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Mental Capacity Law Newsletter April 2014:
Issue 45
Scotland
Introduction
Welcome to the April issue of the Mental Capacity Law Newsletter.
The Newsletter has a new look this month, and, in a step upon which
we would welcome feedback, we have decided to split the
newsletter into five members of a family: (1) CoP: Health, Welfare
and Deprivation of Liberty; (2) CoP Property and Affairs; (3) Practice
and Procedure; (4) Capacity outside the CoP; and (5) Scotland. Each
will be available separately, but it is always possible to read the
entirety as one newsletter. The introduction will also always be the
same across each of the members of the family.
The division comes at a vital time for the MCA 2005 – in one week in
March we had first the report of the House of Lords Select
Committee on the MCA 2005 (covered in more detail in the Capacity
outside the CoP newsletter), and then the landmark decision of the
Supreme Court in Cheshire West and P and Q (to which we devote
almost the entirety of the Health, Welfare and Deprivation of Liberty
newsletter). The Supreme Court also handed down an important
decision in relation to litigation capacity and the settlement of civil
proceedings, covered in detail in the Capacity outside the CoP
newsletter, as are two important decisions on testamentary
capacity.
In the Property and Affairs newsletter, we cover
important cases on gifts and the notification requirements in
relation to statutory wills. In our Practice and Procedure newsletter
we cover, amongst other things, the evidence given by the President
and Vice-President of the Court of Protection to the Justice Select
Committee. Last, by very much no means least, we cover in the
Scottish newsletter the implications of the decision in Cheshire West
for Scotland and also the consultation on draft proposals for a
Mental Health (Scotland) Bill.
As if this were not enough, we also this month offer guidance notes:
(1) on the implications of Cheshire West; and (2) on capacity
assessments; the second part of Adrian’s note on Scottish adult
incapacity law; and an article by Simon Edwards on testamentary
capacity and the MCA 2005.
Editors
Alex Ruck Keene
Victoria Butler-Cole
Neil Allen
Anna Bicarregui
Scottish contributors
Adrian Ward
Jill Stavert
Table of Contents
Introduction
Scottish Adult Incapacity Law Part
2
Deprivation of liberty and adults
with incapacity: A Scottish
perspective – Addendum after
Cheshire West
Cheshire West – the impact on
s.135ZA Social Work (Scotland)
Act 1968
Consultation on draft proposals
for a Mental Health (Scotland) Bill
“Who benefits?” The investigation
into the case of Ms E
Conferences
at
which
editors/contributors are speaking
Hyperlinks are included to
judgments; if inactive, the
judgment is likely to appear soon
at www.mentalhealthlaw.co.uk.
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1
2
2
4
6
12
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Scottish Adult Incapacity Law Part 2
We would invite even those readers who consider
themselves familiar with the provisions of Scottish
adult incapacity law to read Adrian’s note because
of the points at which he considers that the 2000
Act requires amendment in order to ensure
compliance with the UNCRPD as well as his view
that the intervention orders could be used to
authorise defined interventions expected to recur
intermittently into the future.
Deprivation of liberty and adults
with
incapacity:
A
Scottish
perspective – Addendum after
Cheshire West
Introduction
In the January 2014 issue of this newsletter a brief
overview was provided of the post-Bournewood
implications for Scottish legislation, notably the
Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000 and
s13ZA Social Work (Scotland) Act 19681. Since
then, there has been the Supreme Court Cheshire
West judgment.2 So, what does this mean for
Scotland?
As indicated in the January issue, questions that
have been exercising minds, including that of the
Scottish Law Commission whose report3 on the
matter is expected later this year, are:
1. What exactly is a “deprivation of liberty”
engaging Article ECHR? And
2. Where such a deprivation of liberty exists:
1
J. Stavert, Deprivation of liberty and adults with incapacity:
a Scottish perspective.
2
P (by his litigation friend the Official Solicitor) (Appellant) v
Cheshire West and Chester Council and another
(Respondents); P and Q (by their litigation friend, the Official
a. Does Scottish legislation provide the
requisite Article 5 lawful authority for it?
And
b. Do the necessary Article 5 compatible legal
and procedural safeguards exist for the
person who has been deprived of their
liberty?
Cheshire West: Brief facts
A reading of the full case is strongly recommended
but the following are the brief essential facts.
This case involved two conjoined appeals – that of
P and Q¸ also known as MIG and MEG, and of P which raised the issue of what criteria should be
used to assess whether the living arrangements
made for a mentally incapacitated person who
cannot give valid consent to restrictions on their
activities amounts to a deprivation of liberty.
P and Q¸ also known as MIG and MEG, are sisters
with learning disabilities who were placed in care
at the ages of, respectively, 16 and 17. MIG was
placed with a foster mother to whom she was
devoted and referred to as “Mummy”. She did not
require medication and attended, on a daily basis,
a further education unit daily and was taken on
trips and holidays by her foster mother. Although
she did not attempt to leave the foster home on
her own she would have been restrained from
doing so had she tried. MEG was originally in foster
care but it was not possible to manage her
aggressive behaviour there so she was moved to
an NHS residential home for learning disabled
adolescents with complex needs. She sometimes
Solicitor)(Appellants) v Surrey County Council (Respondent)
[2014] UKSC 19.
3
Following its consultation Discussion Paper on Adults with
Incapacity, No 156, 2012.
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required physical restraint and received sedative
medication.
P is an adult born with cerebral palsy and Down’s
syndrome. He requires 24 hour care. He lived with
his mother until he was 37 years old until her
health deteriorated. The local social services
authority then obtained Court of Protection
orders providing that it was in P’s best interests if
he now live in accommodation arranged by the
local authority. He has lived, since late 2009, in a
staffed bungalow with other residents near his
home. He has one to one support that enables him
to regularly leave the bungalow for activities and
visits. Sometimes intervention is required when he
exhibits challenging behaviour although he is not
on sedative medication. He also requires
prompting and assistance with all aspects of daily
living. He needs to wear continence pads and
because he has a tendency to pull at these and put
piece in his mouth he wears all-in-one underwear
to prevent this.
Definition of “Deprivation of Liberty”
The seven Justice panel of the Supreme Court
unanimously ruled that P had been deprived of his
liberty and by a majority of 4 to 3 that MIG and
MEG had been deprived of their liberty.
Lady Hale’s delivered the leading judgment stating
that what is pivotal, and in all three cases she
believed that these criteria has been met
regarding MIG, MEG and P, is whether the person
is “under continuous supervision and control and
not free to go,”4 and she noted that she did not
agree that supervision and control is relevant only
where the person is not free to leave.5 She
stressed that everyone has the equal protection of
human rights and to be deprived of liberty is the
same for all whether or not one has a physical or
mental disability,6 firmly rejecting the ‘normality’
approach previously suggested by Lord Justice
Munby in the Court of Appeal.7
Indeed, the normality approach was rejected by all
seven Justices. Lady Hale and Lords Sumption,
Neuberger and Kerr all agreed that restrictions
employed for an individual with incapacity’s
benefit do not form part of the assessment of
whether or not there has been a deprivation of
liberty engaging Article 5 ECHR.
Admittedly there was a very narrow majority on
the finding regarding MIG and MEG. Moreover,
although Lord Neuberger8 rejects the minority
opinion that a person confined to an “ordinary”
domestic home setting, or something closely
resembling this, is not deprived of their liberty he
does indicate that it is unlikely restrictive
measures employed by natural or adoptive
parents would amount to a deprivation of liberty9.
Additionally, as was acknowledged by several of
the Justices, Strasbourg has not yet been invited
to rule on a set of facts that mirrors those in this
particular case. There is obviously no ability for
Cheshire West to be appealed to the European
Court of Human Rights but it is not beyond the
realms of possibility that it may have to consider a
similar case at some stage. In this case, UK courts
would be obliged to follow its lead. However, for
the time at least, it is clear that even in relatively
informal care settings individuals who are under
continuous supervision and control are deprived
8
5
At para 49.
6
At paras 45-46.
7
Cheshire West and Chester Council v P [2011] EWCA Civ
1257, per Munby LJ at paras 83 and 86.
At para 71.
At paras 72-74. This appears to accord with A Local
Authority v A (by her Guardian ad Litem, Judith BennettHernandez), B A Local Authority v C (by her litigation friend
the Official Solicitor), D, E [2010] EWHC 978 (Fam).
9
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of their liberty where they are unable to give valid
consent to this. For such deprivation of liberty to
be compatible with Article 5 ECHR must have a
legal basis and there must be appropriate legal
and procedural safeguards to allow that person to
be able to challenge the legality of such
deprivation of liberty.
Cheshire West and Scotland
What Cheshire West does not answer for Scotland
is whether the consent of substitute decisionmakers, such as welfare attorneys and welfare
guardians, can or can be made to provide the
necessary valid consent to restrictions that would
otherwise amount to a deprivation of liberty10 or
lawful authority to a deprivation of liberty. This
remains to be resolved regarding the Adults with
Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000. However, as
mentioned in the January 2014 issue,11 Application
in respect of R indicates that provided the
guardianship order permits a welfare guardian to
deprive a person with incapacity of their liberty
this constitutes the requisite lawful authority for
the of Article 5, presumably because this is
impliedly permitted by the 2000 Act. What is clear
from Cheshire West, however, is that, as stated in
Application in respect of R, s13ZA of the Social
Work (Scotland) Act 1968 provides neither the
lawful authority nor the necessary legal and
procedural safeguards to be compliant with Article
5. See also Adrian Ward’s discussion of s13ZA
below for a further discussion of this.
The Scottish Law Commission’s report and
guidance is now eagerly awaited.
Jill Stavert
10
The European Court of Human Rights seems to have
indicated that this may be possible. Stanev v Bulgaria
(36760/06) judgment 17 January 2012, para 130.
Cheshire West – the impact on
s.135ZA Social Work (Scotland) Act
1968
Section 13ZA of the Social Work (Scotland) Act
1968 was inserted by the Adult Support and
Protection (Scotland) Act 2007 to provide an
alternative to a guardianship or intervention order
where (in terms of section 13ZA (1)) a local
authority determines under the 1968 Act that an
adult’s needs call for the provision of a community
care service, and it appears to the local authority
that the adult is incapable in relation to decisions
about the service. In such situations the local
authority may take any steps which they consider
would help the adult to benefit from the service,
and in terms of subsection (2) that expressly
includes moving the adult to residential
accommodation provided under the 1968 Act.
Previously that outcome was achieved by way of
guardianship or intervention orders. Sheriff Baird,
in Glasgow, in Muldoon, Applicant, 2005 SLT (Sh.
Ct.) 52, held that where an adult is compliant with
a move into such a care regime, but legally
incapable of consenting to or disagreeing with it,
then to impose the regime deprives the adult of
his or her liberty in breach of Article 5 of the
European Convention on Human Rights. He held
that such a step should not be taken without
express authority, and that in such a situation the
appropriate statutory intervention was a
guardianship order, because in every case where
the court is dealing with an incapable but
compliant adult, the least restrictive option would
be the granting of a guardianship order, provided
that all the other statutory requirements are
satisfied for it. Only in that way would the
necessary safeguards and statutory regulatory
framework to protect the adult (and the guardian)
11
Application in respect of R 2013 G.W.D. 13-293.
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come into play. The sheriff’s reasoning would
appear to apply equally to intervention orders.
Local authorities are required to exercise their
functions under the 1968 Act under the general
guidance of Scottish Ministers, and to comply with
their directions (section 5 of the 1968 Act). The
relevant guidance is Guidance for Local Authorities
(March 2007) Provision of Community Care
Services to Adults with Incapacity. It sets out the
procedure to be followed under section 13ZA and
addresses the question of when that procedure is
and is not to be followed. It is not to be followed
when “the person with impaired capacity is
opposed to the proposed course of action as far as
can be ascertained”, nor where “in providing the
care intervention needed, the circumstances
amount to a deprivation of liberty”. If Sheriff Baird
were correct in Muldoon that such a move,
without valid consent, is always a deprivation of
liberty, then section 13ZA would not be applicable
in the circumstances expressly described in
subsection (2). The guidance, with scant regard
for the respective roles of legislature, judiciary and
executive, and without giving reasons, asserted
that “The Scottish Executive does not agree with
this interpretation of the ECtHR cases”. Sheriff
McDonald nevertheless agreed with and
supported Sheriff Baird’s views in M, Applicant,
2009 SLT (Sh. Ct.) 185. Adrian sought to break
through this circularity by focusing upon Article 6
of the Convention rather than Article 5 in “Adults
with Incapacity: Freedom and Liberty, Rights and
Status (Part 1) 2011 SLT (News) 21. However, the
debate has been re-opened by the decision of the
Supreme Court in P v Cheshire West and Cheshire
Council and another and P and Q v Surrey County
Council [2014] UKSC 19. The guidance asserts that
a guardianship or intervention order is
appropriate where the adult is “opposed to the
proposed course of action” but not where the
adult is compliant. At least to that extent, Sheriff
Baird’s position has been vindicated by the
Supreme Court. As Lord Neuberger pointed out
(para 68): “The notion that the absence of
objection can justify what would otherwise
amount to deprivation of liberty is contrary to
principle”. It will remain necessary in any case to
consider whether the circumstances into which an
adult is transferred amount to deprivation of
liberty, but currently the last word on how to
determine that is to be found in Cheshire West,
excluding many of the suggested grounds upon
which the circumstances of an adult could be
categorised as not amounting to a deprivation of
liberty.
Section 13ZA was a response to perceived
problems which never have existed. Local
authorities were said to be overburdened with the
volume of applications which they required to
handle, and moves of adults typically from hospital
into other accommodation were said to be subject
to unacceptable delay. However, the financial
memorandum accompanying the Bill which
became the Incapacity Act predicted 1,500
applications per annum by local authorities, which
would have produced 4,500 such applications in
the three years up to the Muldoon decision. In
fact, as pointed out in Adrian’s commentary on
Muldoon included in the SCLR Report, there were
in fact only 996. The delays which are still being
experienced, particularly in discharging adults
from hospital, could be shortened substantially by
more efficient procedures, such as were explored
at a conference of health and social work
professionals and administrators hosted in
Glasgow City Chambers on 8th March 2013. Given
that section 13ZA has the additional problems of
non-compliance with Article 12 (4) of the United
Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons with
Disabilities, the debate about section 13ZA is
proceeding, even at the level of whether the
procedure created by it is properly operable at all.
Adrian Ward
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Consultation on draft proposals for a
Mental Health (Scotland) Bill
1. Background
a. Consultation and proposals for a Mental Health
(Scotland) Bill
In December 2013, the Scottish Government
published a consultation paper inviting comment
on proposed amendments to the Mental Health
(Care and Treatment)(Scotland) Act 2003 and to
the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (“the
1995 Act”). It closed on 25th March 2014.
The consultation addresses some of the McManus
Review recommendations12 as well as other
matters raised by service users and practitioners
in response to the Scottish Government’s own
consultation on such recommendations.13 It also
proposes the introduction of a notification scheme
for victims of mentally disordered offenders
following consultation on this particular issue.14
a. Mental Health (Care and Treatment)(Scotland)
Act 2003 (“the 2003 Act”)
The 2003 Act governs the compulsory care and
treatment of persons with mental disorder. It is
designed to operate in an environment that
supports the right to the highest attainable
12
Scottish Government, Limited Review of the Mental Health
(Care and Treatment) Act 2003: Report, 2009 (accessed 26
February 2014). For the Scottish Government’s response to
this review see Scottish Government, Mental Health:
Legislation Scottish Government response to the “Limited
Review of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland)
Act 2003: Report, 2010 (accessed 26 February 2014).
13
Scottish Government, Mental Health: Legislation:
Consultation on the Review of the Mental Health (Care and
Treatment)(Scotland) Act 2003, 2009 (accessed 26 February
2014).
14
Scottish Government, Consultation : Disclosure of
Information to Victims of Mentally Disordered Offenders,
2010, (accessed 26 February 2010) and Scottish
standard of physical and mental health and the
recovery and rehabilitation of individuals with
mental disorder15. Various principles, therefore,
that reflect European Convention on Human
Rights (ECHR) and other international human
rights standards underpin its provisions and
implementation. Indeed, any legislation of the
Scottish Parliament and its implementation must
be compatible with ECHR rights and those
identified in other international human rights
treaties such as the UN Convention on the Rights
of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).16
The Act directs that anyone exercising functions
under it must consider a number of factors. These
include having regard to the range of available
options, patient participation, the least restrictive
option, whether the intervention will be of
maximum benefit to the individual and nondiscrimination17. Additionally, the patient’s
wishes, background and circumstances and the
views of named persons, carers, guardians and
attorneys must be taken into account as well as
encouraging patient participation.18 For children
or young persons under 18 years of age any
functions must also be discharged in a “manner
that best secures the welfare of the patient.”19
Moreover, and importantly, the presence of
mental disorder alone is insufficient justification
for compulsory treatment to be ordered by the
Government, Disclosure of Information to Victims of
Mentally Disordered Offenders: Analysis of Responses to the
Consultation, 2011 (accessed 26 February 2014).
15
See Scottish Government, New Directions: Report on the
Review of the Mental Health (Scotland) Act 1984, 2001(“the
Millan Report”) that shaped the Act.
16
ss29(2)(d), s.35(1), s.57 and s.58 Scotland Act 1988 and s.6
Human Rights Act 1998. Indeed, increasing reference to the
CRPD is being made in European Court of Human Rights
cases which is likely to ultimately influence interpretation of
ECHR rights.
17
ss1(3)(c)-(g) and 1(4).
18
ss1(3)(a),(b) and (h).
19
s.2(4).
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Mental Health Tribunal under the Act. Issues of
treatability, risk, the existence of significantly
impaired decision making ability owing to mental
disorder, and the necessity for such involuntary
treatment, must also be considered.20
The Act also provides for the patient, their named
person, primary carer and welfare attorney,
amongst others, also have the right to make oral
or written representations and to lead or produce
evidence before the Mental Health Tribunal.21
Further, short-term and emergency detention is
time-limited and it is possible to appeal short-term
detention certificates and compulsory measures.
Compulsory measures are also subject to periodic
review.
The amendments proposed by the Draft Bill must
therefore be assessed in light of their compatibility
with the Act’s principles and with European and
international human rights standards. Articles 3
(freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment) 5 (liberty), 6 (fair trial),
8 (privacy and family life, or autonomy) and 14
(non-discrimination) ECHR and the corresponding
rights identified in the CRPD.22
It should also noted that at present the outcome,
and its implications, of the recent consultation by
the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with
20
s.64(5). In the case of short-term detention, the presence
of mental disorder, significantly impaired decision making
ability, necessity, risk, absence of conflict of interest and the
consent of a Mental Health Officer are conditions that must
all be met before the approved medical practitioner before
the certificate may be granted (s.44(3) and (4)).
21
s.64(2) and (3).
22
Article 5 (equality and non-discrimination), Article 12
(equal treatment before the law), Article 14 (the right to
liberty), Article 15 (freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman
or degrading treatment or punishment), Article 17
(protecting personal integrity), Article 19 (independent and
community living), Article 22 (respect for privacy) and Article
23 (respect for home and family).
Disabilities on its Draft General Comment on
Article 12 CRPD (the right to equal treatment
before the law)23 is unclear. However, it is
probably safe to assume that, at the very least, it
will result in a reinforcing of patient autonomy in
treatment situations.
1. Draft Bill proposals
Several proposals in the draft Bill are merely to
remedy inconsistencies in the original legislation
and are reasonable and logical. However, some
other proposals are more worthy of comment
from a mental capacity perspective. The following
will briefly highlight these although it will not
provide an in depth analysis of the law or human
rights involved. A more detailed description of the
draft Bill’s proposals can, of course, be found in
the consultation paper and draft Bill.
a. Advance Statements
Where a valid and subsisting advance statement
relating to psychiatric care and treatment exists
and the maker’s ability to make informed
decisions about treatment for their mental
disorder is “significantly impaired” because of that
disorder, then both the Mental Health Tribunal for
Scotland24 and persons giving medical treatment
authorised under the 2003 Act or 1995 Act25 are
obliged to “have regard to the wishes specified in
23
UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Draft General Comment on Article 12 of the Convention –
Equal Recognition before the Law (Adopted by the
Committee at its tenth session (2-13 September 2013)
(accessed 7 March 2014).
In essence, the Draft General
Comment interprets Article 12 CRPD in such a way that legal
capacity cannot be denied on the basis of disability (as this
would constitute discrimination), that decision-making be
supported not substituted (and the removal, therefore, of
guardianship) and the abolition of laws providing for the
compulsory treatment of mental disorder.
24
s276.
25
s276(3).
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the statement.” Such regard must also be had in
connection with treatments requiring second
opinions.26 The 2003 Act requires that reasons for
disregarding the wishes expressed in such
statements are recorded.27
Proposed amendments
The draft Bill obliges Health Boards to place a copy
of any advance statements received in the
patient’s medical records and to send a copy to
the Mental Welfare Commission. It also requires
that the Mental Welfare Commission maintains a
central register of advance statements, such
register being accessible by the maker and anyone
acting on their behalf. It is also accessible, in the
course of treatment of the person, by their mental
health officer, responsible medical officer and the
relevant health board, and by the Mental Health
Tribunal in connection with proceedings before it.
Comments on draft Proposals
These proposed amendments are to be
welcomed. Psychiatric advance statements are an
important expression of individual autonomy even
in compulsory treatment situations where a
patient’s autonomy must be respected insofar as
it is possible.
Advance statements also arguably provide an
indication of whether a patient would consent to
a particular measure which is integral in assessing
whether a deprivation of liberty engaging Article 5
ECHR has occurred or they have been subject to
inhuman or degrading treatment (Article 3
26
s276.
s276. See also J. Stavert “Added value: using human rights
to support psychiatric advance statements” (2013) 17(2)
Edinburgh Law Review 210 for a discussion of the role of
advance statements under Scottish law.
27
28
ECHR).28 Moreover, they are an important
element of supported decision making advocated
the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with
Disabilities (see above).
The problem is, however, that few advance
statements are actually made. This is due to
several factors but often owing to a lack of
awareness or patient belief that they are
ineffective.29 General information and awarenessraising is obviously of use here but the placing of a
statutory duty on specified medical staff to
discuss the making of advance statements and
explain their effectiveness as part of after-care
plans would certainly be beneficial.
b. Named Persons
Named persons tend to be relatives, carers or
someone close to the patient and therefore
possess valuable information about a patient that
will assist in the tailoring of their care and
treatment plans. As with advance statements,
where a patient nominates a named person this is
an expression of autonomy and fits well with the
supported decision-making model.
At present, a patient may nominate or prevent
someone from being their named person.30 Where
there is no named person, the Mental Health
Tribunal may appoint one and may also remove a
person as named person if it is satisfied that is not
appropriate that they act or replace them.31
29
Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland, Advance
Statements Guidance, 2013, p5.
30
ss250 and 253.
31
s257. Note that the Draft Bill does provide that this
Tribunal power will operate subject to any declaration that
the individual does not wish to appoint a named person.
Stavert, ibid.
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Proposed amendments
The draft Bill provides that a person aged 16 years
or older will be able to make a written and
witnessed declaration that they do not wish to
have a named person appointed. It also provides
that anyone nominated as a named person must
give written consent to acting as such.
Comments on draft proposals
The proposed amendments to the 2003 Act seem
to be reasonable but certain issues warrant
further consideration.
Firstly, the Act currently contains no definition of
“named person”. There is a lack of understanding
by many service users, named persons and even
by professionals about the precise role of named
persons.32 It would therefore be useful if a
definition of “named person” were included in the
draft Bill.
Secondly, the Bill does not remove the default
provision permitting the Mental Health Tribunal to
appoint a named person where one has not been
appointed.33 This requires closer scrutiny. On the
one hand, such a provision may in some
circumstances provide a protective safeguard of
the patient’s interests. On the other, in these
particular circumstances the named person is not
being appointed with the patient’s consent and
this is a restriction of their right to autonomy
(Article 8(1) ECHR) which would be difficult to
justify under Article 8(2).
be involved in Tribunal proceedings and a
requirement that leave must be applied for to be
involved. The consultation document is unclear
about how the Tribunal’s discretion will be
exercised in these circumstances (although this
will subsequently be dealt with, it would appear,
in secondary legislation). Refusal to permit a
named person to automatically be included in
proceedings to represent the patient’s interests,
where that person has been nominated by the
patient, is contrary to the exercise of the patient’s
right to autonomy. It removes an important
additional patient safeguard which, again, is
difficult to justify under Article 8(2).
c. Removal of requirement for a second medical
report in Compulsory Treatment Order (CTO)
applications
Proposed amendments
The proposed amendments provide for only one
report, from the approved medical practitioner, to
accompany the application. However, the patient
or the Mental Health Tribunal may request that a
second independent report is obtained.
Comment on draft proposals
Finally, the draft Bill provides for the removal of
the current automatic right of a named person to
The consultation paper justifies this amendment
on the basis of concern about the involvement of
GPs, a perceived lack of independence between
the two reports and of conflicts of interest34. This
is at odds with the McManus Report35 which
indicated widespread support for the involvement
of primary care in long term compulsory
treatment36 and little support for CTOs being
accompanied by a single medical report. The
32
34
This was also noted in Scottish Government, Limited
Review of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) Act 2003:
Report, 2009 (“the McManus Report”).
33
s257(1).
Para 14.
Op cit, pp28-31.
36
Even though it also identified that GPs were requested to
provide the second report in less than 50% of cases (op cit,
p.28).
35
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consultation paper does not mention resourcing
issues as justification for this amendment but the
McManus Report did state that a lack of
availability of GPs should not be justification for
preventing them from providing such report.37
the significance of the matters to be considered,
the requirement on the Tribunal should be
imperative.
Given the implications for a person who is subject
to a CTO application, particularly in terms of
restriction of an individual’s autonomy and liberty,
this clearly of concern. It is therefore hoped that
the Scottish Government will not pursue this
amendment when the Bill is introduced into the
Scottish Parliament.
As mentioned at the outset, the draft Bill provides
for the introduction of a notification scheme for
victims of mentally disordered offenders.
d. Nurse’s holding power under s299, 2003 Act
The draft Bill contains a proposal to extend the
maximum period for a nurse’s holding power38
from two to three hours although the consultation
document gives no reason for this. Given the
implications this has for a patient in terms of their
liberty and autonomy, and the inability of a patient
to challenge this, it is essential that any proposal
of this nature is specifically explained and justified
before its acceptability is properly determined.
e. Mental Health Tribunal: timescales for referrals
and disposals
The draft Bill proposes an amendment that the
Tribunal “must do its utmost” to comply with
timescales within which it must deal with various
disposal. Where such timescales are not met, the
Tribunal must record the failure and the reason
why.39
f. Victim Notification Scheme
It should be noted that it would be discriminatory
for mentally disordered offenders to be treated
differently to other offenders in this respect under
Article 14 ECHR in conjunction with Article 8 ECHR
and taking into account of Articles 3(b), 4(1)(b) and
5 CRPD. The provisions must not, therefore, go
beyond that which would apply to other
offenders.
It is also proposed that the right to receive
information will be extended to receive
information about offenders subject to
compulsion orders. Offenders subject to
compulsion order have often committed only
minor offences. To allow the proposed notification
in such cases may therefore be an unnecessary
and disproportionate limitation of their right to
private and family life which may be difficult to
justify (under Articles 8 and 14 ECHR).
g. Increased responsibilities for Mental Health
Officers (MHOs)
The Tribunal will be well aware of its obligations
under Articles 5(4) and 6 ECHR. However, given
The draft Bill contains several provisions what will
increase the workload for MHOs, for example, in
connection with extending a CTO and being
consulted in connection with a proposed
Treatment Transfer Directions to name but two.
Local authorities will need to ensure that
adequate resourcing is made available if this is to
37
39
Comment on draft proposal
38
Op cit, p28.
s299.
Clause 15, Draft Bill.
Page 10 of 18
Mental Capacity Law Newsletter April 2014
Scotland
work effectively. MHPs are already stretched in
terms of their duties under the 2003 Act.
However, human rights recognition and
protection must not be compromised by
inadequate resourcing. This is reinforced by state
duties in the ECHR and other international treaties
identifying civil and political rights and by the
human rights observance duties imposed on the
Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government in
the Scotland Act. It was also fully recognised in the
Millan Report.40
2. Additional Matters
The introduction of the Bill into the Scottish
Parliament also provides a useful opportunity to
attend to other matters that have come to light
since the enactment of the 2003 Act.
a. s268, 2003 Act – detention in conditions of
excessive security in non-state hospitals
Following the 2012 Supreme Court ruling in RM v
The Scottish Ministers,41 the Scottish Government,
via consultation, sought views on appeals against
excessive security for psychiatric patients in nonstate hospitals.42 An analysis of the responses was
published in December 2013.43 The necessary
regulations or legislative changes now need to be
effected to ensure that this right can be effectively
exercised given that individuals detained in
conditions of excessive security engages Article 8
40
Op cit, pp378-382.
RM v The Scottish Ministers [2012] UKSC 58.
42
Scottish Government, Mental Health (Care and Treatment)
(Scotland) Act 2003 Consultation in relation to section 268
appeals against conditions of excessive security
43
Scottish Government, Consultation in relation to section
268 appeals against conditions of excessive security: Analysis
of Responses Report
44
For a full discussion of this issue see H Patrick, J Stavert
and J Malcolm "The right to life, and to proper inquiries on
death: A human rights perspective on the investigation of
deaths of psychiatric patients in Scotland" (2012) 1 Juridical
41
ECHR and, potentially, even Article 3 (with
corresponding Articles 17, 22 and 15 CRPD).
b. The use of covert medication and restraint
At present, there is little reference to the use of
force, restraint or covert medication in the 2003
Act’s Code of Practice. Given the potential for
Articles 2, 3, 5 and 8 ECHR to be engaged in such
situations, and taking in account the
aforementioned comments on Article 12 CRPD,
clearer direction and guidance is required in the
legislation itself and its supporting Code of
Practice. For further discussion of this issue see
Covert medication: Scottish legislation, human
rights and the Mental Welfare Commission for
Scotland’s updated guidance in the February 2014
issue of this newsletter.
c. Deaths of psychiatric patients
It is questionable whether the investigative
framework relating to deaths of psychiatric
patients in Scotland is fully compliant with Article
2.44 This was partially explored in the 2009 Report
of Findings of Review of Fatal Accident Inquiry
Legislation45 and subsequently brought into
sharper relief by the Savage and Rabonne rulings46
and the Mental Welfare Commission for
Scotland’s recent monitoring report Death in
detention monitoring that reinforces this need.47
The necessary legislative changes and any
Review 51 and J Stavert, “Deaths of Psychiatric Patients,
Article 2 ECHR & Proper Investigation: a case for reform in
Scotland?” (2012) 419 Scolag Legal Journal 206.
45
Scottish Government, Report of findings of Review of Fatal
Accident Inquiry Legislation: An independent review, 2009
(accessed 7 March 2014) paras 4.15- 4.17. See also
46
Savage v South East Partnership NHS Foundation Trust
[2010] EWHC 865 (QB); Rabonne v Pennine Care NHS
Foundation Trust [2012] UKSC 2.
47
Mental Welfare Commission, Death in detention
monitoring, 2014 (accessed 25 March 2014).
Page 11 of 18
Mental Capacity Law Newsletter April 2014
Scotland
outstanding procedural measures must be made
in order to give full effect to the requirements of
Article 2.
d. Incompatibility between s242 of the 2003 Act
and the Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act
2000: Ability of substituted decision-makers to
consent to treatment under the 2003 Act
Essentially, s.50 of the 2000 Act permits
substituted decision-makers (welfare attorneys
and guardians) to consent to medical treatment
on behalf of an adult with incapacity. However,
where such an adult falls to be treated for mental
disorder under the 2003 Acts, s242 (relating to
treatment for mental disorder other than that
requiring special safeguards) it is unclear as to
whether such consent is permitted. For a more
detailed discussion of the issues involved see
Substituted decision makers and the interaction
between the Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act
2000 and Mental Health (Care and Treatment)
(Scotland) Act 2003 in the February 2014 issue of
this newsletter.
A full consideration of any areas of incompatibility
between the two Acts may be more productive
following the forthcoming Scottish Law
Commission report on adults with incapacity and
deprivation of liberty. However, clarification on
this particular issue, in the 2003 Act, would be
useful now.
disappointing that no provision is made in the
draft Bill to strengthen the duty to provide for such
advocacy so that the right to independent
advocacy can be fully realised by those who are
entitled to it under the 2003 Act.
3. Conclusion
The 2003 Act has been internationally regarded as
an example of good practice in terms of patientcentred and human rights compatible legislation.
However, this is not an excuse for complacency
and it must be kept under review in light of
developments in European and international
human rights law and practice. It is therefore
hoped that the Bill that will be eventually
introduced into the Scottish Parliament will take
these and the Act’s principles fully into account.
Jill Stavert
“Who benefits?” The investigation
into the case of Ms E
The last investigation on Dr Donald Lyons’ watch
as Chief Executive of the Mental Welfare
Commission stands - all us of suggest – both as a
testament to the power of the work that the MWC
has done under his stewardship in Scotland and
also as a clear example of the type of work that a
Mental Capacity Act Commission could do if
established in England and Wales to champion the
MCA 2005.
e. Independent advocacy
The McManus Review Report reaffirmed the
importance of independent advocacy for persons
with mental health issues and noted the
inadequacy of its provision across Scotland48
making several recommendations to reinforce the
right to independent advocacy.49 It is therefore
The MWC investigated the case of a woman who
took her own life in December 2011. She had
recently had a work capability assessment
following which the Department for Work and
Pensions (DWP) decided her benefits were going
to be reduced. She was on incapacity benefit and
was told she would not be able to be transferred
48
49
pp10-11.
Paras 3.1-3,6, p12.
Page 12 of 18
Mental Capacity Law Newsletter April 2014
Scotland
to Employment and Support Allowance so would
receive Jobseekers allowance
Ms DE was a woman in her fifties who had worked
for most of her life but had been experiencing
mental and physical health issues so was signed off
work and receiving incapacity benefit. She
intended to return to work when she was able to.
Ms DE had a teenage son and was engaged and
planning to get married in 2012. She had been
receiving care and support from her GP and her
psychiatrist for over 20 years. Her doctors had
never been worried during this time about her
taking own life.
During the MWC’s investigation the MWC spoke
with people who were involved with Ms DE's care
and treatment. The MWC discussed the case with
relevant officials from the DWP. The MWC also
conducted a survey of psychiatrists to find out how
they felt the system was affecting their patients.
The MWC found that the decision was made on
the basis of an assessment that contained
insufficient information about her mental health.
It found that the work capability assessment
needed to be more sensitive to mental health
issues. The MWC was also disappointed at how
the DWP communicated with Ms DE. The MWC
felt that not enough effort was made to contact
Ms DE and this meant she was not given the
opportunity to fully engage with the process. The
MWC found that she was not treated as a
vulnerable claimant and so was not given any
additional support to help her with the process
around the assessment by the DWP.
Importantly, the MWC was then involved in useful
discussions with the DWP about the
recommendations it had made in the report,
discussions which remain ongoing.
Page 13 of 18
Conferences
`
Conferences at which editors/contributors are
speaking
5th
anniversary
conference
for
the
National
Preventive
Mechanism (Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture)
Jill is chairing the session on de facto detention at this conference to mark
this important anniversary, being held in Bristol on 8 April. Details are
available here.
Editors
Alex Ruck Keene
Victoria Butler-Cole
Neil Allen
Anna Bicarregui
Scottish contributors
Adrian Ward
Jill Stavert
The Assisted Suicide Bill: Does Scotland Need to Legislate?
Adrian is speaking at a medico-legal seminar at the Mason Institute of the
University of Edinburgh Law School on the subject of assisted dying on 24
April 2014 at the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh. Details can be
found here and initial details can be found here.
A Deprivation of Liberty: Post Cheshire West and P and Q
Neil is speaking with Jenni Richards QC at the conference arranged by
Langleys on 1 May on the Cheshire West judgment. Full details are
available here.
Annual private law conference convened by the Royal Faculty of Procurators
Adrian will be speaking at the annual private law conference convened by
the Royal Faculty of Procurators in Glasgow on 29 May 2014. Full details
are available here.
Hot topics in adult incapacity law
Adrian will be speaking on hot topics in the incapacity field at the Solicitors’
Group Wills, Trust & Tax conference in Edinburgh on 7 May 2014. Full
details are available here.
Advertising conferences
and training events
If you would like your
conference or training
event to be included in this
section in a subsequent
issue, please contact one
of the editors. Save for
those conferences or
training events that are
run by non-profit bodies,
we would invite a
donation of £200 to be
made to Mind in return for
postings for English and
Welsh events. For Scottish
events, we are inviting
donations to Alzheimer
Scotland
Action
on
Dementia.
The Deprivation of Liberty Procedures: Safeguards for Whom?
Neil is speaking at the conference arranged on 13 June by Cardiff
University Centre for Health and Social Care Law and the Law Society’s
Mental Health and Disability Committee. The conference will focus on the
implications of the ruling of the Supreme Court Cheshire West as well as
the likely impact of the Report of the House of Lords Committee on the
Page 14 of 18
Conferences
Mental Capacity Act. Other speakers include Richard Jones, Phil Fennell,
Lucy Series, Professor Peter Bartlett, Sophy Miles and Mark Neary. Full
details are available here.
Editors
Alex Ruck Keene
Victoria Butler-Cole
Neil Allen
Anna Bicarregui
Scottish contributors
Adrian Ward
Jill Stavert
Advertising conferences
and training events
If you would like your
conference or training
event to be included in this
section in a subsequent
issue, please contact one
of the editors. Save for
those conferences or
training events that are
run by non-profit bodies,
we would invite a
donation of £200 to be
made to Mind in return for
postings for English and
Welsh events. For Scottish
events, we are inviting
donations to Alzheimer
Scotland
Action
on
Dementia.
Page 15 of 18
Chambers Details
Our next Newsletter will be out in early May. Please email
us with any judgments or other news items which you
think should be included. If you do not wish to receive this
Newsletter
in
the
future
please
contact
[email protected]
Editors
David Barnes
Chief Executive and Director of Clerking
[email protected]
Scottish contributors
Alastair Davidson
Senior Clerk
[email protected]
Alex Ruck Keene
Victoria Butler-Cole
Neil Allen
Anna Bicarregui
Adrian Ward
Jill Stavert
CoP Cases Online
Sheraton Doyle
Practice Manager
[email protected]
Peter Campbell
Practice Manager
[email protected]
London
Use this QR code to take you
directly to the CoP Cases
Online section of our
website
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Tel: +44 (0)20 7832 1111
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in England and Wales (registered number 0C360005) with its registered office at 39 Essex Street, London
WC2R 3AT. Thirty Nine Essex Street’s members provide legal and advocacy services as independent, selfemployed barristers and no entity connected with Thirty Nine Essex Street provides any legal services. Thirty
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Page 16 of 18
Contributors: England and Wales
Alex Ruck Keene
[email protected]
Alex is frequently instructed before the Court of Protection by individuals (including
on behalf of the Official Solicitor), NHS bodies and local authorities, in matters across
the spectrum of the Court’s jurisdiction. His extensive writing commitments include
co-editing the Court of Protection Law Reports, and contributing to the ‘Court of
Protection Practice’ (Jordans). He also contributed chapters to the second edition of
‘Mental Capacity: Law and Practice’ (Jordans 2012) and the third edition of
‘Assessment of Mental Capacity’ (Law Society/BMA 2009). To view full CV click here.
Victoria Butler-Cole
[email protected]
Victoria regularly appears in the Court of Protection, instructed by the Official Solicitor,
family members, and statutory bodies, in welfare, financial and medical cases. She
previously lectured in Medical Ethics at King’s College London and was Assistant
Director of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Together with Alex, she co-edits the
Court of Protection Law Reports for Jordans. She is a contributing editor to Clayton
and Tomlinson ‘The Law of Human Rights’, a contributor to ‘Assessment of Mental
Capacity’ (Law Society/BMA 2009), and a contributor to Heywood and Massey Court of
Protection Practice (Sweet and Maxwell). To view full CV click here.
Neil Allen
[email protected]
Neil has particular interests in human rights, mental health and incapacity law and
mainly practises in the Court of Protection. Also a lecturer at Manchester University,
he teaches students in these fields, trains health, social care and legal professionals,
and regularly publishes in academic books and journals. Neil is the Deputy Director of
the University's Legal Advice Centre and a Trustee for a mental health charity. To view
full CV click here.
Anna Bicarregui
[email protected]
Anna regularly appears in the Court of Protection in cases concerning welfare issues
and property and financial affairs. She acts on behalf of local authorities, family
members and the Official Solicitor. Anna also provides training in COP related matters.
Anna also practices in the fields of education and employment where she has particular
expertise in discrimination/human rights issues. To view full CV click here.
Page 17 of 18
Contributors: Scotland
Adrian Ward
[email protected]
Adrian is a practising Scottish solicitor, a partner of T C Young LLP, who has
specialised in and developed adult incapacity law in Scotland over more than three
decades. Described in a court judgment as: “the acknowledged master of this
subject, and the person who has done more than any other practitioner in Scotland
to advance this area of law,” he is author of Adult Incapacity, Adults with Incapacity
Legislation and several other books on the subject. To view full CV click here.
Jill Stavert
[email protected]
Dr Jill Stavert is Reader in Law within the School of Accounting, Financial Services
and Law at Edinburgh Napier University and Director of its Centre for Mental Health
and Incapacity Law Rights and Policy. Jill is also a member of the Law Society for
Scotland’s Mental Health and Disability Sub-Committee, Alzheimer Scotland’s
Human Rights and Public Policy Committee, the South East Scotland Research Ethics
Committee 1, and the Scottish Human Rights Commission Research Advisory Group.
She has undertaken work for the Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland
(including its 2013 updated guidance on Deprivation of Liberty) and is a voluntary
legal officer for the Scottish Association for Mental Health. To view full CV click here.
Page 18 of 18