(MVA) for Treatment of Miscarriage and Retained Pregnancy Tissue

1. Aim/Purpose of this Guideline
All clinical staff working in the Division of women, children & sexual health to provide
evidence based guidance in the management of MVA for Miscarriage and Retained
Pregnancy Tissue
2. The Guidance
Provide information leaflet on MVA
The procedure, risks and alternatives should be explained to the patient and
all questions answered.
Pain control during the procedure should be discussed:
The woman may be advised to take an analgesic 1 hour prior to her
appointment at the clinic/unit. Suitable options include:
Paracetamol 1g AND Ibuprofen 400mg, or Cocodamol 8mg/500mg (1-2
Alternatively oral Ibubrofen can be provided at the treatment unit
Entonox will be available to the patient throughout the procedure
Para-cervical local anaesthetic will be provided unless patient has an allergy
or declines
The woman should be advised that a health professional will be at her side
during the procedure providing reassurance and support
Informed consent must be obtained.
Prescribe Misoprostol 400mg to be taken (orally / vaginally) 2 hours prior to
the procedure
Medical history, physical examination and Laboratory evaluation
Complete proforma
Any patient with a complex medical history, where suitability is not clear,
should have her case reviewed by a consultant
Pre-procedure blood testing is typically undertaken prior to MVA.
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Haemoglobin should be obtained for any patient where there is a significant
history of anaemia or concern about anaemia based on clinical signs and
Rhesus status must be obtained and if Rhesus negative, Anti-D
Immunoglobulin provided on the day of treatment.
Patient Preparation
Before the treatment begins, the woman should be introduced to the
nurse/assistant and doctor, the procedure should be reviewed with her,
including the use and benefits of entonox and any questions she has should
be answered.
The treatment doctor should review the woman’s medical history, gestational
age dating (i.e. ultrasound).
An initial set of observations (pulse and blood pressure) should be taken and
recorded in the case notes.
The woman should be asked to void shortly before the procedure; urinary
bladder catheterisation is not recommended.
The woman should be allowed some privacy to remove her underwear,
undress from the ‘waist down’ or be provided with a gown, whichever is her
The woman should be assisted onto the treatment couch and her legs put
into the supports. The hips should be flexed to about 45° and care should
be taken in maintaining symmetry of leg positions.
The woman should be kept covered until the doctor is ready to proceed.
An entonox mask or mouthpiece should be offered to the woman and
instructions on its use provided.
Uterine evacuation
A bimanual pelvic examination should be performed to assess the uterine
size and position or the USS reviewed to gain this information.
In cases of known uterine anomaly, large fibroids, or an ante-retroflexed
uterus, the use of continuous transabdominal ultrasound guidance during the
procedure may be helpful.
After introduction of a vaginal speculum, the vagina and cervix should be
cleaned with a non spirit based preparation.
A tenaculum should be placed on the cervix to stabilise and align the
cervical canal and uterine cavity during the procedure. Injection of 1%
Prilocaine at the site where the tenaculum will be placed can reduce
discomfort from applying the instrument.
Intra or para cervical infiltration of 1% Prilocaine (Citanest) or equivalent is
recommended: instillation of intra-cervical Lidocaine gel is an option.
The appropriate cannula and aspirator should be chosen.
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MVA cannulas are made of rigid plastic and come in a range of sizes up to
12mm in diameter. Typically, the size of the cannula used would match the
gestational age in weeks. However, practitioners are often able to successfully
and completely evacuate the uterus with cannula of smaller diameter: this may
avoid the need for cervical dilation and may be more comfortable for the
If dilatation is necessary, the cervix should be dilated to the minimum
necessary to insert a cannula of the appropriate size.
Insert the cannula gently through the cervix into the uterine cavity, just
passed the internal os; rotating the cannula with gentle pressure often helps
ease insertion.
Attach the charged 60ml self locking syringe to the cannula. Make sure that
the cannula does not move forward into the uterus as you attach the syringe.
Alternatively, treatment doctors may attach the charged syringe to the
cannula before inserting the cannula into the cervical os.
Never grasp the syringe by the plunger arms after the syringe has been
Advance the cannula until it gently touches the fundus and then withdraw it
Open the valve(s) so that the vacuum is applied to the uterine cavity.
Move the cannula gently back and forth from the fundus to the internal
cervical os while rotating it to aspirate all sections of the uterus.
Withdrawing the cannula apertures beyond the cervical os will cause the
vacuum to be lost. If the cannula becomes clogged and must be removed or
if it passes the os accidentally, the aspirator must be emptied and
‘recharged’. It is sometimes more efficient to have more than one ‘charged’
aspirator available for use, particularly at higher gestations.
The aspiration process is complete when no further tissue is seen passing
through the cannula. Other signs of complete aspiration are when pinkish
foam is seen passing through the cannula, a gritty sensation is felt as the
cannula passes over the surface of the evacuated uterus, and the uterus
contracts around the cannula.
Typically, the vaginal speculum will be removed prior to examination of the
aspirate. If there is any concern regarding completion of the aspiration, the
woman should remain in the treatment room until the products have been
A transabdominal or transvaginal scan should now be performed and
documentation of endometrial appearance and thickness made. To be
deemed a success, the absence of a gestation sac (if previously seen) and
endometrial thickness of <15mm would be expected.
Tissue Examination
The evacuated tissue must be examined
Empty the contents of the evacuation into an appropriate container by
removing the cannula, releasing the buttons if not depressed, and gently
pushing the plunger completely into the cylinder. Do not push aspirated
contents through the cannula.
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Tissue may only be viewed directly in the container into which it was
If the sac is not identified, perform a vaginal ultrasound. If no sac is seen in
the uterus, send tissue for histology and refer client immediately for
evaluation of possible ectopic pregnancy. If a sac is seen, reaspirate.
Consider continuous ultrasound guidance throughout aspiration.
If MVA has been performed for retained products of conception or
heamotometra, a gestational sac may not be seen. Documentation of what
was visualised should occur. Post-procedure ultrasound may also be helpful
to document that the aspiration was complete.
All tissue is sent for histological evaluation (unless woman declines) and
MUST be accompanies by a signed cremation form.
Post-procedure care
When the treatment doctor confirms that the treatment is complete, the
woman is assisted from the couch, allowed to rest and taken from to a
recliner chair to recover.
As a minimum, one set of post-procedure observations should be recorded
in the case notes.
Refreshment is offered to the woman at an appropriate time
Check woman’s Rhesus status and if non-sensitised Rhesus negative,
administer Anti D
When the patient is fully recovered, she can be discharged by the nurse.
Duration of stay in the clinic/unit
Procedure duration is typically 10-15 minutes and recovery time 30-45
Anti-biotic prophylaxis
Anti-biotic prophylaxis should be provided to all clients prior to MVA. 1g oral
azithromycin and 400mg oral metronidazole
A routine follow up appointment is not necessary after an uncomplicated
procedure. A pregnancy test at 3 weeks is not recommended after MVA.
Persistent bleeding following discharge
Persistent bleeding and/or cramping post-procedure may be a sign of
retained products of conception or another complication. The patient should
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return for evaluation.
3. Monitoring compliance and effectiveness
Element to be
Audit of outcome and patient experience feedback
EGU & miscarriage databases and patient questionnaire
Annually EGU & EPU MDT
Women’s & Newborn Audit meeting
Miss Lisa Verity, Consultant O&G
Acting on
and Lead(s)
Change in
Required changes to practice will be identified and actioned within
practice and
3 months. A lead member of the team will be identified to take each
lessons to be
change forward where appropriate. Lessons will be shared with all
the relevant stakeholders
4. Equality and Diversity
a. This document complies with the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust
service Equality and Diversity statement which can be found in the
'Equality, Diversity & Human Rights Policy' or the Equality and Diversity
b. Equality Impact Assessment
The Initial Equality Impact Assessment Screening Form is at Appendix 2.
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Appendix 1. Governance Information
Document Title
Protocol For Manual Vacuum Aspiration
(Mva) For Treatment Miscarriage And
Retained Pregnancy Tissue
Date Issued/Approved:
Date Valid From:
Date Valid To:
Directorate / Department responsible
Miss Lisa Verity
Consultant O&G
Contact details:
01872 252685
All clinical staff working in the Division of
women, children & sexual health to provide
evidence based guidance in the
management of Manual Vacuum Aspiration
Manual Vacuum Aspiration MVA
Brief summary of contents
Suggested Keywords:
Target Audience
Executive Director responsible for
Medical Director
Date revised:
This document replaces (exact title of
previous version):
New Document
Approval route (names of
Obstetric & Gynaecology Directorate
Divisional Manager confirming
approval processes
Dr. Frances Keane
Name and Post Title of additional
Not Required
Signature of Executive Director giving
Publication Location (refer to Policy
on Policies – Approvals and
{Original Copy Signed}
Internet & Intranet
 Intranet Only
Document Library Folder/Sub Folder
Clinical / Gynaecology
Links to key external standards
Ectopic pregnancy & miscarriage: Diagnosis
and initial management in early pregnancy of
ectopic pregnancy & miscarriage. NICE
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clinical guideline 154. Dec 2012
List other guidelines & hyperlink guidelines
in document library
Related Documents:
Training Need Identified?
Version Control Table
n No
11 Jun 14 V1.0
Summary of Changes
Changes Made by
(Name and Job Title)
Lee Azancot
Data Administrator
Initial Issue
All or part of this document can be released under the Freedom of Information
Act 2000
This document is to be retained for 10 years from the date of expiry.
This document is only valid on the day of printing
Controlled Document
This document has been created following the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust
Policy on Document Production. It should not be altered in any way without the
express permission of the author or their Line Manager.
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Appendix 2. Initial Equality Impact Assessment Form
Name of Name of the strategy / policy /proposal / service function to be assessed (hereafter
referred to as policy) (Provide brief description): MANUAL VACUUM ASPIRATION (MVA)
Directorate and service area:
Is this a new or existing Policy?
Name of individual completing
assessment: Miss Lisa Verity
01872 252685
1. Policy Aim*
All clinical staff working in the Division of women, children & sexual
Who is the strategy /
health to provide evidence based guidance in the management of
policy / proposal /
Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA)
service function
aimed at?
2. Policy Objectives*
As above
3. Policy – intended
As above
4. *How will you
measure the
5. Who is intended to
benefit from the
6a) Is consultation
required with the
workforce, equality
groups, local interest
groups etc. around
this policy?
See section 3
All obs & gynae patients
b) If yes, have these
*groups been
C). Please list any
groups who have
been consulted about
this procedure.
7. The Impact
Please complete the following table.
Are there concerns that the policy could have differential impact on:
Equality Strands:
Rationale for Assessment / Existing Evidence
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Sex (male, female, trans-
gender / gender
Race / Ethnic
communities /groups
Disability -
disability, physical
disability, sensory
impairment and
mental health
Religion /
other beliefs
Marriage and civil
Pregnancy and maternity
Sexual Orientation,
Bisexual, Gay, heterosexual,
You will need to continue to a full Equality Impact Assessment if the following have been
You have ticked “Yes” in any column above and
No consultation or evidence of there being consultation- this excludes any policies
which have been identified as not requiring consultation. or
Major service redesign or development
8. Please indicate if a full equality analysis is recommended.
9. If you are not recommending a Full Impact assessment please explain why.
Signature of policy developer / lead manager / director
Names and signatures of
members carrying out the
Screening Assessment
Date of completion and submission
1. Miss Lisa Verity
Keep one copy and send a copy to the Human Rights, Equality and Inclusion Lead,
c/o Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust, Human Resources Department, Knowledge Spa,
Truro, Cornwall, TR1 3HD
A summary of the results will be published on the Trust’s web site.
Signed _______________
Date ________________
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