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Zootaxa 3869 (3): 338–342 /zootaxa /
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Calicnemia fortis sp. nov. from Pakistan (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae)
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected]
National Insect Museum, NARC, Park Road - Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: [email protected]
Department of Entomology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Calicnemia fortis sp. nov. is described from Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan and compared with other group 2 species of Calicnemia.
Key words: Odonata, Zygoptera, Platycnemididae, Calicnemia, fortis, Pakistan, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, new species
The genus Calicnemia Strand, 1926 has been known from India to the eastern side of China and southwards into
peninsular Malaysia. Only Calicnemia eximia (Selys, 1863) has been recorded from Pakistan before now (e.g. Zia
et al. 2011). In 2005 the second author collected specimens of a robust species of Calicnemia from Azad Jammu
and Kashmir in north-eastern Pakistan. The number of postquadrangular cells (cells between the quadrilateral and
the subnodus) in both fore- and hind wing is atypically high, so that the species runs out as Indocnemis Laidlaw,
1917, in the keys in Laidlaw (1917: 325) and Fraser (1933: 151). However, the species is clearly recognizable as
Calicnemia by its colouration and markings, as well as the form of its genital ligula and anal appendages. The new
species has no flagella on the genital ligula and hence falls into group 2 of Calicnemia as defined by Lieftinck
(1984). It is described here as C. fortis sp. nov.
Terminology used here for wing venation follows that in Watson & O’Farrell (1991); other terminology largely
follows Westfall & May (1996).
Calicnemia fortis sp. nov.
(Figs. 1–7)
Type material. Holotype: ♂ (ODO/ZYG/217), Pakistan, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Noseri, 11 v
2005, leg. S. A. Zia, deposited in the National Insect Museum, Islamabad, Pakistan. Paratype: ♂ (ODO/ZYG/
218), data as holotype.
Etymology. The species is named fortis, an adjective, meaning robust, referring to the strong build and
relatively large size of the species.
Description of holotype male. Head: labium dark brown. Labrum black, clypeus black except for 2 small
pale, widely separated spots on postclypeus. Mandible bases black. Genae dark brown adjacent to mandible bases,
elsewhere dark with irregular pale markings. An indistinct pale area at junction of frons and clypeus, frons
otherwise matte black, vertex and occiput same, antennae with scape and pedicel black with brown sections at top,
flagellum missing. Ocelli yellowish.
Thorax (Fig. 1): Prothorax matte black with grey pruinesence covering most of propleuron, anterior lobe of
pronotum and lateral anterior part of middle lobe. Synthorax matte black except for a narrow irregular yellowish
stripe on metepisternum, broadest near legs where extending slightly onto mesepimeron, running above and over
338 Accepted by D. Paulson: 31 Jul. 2014; published: 1 Oct. 2014
that these examples will finally lay to rest the idea that the count of postquadrangular cells is a character of value
for distinguishing Calicnemia from related genera.
With the addition of C. fortis, Calicnemia consists of 22 named species, unless C. pyrrhosoma Lieftinck, 1984
is recognised; this name persists on some world Odonata checklists although it was established as a junior synonym
of C. doonensis Sangal & Tyagi, 1984 by Hämäläinen (1989). Yu & Bu (2008) commented on the extent of
variability of markings with age and possibly location in C. sinensis Lieftinck, 1984, and geographical variation in
markings may occur in other species, so that caution is needed in separating species based entirely on colour
patterns. However, structural differences in ligula and caudal appendages are also often subtle, rendering
Calicnemia a difficult genus to work on. As noted by Yu & Chen (2013), some of the Chinese species “seem to be
closely related, and more detailed studies are needed to clarify their true relationships”; we can only extend this
statement to the whole genus.
We are grateful to Matti Hämaläinen for pointing out the existence of the specimen labelled as Calicnemia uenoi in
RMNH, and to Akihiko Sasamoto for useful discussion. Amit Mitra provided a useful review of the manuscript.
Funding for undertaking the surveys that yielded this new record was provided by the Higher Education
Commission Islamabad-Pakistan under the project “Biosystematics of Dragonflies (Odonata) of Pakistan)”.
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