 and 10). In case of SiMOSFET switching occurs by altering the channel resistivity but for CNTFET
switching occurs by the modulation of contact resistance. CNTFET is capable of
delivering three to four times higher drive currents than the Si MOSFETs at an
overdrive of 1 V. CNTFET has about four times higher trans conductance in
comparison to MOSFET. The average carrier velocity in CNTFET is almost double
that in MOSFET. The on-current performance advantage of the CNTFET is either
due to the high gate capacitance or due to the improved channel transport. The
improved channel velocity for the CNTFET is due to the increased mobility and band
structure of CNTFET.
x 10
I-V Characteristics of a CNTFET
Drain Current,A
Vds, V
Figure (8) Current voltage characteristics for different value
of Vgs in CNTFET.
I-V Characteristics of a MOSFET
Vgs = 8 V
Drain Current,A
Vgs = 6 V
Vgs = 4 V
Vds, V
Figure (9) Current voltage characteristics for different value
of Vgs in (MOSFET).
Eng. &Tech.Journal, Vol. 32, Part (B), No.3, 2014
Characteristics and Evaluation of Nano
Electronic Devices
I-V Characteristics of nano CMOS
x 10
Drain Current,A
Vds, V
Figure (10) Current voltage characteristics for different value .
of Vgs in Nano (CMOS).
‫ؤ‬In this paper, different Nano devices were discussed, The Nano devices are
classified into three distinct classes based on the physical phenomena behind their
operation. A detail overview of the operation, the advantages, the disadvantages, and
the applications of each device has been discussed. Also Nano electronic devices
including Nano wire & (CNTFETs) were discussed. (CNT) was used as a channel in
between the source and drain to use the benefit of high mobility. A better I-V
characteristic was obtained with higher mobility in between the channel and used
dielectric layer. (CNTFETs) first compared with MOSFET& produced denser,
cheaper, faster, smaller, and functionality the performance advantages richer
electronic devices. Second the (CNTFETs) was compared with Nano CMOS show a
clear superiority of the CNTFET and access time reduction than in Nano CMOS, then
CNTFET is the best device for future in the VLSI.
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