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Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Schedules
•
Statement of Management's Responsibility for Consolidated Financial Statements
•
Report of Independent Auditors
•
Consolidated Statement of Financial Position as at December 31, 2013 (With
Comparative Figures as at December 31, 2012 and January 1, 2012)
•
Consolidated Statement of Income for the Year Ended December 31, 2013 (With
Comparative Figures for the Years Ended December 31, 2012 and 2011)
•
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income for the Year Ended December 31,
2013 (With Comparative Figures for the Years Ended December 31, 2012 and 2011)
•
Consolidated Statement of Changes in Equity for the Year Ended December 31, 2013
(With Comparative Figures for the Years Ended December 31, 2012 and 2011)
•
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the Year Ended December 31, 2013 (With
Comparative Figures for the Years Ended December 31, 2012 and 2011)
•
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
•
Supplementary Schedules
•
o
Report of Independent Auditors on Supplementary Schedules
o
Schedule A. Financial Assets*
o
Schedule B. Amounts Receivable From Directors, Officers, Employees
Related Parties and Principal Stockholders (Other than Related Parties)*
o
Schedule C. Amounts Receivable From Related Parties which are Eliminated
during the Consolidation of Financial Statements
o
Schedule D. The Movement of Intangible Assets - Other Assets
o
Schedule E. Long-term Debt
o
Schedule F. Indebtedness to Related Parties*
o
Schedule G. Guarantees of Securities of Other Issuers*
o
Schedule H. Capital Stock
o
Schedule I. List of Effective Standards and Interpretations
o
Schedule J. Reconciliation of Retained Earnings Available for Dividend
Declaration
o
Schedule K. Map Showing the Relationships among the Companies within
the Group
o
Financial Soundness Indicators
Parent Company Financial Statements
*These schedules have been omitted because they are either not applicable or schedule is in the Consolidated
Financial Statements.
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1. Corporate Information
Manila Electric Company or MERALCO, holds a congressional franchise under Republic Act or
RA No. 9209 effective June 28, 2003. RA No. 9209 grants MERALCO a 25-year franchise valid
through June 28, 2028 to construct, operate, and maintain the electric distribution system in the
cities and municipalities of Bulacan, Cavite, Metro Manila, and Rizal and certain cities,
municipalities, and barangays in the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Pampanga, and Quezon. On
October 20, 2008, the Energy Regulatory Commission or ERC, granted MERALCO a consolidated
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity for the operation of electric service within its
franchise coverage, effective until the expiration of MERALCO’s congressional franchise.
MERALCO has a unit for its participation in retail electricity supply or RES. The MERALCO local
RES, otherwise known as MPower, is a business unit within MERALCO.
The power segment, primarily power distribution, consists of operations of MERALCO and its
subsidiary, Clark Electric Distribution Corporation or CEDC. CEDC is registered with Clark
Development Corporation or CDC, under RA No. 9400, the Bases Conversion Development Act of
1992, as a Clark Special Economic Zone or CSEZ, enterprise, primarily engaged in the operation,
and maintenance of a power distribution system within CSEZ.
MERALCO has a minority equity interest in a power generating company, Global Business Power
Corporation or GBPC, and is developing power generation plants through its wholly owned
subsidiary, MERALCO PowerGen Corporation or MGen. Through several subsidiaries in the
service segment, it provides engineering, design, construction and consulting services, bill
collection services, distribution and energy management services and information systems and
technology services.
MERALCO’s investment in common equity shares of Rockwell Land Corporation or Rockwell
Land, was declared as property dividends on February 27, 2012 to stockholders of record as at
March 23, 2012. On April 25, 2012, the Securities and Exchange Commission or SEC, approved
the property dividend declaration. Consequently, MERALCO distributed the Rockwell Land
shares on May 11, 2012. The details of the declaration are in Note 6 – Discontinued Operations.
MERALCO and its subsidiaries are collectively referred to as the MERALCO Group.
The single largest shareholder of MERALCO as at December 31, 2013 is Beacon Electric Asset
Holdings, Inc. or Beacon Electric, which owns 49.96% of the common shares. Beacon Electric is
jointly owned by Metro Pacific Investments Corporation or Metro Pacific, and PLDT
Communications and Energy Ventures, Inc., or PCEV, both of which are domestic corporations
and are affiliates of First Pacific Company Limited or First Pacific, a Hong Kong-based
investment and management company. In December 2013, JG Summit Holdings, Inc. or JG
Summit, completed the purchase of the remaining 27.12% equity interest of San Miguel
Corporation or SMC, San Miguel Pure Foods Company, Inc. and San Miguel Global Power
Holdings Corp. in MERALCO. In July 2013, SMC sold its 5.71%-interest in MERALCO through
the market. First Philippine Holdings Corporation or First Holdings, and First Philippine Utilities
Corporation, collectively own 3.95%. The balance of MERALCO’s common shares is held by the
public.
The common shares of MERALCO are listed on and traded in the Philippine Stock Exchange or
PSE, with security symbol, MER.
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The registered office address of MERALCO is Lopez Building, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City,
Philippines.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 and for
each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013, were reviewed and recommended
for approval by the Audit and Risk Management Committee to the Board of Directors or BOD on
March 17, 2014. On the same date, these consolidated financial statements were approved and
authorized for issue by the BOD.
2. Rate Regulations
As distribution utilities or DUs, MERALCO and CEDC are subject to the rate-making regulations
and regulatory policies of the ERC. Billings of MERALCO and CEDC to customers are itemized
or “unbundled” into a number of bill components that reflect the various activities and costs
incurred in providing electric service. The adjustment to each bill component is governed by
mechanisms promulgated and enforced by the ERC, mainly: [i] the “Rules Governing the
Automatic Cost Adjustment and True-up Mechanisms and Corresponding Confirmation Process
for Distribution Utilities”, which govern the recovery of pass-through costs, including over- or
under-recoveries of the bill components, namely, (a) generation charge, (b) transmission charge,
(c) system loss or SL, charge, (d) lifeline subsidy, and (e) local franchise tax or LFT, and (f)
business tax; and [ii] the “Rules for the Setting of Distribution Wheeling Rates” or RDWR, as
modified by ERC Resolution No. 20, Series of 2008, which govern the determination of
MERALCO’s distribution, supply, and metering charges.
The rate-setting mechanism of CEDC is likewise in accordance with the ERC regulations. The
following is a discussion of matters related to rate-setting of MERALCO and CEDC:
Rate Application
CEDC Rate Unbundling
On August 19, 2011, CEDC received an ERC Order to implement certain revisions of its schedule
of rates effective on its August 2010 billing cycle, after the ERC approved CEDC’s unbundling
application pursuant to Section 36 of RA No. 9136, Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 or
EPIRA.
Thereafter, on June 21, 2012, CEDC received an Order from the ERC (docketed on May 28, 2012)
directing CEDC to refund to its customers the amount of =
P0.8 million (the difference between its
then existing rates and the rates approved by the ERC) at a rate equivalent to =
P0.0067 per kilowatt
hour or kWh, for a period of five (5) months or until the said amount shall have been fully
refunded. The refund process was completed by CEDC in October 2012.
Performance-Based Regulations or PBR
MERALCO
MERALCO was among the Group A entrants to the PBR, together with two other private DUs.
Rate-setting under PBR is governed by the RDWR. The PBR scheme sets tariffs based on the
regulated asset base of the DUs, and the required operating and capital expenditures once every
regulatory period or RP, to meet operational performance and service level requirements
responsive to the needs for adequate, reliable and quality power, efficient service, and growth of
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all customer classes in the franchise area as approved by the ERC. PBR also employs a mechanism
that penalizes or rewards a DU depending on its network and service performance.
Rate filings and settings are done on an RP basis. One (1) RP consists of four (4) Regulatory
Years or RYs. An RY for MERALCO begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 of the following year.
As at December 31, 2013, MERALCO is operating in the first half of the third RY of the third RP.
The third RP is from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015.
Maximum Average Price or MAP for RY 2008 and RY 2009
On January 11 and April 1, 2008, MERALCO filed separate applications for the approval of its
proposed translation of the MAP for RY 2008 and RY 2009, respectively, into different rate
schedules for its various customer segments. A portion of the distribution charge under-recoveries
as a result of the delayed implementation of the PBR was incorporated in the proposed MAP for
RY 2009.
In April 2009, the ERC approved the implementation of MERALCO’s average distribution rate of
=
P1.2227 per kilowatt-hour or kWh effective billing period of May 2009. This rate is inclusive of
the under-recoveries for calendar year 2007 of P
=0.1285 per kWh.
On May 28, 2009, certain electricity consumer groups filed a Petition with the Court of Appeals,
or CA, questioning the decision and Order of the ERC on MERALCO’s rate translation application
for RY 2008 and RY 2009. In a decision dated January 27, 2010, the CA denied the Petition.
Consequently, the consumer groups brought the case to the Supreme Court of the Philippines or
SC. Comments and responses were filed by both parties with a Manifestation filed by MERALCO
on January 26, 2011. As at March 17, 2014, the SC has yet to render its decision on this case.
MAP for RY 2012
On June 21, 2011, MERALCO filed an application for the approval of its MAP for RY 2012 and
translation into rate tariffs by customer category. On October 6, 2011, the ERC provisionally
approved the MAP for RY 2012 of =
P1.6012 per kWh and the rate translation per customer class
was reflected commencing with the October 2011 customer bills. Hearings for the final approval
of the application have been completed and all parties have submitted their respective memoranda.
As at
March 17, 2014, the application is pending final approval by the ERC.
MAP for RY 2013
On June 11, 2012, the ERC provisionally approved the MAP for RY 2013 of P
=1.6303 per kWh
which was reflected starting with the July 2012 customer bills. Hearings on this case have been
completed and MERALCO is awaiting the final decision of the ERC.
MAP for RY 2014
On April 1, 2013, MERALCO filed its application for the approval of its MAP for RY 2014 of
P
=1.6510 per kWh and the translation thereof into rate tariffs by customer category. Hearing was
completed on May 9, 2013. MERALCO filed its Formal Offer of Evidence or FOE on
May 10, 2013. On June 10, 2013, the ERC provisionally approved the MAP for RY 2014 of
P
=1.6474 per kWh and the rate translation per customer class. As at March 17, 2014, the application
is pending final approval by the ERC.
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CEDC
CEDC was among the four (4) Group D entrants to the PBR. Similar to MERALCO, it is subject to
operational performance and service level requirements approved by the ERC. The RP of CEDC
began on October 1, 2011 and ends on September 30, 2015.
Reset Application and MAP for RY 2012
In compliance with the ERC’s PBR rate setting mechanism, CEDC filed a reset application for the
approval of its ARR and PIS with the ERC. CEDC filed its revised application on
November 3, 2010, which underwent a series of hearings and public consultations in 2011. The
ERC issued CEDC’s Final Determination on August 5, 2011. Subsequently, CEDC filed with the
ERC its application for RY 2012 Rate Translation into the different customer classes.
On April 10, 2012, the ERC approved with modification, CEDC’s application for the approval of
the translation into distribution rates of different customer classes for the first RY of the approved
ARR under the PBR for the RP October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2015. CEDC implemented the
approved distribution, supply and metering charges of P
=0.8527 per kWh and the new customer
segments in its June 2012 billing.
MAP for RY 2013
On August 30, 2012, CEDC filed its application for the approval of its MAP for RY 2013. The
ERC, on December 17, 2012, approved a MAP of =
P0.8953 per kWh. The revised rates based on the
approved MAP 2013 were implemented by CEDC starting January 2013.
SC Decision on Unbundling Rate Case
On May 30, 2003, the ERC issued an Order approving MERALCO’s unbundled tariffs that
resulted in a total increase of =
P0.17 per kWh over the May 2003 tariff levels. However, on
August 4, 2003, certain consumer and civil society groups filed a Petition for Review of the ERC’s
ruling with the CA. On July 22, 2004, the CA set aside the ERC’s ruling on MERALCO’s rate
unbundling and remanded the case to the ERC. Further, the CA opined that the ERC should have
asked the Commission on Audit or COA, to audit the books of MERALCO. The ERC and
MERALCO subsequently filed separate motions asking the CA to reconsider its decision. On
January 24, 2005, as a result of the denial by the CA of the motions, the ERC and MERALCO
elevated the case to the SC.
In an En Banc decision promulgated on December 6, 2006, the SC set aside and reversed the CA
ruling saying that a COA audit was not a prerequisite in the determination of a utility’s rates.
However, while the SC affirmed ERC’s authority in rate-fixing, the SC directed the ERC to request
COA to undertake a complete audit of the books, records and accounts of MERALCO. On
January 15, 2007, in compliance with the directive of the SC, the ERC requested COA to conduct
an audit of the books, records and accounts of MERALCO using calendar years 2004 and 2007 as
test years.
The COA audit, which began in September 2008, was completed in August 2009.
On February 17, 2010, the ERC issued its Order directing MERALCO and all intervenors in the
case to submit, within 15 days from receipt of the Order, their respective comments on the COA’s
“Report No. 2009-01 Rate Audit Unbundled Charges.”
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On July 1, 2011, the ERC maintained and affirmed its findings and conclusions in its Order dated
March 20, 2003. The ERC stated that the COA recommendation to apply disallowances under PBR
to rate unbundling violates the principle against retroactive rate-making. An intervenor group filed
a motion for reconsideration of the said Order. On September 5, 2011, MERALCO filed its
comment to the intervenor’s motion for reconsideration. On February 4, 2013, the ERC denied the
intervenor’s motion for reconsideration. The intervenor filed a petition for review before the CA.
MERALCO is awaiting further action of the CA on this matter.
Applications for the Recovery of Generation Costs and SL Charges
MERALCO filed separate applications for the full recovery of generation costs, including valueadded tax or VAT, incurred for the supply months of August 2006 to May 2007 or total underrecoveries of P
=12,679 million for generation charges and =
P1,295 million for SL charges.
The separate applications for the full recovery of generation charges have been approved by the
ERC in its decisions released on January 18, 2008, September 3, 2008 and August 16, 2010.
As at December 31, 2013, the remaining balance of =
P137 million of such unrecovered generation
costs will be billed subsequent to December 2013 at the rate of =
P0.0314 per kWh until fully
recovered. The amount is recoverable within 12 months and included in the “Trade and other
receivables” account.
With respect to the =
P1,295 million SL charge under-recoveries, the ERC ordered MERALCO to
file a separate application for the recovery of SL adjustments after the ERC confirms the
transmission rate to be used in the calculation of the SL rate in accordance with the SL rate
formula of the Automatic Generation Rate Adjustments Guidelines or AGRA. MERALCO has filed
the application for recovery of the P
=1,295 million SL charge under-recoveries with the ERC. This
was included in the Consolidated Application of over- or under- recoveries in generation,
transmission, SL and lifeline subsidies filed on March 31, 2011 with the ERC. Hearings were
completed on October 25, 2011. On December 12, 2011, MERALCO filed for the admission of its
Supplemental Application. An expository hearing was conducted on February 1, 2012. As at
March 17, 2014, MERALCO has already filed its FOE and is awaiting the final resolution by the
ERC.
Inter-Class Cross Subsidies and Lifeline Subsidies
MERALCO filed separate applications to recover inter-class cross subsidies (on
November 14, 2007) and lifeline subsidies (on February 19, 2008).
In a decision dated November 16, 2009, the ERC authorized MERALCO to recover the inter-class
cross subsidy under-recoveries covering the period June 2003 to October 2006 amounting to
=
P1,049 million and total lifeline subsidy under-recoveries covering the period June 2003 to
December 2007 amounting to =
P856 million.
In December 2009, MERALCO implemented the decisions of the ERC on the inter-class cross and
lifeline subsidies. The balances of inter-class cross subsidies and lifeline subsidies were fully
recovered in April 2013 and December 2013, respectively.
Consolidated Applications for the Confirmation of Over/Under-recoveries of
Pass-through Charges
On August 12, 2009, the ERC issued Resolution No. 16, Series of 2009, adopting the “Rules
Governing the Automatic Cost Adjustment and True-up Mechanisms and Corresponding
*SGVFS007697*
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Confirmation Process for Distribution Utilities.” These rules govern the recovery of pass-through
costs, including over- or under-recoveries with respect to the following bill components:
generation charge, transmission charge, SL charge, lifeline and interclass rate subsidies, LFT and
business tax. On October 18, 2010, the ERC promulgated ERC Resolution No. 21, Series of 2010,
amending certain formula contained in ERC Resolution No. 16, Series of 2009, and setting
March 31, 2011 (covering adjustments implemented until the billing month of December 2010)
and March 31, 2014 (covering adjustments from January 2011 to December 2013) as the new
deadlines for DUs in Luzon to file their respective applications. Subsequent filings shall be made
every three (3) years thereafter.
On March 31, 2011, MERALCO filed a consolidated application with the ERC to confirm its
under- or over-recoveries accumulated from June 2003 to December 2010 in compliance with
Resolution No. 16, Series of 2009, as subsequently amended by Resolution No. 21, Series of 2010.
Hearings were completed on October 25, 2011. On December 8, 2011, MERALCO filed an
Omnibus Motion praying for, among other things, the admission of the Supplemental Application.
In an Order dated December 12, 2011, the ERC granted MERALCO’s Omnibus Motion and
admitted its Supplemental Application. Accordingly, hearings for the Supplemental Application
were conducted where MERALCO presented additional evidence. MERALCO filed its FOE on
September 13, 2012. The consolidated filing includes net generation charge under-recoveries of
=
P1,000 million, net transmission charge over-recoveries of =
P111 million, net lifeline subsidy
under-recoveries of =
P9 million and net SL over-recoveries of P
=425 million, excluding any
applicable carrying charges.
On July 6, 2012, MERALCO filed a consolidated application with the ERC to confirm its under- or
over-recoveries for the calendar year 2011. The consolidated filing includes net generation charge
under-recoveries of =
P1,826 million, transmission charge under-recoveries of P
=253 million, net
lifeline subsidy under-recoveries of =
P39 million and SL over-recoveries of =
P445 million, excluding
any applicable carrying charges. Hearings on the application have been completed and MERALCO
has submitted its FOE on January 25, 2013. As at March 17, 2014, the application is pending
approval by the ERC.
Deferred PPA
On October 14, 2009, the ERC released its findings on MERALCO’s implementation of the
collection of the approved pass-through cost under-recoveries in 2004. ERC directed MERALCO
to refund =
P268 million of deferred PPA transmission line costs related to Quezon Power
(Philippines) Limited Company or QPPL and deferred accounting adjustments or DAA incurred to
customers, along with =
P184 million in carrying charges, or an equivalent of P
=0.0169 per kWh.
MERALCO implemented the refund beginning November 2009 until September 2010. However,
the ERC has yet to rule on MERALCO’s deferred PPA under-recoveries of =
P106 million, which
does not represent the transmission line fee. As at March 17, 2014, MERALCO has filed a Motion
for Reconsideration, which is pending decision by the ERC.
Application for Recovery of LFT
On March 25, 2011, MERALCO filed with the ERC an application for recovery of LFT paid but
not yet billed to customers for the period beginning first quarter of 1993 up to the second quarter
of 2004 for five (5) provinces, namely: Bulacan, Batangas, Cavite, Laguna and Rizal; and 14
cities, namely: San Jose Del Monte, Batangas, San Pablo, Tagaytay, Lucena, Mandaluyong,
Marikina, Quezon, Caloocan, Pasay, Las Piñas, Manila, Pasig and Calamba. The LFT is
recognized as a valid and reasonable DU expense in the ERC’s unbundling decision.
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In a Decision dated February 27, 2012, the ERC released its Order approving with modifications
MERALCO’s application. The ERC approved recovery of LFT amounting to =
P1,571 million plus
carrying charges of P
=730 million. As directed by the ERC, the recovery was reflected as a separate
item in the MERALCO billing statement to its customers beginning April 2012. As at
December 31, 2013, a total of =
P856 million LFT and carrying charges have been billed to affected
customers. The amount recoverable within 12 months is included in the “Trade and other
receivables” account while the long-term portion is included in the “Other noncurrent assets”
account.
SC Decision on the =
P 0.167 per kWh Refund
Following the SC’s final ruling that directed MERALCO to refund affected customers P
=0.167 per
kWh for billings made from February 1994 to April 2003, the ERC approved the release of the
refund in four phases. The refund is still ongoing.
See Note 21 – Customers’ Refund.
3. Basis of Preparation and Statement of Compliance
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis,
except for MERALCO’s utility plant and others and investment properties acquired before
January 1, 2004, which are carried at deemed cost, and for derivative financial instruments and
available-for-sale, or AFS, financial assets, which are measured at fair value. Derivative financial
instruments are shown as part of “Other current assets” or “Trade payables and other current
liabilities” accounts, as applicable, in the consolidated statement of financial position. AFS
financial assets are included as part of “Other noncurrent assets” account in the consolidated
statement of financial position.
The consolidated financial statements provide comparative information in respect of the previous
year. In addition, the MERALCO Group presents an additional consolidated statement of financial
position at the beginning of the earliest year presented when there is a retrospective application of
an accounting policy, a retrospective restatement, or a reclassification of items in the consolidated
financial statements. An additional consolidated statement of financial position as at
January 1, 2012 is presented in these consolidated financial statements due to retrospective
application of certain accounting policies.
See Note 4 – Significant Accounting Policies, Changes and Improvements.
All values are rounded to the nearest million peso, except when otherwise indicated.
Statement of Compliance
The consolidated financial statements of MERALCO and its subsidiaries have been prepared in
compliance with Philippine Financial Reporting Standards or PFRS.
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Basis of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements comprise the financial statements of MERALCO and the
following directly and indirectly-owned subsidiaries as at December 31 of each year.
Place of
Incorporation
Subsidiaries
Corporate Information Solutions, Inc.,
or CIS
Philippines
CIS Bayad Center, Inc., or Bayad
Center
Philippines
Customer Frontline Solutions, Inc. or
CFSI
Philippines
Meralco Energy, Inc., or MEI
Philippines
eMERALCO Ventures, Inc., or e-MVI Philippines
Paragon Vertical Corporation
Philippines
Principal Business Activity
100
–
100
–
–
100
–
100
–
100
100
100
–
–
–
100
100
100
–
–
–
100
–
100
100
–
–
100
100
–
–
100
Real estate
–
100
–
100
Power generation
–
100
–
–
Holding company
–
100
–
–
Financial services provider
100
–
100
–
Insurance
100
–
100
–
Insurance
100
–
Engineering, construction and
consulting services
99
–
MIESCOR Builders Inc. or MBI
Philippines
Electric transmission and
distribution operation and
maintenance services
–
100
MIESCOR Logistics Inc. or MLI
Philippines
General services,
manpower/maintenance
–
100
Miescorrail, Inc. or Miescorrail3
Philippines
Engineering, construction and
maintenance of mass transit
system
100
–
CEDC
Philippines
Power distribution
65
–
1
Incorporated February 15, 2011 and has not started commercial operations as at December 31, 2013.
2
Incorporated January 11, 2013 and has not started commercial operations as at December 31, 2013.
3
On December 26, 2013, MIESCOR assigned its entire shareholdings in Miescorrail to MERALCO.
100
–
99
–
–
100
–
100
–
65
100
–
MGen
Philippines
Calamba Aero Power Corporation1 Philippines
Atimonan Land Ventures
Development Corporation
Philippines
Luzon Natural Gas Energy
Corporation 2
Philippines
MPG Asia Limited
British Virgin
Island
Meralco Financial Services Corporation
or Finserve
Philippines
Republic Surety and Insurance
Company, Inc. or RSIC
Philippines
Lighthouse Overseas Insurance Limited
or LOIL
Bermuda
MIESCOR
Philippines
e-Transactions
2012
2013
Percentage of Ownership
Direct Indirect
Direct Indirect
Bills payment collection
Tellering services
Energy systems management
e-Business development
Information technology and
multi-media services
Development of power
generation plants
Power generation
Control is achieved when the MERALCO Group is exposed, or has the right, to variable returns
from its involvement with the investee. Specifically, the MERALCO Group controls an investee if
and only if the MERALCO Group has (a) power over the investee; (b) exposure, or rights, to
variable returns from its involvement with the investee, and; (c) the ability to use its power over
the investee to affect its returns.
When the MERALCO Group has less than a majority of the voting or similar rights of an investee,
it considers all relevant facts and circumstances in assessing whether it has power over an
investee, including (a) the contractual arrangement with the other vote holders of the investee;
(b) rights arising from other contractual arrangements (c) MERALCO Group’s voting rights and
potential voting rights.
The MERALCO Group re-assesses whether or not it controls an investee if facts and
circumstances indicate that there are changes to one or more of the three elements of control.
Consolidation of a subsidiary begins when the MERALCO Group obtains control over the
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subsidiary and ceases when it loses control of the subsidiary. Assets, liabilities, income and
expenses of a subsidiary acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the consolidated
statement of comprehensive income from the date it gains control until the date it ceases to control
the subsidiary.
The consolidated financial statements are prepared using uniform accounting policies for like
transactions and other events with similar circumstances. All intra-group balances, income and
expenses, unrealized gains and losses and dividends resulting from intra-group transactions are
eliminated in full.
Non-controlling interests represent the portion of profit or loss and net assets in CEDC and
MIESCOR and its subsidiaries not held by MERALCO and are presented separately in the
consolidated statement of income, consolidated statement of comprehensive income and within
equity in the consolidated statement of financial position, separately from equity attributable to
equity holders of the parent.
Total comprehensive income within a subsidiary is attributed to the non-controlling interest even
if such results in a deficit.
A change in the ownership interest of a subsidiary, without a change of control, is accounted for as
an equity transaction.
If the MERALCO Group loses control over a subsidiary, it: (a) derecognizes the assets (including
goodwill) and liabilities of the subsidiary; (b) derecognizes the carrying amount of any
non-controlling interest; (c) derecognizes the cumulative translation adjustments deferred in
equity; (d) recognizes the fair value of the consideration received; (e) recognizes the fair value of
any investment retained; (f) recognizes any surplus or deficit in profit or loss; and (g) reclassifies
MERALCO’s share of components previously recognized in the consolidated statement of
comprehensive income to the consolidated statement of income.
4. Significant Accounting Policies, Changes and Improvements
Changes in Accounting Policies and Disclosures
The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of consolidated financial statements are
consistent with those of the previous financial year except for the adoption of the following
amendments and improvements to existing standards, which were effective beginning
January 1, 2013.
PAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements – Presentation of Items of Other
Comprehensive Income or OCI
The amendments to PAS 1 change the grouping of items presented in OCI. Items that can be
reclassified (or “recycled”) to profit or loss at a future point in time (for example, upon
derecognition or settlement) will be presented separately from items that will never be recycled.
The amendments are applicable to the MERALCO Group. However, the adoption did not have
significant effect on the consolidated financial statements. The amendments affected the
presentation in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income only and had no impact on
the MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
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PAS 19, Employee Benefits (Amendments)
For defined benefit plans, the Revised PAS 19 requires all actuarial gains and losses to be
recognized in other comprehensive income and unvested past service costs previously recognized
over the average vesting period to be recognized immediately in profit or loss when incurred.
Prior to adoption of the Revised PAS 19, the MERALCO Group recognized actuarial gains and
losses as income or expense when the net cumulative unrecognized gains and losses for each
individual plan at the end of the previous period exceeded 10% of the higher of the defined benefit
obligation and the fair value of the plan assets, and recognized unvested past service costs as an
expense on a straight-line basis over the average vesting period until the benefits become vested.
Upon adoption of the Revised PAS 19, the MERALCO Group changed its accounting policy to
recognize all actuarial gains and losses in other comprehensive income and all past service costs in
profit or loss in the period they occur.
The Revised PAS 19 replaced the interest cost and expected return on plan assets with the concept
of net interest on defined benefit liability or asset, which is calculated by multiplying the net
balance sheet defined benefit liability or asset by the discount rate used to measure the employee
benefit obligation, each as at the beginning of the annual period.
The Revised PAS 19 also amended the definition of short-term employee benefits and requires
employee benefits to be classified as short-term based on expected timing of settlement rather than
the employee’s entitlement to the benefits. In addition, the Revised PAS 19 modifies the timing of
recognition for termination benefits. The modification requires the termination benefits to be
recognized at the earlier of when the offer cannot be withdrawn or when the related restructuring
costs are recognized.
The MERALCO Group reviewed its existing employee benefits and determined that the amended
standard has significant impact on its accounting for retirement benefits. The MERALCO Group
obtained the services of an independent actuary to compute the impact on the consolidated
financial statements. The effects are detailed below:
As at
December 31,
2013
As at
December 31,
2012
As at
January 1,
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Consolidated statements of
financial position
Increase (decrease) in:
Net defined benefit liability
Deferred tax assets
Other comprehensive income
Retained earnings
(P
=2,294)
(688)
1,446
160
(P
=605)
(182)
289
134
P
=2,332
700
(1,665)
33
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2013
Years ended December 31
2012
2011
(Amounts in millions, except per share data)
Consolidated statements of
income
Increase (decrease) in:
Net benefit cost
Provision for income tax
Profit for the year attributable to:
Equity holders of the
Parent
Non-controlling interests
Earnings per share - basic and
diluted
Consolidated statements of
comprehensive income
Increase in other comprehensive
income
(P
=37)
11
(P
=145)
44
(P
=47)
14
26
–
101
–
33
–
P
=0.02
P
=0.09
P
=0.03
P
=1,157
P
=1,954
P
=486
The adoption of the Revised PAS 19 had no impact on the consolidated statements of cash flows.
Philippine Interpretation IFRIC 20, Stripping Costs in the Production Phase
of a Surface Mine
This interpretation applies to waste removal (stripping) costs incurred in surface mining activity,
during the production phase of the mine. The interpretation addresses the accounting for the
benefit from the stripping activity. This new interpretation is not applicable to the MERALCO
Group.
PFRS 7, Financial Instruments: Disclosures - Offsetting Financial Assets
and Financial Liabilities
These amendments require an entity to disclose information about rights of set-off and related
arrangements (such as collateral agreements). The new disclosures are required for all recognized
financial instruments that are set off in accordance with PAS 32, Financial Instruments:
Presentation. These disclosures also apply to recognized financial instruments that are subject to
an enforceable master netting arrangement or ‘similar agreement’, irrespective of whether they are
set off in accordance with PAS 32. The amendments require entities to disclose, in a tabular format
unless another format is more appropriate, the following minimum quantitative information. These
are presented separately for financial assets and financial liabilities recognized at the end of the
reporting period:
a) The gross amounts of those recognized financial assets and recognized financial liabilities;
b) The amounts that are set off in accordance with the criteria in PAS 32 when determining the
net amounts presented in the statement of financial position;
c) The net amounts presented in the statement of financial position;
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d) The amounts subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement that
are not otherwise included in (b) above, including:
i. Amounts related to recognized financial instruments that do not meet some or all of the
offsetting criteria in PAS 32; and
ii. Amounts related to financial collateral (including cash collateral); and
e) The net amount after deducting the amounts in (d) from the amounts in (c) above.
The amendments are applicable to the MERALCO Group and based on the evaluation, the
amendments have no impact on its financial position or performance.
PFRS 10, Consolidated Financial Statements
PFRS 10 replaces the portion of PAS 27, Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements, that
addresses the accounting for consolidated financial statements. It also includes the issues raised in
Standing Interpretations Committee or SIC 12, Consolidation - Special Purpose Entities. PFRS 10
establishes a single control model that applies to all entities including special purpose entities. The
changes introduced by PFRS 10 will require management to exercise significant judgment to
determine which entities are controlled, and therefore, are required to be consolidated by a parent,
compared with the requirements that were in PAS 27. A reassessment of control was performed by
MERALCO on all its subsidiaries and associates in accordance with the provisions of PFRS 10.
Based on the reassessment made, MERALCO has not determined any change in the control or
significant influence in any of its subsidiaries and associates.
PFRS 11, Joint Arrangements
PFRS 11 replaces PAS 31, Interests in Joint Ventures, and SIC 13, Jointly Controlled Entities Non-Monetary Contributions by Venturers. PFRS 11 removes the option to account for jointly
controlled entities using proportionate consolidation. Instead, jointly controlled entities that meet
the definition of a joint venture must be accounted for using the equity method. The standard is
applicable to the MERALCO Group and based on its evaluation, the application of this new
standard has no impact on its consolidated financial statements.
PFRS 12, Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities
PFRS 12 includes all of the disclosures related to consolidated financial statements that were
previously in PAS 27, as well as all the disclosures that were previously included in PAS 31 and
PAS 28, Investments in Associates. These disclosures relate to an entity’s interests in subsidiaries,
joint arrangements, associates and structured entities. The standard is applicable to the MERALCO
Group and based on the evaluation, the standard has no impact on its financial position or
performance but affects disclosures only.
PFRS 13, Fair Value Measurement
PFRS 13 establishes a single source of guidance under PFRS for all fair value measurements.
PFRS 13 does not change when an entity is required to use fair value, but rather provides guidance
on how to measure fair value under PFRS when fair value is required or permitted. The standard is
applicable to the MERALCO Group and based on its evaluation, the standard has no impact on the
MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance but affects disclosures only.
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PAS 27, Separate Financial Statements (as revised in 2011)
As a consequence of the issuance of the new PFRS 10 and PFRS 12, what remains of PAS 27 is
limited to accounting for subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities, and associates in the separate
financial statements. The standard is applicable to the MERALCO Group and based on its
evaluation, the application of this new standard has no impact on its consolidated financial
statements.
PAS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures (as revised in 2011)
As a consequence of the issuance of the new PFRS 11 and PFRS 12, PAS 28 has been renamed
PAS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures, and describes the application of the equity
method to investments in joint ventures in addition to associates. The standard is applicable to the
MERALCO Group and based on its evaluation, the application of this new standard has no impact
on its consolidated financial statements.
Annual Improvements to PFRS (2009-2011 cycle)
The Annual Improvements to PFRS (2009-2011 cycle) contain non-urgent but necessary
amendments to PFRS. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after
January 1, 2013 and to be applied retrospectively.
PFRS 1, First-time Adoption of PFRS – Borrowing Costs
The amendment clarifies that, upon adoption of PFRS, an entity that capitalized borrowing costs
in accordance with its previous generally accepted accounting principles, may carry forward,
without any adjustment, the amount previously capitalized in its opening statement of financial
position at the date of transition. Subsequent to the adoption of PFRS, borrowing costs are
recognized in accordance with PAS 23, Borrowing Costs. The amendment does not apply to the
MERALCO Group as it is not a first-time adopter of PFRS.
PAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements - Clarification of the Requirements for
Comparative Information
The amendment clarifies the requirements for comparative information that are disclosed
voluntarily and those that are mandatory due to retrospective application of an accounting policy,
or retrospective restatement or reclassification of items in the financial statements. An entity must
include comparative information in the related notes to the financial statements when it voluntarily
provides comparative information beyond the minimum required comparative period. The
additional comparative period does not need to contain a complete set of financial statements. On
the other hand, supporting notes for the third balance sheet (mandatory when there is a
retrospective application of an accounting policy, or retrospective restatement or reclassification
of items in the financial statements) are not required. The amendments affect disclosures only and
have no impact on the MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
PAS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment - Classification of Servicing Equipment
The amendment clarifies that spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment should be
recognized as property, plant and equipment when they meet the definition of property, plant and
equipment and should be recognized as inventory if otherwise. The amendment has no impact on
the MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
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PAS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation - Tax Effect of Distribution to Holders of
Equity Instruments
The amendment clarifies that income taxes relating to distributions to equity holders and to
transaction costs of an equity transaction are accounted for in accordance with PAS 12, Income
Taxes. The amendment has no impact on the MERALCO Group’s financial position or
performance.
PAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting - Interim Financial Reporting and Segment
Information for Total Assets and Liabilities
The amendment clarifies that the total assets and liabilities for a particular reportable segment
need to be disclosed only when the amounts are regularly provided to the chief operating decision
maker and there has been a material change from the amount disclosed in the entity’s previous
annual financial statements for that reportable segment. The amendment has no impact on the
MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
New Accounting Standards, Interpretations and Amendments to Existing Standards Effective
Subsequent to December 31, 2013
The MERALCO Group will adopt the following new standards, interpretations and amendments to
existing standards enumerated below when these become effective. Except as otherwise indicated,
the MERALCO Group does not expect the adoption of these revised standards and amendments to
PFRS to have a significant impact on the MERALCO Group’s consolidated financial statements.
Effective 2014
PAS 36, Impairment of Assets - Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial
Assets (Amendments)
These amendments remove the unintended consequences of PFRS 13 on the disclosures required
under PAS 36. In addition, these amendments require disclosure of the recoverable amounts for
the assets or cash-generating units for which impairment loss has been recognized or reversed
during the period. These amendments are effective retrospectively for annual periods beginning on
or after January 1, 2014 with earlier application permitted, provided PFRS 13 is also applied. The
amendments affect disclosures only and will have no impact on the MERALCO Group’s financial
position or performance.
Investment Entities (Amendments to PFRS 10, PFRS 12 and PAS 27)
These amendments provide an exception to the consolidation requirement for entities that meet the
definition of an investment entity under PFRS 10. The exception to consolidation requires
investment entities to account for subsidiaries at fair value through profit or loss. It is not expected
that this amendment would be relevant to the MERALCO Group since none of the entities in the
MERALCO Group would qualify to be an investment entity under PFRS 10.
Philippine Interpretation IFRIC 21, Levies (IFRIC 21)
IFRIC 21 clarifies that an entity recognizes a liability for a levy when the activity that triggers
payment, as identified by the relevant legislation, occurs. For a levy that is triggered upon
reaching a minimum threshold, the interpretation clarifies that no liability should be anticipated
*SGVFS007697*
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before the specified minimum threshold is reached. The MERALCO Group does not expect that
IFRIC 21 will have material financial impact in future financial statements.
PAS 39, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement - Novation of
Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting (Amendments)
These amendments provide relief from discontinuing hedge accounting when novation of a
derivative designated as a hedging instrument meets certain criteria. The MERALCO Group has
not novated its derivatives during the current period. However, these amendments would be
considered for future any novations.
PAS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation – Offsetting Financial Assets
and Financial Liabilities
The amendments clarify the meaning of “currently has a legally enforceable right to set-off” and
also clarify the application of the PAS 32 offsetting criteria to settlement systems (such as central
clearing house systems), which apply gross settlement mechanisms that are not simultaneous. The
amendments affect presentation only and have no impact on the MERALCO Group’s financial
position or performance. The amendments to PAS 32 are to be applied retrospectively for annual
periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
Effective 2015
PAS 19, Employee Benefits – Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions
(Amendments)
The amendments apply to contributions from employees or third parties to defined benefit plans.
Contributions that are set out in the formal terms of the plan shall be accounted for as reductions
to current service costs if they are linked to service or as part of the remeasurements of the net
defined benefit asset or liability if they are not linked to service. Contributions that are
discretionary shall be accounted for as reductions of current service cost upon payment of these
contributions to the plans. The amendments to PAS 19 are to be retrospectively applied for annual
periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014.
Annual Improvements to PFRSs (2010-2012 cycle)
The Annual Improvements to PFRS (2010-2012 cycle) contain non-urgent but necessary
amendments to the following standards:
PFRS 2, Share-based Payment – Definition of Vesting Condition
The amendment revised the definitions of vesting condition and market condition and added the
definitions of performance condition and service condition to clarify various issues. This
amendment shall be prospectively applied to share-based payment transactions for which the grant
date is on or after July 1, 2014. This amendment does not apply to the MERALCO Group as it has
no share-based payments.
PFRS 3, Business Combinations – Accounting for Contingent Consideration in a
Business Combination
The amendment clarifies that a contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial
instrument should be classified as a financial liability or as equity in accordance with PAS 32.
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Contingent consideration that is not classified as equity is subsequently measured at fair value
through profit or loss whether or not it falls within the scope of PFRS 9 (or PAS 39, if PFRS 9 is
not yet adopted). The amendment shall be prospectively applied to business combinations for
which the acquisition date is on or after July 1, 2014. The MERALCO Group shall consider this
amendment for future business combinations.
PFRS 8, Operating Segments – Aggregation of Operating Segments and
Reconciliation of the Total of the Reportable Segments’ Assets to the Entity’s
Assets
The amendments require entities to disclose the judgment made by management in aggregating
two or more operating segments. This disclosure should include a brief description of the
operating segments that have been aggregated in this way and the economic indicators that have
been assessed in determining that the aggregated operating segments share similar economic
characteristics. The amendments also clarify that an entity shall provide reconciliations of the total
of the reportable segments’ assets to the entity’s assets if such amounts are regularly provided to
the chief operating decision maker. These amendments are effective for annual periods beginning
on or after July 1, 2014 and are applied retrospectively. The amendments affect disclosures only
and have no impact on the MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
PFRS 13, Fair Value Measurement – Short-term Receivables and Payables
The amendment clarifies that short-term receivables and payables with no stated interest rates can
be held at invoice amounts when the effect of discounting is immaterial.
PAS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment – Revaluation Method – Proportionate
Restatement of Accumulated Depreciation
The amendment clarifies that, upon revaluation of an item of property, plant and equipment, the
carrying amount of the asset shall be adjusted to the revalued amount, and the asset shall be
treated in one of the following ways:
a. The gross carrying amount is adjusted in a manner that is consistent with the revaluation of the
carrying amount of the asset. The accumulated depreciation at the date of revaluation is
adjusted to equal the difference between the gross carrying amount and the carrying amount of
the asset after taking into account any accumulated impairment losses.
b. The accumulated depreciation is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset.
The amendment is effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014. The amendment
shall apply to all revaluations recognized in annual periods beginning on or after the date of initial
application of this amendment and in the immediately preceding annual period. The amendment
has no impact on MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
PAS 24, Related Party Disclosures – Key Management Personnel
The amendments clarify that an entity is a related party of the reporting entity if the said entity, or
any member of a group for which it is a part of, provides key management personnel services to
the reporting entity or to the parent company of the reporting entity. The amendments also clarify
that a reporting entity that obtains management personnel services from another entity (also
referred to as management entity) is not required to disclose the compensation paid or payable by
the management entity to its employees or directors. The reporting entity is required to disclose
*SGVFS007697*
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the amounts incurred for the key management personnel services provided by a separate
management entity. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after
July 1, 2014 and are applied retrospectively. The amendments affect disclosures only and have no
impact on MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
PAS 38, Intangible Assets – Revaluation Method – Proportionate Restatement of
Accumulated Amortization
The amendments clarify that, upon revaluation of an intangible asset, the carrying amount of the
asset shall be adjusted to the revalued amount, and the asset shall be treated in one of the
following ways:
a. The gross carrying amount is adjusted in a manner that is consistent with the revaluation of the
carrying amount of the asset. The accumulated amortization at the date of revaluation is
adjusted to equal the difference between the gross carrying amount and the carrying amount of
the asset after taking into account any accumulated impairment losses.
b. The accumulated amortization is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset.
The amendments also clarify that the amount of the adjustment of the accumulated amortization
should form part of the increase or decrease in the carrying amount accounted for in accordance
with the standard.
The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014. The
amendments shall apply to all revaluations recognized in annual periods beginning on or after the
date of initial application of this amendment and in the immediately preceding annual period. The
amendments have no impact on the MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
Annual Improvements to PFRSs (2011-2013 cycle)
The Annual Improvements to PFRSs (2011-2013 cycle) contain non-urgent but necessary
amendments to the following standards:
PFRS 1, First-time Adoption of Philippine Financial Reporting Standards – Meaning
of ‘Effective PFRSs’
The amendment clarifies that an entity may choose to apply either a current standard or a new
standard that is not yet mandatory, but that permits early application, provided either standard is
applied consistently throughout the periods presented in the entity’s first PFRS financial
statements. This amendment is not applicable to the MERALCO Group’s as it is not a first-time
adopter of PFRS.
PFRS 3, Business Combinations – Scope Exceptions for Joint Arrangements
The amendment clarifies that PFRS 3 does not apply to the accounting for the formation of a joint
arrangement in the financial statements of the joint arrangement itself. The amendment is effective
for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014 and is applied prospectively.
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PFRS 13, Fair Value Measurement – Portfolio Exception
The amendment clarifies that the portfolio exception in PFRS 13 can be applied to financial assets,
financial liabilities and other contracts. The amendment is effective for annual periods beginning
on or after July 1, 2014 and is applied prospectively. The amendment has no significant impact on
MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
PAS 40, Investment Property
The amendment clarifies the interrelationship between PFRS 3 and PAS 40 when classifying
property as investment property or owner-occupied property. The amendment states that judgment
is needed when determining whether the acquisition of investment property is the acquisition of an
asset or a group of assets or a business combination within the scope of PFRS 3. This judgment is
based on the guidance of PFRS 3. This amendment is effective for annual periods beginning on or
after July 1, 2014 and is applied prospectively. The amendment has no significant impact on
MERALCO Group’s financial position or performance.
Deferred Effectivity
Philippine Interpretation IFRIC 15, Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate
This interpretation covers accounting for revenue and associated expenses by entities that
undertake the construction of real estate directly or through subcontractors. The interpretation
requires that revenue on construction of real estate be recognized only upon completion, except
when such contract qualifies as construction contract to be accounted for under PAS 11 or involves
rendering of services in which case revenue is recognized based on stage of completion. Contracts
involving provision of services with the construction materials and where the risks and rewards of
ownership are transferred to the buyer on a continuous basis will also be accounted for based on
stage of completion. The SEC and the Financial Reporting Standards Council or FRSC have
deferred the effectivity of this interpretation until the final “Revenue” standard is issued by the
International Accounting Standards Board or IASB and an evaluation of the requirements of the
final “Revenue” standard against the practices of the Philippine real estate industry is completed.
Adoption of the interpretation when it becomes effective will not have any impact on the financial
statements of MERALCO.
PFRS 9, Financial Instruments: Classification and Measurement
PFRS 9, as issued, reflects the first and third phases of the project to replace PAS 39 and applies to
the classification and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities and hedge
accounting, respectively. Work on second phase, which relates impairment of financial
instruments, and the limited amendments to the classification and measurement model is still
ongoing, with a view to replace PAS 39 in its entirety. PFRS 9 requires all financial assets to be
measured at fair value at initial recognition. A debt financial asset may, if the fair value option or
FVO, is not invoked, be subsequently measured at amortized cost if it is held within a business
model that has the objective to hold the assets to collect the contractual cash flows and its
contractual terms give rise, on specified dates, to cash flows that are solely payments of principal
and interest on the principal outstanding. All other debt instruments are subsequently measured at
fair value through profit or loss. All equity financial assets are measured at fair value either
through OCI or profit or loss. All equity financial assets held for trading must be measured at fair
value through profit or loss. For liabilities designated as at FVPL using the fair value option, the
amount of change in the fair value of a liability that is attributable to changes in credit risk must be
presented in OCI. The remainder of the change in fair value is presented in profit or loss, unless
*SGVFS007697*
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presentation of the fair value change relating to the entity’s own credit risk in OCI would create or
enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss. All other PAS 39 classification and measurement
requirements for financial liabilities have been carried forward into PFRS 9, including the
embedded derivative separation rules and the criteria for using the FVO. The MERALCO Group
conducted an evaluation of the early adoption of PFRS 9 and has assessed that the first phase of
PFRS 9 will have an effect on the classification and measurement of financial assets. The
MERALCO Group will quantify the effect on the consolidated financial statements in conjunction
with the other phases, when issued, to present a comprehensive picture.
On hedge accounting, PFRS 9 replaces the rules-based hedge accounting model of PAS 39 with a
more principles-based approach. Changes include replacing the rules-based hedge effectiveness
test with an objectives-based test that focuses on the economic relationship between the hedged
item and the hedging instrument, and the effect of credit risk on that economic relationship;
allowing risk components to be designated as the hedged item, not only for financial items, but
also for non-financial items, provided that the risk component is separately identifiable and
reliably measurable; and allowing the time value of an option, the forward element of a forward
contract and any foreign currency basis spread to be excluded from the designation of a financial
instrument as the hedging instrument and accounted for as costs of hedging. PFRS 9 also requires
more extensive disclosures for hedge accounting.
PFRS 9 currently has no mandatory effective date. PFRS 9 may be applied before the completion
of the limited amendments to the classification and measurement model and impairment
methodology. The MERALCO Group will not adopt the standard before the completion of the
limited amendments and the second phase of the project.
Significant Accounting Policies
The principal accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the consolidated financial
statements are as follows:
Business Combinations and Goodwill
Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The cost of an acquisition
is measured as the aggregate of the consideration transferred, measured at acquisition-date fair
value and the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree. For each business
combination, the MERALCO Group elects whether to measure the non-controlling interest in the
acquiree at fair value or at the proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets.
Acquisition-related costs in a business combination are expensed.
When a business is acquired, an assessment is made of the identifiable assets acquired and
liabilities assumed for appropriate classification and designation in accordance with the
contractual terms, economic and other pertinent conditions as at the acquisition date. This includes
the separation of embedded derivatives in host contracts by the acquiree.
If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in
the acquiree is remeasured at fair value as at acquisition date and any resulting gain or loss is
recognized in profit or loss.
Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the acquirer will be recognized at fair value at
the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration, which is
deemed to be an asset or liability will be recognized in accordance with PAS 39, either in profit or
*SGVFS007697*
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loss or other comprehensive income. If the contingent consideration is classified as equity, it shall
not be remeasured until it is finally settled within equity.
Goodwill is initially measured at cost being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration
transferred, any non-controlling interest in the acquiree and, in a business combination achieved in
stages, the acquisition-date fair value of the previously held equity interest in the acquiree, over
the fair value of net identifiable assets acquired. If the difference is negative, such difference is
recognized as gain in the consolidated statement of income.
If the initial accounting for a business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting
period in which the business combination occurs, the provisional amounts of the items for which
the accounting is incomplete are reported in the consolidated financial statements. During the
measurement period which is no longer than one year from the acquisition date, the provisional
amounts recognized at acquisition date are retrospectively adjusted to reflect new information
obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as at the acquisition date and, if known, would
have affected the measurement of the amounts recognized as of that date. During the
measurement period, additional assets or liabilities are also recognized if new information is
obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as at the acquisition date and, if known, would
have resulted in the recognition of those assets and liabilities as at that date.
After initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. For
the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is, from
acquisition date, allocated to each of the cash generating units that are expected to benefit from the
combination, irrespective of whether other assets or liabilities of the acquiree are assigned to those
units, beginning on the acquisition date.
Where goodwill forms part of a cash-generating unit and part of the operation within that unit is
disposed of, the goodwill associated with the operation disposed of is included in the carrying
amount of the operation when determining the gain or loss on disposal of the operation. Goodwill
disposed of in such circumstance is measured based on relative values of the operation disposed
and the portion of the cash-generating unit retained.
Business combinations involving entities under common control are accounted for similar to the
pooling-of-interest method. The assets and liabilities of the combining entities are reflected at their
carrying amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements of the controlling holding
company. Any difference between the consideration paid and the share capital of the “acquired”
entity is reflected within equity as additional paid-in capital. The consolidated statement of income
reflects the results of the combining entities for the full period, irrespective of when the
combination takes place. Comparatives are presented as if the entities had always been combined
since the date the entities were under common control.
Utility Plant and Others
Utility plant and others, except land, are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and
amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Costs include the cost of replacing part of
such utility plant and other properties when such cost is incurred, if the recognition criteria are
met. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized as incurred in the consolidated
statement of income. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of the asset
after use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision are
met.
Land is stated at cost less any impairment in value.
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MERALCO’s utility plant and others are stated at deemed cost. The revalued amount recorded as
at January 1, 2004 was adopted as deemed cost as allowed by the transitional provisions of
PFRS 1. The balance of revaluation increment was closed to retained earnings. See Note 16 –
Equity for the related discussion.
Depreciation and amortization of utility plant and others are computed using the straight-line
method (except for certain subtransmission and distribution assets, which use straight-line
functional group method) over the following estimated useful lives:
Asset Type
Subtransmission and distribution
Buildings and improvements
Communication equipment
Office furniture, fixtures and other equipment
Transportation equipment
Others
Estimated Useful Lives
10-50 years, depending on the life of the
significant parts
15-40 years
10 years
5-15 years
5-10 years
5-20 years
An item of utility plant and others is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic
benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising as a result of the
derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the
carrying amount of the asset) is included in the consolidated statement of income in the period the
asset is derecognized.
The asset’s residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation and amortization are
reviewed, and adjusted prospectively if appropriate, at each reporting date to ensure that the
residual values, periods and methods of depreciation and amortization are consistent with the
expected pattern of economic benefits from items of utility plant and others.
Construction in Progress
Construction in progress is stated at cost, which includes cost of construction, plant and
equipment, capitalized borrowing costs and other direct costs. Construction in progress is not
depreciated until such time that the relevant assets are substantially completed and available for
their intended use.
Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs are capitalized if they are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or
production of a qualifying asset. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial
period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. Capitalization of borrowing costs
commences when the activities necessary to prepare the qualifying asset for its intended use or
sale have been undertaken and expenditures and borrowing costs have been incurred. Borrowing
costs are capitalized until the asset is substantially available for its intended use.
Borrowing costs include interest charges and other costs incurred in connection with the
borrowing of funds, as well as any exchange differences arising from any foreign currencydenominated borrowings used to finance the projects, to the extent that they are regarded as an
adjustment to interest costs.
All other borrowing costs are expensed as incurred.
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Investment Properties
Investment properties, except land, are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and
accumulated impairment loss, if any. The carrying amount includes transaction costs and costs of
replacing part of an existing investment property at the time such costs are incurred if the
recognition criteria are met and excludes the costs of day-to-day servicing of an investment
property.
Investment properties include properties that are being constructed or developed for future use as
investment property.
Land classified as investment property is carried at cost less any impairment in value.
MERALCO’s investment properties acquired before January 1, 2004 are stated at deemed cost. See
Note 16 – Equity for the related discussions.
Investment properties, except land, are being depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful
life of 5 to 35 years.
Investment properties are derecognized either when they have been disposed of or when these are
permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from its disposal.
Any gain or loss from the derecognition of the investment properties are recognized in the
consolidated statement of income in the period these are disposed or retired.
Transfers are made to investment property when and only when there is a change in use,
evidenced by ending of owner-occupation or commencement of an operating lease to another
party. If owner-occupied property becomes an investment property, the MERALCO Group
accounts for such property in accordance with the policy stated under utility plant and others up to
the date of the change in use. Transfers are made from investment property when, and only when,
there is a change in use, evidenced by commencement of owner-occupation or commencement of
development with a view to sale. Transfers from investment property are recorded using the
carrying amount of the investment property at the date of change in use.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Under the terms of certain lease contracts, the MERALCO Group is required to dismantle the
installations made in leased sites and restore such sites to their original condition at the end of the
term of the lease contracts. The MERALCO Group recognizes a liability measured at the present
value of the estimated costs of these obligations and capitalizes such costs as part of the balance of
the related item of utility plant and others and investment properties. The amount of asset
retirement obligations is accreted and such accretion is recognized as interest expense.
Intangible Assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are initially measured at cost. Following initial recognition,
intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated
impairment loss. The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed at the individual asset level as
having either finite or indefinite useful lives.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over the useful economic lives of five years using
the straight-line method and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the
intangible assets may be impaired. At a minimum, the amortization period and the amortization
*SGVFS007697*
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method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at each reporting date.
Changes in the expected useful life or the expected consumption pattern of future economic
benefit embodied in the asset are accounted for by changing the amortization period or method, as
appropriate, and treated as change in accounting estimates. The amortization expense of intangible
assets with finite lives is recognized in the consolidated statement of income.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are assessed for impairment
annually either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite
useful life is done annually at every reporting date to determine whether such indefinite useful life
continues to exist. Otherwise, the change in the useful life assessment from indefinite to finite is
made on a prospective basis.
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference
between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, and are recognized in the
consolidated statement of income.
Intangible assets generated within the business are not capitalized and expenditures are charged to
profit or loss in the period these are incurred.
Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures
An associate is an entity over which MERALCO has significant influence. Significant influence is
the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee, but is not
control or joint control over those policies.
A joint venture is a type of joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the
arrangement have rights to the net assets of the joint venture. Joint control is the contractually
agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant
activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.
The considerations made in determining significant influence or joint control are similar to those
necessary to determine control over subsidiaries.
Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method of
accounting and are initially recognized at cost.
Under the equity method, the investment in an associate or a joint venture is initially recognized at
cost. The carrying amount of the investment is adjusted to recognize changes in the MERALCO
Group’s share of net assets of the associate or joint venture since the acquisition date. Goodwill
relating to the associate or joint venture is included in the carrying amount of the investment and is
neither amortized nor individually tested for impairment.
The consolidated statement of income reflects the MERALCO Group’s share of the results of
operations of the associate or joint venture. Any change in OCI of those investees is presented as
part of MERALCO Group’s OCI. In addition, when there has been a change recognized directly in
the equity of the associate or joint venture, the MERALCO Group recognizes its share of any
changes, when applicable, in the consolidated statement of changes in equity. Unrealized gains
and losses resulting from transactions between the MERALCO Group and the associate or joint
venture are eliminated to the extent of the interest in the associate or joint venture.
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The aggregate of the MERALCO Group’s share of profit or loss of an associate and a joint venture
is shown on the face of the consolidated statement of income outside operating income and
represents profit or loss after tax and non-controlling interests in the subsidiaries of the associate
or joint venture.
The financial statements of the associate or joint venture are prepared for the same reporting
period as the MERALCO Group. When necessary, adjustments are made to bring the accounting
policies in line with those of the MERALCO Group.
After application of the equity method, the MERALCO Group determines whether it is necessary
to recognize an impairment loss on its investment in its associate or joint venture. At each
reporting date, the MERALCO Group determines whether there is objective evidence that the
investment in the associate or joint venture is impaired. If there is such evidence, the MERALCO
Group calculates the amount of impairment as the difference between the recoverable amount of
the associate or joint venture and its carrying value, then recognizes the loss as equity in net
earnings of an associate and a joint venture in the consolidated statement of income.
Upon loss of significant influence over the associate or joint control over the joint venture, the
MERALCO Group measures and recognizes any retained investment at its fair value. Any
difference between the carrying amount of the associate or joint venture upon loss of significant
influence or joint control and the fair value of the retained investment and proceeds from disposal
is recognized in profit or loss.
Impairment of Nonfinancial Assets
The MERALCO Group assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that a
nonfinancial asset (utility plant and others, investment properties, investments in and advances to
associates and joint ventures, receivable from the BIR and intangible assets), other than goodwill
and intangible assets with indefinite useful life, may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the
MERALCO Group makes an estimate of the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable
amount is the higher of an individual asset’s or a cash generating unit’s fair value less costs to sell
and its value in use. Where the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount, the
asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. The fair value is the
amount obtainable from the sale of the asset in an arm’s-length transaction. In determining fair
value less costs to sell, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated
by valuation factors/parameters, quoted share prices for publicly traded securities or other
available fair value indicators. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are
discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market
assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. Impairment losses are
recognized in the consolidated statement of income.
An assessment is also made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that
previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such
indication exists, the MERALCO Group estimates the individual asset’s or cash generating unit’s
recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a
change in the estimates used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment
loss was recognized. If a reversal of impairment loss is to be recognized, the carrying amount of
the asset is increased to its recoverable amount. The increased amount cannot exceed the carrying
amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in
prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the consolidated statement of income. After such
reversal, the depreciation and amortization expense are adjusted in future periods to allocate the
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asset’s revised carrying amount, less any residual value, on a systematic basis over its remaining
useful life.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually at every reporting
date or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may
be impaired, either individually or at the cash generating unit level, as appropriate. The amount of
impairment is calculated as the difference between the recoverable amount of the intangible asset
and its carrying amount. The impairment loss is recognized in the consolidated statement of
income. Impairment losses relating to intangible assets may be reversed in future periods.
Goodwill is reviewed for impairment annually at every reporting date or more frequently if events
or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired. Impairment is
determined for goodwill by assessing the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit or group
of cash generating units, to which the goodwill relates. Where the recoverable amount of the cash
generating unit or group of cash-generating units is less than the carrying amount of the cash
generating unit or group of cash generating units to which goodwill has been allocated, an
impairment loss is recognized. Impairment losses relating to goodwill cannot be reversed in future
periods.
If there is incomplete allocation of goodwill acquired in a business combination to cash generating
units or group of cash generating units, an impairment testing of goodwill is only carried out when
impairment indicators exist. Where impairment indicators exist, impairment testing of goodwill is
performed at a level at which the acquirer can reliably test for impairment.
Fair Value Measurement
The MERALCO Group measures financial instruments at fair value at each reporting date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an
orderly transactions between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value
measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the
liability takes place either (a) in the principal market for the asset or liability, or (b) in the absence
of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. The principal or
the most advantageous market must be accessible to the MERALCO Group.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants
would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their
economic best interest. A fair value measurement of a nonfinancial asset takes into account a
market participant's ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best
use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best
use.
The MERALCO Group uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for
which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant
observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the consolidated financial
statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the
lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
i.
Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or
liabilities;
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ii.
iii.
Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the
fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable; and
Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the
fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the consolidated financial statements on a recurring
basis, the MERALCO Group determines whether transfers have occurred between Levels in the
hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the
fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting year.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the MERALCO Group has determined classes of assets
and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the
level of the fair value hierarchy.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Costs of acquiring materials and
supplies including costs incurred in bringing each item to their present location and condition are
accounted using the moving average cost method. Net realizable value is the estimated selling
price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated cost to sell or the current replacement
cost of the asset.
Financial Assets
Initial Recognition
Financial assets are classified as at fair value through profit or loss or FVPL, loans and
receivables, held-to-maturity or HTM investments, AFS financial assets, or as derivatives
designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate. The classification of
financial assets is determined at initial recognition and, where allowed and appropriate, reevaluated at each reporting date.
Financial assets are recognized initially at fair value. Transaction costs are included in the initial
measurement of all financial assets, except for financial instruments measured at FVPL.
Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a timeframe established
by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way purchase) are recognized on the trade
date, which is the date the MERALCO Group commits to purchase or sell the asset.
The MERALCO Group’s financial assets include cash and cash equivalents, trade and non-trade
receivables, advance payments to a supplier, quoted and unquoted equity securities and embedded
derivatives that are not accounted for as effective accounting hedges.
Subsequent Measurement
The subsequent measurement of financial assets depends on the classification as follows:
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Financial Assets at FVPL
Financial assets at FVPL include financial assets held-for-trading and financial assets designated
upon initial recognition as at FVPL. Financial assets are classified as held-for-trading if they are
acquired for the purpose of selling in the near term. Derivative assets, including separated
embedded derivatives are also classified as held-for-trading unless they are designated as effective
hedging instruments.
Financial assets may be designated at initial recognition as at FVPL if any of the following criteria
are met: (i) the designation eliminates or significantly reduces the inconsistent treatment that
would otherwise arise from measuring the assets or recognizing gains or losses on them on a
different basis; (ii) the financial assets are part of a group, which are managed and their
performance are evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk
management strategy; or (iii) the financial assets contain one or more embedded derivatives that
would need to be recorded separately.
Financial assets at FVPL are carried in the consolidated statement of financial position at fair
value with gains or losses on fair value changes recognized in the consolidated statement of
income under “Interest and other financial income” or “Interest and other financial charges”
account, respectively. Interest earned and dividends received from investment at FVPL are also
recognized in the consolidated statement of income under “Interest and other financial income”
account.
Derivatives embedded in host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives when their risks
and characteristics are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are
not carried at fair value. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with gains and
losses arising from changes in fair value recognized in the consolidated statement of income.
Reassessment only occurs if there is a change in the terms of the contract that significantly
modifies the cash flows that would otherwise be required under the contract.
Loans and Receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that
are not quoted in an active market. Such financial assets are carried at amortized cost using the
effective interest method. This method uses an effective interest rate that discounts estimated
future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the net carrying amount of
the financial asset. Gains or losses are recognized in the consolidated statement of income when
the loans and receivables are derecognized or impaired, as well as when these are amortized.
Interest earned or incurred is recorded in “Interest and other financial income” or “Interest and
other financial charges” account, respectively, in the consolidated statement of income. Assets in
this category are included under current assets except for assets with maturities beyond 12 months
from the reporting date, which are classified as noncurrent assets.
HTM Investments
Non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturities are
classified as HTM when the MERALCO Group has the positive intention and ability to hold these
assets to maturity. After initial measurement, HTM investments are measured at amortized cost
using the effective interest method. Gains or losses are recognized in the consolidated statement of
income. Assets in this category are included in the current assets except for maturities beyond 12
months from the reporting date, which are classified as noncurrent assets.
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AFS Financial Assets
AFS financial assets are non-derivative financial assets that are designated as AFS or are not
classified in any of the three foregoing categories. They are purchased and held indefinitely and
may be sold in response to liquidity requirements or changes in market conditions. After initial
measurement, AFS financial assets are measured at fair value with unrealized gains or losses
recognized in other comprehensive income until the investment is derecognized, at which time the
cumulative gain or loss recorded in other comprehensive income is recognized in the consolidated
statement of income, or determined to be impaired, at which time the cumulative loss recorded in
other comprehensive income is recognized in the consolidated statement of income. Interest
earned on holding AFS debt securities are included under “Interest and other financial income”
account in the consolidated statement of income. Dividends earned on holding AFS equity are
recognized in the consolidated statement of income under “Interest and other financial income”
account when the right of the payment has been established. These are included under noncurrent
assets unless there is an intention to dispose of the investment within 12 months from the reporting
date.
Financial Liabilities
Initial Recognition
Financial liabilities are classified as financial liabilities at FVPL, other financial liabilities, or as
derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate. The
classification of the financial liability is determined at initial recognition.
Financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value inclusive of directly attributable
transaction costs, except for financial liabilities at FVPL.
The MERALCO Group’s financial liabilities include notes payable, interest-bearing long-term
financial liabilities, trade payables and other current liabilities (excluding output VAT, accrued
taxes, reinsurance liabilities and deferred lease income), customers’ deposits, refundable service
extension costs, customers’ refund and other noncurrent liabilities.
Subsequent Measurement
The subsequent measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification as follows:
Financial Liabilities at FVPL
Financial liabilities at FVPL include financial liabilities held-for-trading and financial liabilities
designated upon initial recognition as at FVPL. Financial liabilities are classified as held-fortrading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. Derivative liabilities,
including separated embedded liabilities are also classified as held-for-trading unless they are
designated as effective hedging instruments. Financial liabilities at FVPL are carried in the
consolidated statement of financial position at fair value with gains or losses recognized in the
consolidated statement of income under “Interest and other financial income” or “Interest and
other financial charges” account, respectively. Interest incurred on financial liabilities designated
as at FVPL is recognized in the consolidated statement of income under “Interest and other
financial charges” account.
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Financial liabilities may be designated at initial recognition as at FVPL, if any of the following
criteria are met: (i) the designation eliminates or significantly reduces the inconsistent treatment
that would otherwise arise from measuring the liabilities or recognizing gains or losses on them on
a different bases; (ii) the financial liabilities are part of a group which are managed and their
performance are evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk
management strategy; or (iii) the financial liabilities contain one or more embedded derivatives
that would need to be recorded separately. The MERALCO Group does not have financial
liabilities designated as at FVPL as at December 31, 2013 and 2012.
Other Financial Liabilities
After initial recognition, other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost
using the effective interest method.
Gains and losses are recognized in the consolidated statement of income when the liabilities are
derecognized as when these are amortized. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any
discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are integral part of the effective interest
rate. The effective interest amortization is included under “Interest and other financial charges”
account in the consolidated statement of income.
Derivative Financial Instruments
Initial Recognition and Subsequent Measurement
MERALCO has separated embedded foreign currency forwards which are derivative financial
instruments used to hedge risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations.
Derivative instruments, including separated embedded derivatives, are initially recognized at fair
value on the date at which a derivative transaction is entered into or separated, and are
subsequently re-measured at fair value. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments, other than
those accounted for as effective hedges, are recognized immediately in the consolidated statement
of income. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments accounted as effective hedges are
recognized in other comprehensive income. Derivatives are carried as assets when the fair value is
positive and as liabilities when the fair value is negative. MERALCO Group does not have
derivatives accounted for under hedge accounting.
An embedded derivative is separated from the hybrid or combined contract if all the following
conditions are met: (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not
clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract; (b) a
separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would meet the definition of a
derivative; and (c) the hybrid instrument is not recognized as at FVPL.
Subsequent reassessment is prohibited unless there is a change in the terms of the contract that
significantly modifies the cash flows that otherwise would be required under the contract. An
entity determines whether a modification to cash flows is significant by considering the extent to
which the expected future cash flows associated with the embedded derivative, the host contract or
both have changed.
See Note 28 – Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.
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Offsetting of Financial Instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the
consolidated statement of financial position if, and only if, there is currently enforceable legal
right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realize
the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Amortized Cost of Financial Instruments
Amortized cost is computed using the effective interest method less any allowance for impairment
and principal repayment, plus or minus the cumulative amortization of premium or discount. The
calculation takes into account any premium or discount on acquisition and includes transaction
costs and fees that are an integral part of effective interest.
‘Day 1’ Profit or Loss
Where the transaction price in a non-active market is different from the fair value of other
observable current market transactions in the same instrument or based on a valuation technique
whose variables include only data from observable market, the MERALCO Group recognizes the
difference between the transaction price and fair value (a ‘Day 1’ profit or loss) in the
consolidated statement of income, unless it qualifies for recognition as some other type of asset or
liability. In cases where data used are not observable, the difference between the transaction price
and model value is only recognized in the consolidated statement of income when the inputs
become observable or when the instrument is derecognized. For each transaction, the MERALCO
Group determines the appropriate method of recognizing the ‘Day 1’ profit or loss amount.
Impairment of Financial Assets
The MERALCO Group assesses at each reporting date whether a financial asset or group of
financial assets is impaired. A financial asset or a group of financial assets is deemed to be
impaired if, and only if, there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events
that has occurred after the initial recognition of the asset (an incurred “loss event”) and that loss
event has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset or the group of
financial assets that can be reliably estimated. Evidence of impairment may include indications
that the debtor or a group of debtors is experiencing significant financial difficulty, default or
delinquency in interest or principal payments, the probability that they will enter bankruptcy or
other financial reorganization and where observable data indicate that there is a measurable
decrease in the estimated future cash flows, such as changes in arrears or economic conditions that
correlate with defaults.
Financial Assets Carried at Amortized Cost
For financial assets carried at amortized cost, the MERALCO Group first assesses whether
objective evidence of impairment exists individually. If it is determined that no objective evidence
of impairment exists for an individually assessed financial asset, whether significant or not, the
asset is included in a group of financial assets with similar credit risk characteristics and that
group of financial assets is collectively assessed for impairment based on historical loss
experience. Assets that are individually assessed for impairment and for which an impairment loss
is or continues to be recognized are not included in a collective assessment of impairment.
MERALCO and CEDC consider termination or disconnection of service and significant financial
difficulties of debtors as objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is
impaired. For both specific and collective assessments, any deposits, collateral and credit
enhancement are considered in determining the amount of impairment loss.
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If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred, the amount of the loss is
measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated
future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the
financial asset’s original effective interest rate (i.e., the effective interest rate computed at initial
recognition). If a loan is subject to variable interest rate, the discount rate for measuring any
impairment loss is the current effective interest rate. The carrying amount of the asset is reduced
either directly or through the use of an allowance account and the amount of the loss is recognized
in the consolidated statement of income. Interest income continues to be accrued on the reduced
carrying amount based on the original effective interest rate of the asset. The financial asset
together with associated allowance is written off when there is no realistic prospect of future
recovery and all collateral or deposits has been realized or has been transferred to the MERALCO
Group.
If, in a subsequent period, the amount of the estimated impairment loss increases or decreases
because of an event occurring after the impairment was recognized, the previously recognized
impairment loss is increased or reduced by adjusting the allowance account. If an asset written off
is recovered, the recovery is recognized in the consolidated statement of income. Any reversal of
an impairment loss is recognized in the consolidated statement of income, to the extent that the
carrying value of the asset does not exceed its amortized cost at the reversal date.
AFS Financial Assets
In the case of equity instruments classified as AFS, objective evidence would include a significant
or prolonged decline in the fair value of the investment below its cost. When a decline in the fair
value of an AFS financial asset has been recognized in other comprehensive income and there is
objective evidence that the asset is impaired, the cumulative loss that had been recognized in other
comprehensive income is reclassified from equity to profit or loss even though the financial asset
has not been derecognized. The amount of the cumulative loss that is reclassified from equity to
profit or loss is the difference between the acquisition cost (net of any principal repayment and
amortization) and current fair value, less any impairment loss on the financial asset previously
recognized in profit or loss. Impairment losses recognized in profit or loss for investment in equity
instruments are not reversed in the consolidated statement of income. Subsequent increases in fair
value after impairment are recognized directly in other comprehensive income.
In the case of debt instruments classified as AFS, impairment is assessed based on the same
criteria as financial assets carried at amortized cost. Future interest income is based on the reduced
carrying amount and is accrued based on the rate of interest used to discount future cash flows for
the purpose of measuring impairment loss. Such accrual is recorded as part of “Interest and other
financial income” in the consolidated statement of income. If, in a subsequent period, the fair
value of a debt instrument increases and the increase can be objectively related to an event
occurring after the impairment loss was recognized in the consolidated statement of income, the
impairment loss is reversed in the consolidated statement of income.
Assets Carried at Cost
If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred on an unquoted equity
instrument that is not carried at fair value because its fair value cannot be reliably measured, or on
a derivative asset that is linked to and must be settled by delivery of such an unquoted equity
instrument, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying
amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the current market rate
of return for a similar financial asset.
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Derecognition of Financial Instruments
Financial Assets
A financial asset (or where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar
financial assets) is derecognized when:
ƒ
the right to receive cash flows from the asset has expired;
ƒ
the MERALCO Group has transferred its right to receive cash flows from the asset or has
assumed an obligation to receive cash flows in full without material delay to a third party
under a “pass-through” arrangement; and
ƒ
either the MERALCO Group (a) has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the
asset, or (b) has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the
asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
Where the MERALCO Group has transferred its right to receive cash flows from an asset or has
entered into a “pass-through” arrangement, and has neither transferred nor retained substantially
all the risks and rewards of the asset nor transferred control of the asset, a new asset is recognized
to the extent of the MERALCO Group’s continuing involvement in the asset.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured
at the lower of original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration
that the MERALCO Group could be required to repay.
Financial Liabilities
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or
cancelled or has expired.
Where an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially
different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or
modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new
liability, and the difference in the carrying amount of a financial liability extinguished or
transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred
or liabilities assumed is recognized in the consolidated statement of income.
Redeemable Preferred Stock
MERALCO’s peso-denominated redeemable preferred stock has characteristics of a liability and is
thus recognized as a liability in the consolidated statement of financial position. The
corresponding dividends on those shares are recognized as part of “Interest and other financial
charges” account in the consolidated statement of income. Dividends are no longer accrued when
such shares have been called for redemption.
Provisions
Provisions are recognized when the MERALCO Group has a present obligation, legal or
constructive, as a result of a past event, and when it is probable that an outflow of resources
embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can
be made of the amount of the obligation. Where the MERALCO Group expects a provision, or a
portion, to be reimbursed, for example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is
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recognized as a separate asset but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense
relating to any provision is presented in the consolidated statement of income, net of any
reimbursement. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted
using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liabilities.
Retirement Benefits
MERALCO and substantially all of its subsidiaries have distinct, funded, noncontributory defined
benefit retirement plans covering all permanent employees. MERALCO’s retirement plan provides
for post-retirement benefits in addition to a lump sum payment to employees hired as at
December 31, 2003. Retirement benefits for employees hired commencing January 1, 2004 were
amended to provide for a defined lump sum payment only. MERALCO also has a contributory
Provident Plan introduced in January 2009 whereby employees hired commencing
January 1, 2004 may elect to participate.
The net defined benefit liability or asset is the aggregate of the present value of the defined benefit
obligation at the end of the reporting period reduced by the fair value of plan assets (if any),
adjusted for any effect of limiting a net defined benefit asset to the asset ceiling. The asset ceiling
is the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plan or
reductions in future contributions to the plan.
The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plans is actuarially determined using the
projected unit credit method.
Defined benefit costs comprise the following:
- Service cost
- Net interest on the net defined benefit liability or asset
Service costs, which include current service costs, past service costs and gains or losses on nonroutine settlements are recognized as expense in profit or loss. Past service costs are recognized
when plan amendment or curtailment occurs. These amounts are calculated periodically by
independent qualified actuaries.
Net interest on the net defined benefit liability or asset is the change during the period in the net
defined benefit liability or asset that arises from the passage of time, which is determined by
applying the discount rate based on government bonds to the net defined benefit liability or asset.
Net interest on the net defined benefit liability or asset is recognized as expense or income in
profit or loss.
Remeasurements comprising actuarial gains and losses, return on plan assets and any change in
the effect of the asset ceiling (excluding net interest on defined benefit liability) are recognized
immediately in other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise. Remeasurements
are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
Plan assets are assets that are held by a long-term employee benefit fund or qualifying insurance
policies. Plan assets are not available to the creditors of the MERALCO Group, nor can they be
paid directly to the MERALCO Group. Fair value of plan assets is based on market price
information. When no market price is available, the fair value of plan assets is estimated by
discounting expected future cash flows using a discount rate that reflects both the risk associated
with the plan assets and the maturity or expected disposal date of those assets (or, if they have no
maturity, the expected period until the settlement of the related obligations). If the fair value of the
plan assets is higher than the present value of the defined benefit obligation, the measurement of
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the resulting defined benefit asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in
the form of refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.
The MERALCO Group’s right to be reimbursed of some or all of the expenditure required to settle
a defined benefit obligation is recognized as a separate asset at fair value when and only when
reimbursement is virtually certain.
The retirement costs under the defined contribution plan are recorded based on MERALCO’s
contribution to the defined contribution plan as services are rendered by the employee.
Termination Benefits
Termination benefits are employee benefits provided in exchange for the termination of an
employee’s employment as a result of either an entity’s decision to terminate an employee’s
employment before the normal retirement date or an employee’s decision to accept an offer of
benefits in exchange for the termination of employment.
A liability and expense for a termination benefit is recognized at the earlier of when the entity can
no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the entity recognizes related restructuring
costs. Initial recognition and subsequent changes to termination benefits are measured in
accordance with the nature of the employee benefit, as either post-employment benefits, short-term
employee benefits, or other long-term employee benefits.
Employee Leave Entitlements
Employee entitlements to annual leave are recognized as a liability when they are accrued to the
employees. The undiscounted liability for leave expected to be settled wholly before 12 months
after the end of the annual reporting period is recognized for services rendered by employees up to
the end of the reporting period.
Long-term Incentive Plan
The liability relating to the long-term incentive plan comprises the present value of the defined
benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan or ESPP
Up to 2009, MERALCO had an employee stock purchase plan, which covered active and retired
employees. Under the plan, the qualified participant may purchase fixed number of shares of
stock at a pre-agreed price. The plan features include vesting requirements and payment terms.
The cost of equity-settled transactions with employees is measured by reference to the difference
between the fair value of the shares on the grant date and the price at which the share may be
purchased under the award or offer. In valuing equity-settled transactions, no account is taken of
any performance conditions other than market conditions.
The cost of equity-settled transactions is recognized, together with a corresponding increase in
equity, over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled, ending on
the date at which the relevant employees become fully entitled to the award (‘the vesting date’).
The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the
vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and MERALCO’s best
estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The profit or loss charge or
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credit for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognized as at the beginning
and end of the reporting period.
No expense is recognized for awards that do not ultimately vest.
When the terms of the equity-settled awards are modified and the modification increases the fair
value of the equity instruments granted, as measured immediately before and after the
modification, the entity shall include the incremental fair value granted in the measurement of the
amount recognized for services received as consideration for the equity instrument granted. The
incremental fair value granted is the difference between the fair value of the modified equity
instrument and that of the original equity instrument, both estimated as at the date of the
modification. If the modification occurs during the vesting period, the incremental fair value
granted is included in the measurement of the amount recognized for services received over the
period from the modification date until the date when the modified equity instruments vest, in
addition to the amount based on the grant date fair value of the original equity instruments, which
is recognized over the remainder of the original vesting period. If the modification occurs after
vesting date, the incremental fair value granted is recognized immediately or over the vesting
period if the employee is required to complete an additional period of service before becoming
unconditionally entitled to those modified equity instruments.
Revenue Recognition
Revenues are stated at amounts invoiced to customers, inclusive of pass-through components, net
of discounts, rebates, VAT and other taxes, where applicable. Revenue is recognized to the extent
that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the MERALCO Group and the revenue
can be reliably measured. In addition, collectability is reasonably assured and the delivery of the
goods or rendering of the service has occurred. The MERALCO Group assesses its revenue
arrangements against specific criteria in order to determine if it is acting as principal or agent. The
MERALCO Group concluded that it is acting as principal in all of its revenue arrangements. The
following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:
Sale of Electricity
Revenues are recognized upon supply of power to the customers. The Uniform Filing
Requirements or UFR, on the rate unbundling released by the ERC on October 30, 2001 specified
the following bill components: (a) generation charge, (b) transmission charge, (c) SL charge,
(d) distribution charge, (e) supply charge, (f) metering charge, (g) Currency Exchange Rate
Adjustment or CERA I and II, where applicable and (h) interclass and lifeline subsidies. VAT,
LFT, the Power Act Reduction (for residential customers) adjustment and universal charges are
also separately presented in the customer’s billing statement. VAT, LFT and universal charges are
billed and collected on behalf of the national and local governments and do not form part of
MERALCO and CEDC’s revenues.
Sale of Services
Revenues from construction contracts are recognized and measured using the percentage-ofcompletion method of accounting for the physical portion of the contract work, determined based
on the actual costs incurred in relation to the total estimated costs of the contract. Revenue from
contracts to manage, supervise or coordinate construction activity for others and contracts where
materials and services are supplied by project owners are recognized only to the extent of the
contracted fees.
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Contract costs principally include subcontracted costs related to contract performance. Expected
losses on contracts are recognized immediately when it is probable that the total contract costs will
exceed total contract revenues. The amount of such loss is determined irrespective of whether or
not work has commenced on the contract; the stage of completion of contract activity; or the
amount of profits expected to arise on other contracts, which are not treated as a single
construction contract. Changes in contract performance, contract conditions and estimated
profitability, including those arising after final contract settlements and after gross margins are
recognized in the period in which the changes are determined.
Service and consulting fees are recognized when the services are rendered.
Interest Income
Revenue is recognized as interest accrues, using the effective interest method. The effective
interest rate is the rate that discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the
financial instrument.
Dividends
Revenue is recognized when the MERALCO Group’s right to receive the payment is established.
Lease Income
Income arising from lease of investment properties and poles is accounted for on a straight-line
basis over the lease term.
Lease income is included under “Revenues - Sale of other services” account in the consolidated
statement of income.
Expense Recognition
Expenses are decreases in economic benefits during the financial reporting period in the form of
outflows or decrease of assets or incurrence of liabilities that result in decrease in equity, other
than those relating to distributions to equity participants. These are recognized when incurred.
Leases
The determination of whether an arrangement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of
the arrangement at the inception date of whether the fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent
on the use of a specific asset or the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset.
Company as Lessee
Operating lease payments are recognized as expense in the consolidated statement of income on a
straight-line basis over the lease term.
Company as Lessor
Leases where the MERALCO Group does not transfer substantially all the risk and benefits of
ownership of the asset are classified as operating lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating
an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the
lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the
period in which they are earned.
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Foreign Currency-Denominated Transactions and Translations
The consolidated financial statements are presented in Philippine peso, which is also MERALCO’s
functional and presentation currency. The Philippine peso is the currency of the primary economic
environment in which MERALCO Group operates, except for LOIL and MPG Asia. This is also
the currency that mainly influences the revenue from and cost of rendering services. Each entity in
MERALCO Group determines its own functional currency and items included in the financial
statements of each entity are measured using that functional currency.
The functional currency of LOIL and MPG Asia is the United States or U.S. dollar.
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the functional currency rate prevailing
at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are
re-translated using functional currency closing rate of exchange prevailing at the end of the
reporting period. All differences are recognized in the consolidated statement of income except for
foreign exchange differences that relate to capitalizable borrowing costs on qualifying assets.
Nonmonetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in foreign currency are translated
using the exchange rate as at the date of the initial transactions.
As at the reporting date, the monetary assets and liabilities of associates, LOIL and MPG Asia
whose functional currency is other than Philippine peso, are translated into Philippine peso at the
rate of exchange prevailing at the end of the reporting period, and income and expenses of an
associate are translated monthly using the weighted average exchange rate for the month. The
exchange differences arising on translation are recognized as a separate component of other
comprehensive income as cumulative translation adjustments. On disposal of the associate, the
amount of cumulative translation adjustments recognized in other comprehensive income is
recognized in the consolidated statement of income.
Income Taxes
Current Income Tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities for the current and prior period are measured at the
amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authority. The tax rate and tax laws
used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting
date.
Deferred Income Tax
Deferred income tax is provided using the balance sheet liability method on all temporary
differences at the reporting date between the income tax bases of assets and liabilities and their
carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes.
Deferred income tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except:
ƒ
where the deferred income tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or of an
asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the
transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss; and
ƒ
in respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in associates and joint
ventures, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it
is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
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Deferred income tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent
that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary
differences can be utilized except:
ƒ
when the deferred income tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from
the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination
and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or
loss; and
ƒ
in respect of deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries,
associates and joint ventures, deferred income tax assets are recognized only to the extent that
it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable
profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized.
The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced
to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all
or part of the deferred income tax assets to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred income tax assets
are reassessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent these have become probable
that future taxable profit will allow the deferred income tax assets to be recovered.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply
in the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates and tax laws
that are enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date.
Deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable
right exists to offset current income tax assets against current income tax liabilities and the
deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
Deferred income tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in
profit or loss or directly in equity.
Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net income for the period attributable to
equity holders of the parent by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding
during the period.
Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net income for the period attributable to
equity holders of the parent by the weighted average number of shares outstanding, adjusted for
the effects of any dilutive potential common shares.
Contingencies
Contingent liabilities are not recognized in the consolidated financial statements. These are
disclosed in the notes to consolidated financial statements unless the possibility of an outflow of
resources embodying economic benefits is remote. Contingent assets are not recognized unless the
realization of the assets is virtually certain. These are disclosed in the notes to consolidated
financial statements when an inflow of economic benefits is probable.
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Events After the Reporting Date
Post reporting date events that provide additional information about the MERALCO Group’s
financial position at the reporting date (adjusting events) are reflected in the consolidated financial
statements. Post reporting date events that are not adjusting events are disclosed in the notes to
consolidated financial statements, when material.
Equity
Common stock is measured at par value for all shares issued. Incremental costs incurred directly
attributable to the issuance of new shares are shown as a deduction from equity, net of any related
tax. The amount of proceeds and/or fair value of consideration received, net of incremental costs
incurred directly attributable to the issuance of new shares in excess of par value is recognized as
additional paid-in capital.
Employee stock purchase plan cost represents the cumulative compensation expense recognized
based on the amount determined using an option pricing model. The 14th and last ESPP, which
was awarded in 2009 fully vested in October 2012. Since 2009, there have been no ESPPs
implemented.
Change in the ownership interest of a subsidiary, without loss of control, is accounted for as an
equity transaction and presented as “Excess of acquisition cost over carrying value of noncontrolling interest acquired”.
Other comprehensive income comprises items of income and expense, which are not recognized in
profit or loss as required or permitted by PFRS.
Retained earnings includes net income attributable to the equity holders of the Parent and is
reduced by dividends declared on common stock. Dividends are recognized as a liability and
deducted from retained earnings when they are declared. Dividend declarations approved after the
financial reporting date are disclosed as events after the financial reporting date.
Non-controlling interests represent the equity interests in CEDC and MIESCOR and its
subsidiaries, which are not held by MERALCO.
5. Management’s Use of Significant Judgments, Accounting Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of the MERALCO Group’s consolidated financial statements requires
management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of
revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at
the end of the reporting period. However, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could
result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset or liability
affected in future periods.
Judgments
In the process of applying the MERALCO Group’s accounting policies, management has made the
following judgments, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the
consolidated financial statements.
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Determination of Functional Currency
The functional currencies of the entities under the MERALCO Group are the currencies of the
primary economic environment in which each entity operates. It is the currency that mainly
influences the revenue and cost of rendering services.
Based on the economic substance of the underlying circumstances, the functional and presentation
currency of MERALCO and its subsidiaries, except LOIL and MPG Asia, is the Philippine peso.
The functional and presentation currency of LOIL and MPG Asia is the U.S. dollar.
Operating Lease Commitments
As Lessor
As a lessor, the MERALCO Group has several lease arrangements. Based on the terms and
conditions of the arrangements, it has evaluated that the significant risks and rewards of
ownership of such properties are retained by the MERALCO Group. The lease agreements do not
transfer ownership of the assets to the lessees at the end of the lease term and do not give the
lessees a bargain purchase option over the assets. Consequently, the lease agreements are
accounted for as operating leases.
As Lessee
As a lessee, MERALCO Group has commercial lease arrangements covering certain office spaces,
payment offices and substation sites and towers. The MERALCO Group has determined, based on
the evaluation of the terms and conditions of the arrangements, that it has not acquired any
significant risks and rewards of ownership of such properties because the lease arrangements do
not transfer to the MERALCO Group the ownership over the assets at the end of the lease term and
do not provide the MERALCO Group a bargain purchase option over the leased assets.
Consequently, the lease agreements are accounted for as operating leases.
Arrangement that Contains a Lease
MERALCO’s Purchased Power Agreements or PPAs and Purchase Supply Agreements or PSAs
with certain power generating companies qualify as leases on the basis that MERALCO and these
power generating companies have ‘take or pay’ or TOP arrangements where payments for
purchased power are made on the basis of the availability of the power plant and not based solely
on actual consumption. In determining the lease classification, it is judged that substantially all the
risks and rewards incident to the ownership of the power plants are with these power generating
companies’. Thus, the PPAs and PSAs are classified as operating leases. Accordingly, capacity
fees, fixed operating and maintenance, and transmission line fees that form part of purchased
power expense are accounted for similar to a lease.
Components of purchased power expense, which have been accounted for similar to a lease,
amounted to P
=46,170 million, =
P18,946 million and =
P20,135 million in 2013, 2012 and 2011
respectively. These are recognized as “Purchased Power” in the consolidated statements of
income.
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See Note 25 – Revenues and Purchased Power.
Entity in which the MERALCO Group Holds More Than the Majority of the Voting
Rights Accounted for as joint Venture
MERALCO has 51% equity in San Buenaventura Power Ltd. Co. or SBPL. While MERALCO
owns majority of the voting rights in SBPL, it does not have sole control over SBPL. MERALCO’s
investment in SBPL is accounted for as a joint venture since key operating and financial decisions
of SBPL require the unanimous vote and consent of the parties sharing control.
Contingencies
The MERALCO Group has possible claims from or obligation to other parties from past events
and whose existence may only be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more
uncertain future events not wholly within its control. Management has determined that the present
obligations with respect to contingent liabilities and claims with respect to contingent assets do not
meet the recognition criteria, and therefore has not recorded any such amounts.
See Note 30 – Contingencies and Legal Proceedings.
Estimates and Assumptions
The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty as at
the reporting date that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying
amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial period are discussed in the following:
Estimating Useful Lives of Utility Plant and Others, Intangible Assets with Finite
Lives and Investment Properties
The MERALCO Group estimates the useful lives of utility plant and others, intangible assets with
finite lives and, investment properties based on the periods over which such assets are expected to
be available for use. The estimate of the useful lives of the utility plant and others, intangible
assets with finite lives and investment properties is based on management’s collective assessment
of industry practice, internal technical evaluation and experience with similar assets. The
estimated useful lives are reviewed at least at each financial year-end and are updated if
expectations differ from previous estimates due to physical wear and tear, technical or commercial
obsolescence and legal or other limitations on the use of such assets. It is possible, however, that
future results of operations could be materially affected by changes in estimates brought about by
changes in the factors mentioned in the foregoing. The amounts and timing of recorded expenses
for any period would be affected by changes in these factors and circumstances. A reduction in the
estimated useful lives of utility plant and others, intangible assets with finite lives and investment
properties would increase recorded operating expenses and decrease noncurrent assets.
The total depreciation and amortization expense of utility plant and others amounted to
P
=5,941 million, P
=5,474 million and =
P5,466 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012
and 2011, respectively. Total carrying values of utility plant and others, net of accumulated
depreciation and amortization, amounted to =
P112,586 million and =
P109,312 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Total depreciation of investment properties amounted to =
P8 million, =
P8 million and =
P138 million
for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Total carrying value of
investment properties, net of accumulated depreciation, amounted to =
P1,526 million and
=
P1,634 million as at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
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Total amortization of intangible assets with finite lives amounted to =
P169 million, =
P94 million and
P
=33 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Total carrying
value of intangible assets with finite lives, net of accumulated amortization, amounted to
P
=1,728 million and =
P1,021 million as at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 8 – Utility Plant and Others, Note 10 – Investment Properties and Note 11 – Other
Noncurrent Assets.
Impairment of Nonfinancial Assets
PFRS requires that an impairment review be performed when certain impairment indicators are
present. These conditions include obsolescence, physical damage, significant changes in the
manner by which an asset is used, worse than expected economic performance, drop in revenues
or other external indicators, among others. In the case of goodwill, at a minimum, such asset is
subject to an annual impairment test and more frequently whenever there is an indication that such
asset may be impaired. This requires an estimation of the value in use of the cash generating unit
to which the goodwill is allocated. Estimating the value in use requires preparation of an estimate
of the expected future cash flows from the cash generating unit and choosing an appropriate
discount rate in order to calculate the present value of those cash flows.
Determining the recoverable amount of utility plant and others, investment properties, investments
in and advances to associates and joint ventures, goodwill and other noncurrent assets, requires
(i) the determination of future cash flows expected to be generated from the continued use as well
as ultimate disposition of such assets and (ii) making estimates and assumptions that can
materially affect the consolidated financial statements. Future events may cause management to
conclude that utility plant and others, construction in progress, investment properties, investments
in and advances to associates and joint ventures, and other noncurrent assets are impaired. Any
resulting impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on the MERALCO Group’s
consolidated financial position and results of operations.
The preparation of estimated future cash flows involves significant estimations and assumptions.
While management believes that the assumptions are appropriate and reasonable, significant
changes in the assumptions may materially affect the assessment of recoverable values and may
lead to future impairment charges under PFRS.
The carrying values of nonfinancial assets as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 subject to
impairment review are as follows:
Account
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Utility plant and others
Investments in associates and joint ventures
Investment properties
Intangible assets
Receivable from the BIR
Goodwill
P
=112,586
13,422
1,526
1,728
577
36
P
=109,312
1,815
1,634
1,021
577
36
See Note 8 – Utility Plant and Others, Note 9 – Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures,
Note 10 – Investment Properties and Note 11 – Other Noncurrent Assets.
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Goodwill
The MERALCO Group’s consolidated financial statements and the results of operations reflect
acquired businesses after the completion of the respective acquisition. The MERALCO Group
accounts for the acquisition of businesses using the acquisition method of accounting, which
requires extensive use of accounting judgments and estimates to allocate the purchase price to the
fair market values of the acquiree’s identifiable assets and liabilities and contingent liabilities, if
any, at the acquisition date. Any excess in the purchase price over the estimated fair market values
of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill in the consolidated statement of financial
position. Thus, the number of items, which involve judgments made in estimating the fair market
value to be assigned to the acquiree’s assets and liabilities can materially affect the MERALCO
Group’s financial position.
Realizability of Deferred Tax Assets
The MERALCO Group reviews the carrying amounts of deferred tax assets at the end of each
reporting period and reduces these to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable
income will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax assets to be utilized.
Assessment on the recognition of deferred tax assets on deductible temporary differences is based
on the level and timing of forecasted taxable income for the subsequent reporting periods. This
forecast is based on past results and future expectations on revenues and expenses as well as future
tax planning strategies. Management believes that sufficient taxable profit will be generated to
allow all or part of the deferred tax assets to be utilized. The amounts of the deferred tax assets
considered realizable could be adjusted in the future if estimates of taxable income are revised.
Based on the foregoing assessment, following are the relevant consolidated information with
respect to deferred tax assets:
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Recognized deferred tax assets
Unrecognized deferred tax assets
P
=15,391
215
P
=13,338
154
See Note 29 – Income Taxes and Local Franchise Taxes.
Determination of Fair Values of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
Where fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the consolidated statement
of financial position cannot be derived from active markets, they are determined using valuation
techniques including the discounted cash flows model. The inputs to these models are taken from
observable markets where possible, but when this is not feasible, a degree of judgment is required
in establishing fair values. The judgments include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk,
credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair
value of financial instruments.
See Note 28 – Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.
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Estimating Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred in the trade and other
receivables balance of the MERALCO Group, an estimate of the allowance for doubtful accounts
related to trade and other receivables that are specifically identified as doubtful of collection is
made. The amount of allowance is evaluated by management on the basis of factors that affect the
collectability of the accounts. In such case, use of judgment based on the best available facts and
circumstances, including but not limited to, the length of the MERALCO Group’s relationship with
the customer and the customer’s credit status based on third party credit reports and known market
factors, to record specific reserves for customers against amounts due in order to reduce the
MERALCO Group’s receivables to amounts that management expects to collect is applied. These
specific reserves are reevaluated and adjusted as additional information received affect the
amounts estimated.
In addition to specific allowance against individually significant receivables, an assessment for
collective impairment allowance against credit exposures of the customers, which were grouped
based on common credit characteristics, although not specifically identified as requiring a specific
allowance, have a greater risk of default than when the receivables were originally granted to
customers is done. This collective allowance is based on historical loss experience using various
factors, such as historical performance of the customers within the collective group, deterioration
in the markets in which the customers operate, and identified structural weaknesses or
deterioration in the cash flows of customers.
Total asset impairment provision for trade and other receivables and other current assets
recognized in the consolidated statements of income amounted to =
P504 million, =
P832 million and
P
=2,243 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Trade and
other receivables, net of asset impairment, amounted to =
P32,718 million and P
=28,077 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 13 – Trade and Other Receivables and Note 15 – Other Current Assets.
Estimating Net Realizable Value of Inventories
Inventories consist of materials and supplies used in the power distribution and services segments.
The excess of cost over net realizable value relating to inventories consists of collective and
specific provisions. The cost of inventories is written down whenever the net realizable value of
inventories becomes lower than the cost due to damage, physical deterioration, obsolescence,
change in price levels or other causes. The lower of cost or net realizable value of inventories is
reviewed on a periodic basis. Inventory items identified to be obsolete and unusable are writtenoff and charged as expense in the consolidated statement of income.
The carrying values of inventories amounted to =
P2,750 million and =
P1,371 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 14 – Inventories.
Estimation of Retirement Benefit Costs
The cost of defined benefit pension plans and other post-employment benefits as well as the
present value of the pension obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. The actuarial
valuation involves making various assumptions. These include the determination of the discount
rates, future salary increases, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the complexity
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of the valuation, the underlying assumptions and its long-term nature, defined benefit obligations
are highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each
reporting date. The pension benefit liability and other post-employment benefit as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012 amounted to =
P2,978 million and =
P6,241 million, respectively.
In determining the appropriate discount rate, management considers the interest rates of
government bonds in the respective currencies, with extrapolated maturities corresponding to the
expected duration of the defined benefit obligation. The underlying bonds are further reviewed for
quality, and those having excessive credit spreads are removed from the population of bonds on
which the discount rate is based, on the basis that they do not represent high quality bonds.
The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables for the specific country and is
modified accordingly with estimates of mortality improvements. Future salary increases and
pension increases are based on expected future inflation rates for the specific country.
See Note 26 – Expenses and Income and Note 27 – Long-term Employee Benefits.
Insurance Liabilities Arising from Insurance Contracts
RSIC estimates the expected ultimate costs of claims reported and claims incurred but not yet
reported at reporting date. It takes a significant period of time to establish with certainty the
ultimate cost of claims.
The primary technique adopted by RSIC’s management in estimating the cost of claims incurred
but not yet reported is using the past claims settlement trend to predict the future claims settlement
trend. At each reporting date, estimates of prior period claims are reassessed for adequacy and any
changes are charged to provisions. Insurance contract liabilities are not discounted for the time
value of money.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, gross carrying values of insurance liabilities arising from
insurance contracts, included in “Other noncurrent liabilities” account, amounted to =
P725 million
and =
P625 million, respectively.
Provision for Asset Retirement Obligations
Provision for asset retirement obligations is recognized in the period in which they are incurred if
a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. This requires an estimation of the cost to restore
or dismantle, on a per area basis, depending on the location, and is based on the best estimate of
the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the future restoration/dismantlement date,
discounted using a pre-tax rate that reflects the current market assessment of the time value of
money and, where appropriate, the risk specific to the liability.
No asset retirement obligation was recognized since the amount is immaterial.
Provisions
MERALCO Group is involved in various legal proceedings as discussed in Note 30 –
Contingencies and Legal Proceedings. MERALCO Group’s estimate for probable costs for the
resolution of these claims, assessments and cases has been developed in consultation with external
counsels handling the defense in these claims, assessments and cases and is based upon thorough
analysis of potential outcome.
*SGVFS007697*
- 46 -
MERALCO, in consultation with its external legal counsels, does not believe that these
proceedings will have a material adverse effect in the consolidated financial statements. It is
possible, however, that future financial performance could be materially affected by changes in the
estimates or the effectiveness of management’s strategies and actions relating to these
proceedings.
MERALCO recognized provisions amounting to =
P10,749 million, =
P9,226 million and
P
=8,065 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
See Note 20 – Provisions.
Revenue Recognition
The MERALCO Group’s revenue recognition policies require the use of estimates and
assumptions that may affect the reported amounts of its revenues and receivables.
Revenues from sale of electricity by MERALCO and CEDC are billed based on customer-specific
billing cycle cut-off date for each customer, while recording of related purchased power cost in the
accounts is based on calendar month as provided in the terms of the PSAs. The recognition of
unbilled revenues for billing cycles with earlier than month-end cut-off dates requires the use of
estimates.
The difference between the amount initially recognized based on provisional invoices and the
settlement of the actual billings by the generators is taken up in the subsequent period.
Management believes that such use of estimates will not result in material adjustments in future
periods.
Revenues and costs from construction contracts of MIESCOR are recognized based on the
percentage of completion method. This is measured principally on the basis of the estimated
completion of a physical proportion of the contract work as determined from the reports of the
contractors and project consultants.
6. Discontinued Operations
In 2011, upon approval by the BOD of MERALCO of the divestment plan by MERALCO of its
investment in common shares of Rockwell Land through the declaration of property dividends,
MERALCO reclassified the related assets, liabilities and cumulative other comprehensive income
of Rockwell Land as “Assets of discontinued operations”, “Liabilities of discontinued operations”
and “Unrealized fair value gains on AFS investments of discontinued operations”, respectively, in
the consolidated statement of financial position as at January 1, 2012.
On April 25, 2012, the SEC approved the property dividend declaration by the BOD of MERALCO
(on February 27, 2012) of MERALCO’s investment in common shares of Rockwell Land in favor
of all Filipino common stockholders as at March 23, 2012. Foreign common stockholders were
paid the cash equivalent of the property dividends at the time of declaration. Such property
dividends were paid on May 14, 2012, within five (5) trading days after approval of the property
dividend by the SEC and registration of the Rockwell Land shares under the Securities Regulation
Code and the listing thereof with the PSE on May 11, 2012. As at the date of declaration,
MERALCO owned 3,176,474,995 common shares at P
=1.46 per share with a total cost of
P
=4,638 million.
*SGVFS007697*
- 47 -
The assets and liabilities of Rockwell Land classified as “Assets of discontinued operations” and
“Liabilities of discontinued operations”, respectively, in the consolidated statement of financial
position as at January 1, 2012 are as follows:
Amount
(In millions)
Noncurrent Assets:
Property and equipment
Investment properties
Other noncurrent assets
Current Assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables
Land and development costs
Other current assets
Noncurrent Liabilities:
Interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities
Deposits from pre-selling condominium units
Deferred tax liabilities - net
Other noncurrent liabilities
Current Liabilities:
Trade and other payables
Income tax payable
=
P465
6,297
362
769
2,782
5,950
1,724
=
P18,349
=
P2,867
284
146
470
5,258
88
=
P9,113
The financial performance of Rockwell Land for the four months ended April 30, 2012 and the
year ended December 31, 2011 are presented as “Income from discontinued operations, net of
income tax” in the consolidated statements of income. The details are presented as follows:
Revenues
Cost and expenses
Gross profit
Interest and other financial income
Interest and other financial expenses
Others
Income before income tax
Provision for income tax
Net income from discontinued operations
2012
2011
(Amounts in Millions)
=
P1,501
=
P5,834
1,288
4,887
213
947
114
520
(71)
(183)
805
4
1,061
1,288
(83)
(322)
=
P978
=
P966
The net cash flows for the four months ended April 30, 2012 and the year ended December 31,
2011 are as follows:
Operating activities
Investing activities
Financing activities
Net cash flows
2012
2011
(Amounts in Millions)
=
P104
=
P398
(5)
(214)
1,085
(58)
=
P1,184
=
P126
Included in accumulated other comprehensive income as at January 1, 2012 are unrealized fair
value gains on AFS financial assets amounting to =
P14 million.
*SGVFS007697*
- 48 -
7. Segment Information
Each operating segment of the MERALCO Group engages in business activities from which
revenues are earned and expenses are incurred (including revenue and expenses relating to
transactions with other business segments within the MERALCO Group). The operating results of
each of the operating segments are regularly reviewed by MERALCO’s chief operating decisionmaker (Management Committee) to determine how resources are to be allocated to the operating
segments and to assess their performances for which discrete financial information is available.
For management purposes, the MERALCO Group’s operating businesses are organized and
managed separately according to the nature of services provided, with each segment representing a
strategic business unit that offers different products and/or services, as follows:
ƒ
Power
The Power segment consists of (a) electricity distribution, (b) power generation and (c) RES.
Electricity distribution – This is principally electricity distribution and supply of power on a
pass-through basis covering all captive customers in the MERALCO franchise area and the
CEDC franchise area in the Luzon Grid. Electricity distribution within the MERALCO
franchise area accounts for approximately 55% of the power requirements of the country.
CEDC’s service area covers the CSEZ.
Power generation – The MERALCO Group’s re-entry in the power generation business is
through investment in operating companies or participation in the development of power
generation projects. MGen, the power generation arm of the MERALCO Group acquired a
20% equity interest in GBPC. GBPC operates a total of 627 MW gross capacity of coal and
diesel-fired power plants. In addition, it has 232 MW of coal-fired power plants under
construction in the Visayas.
In March 2013, MGen acquired an effective 28% equity in PacificLight Power Pte Ltd. or
PacificLight Power, in Jurong Island, Singapore.
MGen is currently developing a 500 MW gross capacity of supercritical coal-fired power plant
in Mauban, Quezon. On the other hand, land development for its 2 x 300 MW Circulating
Fluidized Bed or CFB, coal-fired power generation plant in the Subic Freeport Zone under
Redondo Peninsula Energy, Inc. or RP Energy is ongoing.
Further, MGen is in various stages of pre-development of other power generation projects in
the Philippines.
See Note 9 – Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures.
RES – This covers the sourcing and supply of electricity to qualified contestable customers.
The MERALCO Group serves as a local RES within its franchise area only under the brand,
MPower. Starting June 26, 2013, certain qualified contestable customers sourced their
electricity supply from MPower.
*SGVFS007697*
- 49 ƒ
Other Services
The other services segment is involved principally in electricity-related services such as
electro-mechanical engineering, construction, consulting and related manpower as well as
light rail- related maintenance services, e-transaction and bills collection, insurance and ebusiness development and distribution and energy systems management. These services are
provided by MIESCOR, MBI and MLI (collectively known as “MIESCOR Group”), CIS,
Bayad Center and CFSI (collectively referred to as “CIS Group”), Miescorrail, RSIC, LOIL,
Finserve, e-MVI and MEI.
MERALCO’s real estate segment, which was provided by Rockwell Land, is involved in luxury
residential and commercial real estate development and leasing. In 2012, the accounts of Rockwell
Land were deconsolidated from those of MERALCO as discussed in Note 6 – Discontinued
Operations.
The Management Committee monitors the operating results of each business unit separately for
the purpose of determining resource allocation and assessing performance. Performance is
evaluated based on (i) net income for the year, (ii) consolidated core earnings before interest,
taxes, and depreciation and amortization or consolidated core EBITDA; and (iii) consolidated core
net income or CCNI. Net income for the year is measured consistent with reported consolidated
net income in the consolidated financial statements.
Core EBITDA is measured as CCNI excluding depreciation and amortization, interest and other
financial charges, interest and other financial income, equity in net earnings or losses of associates
and joint ventures and provision for income tax.
CCNI for the year is measured as consolidated net income attributable to equity holders of the
parent adjusted for foreign exchange gain or loss, mark-to-market gain or loss, impairment or
reversal of impairment of noncurrent assets and other non-recurring gain or loss, if any, net of tax
effect of the foregoing adjustments.
Billings between operating segments are done on an arm’s-length basis in a manner similar to
transactions with third parties. Segment revenues, segment expenses and segment results include
transfers among business segments. Those transfers are eliminated upon consolidation.
*SGVFS007697*
(168)
(1,475)
(24)
(6,710)
–
–
P
=16,603
=
P22,085
(5,360)
2,186
914
(1,435)
(16)
(5,589)
–
–
=
P12,785
247
(1,518)
40
(5,454)
–
–
=
P15,839
P
=253,989
2011*
=
P25,405
(5,400)
2,519
=
P282,991
Power
2012*
–
(4)
–
(344)
–
–
P
=761
P
=1,305
(207)
11
P
=5,258
2013
–
(10)
–
(287)
–
978
=
P1,682
=
P1,127
(176)
50
=
P3,829
Other Services
2012*
–
(10)
–
(364)
–
1,016
=
P1,906
=
P1,330
(144)
78
(91)
–
–
–
(62)
–
(P
=153)
P
=–
–
–
(262)
–
–
–
(142)
–
(P
=404)
=
P–
–
–
(847)
–
–
–
(499)
(50)
(P
=1,431)
(P
=35)
–
–
Inter-segment Transactions
2011*
2012*
2011*
2013
(Amounts in Millions)
=
P3,923
(P
=1,550)
(P
=1,104)
(P
=1,471)
The inter-segment revenues mainly represent revenues of other services segment earned from the power segment.
* As restated - see Note 4.
9
26
P
=29,730
(5,911)
1,161
Segment results
Depreciation and amortization
Interest and other financial income
Equity in net earnings (losses) of associates and joint
ventures
Interest and other financial charges
Derivative mark-to-market gain (loss)
Provision for income tax - net
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests
Income from discontinued operations, net of income tax
Net income attributable to equity holders of the Parent
26
P
=294,849
2013
Revenues
Note
(15)
(1,528)
40
(5,741)
(142)
978
=
P17,117
=
P26,532
(5,576)
2,569
=
P285,270
Total
2012*
67
(1,445)
(16)
(5,953)
(499)
966
=
P13,260
=
P23,380
(5,504)
2,264
P
=256,808
2011*
*SGVFS007697*
(259)
(1,479)
(24)
(7,054)
(62)
–
P
=17,211
P
=31,035
(6,118)
1,172
P
=298,636
2013
The MERALCO Group operates and generates substantially all of its revenues in the Philippines (i.e., one geographical location). Thus, geographical segment
information is not presented. The MERALCO Group has no revenues from transactions with a single external customer accounting for 10% or more of its revenues from
external customers.
- 50 -
- 51 -
The following table shows the reconciliation of the consolidated EBITDA to net income:
2012
2013
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Consolidated EBITDA
EBITDA of discontinued operations
EBITDA of continuing operations
Depreciation and amortization
Interest and other financial income
Interest and other financial charges
Equity in net earnings (losses) of associates and
joint ventures
Derivative mark-to-market gain (loss)
Foreign exchange gain (loss)
Consolidated income before income tax
Provision for income tax
Net income from continuing operations
Income from discontinued operations, net of
income tax
Net income
P
=30,682
–
30,682
(6,118)
1,172
(1,479)
P
=27,690
(1,154)
26,536
(5,576)
2,569
(1,528)
P
=24,649
(1,262)
23,387
(5,504)
2,264
(1,445)
(259)
(24)
353
(15)
40
(4)
67
(16)
(7)
24,327
(7,054)
17,273
22,022
(5,741)
16,281
18,746
(5,953)
12,793
–
P
=17,273
978
P
=17,259
966
P
=13,759
The following table shows the reconciliation of the CCNI to the net income:
2013
2012
2011
(Amounts in millions)
CCNI
Add (deduct) non-core items, net of tax:
Foreign exchange gain (loss)
Investment acquisition transaction costs
Mark-to-market gain (loss)
Gain (loss) on sale of investment properties
Gain on divestment from Rockwell Land
Non-core expense
Effect of revised PAS 19
Day “1” loss of advance payments
to a supplier
Net income for the year attributable
to equity holders of the Parent
Net income for the year attributable
to non-controlling interests
Net income
P
=17,023
366
(156)
(17)
(5)
–
–
–
P
=16,265
(1)
–
28
–
780
(56)
101
P
=14,887
(2)
–
(12)
17
–
(1,568)
33
–
–
(95)
17,211
17,117
13,260
62
P
=17,273
142
P
=17,259
499
P
=13,759
*SGVFS007697*
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Transfers from construction in progress
Additions
Disposals/retirements
Reclassification and others
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization:
Balance at beginning of year
Depreciation and amortization
Disposals/retirements
Reclassification and others
Balance at end of year
Net book values
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Transfers from construction in progress
Additions
Disposals/retirements
Reclassification and others
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization:
Balance at beginning of year
Depreciation and amortization
Disposals/retirements
Reclassification and others
Balance at end of year
Net book values
11
11
Note
–
–
–
–
–
=
P15,259
45,968
4,225
(1,033)
32
49,192
=
P83,234
Land
Subtransmission
and Distribution
=
P14,849
–
410
–
–
15,259
–
–
–
–
–
P
= 15,264
49,192
4,728
(1,161)
(163)
52,596
P
= 85,725
=
P126,338
5,621
1,563
(1,170)
74
132,426
P
= 15,259
–
5
–
–
15,264
Land
P
= 132,426
5,484
1,815
(1,161)
(243)
138,321
Subtransmission
and Distribution
The movements in utility plant and others are as follows:
8. Utility Plant and Others
1,887
122
–
21
2,030
=
P3,102
=
P4,866
222
2
–
42
5,132
Buildings and
Improvements
2,030
128
–
18
2,176
P
= 3,032
P
= 5,132
54
21
–
1
5,208
Buildings and
Improvements
- 52 -
2013
2012
2,751
234
(902)
–
2,083
P
= 1,019
P
= 3,492
1
542
(902)
(31)
3,102
4,379
414
(8)
23
4,808
=
P1,782
=
P6,248
240
61
(11)
52
6,590
2,928
282
(13)
(446)
2,751
=
P741
=
P3,658
–
383
(14)
(535)
3,492
Office Furniture,
Fixtures and
Other
Communication
Equipment
Equipment
(Amounts in millions)
4,808
415
(593)
14
4,644
P
= 1,867
P
= 6,590
314
123
(593)
77
6,511
Office Furniture,
Fixtures and
Other
Communication
Equipment
Equipment
(Amounts in millions)
1,509
187
(22)
20
1,694
=
P995
=
P2,442
–
242
(23)
28
2,689
Transportation
Equipment
1,694
223
(89)
–
1,828
P
= 989
P
= 2,689
–
222
(89)
(5)
2,817
Transportation
Equipment
1,421
244
(2)
(15)
1,648
=
P1,354
=
P2,730
–
292
(3)
(17)
3,002
Others
1,648
213
(63)
(1)
1,797
P
= 1,393
P
= 3,002
15
263
(63)
(27)
3,190
Others
58,092
5,474
(1,078)
(365)
62,123
=
P109,312
=
P163,602
–
9,530
(1,221)
(476)
171,435
Total
62,123
5,941
(2,808)
(132)
65,124
P
= 112,586
P
= 171,435
–
9,311
(2,808)
(228)
177,710
Total
*SGVFS007697*
–
–
–
–
–
=
P2,845
=
P2,471
(6,083)
6,577
–
(120)
2,845
Construction in
Progress
–
–
–
–
–
P
= 3,297
P
= 2,845
(5,868)
6,320
–
–
3,297
Construction in
Progress
- 53 -
A significant portion of MERALCO’s and CEDC’s utility plant and others are purchased from
foreign suppliers. Such transactions are concluded in currencies other than the Philippine peso,
principally, the U.S. dollar. MERALCO and CEDC record the assets and liabilities in Philippine peso
using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. The outstanding amount of foreign currencydenominated liabilities is restated at each reporting date.
Construction in progress mainly pertains to on-going electric capital projects or ECPs and nonelectric capital projects or NEPs. ECPs are capital projects involving construction of new electric
distribution-related facilities and the upgrade and major rehabilitation of existing electrical facilities.
Total interest capitalized amounted to =
P122 million, =
P127 million and =
P82 million for the years
ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
The average annual interest rates used for capitalization in 2013, 2012 and 2011 ranged from 4.6% to
5.9%, 5.5% to 6.2% and 5.3% to 6.2%, respectively.
9. Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures
This account consists of the following as at December 31, 2013 and 2012:
2012
2013
Percentage of Ownership
Place of Incorporation
Principal Activity
Philippines
British Virgin Islands
Power generation
Power generation
47
40
47
–
Philippines
Philippines
Power generation
Sale of metering products
and services
Power generation
38
35
38
35
20
–
51
50
–
50
30
30
Associates
RP Energy
FPM Power Holdings Limited or FPM
Power
Bauang Private Power Corporation or BPPC
General Electric Philippines Meter and
Instrument Company, Inc. or GEPMICI
GBPC
Philippines
Joint Ventures
SBPL
Indra Philippines
Philippines
Philippines
Rockwell Business Center
Philippines
Power generation
Management and information
technology, or IT, consultancy
Real estate
The movements in investments in associates and joint ventures account are as follows:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Acquisition costs:
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Balance at end of year
Accumulated equity in net earnings (losses):
Balance at beginning of year
Equity in net losses
Dividends
Balance at end of year
Share in cumulative translation adjustments of associates:
Balance at beginning of year
Translation adjustments
Balance at end of year
P
=1,563
11,898
13,461
249
(259)
(411)
(421)
3
379
382
P
=13,422
P
=538
1,025
1,563
294
(15)
(30)
249
12
(9)
3
P
=1,815
*SGVFS007697*
- 54 -
The additions of =
P1,025 million in 2012 include P
=827 million investment in Rockwell Business
Center.
FPM Power
FPM Power is 40%-owned by MERALCO through MPG Asia Limited, a subsidiary of MGen, and
60% owned by First Pacific. On March 28, 2013, FPM Power acquired a 70% interest in
PacificLight Power, which owns and operates a 2 x 400 MW liquefied natural gas or LNG-fired
power plant in Jurong Island, Singapore. PacificLight Power’s wholly owned subsidiary,
PacificLight Energy Pte. Ltd., is engaged in energy trading.
RP Energy
On July 22, 2011, MGen signed a Shareholders’ Agreement with Therma Power, Inc. or TPI, and
Taiwan Cogeneration International Corporation – Philippine Branch or TCIC, for the construction
and operation of a 2 x 300 MW CFB independent, coal-fired power plant to be located in the Subic
Bay Freeport Zone. RP Energy is a partnership among TPI, MGen and TCIC.
As at March 17, 2014, site preparation work is almost complete and RP Energy has commissioned its
contractor to conduct preliminary engineering works on the power plant in order to reduce the overall
construction period. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources or DENR, has issued the
Environmental Compliance Certificate or ECC for the 2 x 300 MW coal-fired power plant following
a rigorous review and public consultation process.
A Writ of Kalikasan was filed with the SC by certain parties opposing the RP Energy project. The
case was remanded by the SC to the CA for hearing on the merits thereof. A decision has been issued
by the CA denying the Writ of Kalikasan, but noting certain deficiencies in the process of the DENR
in its issuance of the original ECC for the 300 MW coal-fired power plant and in the process of the
Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority or SBMA in the conclusion of the original Lease and Development
Agreement or LDA with RP Energy, and declaring these invalid. DENR, SBMA and RP Energy have
filed their respective Motions to the SC for review the CA decision. On December 19, 2013, RP
Energy filed a manifestation and Motion requesting that the SC deem the petitioners to have waived
their rights to file their comments and requested that RP Energy’s Petition for Review of Certiorari
which was filed with the SC on July 17, 2013, be submitted for resolution without the need for
further submissions. As at March 17, 2014, no resolution has been issued by the SC. Meanwhile, RP
Energy is proceeding with certain development activities that are not hampered by the SC
proceedings.
While the original LDA was declared invalid by the CA, the SMBA is also set to ratify an Amended
and Restated LDA to reflect additional terms.
SBPL
On August 29, 2013, MGen signed a Joint Development Agreement with New Growth B.V., a 100%
subsidiary of Electricity Generating Public Company Limited of Thailand or EGCO, for the
development of a new 460 MW (net) supercritical coal-fired power plant in Mauban, Quezon.
MGen’s equity in the joint venture company, SBPL, is 51%, with the option to assign or transfer 2%
thereof to a party or investor of its preference. SBPL, together with their consultants are evaluating
the Engineering, Procurement and Construction or EPC, tenders and is expected to award the same
by the second quarter of 2014. Simultaneously with its financial advisors, SBPL is in discussions
with several banks for the financing of the project. A PSA is currently being negotiated between the
*SGVFS007697*
- 55 -
representatives of EGCO and MERALCO, with the intent of submitting the same to the ERC for
approval.
GBPC
On October 7, 2013, MGen executed a Share Sale and Purchase Agreement with First Metro
Investment Corporation or FMIC, and signed a Shareholders Agreement on October 22, 2013, for the
sale by FMIC of a 20% equity interest in GBPC to MGen. GBPC owns an aggregate of 627 MW
(gross) capacity of combined coal and diesel power plants in operation in the Visayas region.
An 82 MW (gross) coal power plant in Cebu and a 150 MW (gross) coal power plant in Panay are
under construction and are expected to be in commercial operation by late 2014.
BPPC
BPPC was organized in October 1992 to engage in the power generation business.
In accordance with the Build-Operate-Transfer or BOT, Agreement signed in 1993, First Private
Power Corporation or FPPC, then parent company, constructed the 215 MW Bauang Power Plant or
Bauang Plant, and operated the same under a 15-year Cooperation Period up to July 25, 2010.
The Bauang Plant has since been turned over to the National Power Corporation or NPC, without
any compensation and free of any liens. Thereafter, FPPC and BPPC were legally merged, with
BPPC as the surviving entity. BPPC is in the process of winding down operations.
GEPMICI
GEPMICI was established in 1979 together with General Electric Company of U.S.A., to serve the
Philippine market for ANSI-type Watt-hour meters.
Indra Philippines
Indra Philippines is an IT service provider in the country and in the Asia Pacific region, with a wide
range of services across various industries. Indra Philippines supports MERALCO’s information
technology requirements in the area of system development, outsourcing of IS and IT operations and
management consulting.
Rockwell Business Center
The Rockwell Business Center is a joint venture between Rockwell Land and MERALCO, where
Rockwell Land shall construct three (3) Business Process Outsourcing or BPO, enabled buildings in a
non-regulatory asset base property of MERALCO over a pre-agreed cooperation period. Investment
in Rockwell Business Center represents MERALCO’s 30% interest in the joint venture, accounted for
using the equity method. Rockwell Land owns 70% interest in Rockwell Business Center.
MERALCO and Rockwell Land share in earnings before depreciation and amortization at 80% and
20%, respectively until 2014 or until certain operational indicators are reached, whichever comes
first. Sharing of depreciation and amortization is proportionate to their contribution.
*SGVFS007697*
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The carrying values of investments in associates and joint ventures follow:
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
GBPC
FPM Power
Rockwell Business Center
RP Energy
Indra Philippines
SBPL
GEPMICI
BPPC
P
=–
–
847
648
253
–
58
9
P
=1,815
P
=6,820
4,522
917
660
291
140
62
10
P
=13,422
The condensed statements of financial position of material associates follow:
2012
2013
GBPC
Current assets
Noncurrent assets
Current liabilities
Noncurrent liabilities
Non-controlling interests
Total net assets
RP Energy
FPM Power
RP Energy
(Amounts in millions)
P
=17,276
42,599
(10,763)
(25,369)
(4,002)
P
=19,741
P
=4,901
48,052
(14,245)
(26,070)
(1,333)
P
=11,305
=
P612
723
(63)
–
–
P
=1,272
P
=323
1,055
(80)
(1)
–
P
=1,297
The condensed statements of comprehensive income of material associates are as follows:
2012
2013
GBPC
Revenues
Costs and expenses
Net income (loss)
Non-controlling interests
Net income attributable to
equity holders of the
parent
Other comprehensive income
Total comprehensive income
(loss)
Dividends received
2011
RP Energy
FPM Power
RP Energy
(Amounts in millions)
RP Energy
P
=262
(1,212)
(950)
82
P
=11
(191)
(180)
–
P
=8
(149)
(141)
–
P
=–
(39)
(39)
–
323
–
(868)
378
(180)
–
(141)
–
(39)
–
P
=323
P
=400
(P
=490)
P
=–
(P
=180)
P
=–
(P
=141)
P
=–
(P
=39)
P
=–
P
=2,824
(2,329)
495
(172)
*SGVFS007697*
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The reconciliation of the net assets of the foregoing material associates to the carrying amounts of
the interest in these associates recognized in the consolidated statements of financial position is as
follows:
2012
2013
GBPC
Net assets of associates
Proportionate ownership in
associates in %
Goodwill
FPM Power
RP Energy
(Amounts in millions)
RP Energy
P
=19,741
P
=11,305
P
=1,297
P
=1,272
20
3,948
2,872
P
=6,820
40
4,522
–
P
=4,522
47
610
50
P
=660
47
598
50
=
P648
The following is the aggregate information of GEPMICI and BPPC that are not individually
material:
2012
2013
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Share in net income (loss)
Share in other comprehensive income
Share in total comprehensive income (loss)
P
=1
–
P
=1
P
=4
1
P
=5
(P
=41)
–
(P
=41)
Joint Ventures
The condensed statements of financial position of Rockwell Business Center, a material joint
venture, follow:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Current assets
Noncurrent assets
Current liabilities
Noncurrent liabilities
Net assets
P
=613
2,566
(166)
(7)
P
=3,006
=
P465
2,586
(139)
(8)
P
=2,904
Current assets include cash and cash equivalents of =
P594 million and =
P372 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Noncurrent assets represent substantially the two (2)
BPO towers for lease and the costs of ongoing construction of the third building of Rockwell
Business Center. Current liabilities represent trade payables.
The condensed statements of comprehensive income of Rockwell Business Center for the years
ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 are as follows:
2012
2013
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Revenues
Costs and expenses
Provision for income tax
Net income
Other comprehensive income
Total comprehensive income
P
=301
(142)
(57)
102
–
P
=102
=
P226
(98)
(44)
84
–
=
P84
=
P224
(104)
(44)
76
–
=
P76
*SGVFS007697*
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The foregoing condensed statements of comprehensive income include the following:
2012
2013
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Depreciation
Interest income
=
P96
(6)
P
=136
(6)
=
P101
(7)
The reconciliation of the net assets of the Rockwell Business Center to the carrying amount of the
interest in Rockwell Business Center recognized in the consolidated financial statements is as
follows:
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Net assets
Proportionate ownership in %
P
=2,904
30
871
P
=3,006
30
902
Effect of the difference between MERALCO’s percentage share in
net income and proportionate ownership
(24)
=
P847
15
P
=917
The following is the condensed financial information of Indra Philippines and SBPL, which are not
considered material joint ventures:
2012
2013
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Share in net income
Share in other comprehensive income
Share in total comprehensive income
Dividends received
=
P34
–
=
P34
P
=–
P
=125
–
P
=125
P
=11
=
P14
–
=
P14
P
=–
10. Investment Properties
The movements in investment properties are as follows:
2013
Buildings and
Improvements
Land
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Disposals
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated depreciation:
Balance at beginning of year
Depreciation
Disposals
Balance at end of year
P
=1,535
(89)
1,446
P
=206
(25)
181
P
=1,741
(114)
1,627
–
–
–
–
P
=1,446
107
8
(14)
101
P
=80
107
8
(14)
101
P
=1,526
*SGVFS007697*
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Land
2012
Buildings and
Improvements
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cost
Less accumulated depreciation:
Balance at beginning of year
Depreciation
Balance at end of year
P
=1,535
=
P206
P
=1,741
–
–
–
P
=1,535
99
8
107
=
P99
99
8
107
P
=1,634
Investment properties are stated at cost. These consist of real properties held for capital appreciation,
former substation sites and other non-regulatory asset base real properties, some of which are being
leased out.
The aggregate fair values of the investment properties as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 are as
follows:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Land
Buildings and improvements
P
=1,863
131
P
=1,853
173
Land pertains primarily to properties where the BPO building and “Strip” mall are located and other
non-regulated asset base properties.
The fair values of investment properties were determined by independent, professionally qualified
appraisers. The fair value represents the price that would be received to sell an investment property
in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
The fair value disclosures of the investment properties are categorized as Level 3 as there is no active
market for identical or similar properties. The inputs include price per square meter ranging from
=
P500 to P
=94,000. There have been no changes in the valuation techniques used.
In conducting the appraisal, the independent professional appraisers used any of the following
approaches:
a. Market Data or Comparative Approach
Under this approach, the value of the property is based on sales and listings of comparable
property registered within the vicinity. This approach requires the establishment of a comparable
property by reducing comparative sales and listings to a common denominator with the subject.
This is done by adjusting the differences between the subject property and those actual sales and
listings regarded as comparables. The properties used are either situated within the immediate
vicinity or at different floor levels of the same building, whichever is most appropriate to the
property being valued. Comparison was premised on the factors of location, size and physical
attributes, selling terms, facilities offered and time element.
*SGVFS007697*
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b. Depreciated Replacement Cost Approach
This method of valuation considers the cost to reproduce or replace in new condition the assets
appraised in accordance with current market prices for similar assets, with allowance for accrued
depreciation based on physical wear and tear and obsolescence.
11. Other Noncurrent Assets
This account consists of:
Note
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Unbilled receivables
Intangible assets
Deferred input VAT
Receivable from the BIR
Advance payments to a supplier
Deferred reinsurance premium
AFS financial assets
HTM investments
Goodwill
Others
13
8
30
31
28
P
=18,394
1,728
1,702
577
474
231
161
129
36
171
P
=23,603
P
=4,954
1,021
1,148
577
325
209
331
123
36
113
P
=8,837
Unbilled Receivables
This account represents generation and other pass-through costs incurred by MERALCO and CEDC
as DUs, which are still to be billed and which are covered by the approved recovery mechanism of
the ERC. The balance also includes other unbilled generation and pass-through charges of current
and prior periods, which are the subject of various applications for recovery and approval by the
ERC.
Intangible Assets
The movements of intangible assets are as follows:
Software
2013
Franchise
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated amortization:
Balance at beginning of year
Amortization
Balance at end of year
P
=1,525
876
2,401
P
=49
–
49
P
=1,574
876
2,450
553
169
722
P
=1,679
–
–
–
P
=49
553
169
722
P
=1,728
*SGVFS007697*
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Note
Software
2012
Franchise
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Reclassification
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated amortization:
Balance at beginning of year
Amortization
Reclassification
Balance at end of year
8
8
=
P734
315
476
1,525
=
P49
–
–
49
=
P783
315
476
1,574
94
94
365
553
=
P972
–
–
–
–
=
P49
94
94
365
553
P
=1,021
12. Cash and Cash Equivalents
This account consists of:
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Cash on hand and in banks
Cash equivalents
P
=5,129
54,722
P
=59,851
P
=3,256
57,244
P
=60,500
Cash in banks earns interest at prevailing bank deposit rates. Cash equivalents are temporary cash
investments, which are made for varying periods up to three (3) months depending on the
MERALCO Group’s immediate cash requirements, and earn interest at the prevailing short-term
investment rates.
13. Trade and Other Receivables
This account consists of:
Note
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Trade:
Electricity:
Billed
Unbilled
Service contracts
Insurance receivable
Cost and estimated earnings in excess of
billings on uncompleted contracts
Nontrade
Less allowance for doubtful accounts
11
P
=27,281
4,175
1,490
453
P
=23,338
4,630
816
383
455
2,016
35,870
3,152
P
=32,718
258
1,358
30,783
2,706
P
=28,077
*SGVFS007697*
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Billed receivables from sale of electricity of MERALCO and CEDC consist of the following:
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Commercial
Residential
Industrial
Flat streetlights
P
=10,688
6,184
6,094
372
23,338
2,559
P
=20,779
P
=12,179
9,446
5,128
528
27,281
2,969
P
=24,312
Less allowance for doubtful accounts
Movements in allowance for doubtful accounts for trade and other receivables are as follows:
2013
Balance
at beginning of
year
Provisions
(Reversals)
Write-offs
Balance
at end
of year
(Amounts in millions)
Billed trade receivables:
Commercial
Residential
Industrial
Flat streetlights
P
=1,028
556
772
203
2,559
147
P
=2,706
Nontrade receivables
P
=175
743
(201)
5
722
36
P
=758
(P
=38)
(231)
(38)
(5)
(312)
–
(P
=312)
P
=1,165
1,068
533
203
2,969
183
P
=3,152
2013
Commercial
Residential
P
=123
1,042
P
=1,165
P
=763
305
P
=1,068
Individually impaired
Collectively impaired
Flat
Industrial
Streetlights
(Amounts in millions)
P
=298
235
P
=533
Nontrade
Receivables
Total
P
=183
–
P
=183
P
=1,398
1,754
P
=3,152
P
=31
172
P
=203
2012
Balance
at beginning of
year
Provisions
(Reversals)
Write-offs
Balance
at end
of year
(Amounts in millions)
Billed trade receivables:
Commercial
Residential
Industrial
Flat streetlights
Nontrade receivables
=
P911
528
74
439
1,952
180
P
=2,132
=
P159
272
702
(139)
994
12
P
=1,006
(P
=42)
(244)
(4)
(97)
(387)
(45)
(P
=432)
P
=1,028
556
772
203
2,559
147
P
=2,706
*SGVFS007697*
- 63 2012
Individually impaired
Collectively impaired
Commercial
Residential
=
P142
886
=
P1,028
=
P345
211
=
P556
Flat
Industrial
Streetlights
(Amounts in millions)
=
P207
565
=
P772
=
P64
139
=
P203
Nontrade
Receivables
Total
=
P147
–
=
P147
=
P905
1,801
=
P2,706
Trade Receivables – Electricity
Trade receivables of MERALCO and CEDC include charges for pass-through costs. Pass-through
costs consist largely of generation and transmission charges, which represent 57% and 9%,
respectively, of the total billed amount in 2013 and 58% and 10%, respectively, of the total billed
amount in 2012. Billed receivables are due 10 days after bill date.
Unbilled receivables represent electricity consumed after the meter reading cut-off dates, which will
be billed to customers in the immediately following billing period. This also includes the current
portion of pass-through cost under-recoveries, net of over-recoveries, which are billed to the
customers over the period approved by the ERC. MERALCO’s and CEDC’s trade receivables are
noninterest-bearing and are substantially secured by bill deposits.
See Note 19 – Customers’ Deposits and Note 28 – Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.
Trade Receivables – Service Contracts
Service contracts receivables arise from contracts entered into by MIESCOR and subsidiaries, e-MVI
and subsidiary, CIS, Bayad Center, Miescorrail and MEI for construction, engineering, related
manpower, consulting, light rail maintenance, data transport, bills collection, tellering and e-business
development and energy management services to third parties.
Receivables from service contracts and others are noninterest-bearing and are generally on 30- to
60-day terms.
14. Inventories
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Materials and supplies:
At net realizable value
At cost
Total inventories at the lower of cost or
net realizable value
P
=2,750
2,953
P
=1,371
1,578
P
=2,750
P
=1,371
*SGVFS007697*
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15. Other Current Assets
Note
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Advances to an associate
Short-term investments
Pass-through VAT - net
Prepaid tax
Prepaid expenses
Creditable withholding tax
Input VAT
Derivative assets
Others
9 and 24
19 and 28
28
P
=4,884
4,841
1,116
734
290
99
77
–
126
P
=12,167
P
=–
–
1,389
475
60
127
47
24
173
P
=2,295
Pass-through VAT pertains to VAT on generation and transmission costs, as DU. Remittance of such
deferred VAT to the generation companies is based on collection of billed receivables from the
customers.
Short-term investments are temporary cash placements which are made for varying periods beyond
three (3) months but not exceeding 12 months, and earn interest at the prevailing short-term
placement investment rates.
16. Equity
Common Stock
The movement in the number of shares of MERALCO’s common stock is as follows:
2012
2013
(In millions, except par value)
Authorized - =
P10 par value a share
1,250
1,250
Issued and outstanding:
Balance at beginning and end of year
1,127
1,127
The common shares of MERALCO were listed in the PSE on January 8, 1992. There are 46,409 and
47,892 shareholders of MERALCO’s common shares as at December 31, 2013 and 2012,
respectively.
Unappropriated Retained Earnings
The unappropriated retained earnings include undeclared accumulated earnings of subsidiaries,
associates and joint ventures, and the balance of MERALCO’s revaluation increment in utility plant
and others and investment properties carried at deemed cost, deferred tax assets and derivative assets
amounting to =
P34,684 million and =
P33,019 million as at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
These amounts are restricted for dividend declaration purposes as of the close of the respective
reporting periods.
*SGVFS007697*
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The following are cash dividends declared on common shares in 2013 and 2012:
Declaration Date
Record Date
Payment Date
Dividend
Per Share
Amount
(In millions)
July 29, 2013
February 25, 2013
July 30, 2012
February 27, 2012
August 27, 2013
March 26, 2013
August 29, 2012
March 23, 2012
September 20, 2013
April 24, 2013
September 24, 2012
April 23, 2012
=
P4.10
6.10
4.00
4.10
P
=4,621
6,875
4,508
4,621
MERALCO pays regular cash dividends equivalent to 50% of consolidated core net income for the
year, which may be supplemented by a special dividend determined on a “look-back” basis.
Declaration and payment of special dividend are dependent on the availability of unrestricted
retained earnings and availability of free cash. The declaration, record and payment dates shall be
consistent with the guidelines and regulations of the SEC.
Appropriated Retained Earnings
On February 22, 2010, retained earnings of P
=6,000 million have been appropriated specifically for
the MERALCO Group’s business expansion into power generation. The amount appropriated was
increased by =
P5,000 million to cover the new development projects and investments in power
generation initiatives. The additional appropriation was approved on March 22, 2013 by the BOD.
As at March 17, 2014, the development of the first project, a 2 x 300 MW CFB coal-fired plant
through RP Energy, is ongoing. MERALCO signed a Joint Development Agreement and
Shareholders Agreement to develop a supercritical coal-fired power plant, which has a target
completion by the end of 2017.
The commercial operations date of the 600 MW power plant of RP Energy is dependent on the SC
decision on the appeal filed by RP Energy and other parties in connection with the decision reached
by the CA on the Writ of Kalikasan case filed against the RP Energy project. On the other hand, the
2 x 400 MW LNG plant of PacificLight Power was fully synchronized to the Singapore power grid in
January 2014.
See Note 9 – Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures.
Treasury Shares
Treasury shares represent subscribed shares and the related rights of employees who have opted to
withdraw from the ESPP in accordance with the provisions of the ESPP and which MERALCO
purchased. For the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, a total of 559 shares and 25,830
shares, respectively, were acquired from employees who have opted to cancel their participation in
the ESPP.
*SGVFS007697*
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17. Employee Stock Purchase Plan
MERALCO has an ESPP, which entitles participants to purchase MERALCO’s common shares
subject to certain terms and conditions during a nominated offer period. Movements in the number of
common shares subscribed by employees under the ESPP are as follows:
Balance at beginning of year
Fully paid
Cancelled
Balance at end of year
13th
3,309
(3,309)
–
–
2013
13th A
135,703
(67,370)
–
68,333
14th
7,753,272
(2,045,911)
(559)
5,706,802
Total
7,892,284
(2,116,590)
(559)
5,775,135
Balance at beginning of year
Fully paid
Cancelled
Balance at end of year
13th
1,189,306
(1,185,997)
–
3,309
2012
13th A
389,355
(251,747)
(1,905)
135,703
14th
12,284,290
(4,507,093)
(23,925)
7,753,272
Total
13,862,951
(5,944,837)
(25,830)
7,892,284
MERALCO allotted a total of 55 million common shares for ESPP awards. As at December 31, 2013,
12 million common shares are available for future offerings. There were no other ESPP awards
since October 2009.
The fair value of the offerings was estimated at the dates of the grant using the Black-Scholes Option
Pricing Model.
Total expense arising from the employee stock purchase plan is nil, P
=134 million and =
P172 million
for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
See Note 26 – Expenses and Income.
18. Interest-bearing Long-term Financial Liabilities
This account consists of the following:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Long-term portion of interest-bearing
financial liabilities Long-term debt
Current portion of interest-bearing financial liabilities:
Long-term debt
Redeemable preferred stock
P
=20,756
=
P20,466
9,459
1,562
11,021
P
=31,777
766
1,594
2,360
=
P22,826
All of the redeemable preferred shares have been called for redemption as at June 30, 2011,
consistent with the terms of the Preferred Shares Subscription Agreement. The accrued interests
amounted to P
=250 million and =
P256 million as at December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2012,
respectively. Interest is no longer accrued when the preferred shares have been called for
redemption.
*SGVFS007697*
- 67 -
The details of interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities are as follows:
Description
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Bonds
=
P11.5 Billion 7-year Bonds
P
=7.0 Billion 12-year Bonds
Fixed Rate Loans
P
=5.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
P
=4.8 Billion Note Facility Agreement
P
=3.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
P
=5.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
Floating Rate Loans
P
=2.5 Billion Term Loan Facility
P
=3.0 Billion Term Loan Facility
Total long-term debt
Less unamortized debt issuance costs
Redeemable Preferred Stock
Less current portion
Long-term portion of interest-bearing financial liabilities
P
=11,500
7,000
P
=–
–
4,900
3,417
530
–
4,950
4,776
3,000
4,900
2,475
600
30,422
207
30,215
1,562
31,777
11,021
P
=20,756
2,488
1,200
21,314
82
21,232
1,594
22,826
2,360
=
P20,466
All of MERALCO’s interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities as at December 31, 2013 and 2012
are denominated in Philippine pesos. The scheduled maturities of MERALCO’s outstanding longterm debt at nominal values as at December 31, 2013 are as follows:
Amount
(In millions)
December 31, 2014
December 31, 2015
December 31, 2016
December 31, 2017
After December 31, 2017
P
=9,459
13
12
12
20,926
P
=30,422
Bonds
=
P 18.5 Billion Fixed Rate Putable Bonds
On September 23, 2013, the BOD of MERALCO authorized the offer, sale and issuance by way of
public offering in the Philippines, 7- and 12-year corporate bonds, putable in 5 and 10 years,
respectively, with an aggregate principal amount of up to =
P15 billion with an overallotment option of
up to =
P5.0 billion. The 12-year corporate bonds also include a call option, where MERALCO may
redeem (in whole but not in part only) the outstanding bonds on the 7th year from issue date at the
early redemption price of 101.0%. The put and call options are clearly and closely related to the host
instruments, thus, were not recognized separately.
On December 12, 2013, the P
=11.5 Billion Fixed Rate Putable Bonds due in 2020 and P
=7.0 Billion
Fixed Rate Putable Bonds due in 2025, were listed on the Philippine Dealing and Exchange
Corporation.
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The net proceeds of the bonds will be utilized for refinancing certain loans including principal
payments, accrued interest, prepayment penalties and other financing costs.
Fixed Rate Loans
=
P 5.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
In June 2011, MERALCO entered into a Fixed Rate Note Facility Agreement for its =
P500 million,
7-year notes and =
P4,500 million, 10-year notes due in 2018 and 2021, respectively. The principal is
payable in nominal annual amortizations with a balloon payment on each of the two final maturity
dates.
=
P 4.8 Billion Note Facility Agreement
In November 2010, MERALCO signed a Fixed Rate Note Facility Agreement for its
P
=1,997 million, 7-year fixed rate notes and P
=2,803 million, 10-year fixed rate notes. The notes were
issued on December 2, 2010 and are payable in nominal annual amortizations with a balloon
payment on each of the two maturity dates in December 2018 and December 2020.
In December 2013, MERALCO pre-terminated and settled the principal amount of =
P1,334 million.
In January 2014, MERALCO pre-terminated and settled the remaining principal of =
P3,417 million.
=
P 3.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
On January 5, 2012, MERALCO signed a =
P3,000 million Fixed Rate Note Facility Agreement for its
P
=1,000 million, 7-year notes and =
P2,000 million, 10-year notes due in 2019 and 2022, respectively.
The notes were priced off the relevant 7-year and 10-year benchmarks plus a spread and were issued
on January 9, 2012. Principal repayments are through annual nominal amortizations and a balloon
payment on maturity date. In December 2013, MERALCO pre-terminated and settled the principal
amount of P
=2,440 million. In March 2014, MERALCO pre-terminated and settled the remaining
principal of =
P530 million.
=
P 5.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
In December 2010, MERALCO entered into a Fixed Rate Note Facility Agreement for the issuance
of =
P23 million, 5-year fixed rate notes maturing in December 2015 and P
=4,977 million, 5.5-year
fixed rate notes due in June 2016. The 5-year fixed rate notes are payable in full at maturity date
while the 5.5-year fixed rate notes are payable in nominal annual amortizations with a balloon
payment on maturity date. In December 2013, MERALCO pre-terminated and settled the entire
principal amount of P
=4,900 million.
Floating Rate Loans
=
P 2.5 Billion Term Loan Facility
The =
P2,500 million, 7-year Floating Rate Term Loan Facility, was drawn in January 2011 from a
local bank. Interest rate is repriced every six months based on 6-month PDST-F plus a spread. The
principal is payable in nominal annual amortizations with a balloon payment on final maturity in
January 2018.
=
P 3.0 Billion Term Loan Facility
The =
P3,000 million, 5-year bilateral Floating Rate Term Loan Facility, was drawn in October 2009.
The principal is payable over five years with final maturity in October 2014.
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Long-term debt totaling =
P3,947 million, pre-terminated between January to March 17, 2014 and
=
P4,850 million to be pre-terminated in June 2014, were classified as part of the current portion of the
long-term interest-bearing financial liabilities as at December 31, 2013.
The annual interest rates for the interest-bearing financial liabilities are as follows:
2013
4.38% to 4.88%
5.23% to 6.89%
0.80% to 1.74%
Bonds
Fixed Rate Loans
Floating Rate Loans
2012
–
5.23% to 7.47%
2.63% to 2.99%
Debt Covenants
MERALCO’s loan agreements require compliance with debt service coverage of 1.2 times calculated
on specific measurement dates. The agreements also contain restrictions with respect to the creation
of liens or encumbrances on assets, issuance of guarantees, mergers or consolidations, disposition of
a significant portion of its assets and related party transactions.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, MERALCO is in compliance with all covenants of the loan
agreements.
Unamortized Debt Issuance Costs
Unamortized debt issuance costs amounted to =
P207 million and =
P82 million as at December 31, 2013
and 2012, respectively.
The following presents the changes to the unamortized debt issuance costs:
Note
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Amortization charged to interest
and other financial charges
Balance at end of year
26
P
=82
186
=
P97
22
(61)
P
=207
(37)
=
P82
Redeemable Preferred Stock
The movements in the number of shares of the redeemable preferred stock, which have all been
called, are as follows:
Balance at beginning of year
Redemptions
Balance at end of year
2013
159,356,939
(3,167,771)
156,189,168
2012
165,129,647
(5,772,708)
159,356,939
The original “Terms and Conditions” of MERALCO’s Special Stock Subscription Agreement, which
required an applicant to subscribe to preferred stock with 10% dividend to cover the cost of
extension of, or new distribution facilities, have been amended by the Magna Carta and the
Distribution Services and Open Access Rule, or DSOAR, effective June 17, 2004 and
January 18, 2006, respectively. The amendment sets forth the guidelines for the issuance of preferred
stock, only if such instrument is available.
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19. Customers’ Deposits
This account consists of:
2013
Current
Portion Noncurrent
(see Note 23)
Portion
2012
Total
Current
Portion
(see Note 23)
Noncurrent
Portion
Total
=
P23,313
–
=
P23,313
=
P27,377
2,188
=
P29,565
(Amounts in millions)
Bill deposits
Meter deposits
P
=6,130
2,119
P
=8,249
P
=21,600
–
P
=21,600
P
=27,730
2,119
P
=29,849
=
P4,064
2,188
=
P6,252
Bill Deposits
Bill deposits serve to guarantee payment of bills by a customer in accordance with existing
regulations.
As provided for under the Magna Carta and DSOAR, all captive customers are required to pay a
deposit to the DU an amount equivalent to the estimated monthly bill calculated based on applied
load, which shall be recognized as bill deposit of the captive customer. Such deposit shall be
adjusted after one year based on the historical 12-month average bill. A captive customer who has
paid his electric bills on or before due date for three consecutive years may now apply for the full
refund of the bill deposit, together with the accrued interests, prior to the termination of his service;
otherwise bill deposits and accrued interests shall be refunded within one month from the termination
of service, provided all bills have been paid.
On February 22, 2010, the amended DSOAR, which became effective on April 1, 2010, was
promulgated by the ERC. Under the amended DSOAR, interest on bill deposits for both residential
and non-residential customers shall be computed using the equivalent peso savings account interest
rate of the Land Bank of the Philippines or Land Bank, or other government banks, on the first
working day of the year, subject to the confirmation of the ERC. Interest rate for bill deposits is 0.5%
per annum from January 1, 2011 until December 31, 2012 and 0.375% per annum starting
January 1, 2013.
As provided for under ERC Resolution No. 1, A Resolution Adopting the Revised Rules for the
Issuance of Licenses to Retail Electricity Suppliers, a local RES may require security deposits from
its contestable customers, which shall earn interest equivalent to the actual interest earnings of the
total amount of deposits received from the customers.
The following are the movements of the bill deposits account:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Refunds
Balance at end of year
Less portion maturing within one year
Noncurrent portion of bill deposits and related interests
P
=27,377
5,068
(4,715)
27,730
6,130
P
=21,600
=
P26,429
3,211
(2,263)
27,377
4,064
=
P23,313
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Meter Deposits
Meter deposits were intended to guarantee the cost of meters installed.
The Magna Carta for residential customers (effective June 17, 2004) and DSOAR (effective
January 18, 2006) for non-residential customers exempt all customer groups from payment of meter
deposits beginning July 2004 for residential customers and April 2006 for non-residential customers.
The ERC released Resolution No. 8, Series of 2008, otherwise known as “Rules to Govern the
Refund of Meter Deposits to Residential and Non-Residential Customers,” or Rules, which required
the refund of meter deposits from the effectivity of the said Rules on July 5, 2008. Under the Rules, a
customer has the option of receiving his refund in cash, credit to future monthly billings, or as an
offset to other due and demandable claims of the DU against him.
The total amount of refund shall be equivalent to the meter deposit paid by the customer plus the
total accrued interest earned from the time the customer paid the meter deposit until the day prior to
the start of refund.
On August 8, 2008, in compliance with the Rules, MERALCO submitted to the ERC an accounting of
the total meter deposit principal amount for refund. The actual refund of meter deposits commenced
on November 3, 2008.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, total meter deposits refunded by MERALCO amounted to
P
=977 million (inclusive of =
P503 million interest) and P
=908 million (inclusive of =
P466 million interest),
respectively.
20. Provisions
Provisions consist of amounts recognized for probable costs, charges and expenses relating to claims
against the MERALCO Group, among others. The movements follow:
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Provisions
Settlements
Balance at end of year
P
=19,411
5,331
(13)
P
=24,729
P
=16,919
2,770
(278)
P
=19,411
The balance of provisions substantially represents the amounts of claims related to a commercial
contract which remains unresolved and local taxes being contested as discussed in Note 30,
consistent with the limited disclosure as allowed in PFRS.
See Note 30 – Contingencies and Legal Proceedings.
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21. Customers’ Refund
This account represents the balance of the refund related to the SC decision promulgated on
April 30, 2003, which has not yet been claimed by the customers.
In June 2003, the ERC, in the implementation of the SC decision, ordered MERALCO to refund to its
customers an equivalent =
P0.167 per kWh for billings made from February 1994 to April 2003.
On February 7, 2011, the ERC approved MERALCO’s proposal for the extension of the SC
refund process for five (5) years up to December 31, 2015, in view of difficulties encountered by the
customers in meeting the necessary documentation requirements to claim a refund and by
MERALCO in contacting or locating terminated customers entitled to the refund.
22. Notes Payable
Notes payable represent unsecured interest-bearing working capital loans obtained from various local
banks. Annual interest rates ranged from 1.5% to 3.9% in 2013 and 3.9% to 6.5% in 2012 on pesodenominated loans.
Interest expense on notes payable amounted to =
P73 million, =
P5 million and =
P6 million in 2013, 2012
and 2011, respectively.
See Note 26 – Expenses and Income.
23. Trade Payables and Other Current Liabilities
This account consists of the following:
Note
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Trade accounts payable
Output VAT - net
Accrued expenses:
Employee benefits
Taxes
Interest
Others
Current portions of:
Bill deposits and related interests
Meter deposits and related interests
Deferred lease income
Refundable service extension costs
Dividends payable on:
Redeemable preferred stock
Common stock
Universal charges payable
Refundable transmission charges
Reinsurance liability
Regulatory fees payable
Other current liabilities
P
=43,893
5,508
P
=23,991
4,580
3,659
1,795
269
876
2,629
2,590
308
741
19
19
6,130
2,119
726
1,615
4,064
2,188
761
1,512
18
16
250
91
1,547
779
215
205
4,215
P
=73,892
256
1,023
320
180
213
204
2,016
P
=47,576
24 and 26
*SGVFS007697*
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Trade Accounts Payable
Trade accounts payable mainly represent obligations to NPC/Power Sector Assets and Liabilities
Management Corporation or PSALM, power generating companies, National Grid Corporation of the
Philippines or NGCP, and Philippine Electricity Market Corporation or PEMC, for cost of power
purchased and for cost of transmission. In addition, this account includes liabilities due to local and
foreign suppliers for purchases of goods and services, which consist of transformers, poles, materials
and supplies and, contracted services.
Trade payables are noninterest-bearing and are generally settled within the 15- to 60-day trade term.
Other payables are noninterest-bearing and are due within six (6) months from incurrence.
See Note 24 – Related Party Transactions and Note 31 - Significant Contracts and Commitments.
Refundable Service Extension Costs
Article 14 of the Magna Carta, specifically, “Right to Extension of Lines and Facilities,” requires a
customer requesting for an extension of lines and facilities beyond 30-meter service distance from
the nearest voltage facilities of the DU to advance the cost of the project. The amended DSOAR,
which became effective April 1, 2010 requires such advances from customers to be refunded at the
rate of 75% of the distribution revenue generated from the extension lines and facilities until such
amounts are fully refunded. The related asset forms part of the rate base only at the time a refund has
been paid out. Customer advances are noninterest-bearing.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, the noncurrent portion of refundable service extension costs of
P
=5,782 million and P
=4,357 million, respectively, is presented as “Refundable Service Extension
Costs - net of current portion” account in the consolidated statements of financial position.
24. Related Party Transactions
The following summarizes the total amount of transactions, which have been provided and/or
contracted by the MERALCO Group to/with related parties for the relevant financial year. The
outstanding balances are unsecured, non-interest bearing and settled in cash.
Pole Attachment Contracts with Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company or PLDT
MERALCO has a Pole Attachment Contract with PLDT similar to third party pole attachment
contracts of MERALCO with other telecommunication companies. Under the Pole Attachment
Contract, PLDT shall use the contacted cable position exclusively for its telecommunication cable
network facilities.
Sale of Electricity under Various Service Contracts
MERALCO sells electricity to related party shareholder groups such as PLDT, Metro Pacific, JG
Summit and SMC and their respective subsidiaries, and affiliates for their facilities within
MERALCO’s franchise area. The rates charged to related parties are the same ERC-mandated rates
applicable to customers within the franchise area.
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Purchase of Telecommunication Services from PLDT and Subsidiaries
The MERALCO Group’s primary telecommunications carriers are PLDT for its wireline and SMART
and Digitel Mobile Philippines, Inc., for its wireless services. Such services are covered by standard
service contracts between the telecommunications carriers and each legal entity within the
MERALCO Group.
Purchase of Goods and Services
In the ordinary course of business, the MERALCO Group purchases goods and services from its
affiliates and sells power to such affiliates.
Following is the summary of related party transactions for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012
and 2011 and the outstanding balances as at December 31, 2013 and 2012:
Category
Sale of electricity:
PLDT Group
Outstanding Receivable
(Liability)
as at December 31
Amount of Transactions
2012
2011
2012
2013
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Terms
Conditions
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured
P
= 2,599
=
P2,936
=
P2,669
P
= 160
=
P268
851
1,040
945
59
83
Metro Pacific Group
352
1,172
594
15
54
JG Summit Group*
348
–
–
293
–
658
423
451
(2)
–
251
248
314
–
–
10-day;
noninterest-bearing
10-day;
noninterest-bearing
10-day;
noninterest-bearing
10-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
212
206
197
–
–
Advance payment
50
47
43
–
–
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
Unsecured
34,885
–
–
(2,893)
–
Unsecured
13,648
–
–
(951)
–
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
SMC Group
Purchases of IT services Indra Philippines
Purchases of meters and
devices - GEPMICI
Revenue from pole
attachment - PLDT
Purchases of wireline and
wireless services PLDT Group
Purchases of power:
South Premiere Power
Corporation or SPPC
San Miguel Energy
Corporation or SMEC
Unsecured
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured
*Represents sale of electricity for the month of December 2013.
Advances to FPM Power
On March 22, 2013, FPM Power availed a loan from MPG Asia Limited amounting to
US$110 million which is payable on demand. The loan is outstanding as at December 31, 2013.
Transaction with MERALCO Pension Fund
MERALCO Pension Fund holds 6,000 common shares of RP Energy at =
P100 par value per share,
with total carrying amount of =
P600,000 or an equivalent 3% equity interest in RP Energy. The fair
value of RP Energy’s common shares cannot be reliably measured as these are not traded in the
financial market. As at December 31, 2013, the fair value of the total assets being managed by
MERALCO Pension Fund amounted to =
P34.0 billion.
*SGVFS007697*
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See Note 27 – Long-Term Employee Benefits.
Compensation of Key Management Personnel
The compensation of key management personnel of the MERALCO Group by benefit type is as
follows:
2013
2012
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Short-term employee benefits
Long-term employee and retirement benefits
Share-based payments
Total compensation to key management
personnel
P
=517
283
–
=
P432
256
31
=
P413
299
16
P
=800
=
P719
=
P728
Each of the directors is entitled to a per diem of P
=120,000 for every BOD meeting attended. Each
member of the Audit and Risk Management, Remuneration and Leadership Development (formerly
Compensation and Benefits), Finance, Governance and Nomination Committees is entitled to a fee
of =
P20,000 for every committee meeting attended.
On March 22, 2013, the BOD approved the amendment of MERALCO's By-Laws which entitles all
directors to a reasonable per diem for their attendance in meetings of the BOD and Board
Committees plus an additional compensation provided, the total value of such additional
compensation, in whatever form so given, shall not exceed one percent of the net income before tax
of MERALCO during the preceding year.
Consistent with the foregoing, the BOD approved the increase in the compensation of all members of
the BOD up to a maximum of pre-agreed amount per annum. The increase in compensation shall be
through a stock grant based on a pre-approved number of shares for each director. The
implementation of such plan was approved by the stockholders in the annual general meeting of
stockholders on May 28, 2013.
There are no agreements between the MERALCO Group and any of its key management personnel
providing for benefits upon termination of employment or retirement, except with respect to benefits
provided under the pension and provident plans. The Pension Plan covers employees hired up to
December 31, 2003 only. The Provident Plan, which is implemented on a voluntary basis, covers
employees hired beginning January 1, 2004.
25. Revenues and Purchased Power
Sale of Electricity
Electricity revenues account for 99% of the total revenues in 2013, 2012 and 2011. Following is the
breakdown of electricity revenues:
2013
2012
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Generation charge
Transmission charge
System loss charge
P
=192,558
29,191
17,138
=
P183,708
31,971
16,411
=
P157,850
32,340
15,500
(Forward)
*SGVFS007697*
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2013
2012
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Power Act Reduction adjustment
Interclass, lifeline subsidies and others
Distribution service charges
(P
=9)
(134)
56,105
P
=294,849
(P
=25)
34
50,892
=
P282,991
(P
=106)
(201)
48,606
=
P253,989
Distribution service revenue accounted for 19%, 18% and 19% of total electricity revenues in 2013,
2012 and 2011 respectively. VAT, LFT and universal charges, which are also pass-through charges
are billed and collected on behalf of the national and local governments and do not form part of total
electricity revenues.
See Note 7 – Segment Information.
Purchased Power
The details of purchased power are as follows:
2013
2012
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Generation charge
Transmission charge
P
=206,507
31,691
P
=238,198
P
=198,648
33,420
P
=232,068
P
=170,445
35,229
P
=205,674
Purchased power costs are pass-through costs and are revenue-neutral to MERALCO and CEDC, as
DUs.
Generation charge is inclusive of line rentals, market fees and must-run unit charges billed by PEMC.
Purchased power includes capacity fees, fixed operating fees and transmission line fees that are
accounted for similar to a lease under Philippine Interpretation IFRIC 4, “Determining whether an
arrangement contains a lease”. The total amounts billed by the suppliers presented as part of
“Purchased power” account in the consolidated statements of income are =
P46,170 million,
=
P18,946 million and =
P20,135 million in 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. This also includes the
actual SL incurred but no more than 8.5%. MERALCO’s actual SL rates are 6.92%, 7.04% and 7.30%
in 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
The details of purchased power follow:
2013
2012
2011
(Amounts in millions)
First Gas Power Corporation or FGPC
and FGP Corp. or FGP
PEMC/ WESM
SPPC
TransCo/NGCP
QPPL
SMEC
P
=55,360
40,600
34,885
31,691
14,251
13,648
P
=58,592
28,401
–
33,420
15,147
–
P
=58,537
20,265
–
35,229
15,687
–
(Forward)
*SGVFS007697*
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2012
2013
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Masinloc Power Partners Co. Ltd. or
MPPCL
NPC/PSALM (including NPC Successor
Generating Companies or
SGCs/Independent Power Plant
Administrators)
Sem-Calaca Power Corporation or
Sem-Calaca
Therma Luzon, Inc. or TLI
Others
P
=12,905
=
P–
=
P–
11,531
96,375
75,775
10,673
9,538
3,116
P
=238,198
–
–
133
P
=232,068
–
–
181
P
=205,674
Generation and transmission cost over/under-recoveries occur as a result of the lag in the billing and
recovery of generation and transmission costs from consumers. As at December 31, 2013 and 2012,
the total transmission cost over-recoveries included in “Other noncurrent liabilities” account in the
consolidated statements of financial position amounted to =
P6,358 million and P
=5,288 million,
respectively.
26. Expenses and Income
Salaries, Wages and Employee Benefits
Note
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
2011
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Salaries, wages and related employee
benefits
Pension
Other long-term post-employment benefits
ESPP
27
27
17
P
=9,824
1,176
258
–
P
=11,258
Note
2013
P
=9,843
1,367
261
134
=
P11,605
P
=9,017
1,465
210
172
=
P10,864
2012
2011
Other Expenses
(Amounts in millions)
Inventories
Rent and utilities
Transportation and travel
Corporate expenses
Advertising
Insurance
Communication
Others
14
24
P
=696
688
360
291
245
214
82
872
P
=3,448
=
P527
574
386
249
179
208
68
1,559
P
=3,750
=
P735
412
475
258
197
259
62
489
P
=2,887
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Interest and Other Financial Charges
2012
2013
Note
2011
(Amounts in millions)
Interest expense on interest-bearing
long-term financial liabilities,
net of interest capitalized
Interest expense on bill deposits
Interest expense on notes payable
Amortization of debt issuance costs
Interest expense on meter deposits
Others
P
=1,038
82
73
61
2
223
P
=1,479
8 and 18
19
22
18
19
P
=1,202
91
5
37
1
192
P
=1,528
P
=1,163
83
6
23
3
167
P
=1,445
2012
2011
Interest and Other Financial Income
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Interest income on cash and cash
equivalents
Carrying costs on ERC-approved
under-recoveries
Gain on return of investment
Others
P
=1,088
P
=1,762
P
=1,379
32
–
52
P
=1,172
755
–
52
P
=2,569
791
24
70
P
=2,264
27. Long-term Employee Benefits
Liabilities for long-term employee benefits consist of the following:
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Long-term incentives
Pension liability
Other long-term post-employment
benefits
P
=1,205
1,186
P
=2,592
3,279
P
=1,641
5,951
1,792
P
=4,183
2,962
P
=8,833
2,966
P
=10,558
Retirement Plan
The features of the MERALCO Group’s defined benefit plans are discussed in Note 4 – Significant
Accounting Policies.
Actuarial valuations are prepared annually by the respective independent actuaries engaged by
MERALCO and its subsidiaries.
*SGVFS007697*
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Expense recognized for defined benefit plans (included in “Salaries, wages and employee
benefits” account)
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
2011
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Current service costs
Net interest costs
Net pension expense
P
=1,041
130
P
=1,171
P
=1,045
319
P
=1,364
P
=1,097
364
P
=1,461
Actual return on plan assets
P
=2,214
P
=3,385
P
=1,987
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated See Note 4)
Pension Liability
(Amounts in millions)
Defined benefit obligation
Fair value of plan assets
Pension liability
P
=35,225
(34,039)
P
=1,186
=
P33,811
(30,532)
P
=3,279
=
P33,234
(27,283)
P
=5,951
Changes in the net pension liability are as follows:
December 31,
2012
(As restated December 31,
see Note 4)
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Pension liability at beginning of year
Net pension costs
Amounts recognized in OCI
Contributions by employer
Pension liability
P
=3,279
1,171
(278)
(2,986)
P
=1,186
P
=5,951
1,364
(2,599)
(1,437)
P
=3,279
January 1,
2012
(As restated See Note 4)
=
P9,743
1,461
(1,054)
(4,199)
=
P5,951
Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation are as follows:
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated See Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Defined benefit obligation at
beginning of year
Interest costs
Current service costs
Benefits paid
P
=33,811
1,999
1,041
(1,693)
=
P33,234
1,952
1,045
(1,573)
=
P32,729
1,958
1,097
(1,695)
(Forward)
*SGVFS007697*
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December 31,
2013
Actuarial losses (gains) due to:
Changes in financial
assumptions
Experience adjustments
Defined benefit obligation of
discontinued operations
Defined benefit obligation at end
of year
P
=671
(604)
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated See Note 4)
(P
=850)
3
=
P453
(1,140)
–
–
P
=35,225
=
P33,811
(168)
=
P33,234
Changes in the fair value of plan assets are as follows:
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Fair value of plan assets at beginning
of year
Benefits paid
Interest income
Return on plan assets, excluding
amount included in net interest
on the net defined benefit
obligation
Contributions by employer
Fair value of plan assets of
discontinued operations
Fair value of plan assets at end
of year
P
=30,532
(1,693)
1,869
=
P27,283
(1,573)
1,633
345
2,986
1,752
1,437
–
–
P
=34,039
=
P30,532
=
P22,986
(1,695)
1,594
393
4,199
(194)
=
P27,283
The Board of Trustees or BOT, which manages the retirement benefit fund, is chaired by the
chairman of MERALCO, who is neither an executive nor a beneficiary. The other members of the
BOT are (i) an independent member of the BOD; (ii) a member of the BOD who represents the
largest shareholder group; (iii) an executive member of the BOD; (iv) two (2) senior executives; and
(v) a non-executive, non-BOD member who represents another shareholder group, all of whom are
non-beneficiaries of the Plan.
The Fund follows a generally conservative investment approach where investments are diversified to
minimize risks but ensures an increase in value of the Fund assets. Substantially all of the funds of
the Plan are managed by four (4) trustee banks whose common objective is to maximize the longterm expected return of plan assets. As approved by the BOT, the funds are invested in a guided
proportion of fixed income instruments, cash investments and equities.
*SGVFS007697*
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Net carrying amount and fair value of the assets of the fund as at December 31, 2013 and 2012
amounted to P
=34,039 million and =
P30,532 million, respectively. The major categories of plan assets
are as follows:
2013
2012
(Amount in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents
Investments quoted in active markets:
Quoted equity investments
Holding firms
Electricity, energy, power and water
Food, beverages and tobacco
Banks
Property
Telecommunication
Transportation services
Construction, infrastructure and allied
services
Financial institution
Gaming
Mining
Retail
Media
Hotel and leisure
Others
Quoted debt investments
Government securities
“AAA” rated securities
Unquoted investments
Receivables
Property
Fair value of plan assets
P
=5,637
P
=3,100
1,950
1,155
908
713
608
607
283
2,247
1,480
884
839
660
295
230
82
81
75
66
44
31
15
325
158
102
130
245
92
43
–
385
11,385
7,399
10,587
6,256
1,721
954
P
=34,039
1,967
832
P
=30,532
Marketable equity securities, government securities, bonds and commercial notes are investments
held by the trustee banks. The Fund does not have any direct equity interests in MERALCO.
Other Long-term Post-employment Benefits (included as part of “Salaries, wages and
employee benefits” account)
2011
2012
(As restated - (As restated see Note 4)
See Note 4)
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Interest costs
Current service costs
P
=178
80
P
=258
P
=176
85
P
=261
P
=156
54
P
=210
*SGVFS007697*
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Other Long-term Post-employment Benefits Liability
Changes in the present value of other long-term post-employment benefits liability are as
follows:
January 1,
2012
(As restated See Note 4)
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
December 31,
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Interest costs
Current service costs
Benefits paid
Actuarial losses (gains) due to
change in assumptions
Balance at end of year
P
=2,962
178
80
(53)
P
=2,966
176
85
(73)
P
=2,471
156
54
(75)
(1,375)
P
=1,792
(192)
P
=2,962
360
P
=2,966
Actuarial Assumptions
The principal assumptions used as at January 1, 2013, 2012 and 2011 in determining pension and
other long-term post-employment benefits obligations are shown below:
Annual discount rate
Future range of annual salary increases
2013
4.5%
6.0%–10.0%
2012
6.0%
6.0%–8.0%
2011
6.0%
6.0%–8.0%
Sensitivity Analysis
The calculation of the defined benefit obligation is sensitive to the assumptions set above. The
following table summarizes how the impact on the defined benefit obligation at the end of the
reporting period would have increased (decreased) as a result of a change in the respective
assumptions by:
% Change
Effect on Present Value of
Defined Benefit Obligation
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Annual discount rate
Future range of annual salary
increases
+1.0%
-1.0%
+1.0%
(P
=2,144)
4,445
1,072
(P
=1,107)
1,107
1,161
Funding
MERALCO contributes to the Fund from time to time such amounts of money required under
accepted actuarial principles to maintain the Fund in a sound condition, subject to the provisions of
the Plan.
*SGVFS007697*
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The amount of the annual contributions to the Fund is determined through an annual valuation report
performed by the actuary.
MERALCO expects to contribute =
P1,690 million to its defined benefit pension plan in 2014.
The following is the maturity profile of the undiscounted benefit obligation:
(Amounts in
millions)
Less than one year
More than one year to five years
More than five years to 10 years
More than 10 years to 15 years
More than 15 years to 20 years
More than 20 years
P
=1,400
6,838
7,091
7,714
7,632
19,312
Risk
The Fund is exposed to the following risks:
Credit Risk
The Fund’s exposure to credit risk arises from its financial assets which comprise cash and cash
equivalents, investments and rental receivable. The credit risk results from the possible default of
the issuer of the financial instrument, with a maximum exposure equivalent to the carrying amount of
the instruments.
The credit risk is minimized by ensuring that the exposure to the various chosen financial investment
structures is limited primarily to government securities and bonds or notes duly recommended by the
Trust Committees of the Fund of the appointed fund managers.
Share Price Risk
The Pension Fund’s exposure to share price risk arises from the shares of stock it holds and being
traded at the PSE. The price risk emanates from the volatility of the stock market.
The policy is to limit investment in shares of stock to blue chip issues or issues with good fair values
or those trading at a discount to its net asset value so that in the event that market falls drastically, the
Pension Fund may still consider to hold on to such investments until the market recovers.
By having a balanced composition of holdings in the equities portfolio, exposure to industry or
sector-related risks is reduced. The mix of various equities in the portfolio reduces volatility and
contributes to a more stable return over time. Equity investments are made within the parameters of
the investment guidelines approved by the BOT. The BOT also meets periodically to review the
investment portfolio based on financial market conditions. Share prices are also monitored regularly.
Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk is the risk that the Pension Fund is unable to meet its payment obligations associated
with its financial liabilities when they fall due and to replace funds when they are withdrawn.
Liquidity risk is being managed to ensure that adequate fixed income and cash deposits are available
to service the financial obligations of the Fund. The schedule of the maturities of fixed income
investment assets are staggered by tenure or term. Policies are established to ensure that all financial
obligations are met, wherein the timing of the maturities of fixed income investments are planned
and matched to the due date of various obligations. Thus, for this investment class, maturities are
*SGVFS007697*
- 84 -
classified into short-, medium- and long-term. A certain percentage of the portfolio is left in cash to
manage liquidity and settle all currently maturing financial obligations.
MERALCO Defined Contribution Provident Plan
MERALCO has a contributory Provident Plan effective January 1, 2009, intended to be a
Supplemental Retirement Benefit for employees hired after 2004, on a voluntary basis. Each
qualified employee-member who opts to participate in the plan shall have the option to contribute up
to a maximum of 25% of his base salary. MERALCO shall match the member’s contribution up to
the first 10% of the member’s base salary. Upon resignation, the member shall be entitled to the total
amount credited to his personal retirement account immediately preceding his actual retirement date,
subject to provisions of the Provident Plan. MERALCO’s contribution to the Provident Plan
amounted to P
=5 million, P
=3 million and =
P4 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and
2011, respectively.
Consolidated Pension Benefit Cost (included in “Salaries, wages and employee
benefits” account)
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
2011
(As restated See Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Expense recognized for defined
benefit plans
Expense recognized for defined
contribution plan
Pension expense
P
=1,171
P
=1,364
P
=1,461
5
P
=1,176
3
P
=1,367
4
P
=1,465
Long-term Incentive Plan or LTIP
MERALCO’s LTIP covers qualified executives and is based on MERALCO Group’s achievement of
specified level of consolidated core net income approved by the BOD and determined on an
aggregate basis for a three year period as well as executives’ attainment of a minimum level of
performance rating. Executives invited to the plan must serve a minimum uninterrupted period to be
entitled to any pay-out.
28. Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
Financial assets consist of cash and cash equivalents and trade and nontrade receivables, which are
generated directly from operations. The principal financial liabilities, other than derivatives, consist
of bank loans, redeemable preferred shares, trade and nontrade payables, which are incurred to
finance operations in the normal course of business. Accounting policies related to financial assets
and financial liabilities are set out in Note 4 – Significant Accounting Policies, Changes and
Improvements.
*SGVFS007697*
- 85 -
The following table sets forth the financial assets and financial liabilities as at December 31, 2013
and 2012:
Loans
and
Receivables
Held-tomaturity
Investments
Fair
Value
through
Profit
or Loss
Held-fortrading
Availablefor-sale
Financial
Assets
Liabilities
Carried at
Amortized
Cost
Total
Financial
Assets and
Liabilities
(Amounts in millions)
Assets as at December 31, 2013
Noncurrent
Other noncurrent assets
Current
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables - net
Short-term investments
Advances to an associate
Total assets
Liabilities as at December 31, 2013
Noncurrent
Interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities net of current portion
Customers’ deposits - net of current portion
Refundable service extension costs - net of
current portion
Current
Notes payable
Trade payables and other current liabilities
Customers’ refund
Current portion of interest-bearing long-term
financial liabilities
Total liabilities
Net Assets (Liabilities)
P
= 474
P
= 129
P
=–
P
=–
P
= 161
P
=–
P
= 764
59,851
28,543
4,841
4,884
98,593
–
–
–
–
129
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
161
–
–
–
–
–
59,851
28,543
4,841
4,884
98,883
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
20,756
21,600
20,756
21,600
–
–
–
–
–
5,782
5,782
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1,814
57,113
6,013
1,814
57,113
6,013
–
–
P
= 98,593
–
–
P
= 129
–
–
P
=–
–
–
P
=–
–
–
P
= 161
Held-tomaturity
Investments
Fair
Value
through
Profit
or Loss
Held-fortrading
Availablefor-sale
Financial
Assets
Liabilities
Carried at
Amortized
Cost
Total
Financial
Assets and
Liabilities
Loans
and
Receivables
11,021
124,099
(P
= 124,099)
11,021
124,099
(P
= 25,216)
(Amounts in millions)
Assets as at December 31, 2012
Noncurrent
Other noncurrent assets
Current
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables - net
Other current assets - derivative assets
Total assets
Liabilities as at December 31, 2012
Noncurrent
Interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities net of current portion
Customers’ deposits - net of current portion
Refundable service extension costs - net of
current portion
Current
Notes payable
Trade payables and other current liabilities
Customers’ refund
Current portion of interest-bearing long-term
financial liabilities
Total liabilities
Net Assets (Liabilities)
=
P325
=
P123
=
P–
=
P–
=
P331
=
P–
=
P779
60,500
23,447
–
84,272
–
–
–
123
–
–
24
24
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
331
–
–
–
–
60,500
23,447
24
84,750
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
20,466
23,313
20,466
23,313
–
–
–
–
–
4,357
4,357
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1,787
34,966
6,127
1,787
34,966
6,127
–
–
=
P84,272
–
–
=
P123
–
–
P
=24
–
–
=
P–
–
–
=
P331
2,360
93,376
(P
=93,376)
2,360
93,376
(P
=8,626)
*SGVFS007697*
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Fair Values
The fair values of the financial assets and financial liabilities are prices that would be received to sell
the financial assets or paid to transfer the financial liabilities in orderly transactions between market
participants at the measurement date. Set out below is a comparison of carrying amounts and fair
values of MERALCO Group’s financial instruments as at December 31, 2013 and 2012.
2013
Carrying Value
Fair Value
2012
Carrying Value
Fair Value
(Amounts in millions)
Financial assets
Loans and receivables Advances to a supplier
Fair value through profit or loss Derivative asset
Available-for-sale financial assets
Financial liabilities
Financial liabilities carried at amortized cost Interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities
P
=474
P
=522
=
P325
=
P409
–
161
P
=635
–
161
P
=683
24
331
=
P680
24
331
=
P764
P
=31,777
P
=32,176
=
P22,826
=
P24,787
The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each class of
financial instrument for which it is practicable to estimate such value:
Cash and Cash Equivalents, Short-term Investments, Trade and Other Receivables, Advances to
an Associate, Trade Payables and Other Current Liabilities and Notes Payable
Due to the short-term nature of transactions, the fair values of these instruments approximate their
carrying amounts as at reporting date.
Advances to a Supplier
The fair values of advances to a supplier were computed by discounting the instruments’ expected
future cash flows using the rates of 3.76% as at December 31, 2013 and 4.16% as of
December 31, 2012.
Bifurcated Foreign Currency Forward and Foreign Currency Forward
The fair values of embedded currency forwards and freestanding currency forwards were calculated
by reference to forward exchange market rates.
AFS Investments
The fair values were determined by reference to market bid quotes as at reporting date. The unquoted
equity securities were carried at cost.
*SGVFS007697*
- 87 -
Meter Deposits and Customers’ Refund
Meter deposits and customers’ refund are due and demandable. Thus, the fair values of these
instruments approximate their carrying amounts.
Bill Deposits
The carrying amount of bill deposits approximates their fair values as bill deposits are interestbearing.
Interest-bearing Long-term Financial Liabilities
The fair values of interest-bearing long-term debt (except for redeemable preferred stock) were
computed by discounting the instruments’ expected future cash flows using the rates ranging from
0.52% to 4.29% as at December 31, 2013 and 1.65% to 4.49% as of December 31, 2012.
Redeemable Preferred Stock
The carrying amount of the preferred stock represents the fair value. Such preferred shares have been
called and are payable anytime upon presentation by the shareholder of their certification. This is
included under “Interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities” account.
Refundable Service Extension Costs
The fair values of refundable service extension costs cannot be reliably measured since the timing of
related cash flows cannot be reasonably estimated and are accordingly measured at cost.
Fair Value Hierarchy
MERALCO uses the following hierarchy in determining and disclosing the fair value of financial
instruments by valuation technique:
ƒ
Level 1: quoted (unadjusted) prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
ƒ
Level 2: other techniques where all inputs have a significant effect on the recorded fair value are
observable, either directly or indirectly
ƒ
Level 3: techniques where inputs have a significant effect on the recorded fair value that are not
based on observable market data
Below is the list of financial assets and financial liabilities that are classified using the fair value
hierarchy:
Financial assets
Advances to a supplier
AFS investments
Derivative assets
Financial liabilities
Interest-bearing long-term
financial liabilities
December 31, 2012
Level 3
Total
December 31, 2013
Level 1
Level 3
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Level 2
P
=522
161
–
P
=683
=
P–
128
–
=
P128
=
P–
–
24
=
P24
=
P409
203
–
=
P612
=
P409
331
24
=
P764
P
=32,176
=
P–
=
P–
=
P24,787
=
P24,787
Level 1
Level 2
P
=–
124
–
P
=124
P
=–
–
–
P
=–
P
=522
37
–
P
=559
P
=–
P
=–
P
=32,176
*SGVFS007697*
- 88 -
For the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, there were no transfers between Level 1 and
Level 2 fair value measurements, and no transfers into and out of Level 3 fair value measurements.
Financial Risk Management Objectives and Policies
The main risks arising from the financial instruments are interest rate risk, foreign currency risk,
commodity price risk, credit risk and liquidity risk. The importance of managing these risks has
significantly increased in light of the considerable change and volatility in the Philippine and
international financial markets. The BOD reviews and approves policies for managing each of these
risks. Management monitors the market price risk arising from all financial instruments. The policies
for managing these risks are as follows:
Interest Rate Risk
The MERALCO Group’s exposure to the changes in market interest rates relate primarily to the longterm interest-bearing financial liabilities.
The MERALCO Group’s policy is to manage its interest rate risk exposure using a mix of fixed and
variable rate debts. The strategy, which yields a reasonably lower effective cost based on market
conditions, is adopted. Refinancing of fixed rate loans may also be undertaken to manage interest
cost. Approximately 90% and 83% of the borrowings bear fixed rate of interest as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
The following table sets out the maturity profile of the financial instruments that are exposed to
interest rate risk (exclusive of debt issuance costs):
Within
1 Year
Over 1–2
Years
Over 2–3
Years
Over 3–4
Years
Over 4–5
Years
More
than 5
Years
Total
P
=–
2,425
P
=3,075
3,688
(Amounts in millions)
December 31, 2013
December 31, 2012
P
=612
613
P
=13
612
P
=13
13
P
=12
13
P
=2,425
12
Floating interest rate of bank loans is repriced at intervals of less than one year. The other financial
liabilities of MERALCO Group that are not included in the foregoing have fixed interest rate and are
therefore not subject to interest rate risk.
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity to a reasonably possible change in interest rates,
with all other variables held constant, of MERALCO’s profit before tax as at December 31, 2013 and
2012 through the impact on floating rate borrowings. There is no other impact on MERALCO’s
equity other than those already affecting the consolidated statement of income.
Increase
(Decrease) in
Basis Points
2013
Effect on
Profit
before Tax
Increase
(Decrease) in
Basis Points
2012
Effect on
Profit
before Tax
(Amounts in millions)
Floating rate loans from various banks
+100
(100)
(P
=31)
31
+100
(100)
(P
=37)
37
*SGVFS007697*
- 89 -
Interest expense of floating rate loans for the year is computed by taking into account actual principal
movements, based on management’s best estimate of a +/-100 basis points change in interest rates.
There has been no change in the methods and assumptions used by the management in the above
analysis.
Foreign Currency Risk
The revaluation of any of foreign currency-denominated financial assets and financial liabilities as a
result of the appreciation or depreciation of the Philippine peso is recognized as foreign exchange
gains or losses as at the end of each reporting year. The extent of foreign exchange gains or losses is
largely dependent on the amount of foreign currency-denominated financial instruments. While an
insignificant percentage of the MERALCO Group’s revenues and liabilities is denominated in U.S.
dollars, a substantial portion of the MERALCO Group’s capital expenditures for electricity capital
projects and a portion of the operating expenses are denominated in foreign currencies, mostly in
U.S. dollars. As such, a strengthening or weakening of the Philippine peso against the U.S. dollar
will decrease or increase in Philippine peso terms, the principal amount of the MERALCO Group’s
foreign currency-denominated liabilities and the related interest expense, foreign currencydenominated capital expenditures and operating expenses as well as U.S. dollar-denominated
revenues.
The following table shows the consolidated foreign currency-denominated financial assets and
financial liabilities as at December 31, 2013 and 2012, translated to Philippine peso at =
P44.395 and
=
P41.050 to $1, respectively.
2012
2013
U.S.Dollar
Peso Equivalent
U.S.Dollar
Peso Equivalent
(Amounts in millions)
Financial assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables
Advances to an associate
Advance payments to a supplier
Financial liabilities Trade payables and other liabilities
$65
3
110
11
189
P
=2,864
148
4,884
474
8,370
$47
1
–
8
56
=
P1,913
53
–
325
2,291
(46)
$143
(2,043)
P
=6,327
(139)
($83)
(5,724)
(P
=3,433)
All of MERALCO’s long-term financial liabilities are denominated in Philippine peso. However, an
insignificant portion of its trade payables are denominated in U.S. dollar. Thus, the impact of
=
P1 movement of the Philippine Peso against the U.S. dollar will not have a significant impact on
MERALCO’s obligations. Further, PBR assumes a forecast level of foreign currency movements in
its calculation of the regulatory asset base and expenditures. PBR also allows for adjustment of the
rates MERALCO charges should there be significant deviations in the foreign exchange forecast from
what is actually realized.
*SGVFS007697*
- 90 -
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity to a reasonably possible change in the U.S. dollar
exchange rate vis-a-vis the peso, with all other variables held constant, of the MERALCO Group’s
income before income tax for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 (due to changes in the
fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities). There is no other impact on MERALCO’s
equity other than those already affecting the profit and loss.
2012
2013
U.S. dollar-denominated financial assets
and financial liabilities
Effect on
Income
before Income
Tax
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
of U.S. Dollar
Effect on
Income
before Income
Tax
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
of U.S. Dollar
(In %)
(In millions)
(In %)
(In millions)
+5
–5
(P
=170)
170
+5
–5
P
=317
(317)
Foreign exchange gain or loss for the year is computed based on management’s best estimate of a
+/–5 percent change in the closing Philippine peso to U.S. dollar conversion rate using the year-end
balances of U.S. dollar-denominated cash and cash equivalents, receivables and liabilities. There has
been no change in the methods and assumptions used by management in the foregoing analysis.
Commodity Price Risk
Commodity price risk is the risk that the fair value or cash flows of a financial instrument will
fluctuate because of changes in commodity prices. The exposure of MERALCO and CEDC to price
risk is minimal. The cost of fuel is part of MERALCO’s and CEDC’s generation costs that are
recoverable through the generation charge in the billings to customers.
Credit Risk
Credit risk is the risk that the MERALCO Group is exposed to as a result of its customers, clients or
counterparties failing to discharge their contracted obligations. The MERALCO Group manages and
controls credit risk by setting limits on the amount of risk that it is willing to accept for individual
counterparties and by monitoring exposures in relation to such limits.
MERALCO as a franchise holder serving public interest cannot refuse customer connection. To
mitigate risk, the DSOAR allows MERALCO to collect bill deposit equivalent to one month’s
consumption to secure credit. Also, as a policy, disconnection notices are sent three days after the
bill due date and disconnections are carried out beginning on the third day after receipt of
disconnection notice.
The MERALCO subsidiaries trade only with recognized, creditworthy third parties. It is the
MERALCO Group’s policy that all customers who wish to trade on credit terms are subject to credit
verification procedures. In addition, receivables are monitored on an ongoing basis to reduce
exposure to bad debt.
With respect to placements of cash with financial institutions, these institutions are subject to the
MERALCO Group’s accreditation evaluation based on liquidity and solvency ratios and on the
bank’s credit rating. The MERALCO Group transacts derivatives only with similarly accredited
financial institutions. In addition, the MERALCO Group’s deposit accounts in banks are insured by
the Philippine Deposit Insurance Corporation up to =
P500,000 per bank account.
Credit risk on other financial assets, which include cash and cash equivalents, trade and other
receivables, short-term investments and certain derivative instruments, arises from the potential
default of the counterparty.
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Finally, credit quality review procedures are in place to provide regular identification of changes in
the creditworthiness of counterparties. Counterparty limits are established and reviewed periodically
based on latest available financial information of counterparties, credit ratings and liquidity. The
MERALCO Group’s credit quality review process allows it to assess any potential loss as a result of
the risks to which it may be exposed and to take corrective actions.
There are no significant concentrations of credit risk within the MERALCO Group.
The table below shows the maximum exposure to credit risk for the components of the consolidated
statements of financial position as at December 31, 2013 and 2012. The maximum exposure is
equivalent to the nominal amount of the accounts.
Gross Maximum Exposure
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash in banks
Cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables:
Billed electricity
Service contracts
Insurance receivable
Cost of estimated earnings in excess of billings
on uncompleted contracts
Nontrade receivables
Other current assets:
Short-term investments
Advances to an associate
Derivatives
Other noncurrent assets:
Advance payments to suppliers
HTM investments
P
=4,994
54,722
P
=3,250
57,244
24,312
1,310
453
20,779
671
383
455
2,013
258
1,356
4,841
4,884
–
–
–
24
474
129
P
=98,587
325
123
P
=84,413
The credit quality of financial assets is managed by MERALCO using “High Grade,” “Standard
Grade” and “Sub-standard Grade” for accounts, which are neither impaired nor past due as internal
credit ratings. The following tables show the credit quality by asset class:
2013
Neither Past Due nor Impaired
SubHigh
Standard
standard
Grade
Grade
Grade
Past Due
but not
Impaired
Impaired
Financial
Assets
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cash in banks and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables:
Billed electricity
Service contracts
Insurance receivable
Cost of estimated earnings in
excess of billings on
uncompleted contracts
Nontrade receivables
P
=59,716
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
P
=59,716
6,048
1,118
33
3,583
–
–
9,064
–
304
5,616
192
116
2,970
180
–
27,281
1,490
453
455
1,883
–
8
–
20
–
103
–
2
455
2,016
(Forward)
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2013
Neither Past Due nor Impaired
SubHigh
Standard
standard
Grade
Grade
Grade
Past Due
but not
Impaired
Impaired
Financial
Assets
Total
P
=–
–
–
P
=6,027
P
=–
–
–
P
=3,152
P
=4,841
4,884
603
P
=101,739
Sub- Past Due but
standard
not
Grade
Impaired
Impaired
Financial
Assets
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Other current assets:
Short-term investments
Advances to an associate
Other noncurrent assets
P
=4,841
–
–
P
=74,094
P
=–
4,884
–
P
=8,475
P
=–
–
603
P
=9,991
2012
Neither Past Due nor Impaired
High
Grade
Standard
Grade
(Amounts in millions)
Cash in banks and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables:
Billed electricity
Service contracts
Insurance receivable
Cost of estimated earnings in
excess of billings on
uncompleted contracts
Nontrade receivables
Derivative assets
Other noncurrent assets
=
P60,494
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
=
P60,494
5,946
671
313
3,313
–
–
8,513
–
–
3,007
–
70
2,559
145
–
23,338
816
383
258
954
24
–
=
P68,660
–
151
–
–
=
P3,464
–
3
–
448
=
P8,964
–
248
–
–
=
P3,325
–
2
–
–
=
P2,706
258
1,358
24
448
=
P87,119
Credit ratings are determined as follows:
ƒ
“High Grade”
‘High’ grade financial assets include “cash in banks and cash equivalents and derivative assets to
counterparties with good credit rating or bank standing. Consequently, credit risk is minimal.
These counterparties include large prime financial institutions, large industrial companies and
commercial establishments, and government agencies. For trade receivables, these consist of
current month’s billings (less than 30 days) that are expected to be collected within 10 days from
the time bills are delivered.
ƒ
“Standard Grade”
‘Standard’ grade financial assets include trade receivables that consist of current month’s billings
(less than 30 days) that are expected to be collected before due date (10 to 14 days after bill
date).
ƒ
“Sub-standard Grade”
‘Sub-standard’ grade financial assets include trade receivables that consist of current month’s
billings, which are not expected to be collected within 60 days.
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The following table shows the aging analysis of financial assets as at December 31, 2013 and 2012:
2013
Neither
Past Due
nor
Impaired
Past Due But Not Impaired
31–60
61–90
Over
Days
Days
90 Days
Impaired
Financial
Assets
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash equivalents
Cash in banks
Trade and other receivables:
Trade:
Billed electricity
Service contracts
Insurance receivable
Cost and estimated earnings in excess of
billings on uncompleted contracts
Nontrade receivables
Other current assets:
Short-term investments
Advances to associate
Other noncurrent assets:
Advance payments to a supplier
HTM investments
P
=54,722
4,994
P
=–
–
P
=–
–
P
=–
–
P
=–
–
P
=54,722
4,994
18,695
1,118
337
2,068
–
5
504
–
9
3,044
192
102
2,970
180
–
27,281
1,490
453
455
1,911
–
22
–
5
–
76
–
2
455
2,016
4,841
4,884
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4,841
4,884
474
129
P
=92,560
–
–
P
=2,095
–
–
P
=518
–
–
P
=3,414
–
–
P
=3,152
474
129
P
=101,739
Past Due But Not Impaired
31–60
61–90
Over
Days
Days
90 Days
Impaired
Financial
Assets
Total
2012
Neither
Past Due
nor
Impaired
(Amounts in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash in banks
Cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables:
Trade:
Billed electricity
Service contracts
Insurance receivable
Cost and estimated earnings in excess of
billings on uncompleted contracts
Nontrade receivables
Other current assets Derivative assets
Other noncurrent assets:
Advance payments to a supplier
HTM investments
=
P3,250
57,244
=
P–
–
=
P–
–
=
P–
–
=
P–
–
=
P3,250
57,244
17,772
671
313
1,896
–
11
628
–
12
483
–
47
2,559
145
–
23,338
816
383
258
1,108
–
9
–
6
–
233
–
2
258
1,358
24
–
–
–
–
24
325
123
=
P81,088
–
–
=
P1,916
–
–
=
P646
–
–
=
P763
–
–
=
P2,706
325
123
=
P87,119
Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk is the risk that the MERALCO Group will be unable to meet its payment obligations
when these fall due. The MERALCO Group manages this risk through monitoring of cash flows in
consideration of future payment of obligations and the collection of its trade receivables. The
MERALCO Group also ensures that there are sufficient, available and approved working capital lines
that it can draw from at any time.
The MERALCO Group maintains an adequate amount of cash and cash equivalents and government
securities, which may be readily converted to cash in any unforeseen interruption of its cash
collections. The MERALCO Group also maintains accounts with several relationship banks to avoid
significant concentration of funds with one institution.
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The following table sets out the maturity profile of the financial liabilities based on contractual
undiscounted payments plus future interest:
2013
Less than
3 Months
Notes payable
Trade payables and other current liabilities
Customers’ refund
Interest-bearing long-term financial
liabilities:
Floating rate borrowings
Fixed rate borrowings
Bonds payable
Redeemable preferred stock
Customers’ deposits
Refundable service extension costs
Total undiscounted financial liabilities
Over 3–12
Over 1–5
Months
Years
(Amounts in millions)
More than
5 Years
Total
P
=1,816
47,018
6,013
P
=–
231
–
P
=–
–
–
P
=–
–
–
P
=1,816
47,249
6,013
14
3,975
211
1,562
3,179
–
P
=63,788
601
5,057
645
–
5,070
1,615
P
=13,219
2,592
–
3,427
–
4,151
2,772
P
=12,942
–
–
21,716
–
17,449
3,010
P
=42,175
3,207
9,032
25,999
1,562
29,849
7,397
P
=132,124
More than
5 Years
Total
2012
Less than
3 Months
Notes payable
Trade payables and other current liabilities
Customers’ refund
Interest-bearing long-term financial
liabilities:
Floating rate borrowings
Fixed rate borrowings
Redeemable preferred stock
Customers’ deposits
Refundable service extension costs
Total undiscounted financial liabilities
Over 3–12
Over 1–5
Months
Years
(Amounts in millions)
=
P283
26,076
6,127
P
=2,224
1,126
–
=
P–
–
–
=
P–
–
–
P
=2,507
27,202
6,127
35
388
1,594
640
1,512
=
P36,655
684
847
–
5,612
–
=
P10,493
847
11,206
–
169
4,357
=
P16,579
2,447
12,361
–
23,144
–
=
P37,952
4,013
24,802
1,594
29,565
5,869
P
=101,679
The maturity profile of bill deposits is not determinable since the timing of each refund is linked to
the cessation of service, which is not reasonably predictable. However, MERALCO estimates that the
amount of bill deposits (including related interest) of =
P6,130 million will be refunded within the
year. This is shown as part of “Trade payables and other current liabilities” account in the
consolidated statement of financial position as at December 31, 2013.
Capital Management
The primary objective of the MERALCO Group’s capital management is to enhance shareholder
value. The capital structure is reviewed with the end view of achieving a competitive cost of capital
and at the same time ensuring that returns on, and of, capital are consistent with the levels approved
by its regulators for its core distribution business.
The capital structure optimization plan is complemented by efforts to improve capital efficiency to
increase yields on invested capital. This entails efforts to improve the efficiency of capital assets,
working capital and non-core assets.
*SGVFS007697*
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The MERALCO Group monitors capital using debt to equity ratio, which is gross debt divided by
equity attributable to the holders of the parent. The MERALCO Group considers long-term debt,
redeemable preferred stock and notes payable as debt.
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions,
except debt to equity ratio)
Long-term debt
Redeemable preferred stock
Notes payable
Debt (a)
Equity attributable to the holders of the parent (b)
Debt to equity ratio (a)/(b)
P
=30,215
1,562
1,814
33,591
75,162
0.45
=
P21,232
1,594
1,787
24,613
67,902
0.36
29. Income Taxes and Local Franchise Taxes
Income Taxes
The components of net deferred tax assets (liabilities) as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 are as
follows:
2012
(As restated Note
see Note 4)
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Deferred tax assets:
Provisions for various claims
Accrued employee benefits
Unfunded pension cost and unamortized
past service cost
Allowance for doubtful accounts
Allowance for excess of cost over net
realizable value of inventories
Others
Deferred tax liabilities:
Revaluation increment in utility plant
and others
Depreciation method differential
Capitalized interest
Capitalized duties and taxes deducted
in advance
Net book value of capitalized/realized
foreign exchange losses
Others
P
=12,682
899
P
=9,503
1,007
480
945
1,577
777
14
61
324
15,391
62
412
13,338
16
7,389
1,082
744
7,645
1,124
751
651
655
22
123
10,011
P
=5,380
37
76
10,288
P
=3,050
20
13
*SGVFS007697*
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Provision for income tax consists of:
2011
2012
(As restated (As restated see Note 4)
see Note 4)
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Current
Deferred
P
=9,889
(2,835)
P
=7,054
P
=9,490
(3,749)
P
=5,741
P
=8,454
(2,501)
P
=5,953
A reconciliation between the provision for (benefit from) income tax computed at statutory income
tax rate of 30% in 2013, 2012 and 2011, and provision for (benefit from) income tax as shown in the
consolidated statements of income is as follows:
2012
2013
(As restated see Note 4)
2011
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Income tax computed at statutory
tax rate of:
Continuing operations
Discontinued operations
Income tax effects of:
Interest income subjected to lower
final tax rate
Nondeductible interest expense
Nontaxable income
Equity in net losses (earnings) of
associates and joint ventures
Nondeductible expenses
Others
Less provision for income tax of
discontinued operations
P
=7,298
–
7,298
P
=6,607
318
6,925
P
=5,624
386
6,010
(314)
130
(113)
(521)
213
(262)
(590)
236
(10)
78
–
(25)
7,054
45
40
(616)
5,824
(20)
593
56
6,275
–
P
=7,054
83
P
=5,741
322
P
=5,953
On December 18, 2009, the BIR issued Revenue Regulation, or RR No. 16-2008, which implemented
the provisions of RA No. 9504 on Optional Standard Deductions or OSD. Such regulation allows
both individual and corporate taxpayers to use OSD in computing their taxable income. For
corporations, they may elect to adopt standard deduction in an amount not exceeding 40% of gross
income in lieu of the allowed itemized deductions. For the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012
and 2011, none of the entities in the MERALCO Group availed of the OSD in computing taxable
income, except for RSIC and CFS.
The temporary difference for which deferred tax assets have not been recognized pertains to the tax
effect of net operating loss carryover amounting =
P717 million and P
=513 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
*SGVFS007697*
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NOLCO totaling to =
P717 million may be claimed as deduction against taxable income as follows:
Date Incurred
Expiry Date
Amount
(In millions)
December 31, 2011
December 31, 2012
December 31, 2013
December 31, 2014
December 31, 2015
December 31, 2016
P
=106
194
417
P
=717
LFT
Consistent with the decisions of the ERC, LFT is a recoverable charge of the DU in the particular
province or city imposing and collecting the LFT. It is presented as a separate line item in the
customer’s bill and computed as a percentage of the sum of generation, transmission, distribution
services and related system loss charges.
The Implementing Rules and Regulations issued by the ERC provide that local franchise taxes shall
be paid only on its distribution wheeling and captive market supply revenues. Pending the
promulgation of guidelines from the relevant government agencies, MERALCO is paying LFT based
on the sum of the foregoing charges in the customers’ bill.
30. Contingencies and Legal Proceedings
Overpayment of Income Tax related to SC Refund
With the decision of the SC for MERALCO to refund =
P0.167 per kWh to cover customers during the
billing period February 1994 to May 2003, MERALCO overpaid income tax in the amount of
=
P7,107 million for taxable years 1994 to 1998 and 2000 to 2001. Accordingly, MERALCO filed a
claim on November 27, 2003 for the recovery of such excess income taxes paid. After examination
of the books of MERALCO for the covered periods, the BIR determined that MERALCO had in fact
overpaid income taxes in the amount of P
=6,690 million. However, the BIR also maintained that
MERALCO is entitled to a refund amount of only =
P894 million, which pertains to taxable year 2001,
claiming that the period for filing a claim had prescribed in respect of the difference between
MERALCO’s overpayment and the refund amount MERALCO is entitled to.
The BIR then approved the refund of =
P894 million for issuance of tax credit certificates or TCCs,
proportionate to the actual refund of claims to utility customers. The BIR initially issued TCCs
amounting to =
P317 million corresponding to actual refund to customers as at August 31, 2005.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, the amount of unissued TCCs amounting to =
P577 million refund
entitlement is presented as part of “Other noncurrent assets” account in the consolidated statements
of financial position.
See Note 11 – Other Noncurrent Assets.
MERALCO filed a Petition with the Court of Tax Appeals or CTA, assailing the denial by the
BIR of its income tax refund claim of P
=5,796 million for the years 1994 - 1998 and 2000, arising
from the SC decision (net of =
P894 million as approved by the BIR for taxable year 2001). In a
decision dated December 6, 2010, the CTA’s Second Division granted MERALCO’s claim and
ordered the BIR to refund or to issue tax credit certificate in favor of MERALCO in the amount of
*SGVFS007697*
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P
=5,796 million in proportion to the tax withheld on the total amount that has been actually given or
credited to its customers.
On appeal by the BIR to the CTA En Banc, MERALCO’s petition was dismissed on the ground of
prescription in the Decision of the CTA En Banc dated May 8, 2012. On Motion for Reconsideration
by MERALCO of the said dismissal, the CTA En Banc partly granted MERALCO’s motion and
issued an Amended Decision dated November 13, 2012, ruling that MERALCO’s claim was not yet
barred by prescription and remanding the case back to the CTA Second Division for further reception
of evidence.
The BIR filed a Motion for Reconsideration of the above Amended Decision, while MERALCO filed
its Motion for Partial Reconsideration or Clarification of Amended Decision. Both parties filed their
respective Comments to the said motions, and these were submitted for resolution at the CTA En
Banc.
In a Resolution promulgated on May 22, 2013, the CTA denied the said motions of the BIR and
MERALCO, and the CTA Second Division was ordered to receive evidence and rebuttal evidence
relating to MERALCO's level of refund to customers, pertaining to the excess charges it made in
taxable years 1994-1998 and 2000, but corresponding to the amount of P
=5,796 million, as already
determined by the said court.
On July 12, 2013, the BIR appealed the CTA En Banc's Amended Decision dated November 13, 2012
and Resolution dated May 22, 2013 via Petition for Review with the SC.
Overpayment of Income Tax Related to Change in Tax Basis
On February 4, 2008, the SC denied with finality a motion for reconsideration filed by the
Commissioner of Internal Revenue or CIR, against MERALCO, with respect to the issue on excess
income tax paid by the latter. The SC affirmed a CA decision and ordered the CIR to refund or issue
a TCC in favor of MERALCO for =
P107 million representing overpaid income taxes for taxable years
1987 and 1988. The overpayment is in accordance with the effectivity of Executive Order No. 72,
which subjected MERALCO to regular corporate income tax instead of 2% franchise tax based on
gross receipts it was previously liable for. On February 5, 2013, MERALCO filed a Motion for
Issuance of a Writ of Execution with the CTA to enforce the judgment of the SC. On
February 14, 2013, the CTA promulgated a Resolution ordering the CIR and the OSG to comment on
the Motion filed by MERALCO. On March 14, 2013, the CTA promulgated a Resolution granting
the Motion of MERALCO and directed the issuance of corresponding Writ of Execution.
LFT Assessments of Municipalities
Certain municipalities have served assessment notices on MERALCO for LFT. As provided in the
Local Government Code or LGC, only cities and provincial governments may impose taxes on
establishments doing business in their localities. On the basis of the foregoing, MERALCO and its
legal counsel believe that MERALCO is not subject or liable for such assessments.
Real Property Tax or RPT Assessments
Several Local Government Units or LGUs, assessed MERALCO for deficiency RPTs on certain
assets of MERALCO. The assets include electric poles, wires, insulators, and transformers,
collectively referred to as TWIP. Of these LGUs, one has secured a favorable decision from the CA.
Such decision was appealed by MERALCO to the SC for the benefit of MERALCO customers, where
*SGVFS007697*
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it is now submitted for resolution. The cases of the other LGUs are pending with their respective
administrative bodies or government offices.
MERALCO also filed a case against the City of Manila before Regional Trial Court – Pasig branch or
RTC-Pasig, to enjoin the collection of RPT on MERALCO’s TWIP and nullify RPT assessments
made thereon based on the argument that these are not within the ambit of the definition of real
property under the LGC. The case is set for mediation after the City of Manila filed its comments on
MERALCO’s petition.
In the event that the assessment is sustained by the SC and payment is warranted or appropriate,
MERALCO will file for the recovery of any resulting RPT payments from customers in the relevant
LGU through a separate application with the ERC.
Mediation with NPC
The NPC embarked on a Power Development Program or PDP, which consisted of contracting
generating capacities and the construction of its own, as well as private sector, generating plants,
following a crippling power supply crisis. To address the concerns of the creditors of NPC, namely,
Asian Development Bank and the World Bank, the Department of Energy or DOE required that
MERALCO enter into a long-term supply contract with the NPC.
Accordingly, on November 21, 1994, MERALCO entered into a 10-year Contract for Sale of
Electricity or CSE, with NPC to commence on January 1, 1995. The CSE and the rates and amounts
charged to MERALCO therein, were approved by the BOD of NPC and the then Energy Regulatory
Board, respectively.
Separately, the DOE further asked MERALCO to provide a market for half of the output of the
Camago–Malampaya gas field to enable its development and production of natural gas, which was to
generate significant revenues for the Philippine Government and equally significant foreign
exchange savings for the country to the extent of the fuel imports, which the domestic volume of
natural gas will displace.
MERALCO’s actual purchases from NPC exceeded the contract level in the first seven years of the
CSE. However, the 1997 Asian crisis resulted in a significant curtailment of energy demand.
While the events were beyond the control of MERALCO, NPC did not honor MERALCO’s good faith
notification of its off-take volumes. A dispute ensued and both parties agreed to enter into mediation.
The mediation resulted in the signing of a Settlement Agreement or SA, between the parties on
July 15, 2003. The SA was approved by the respective BODs of NPC and MERALCO. The net
settlement amount of =
P14,320 million was agreed upon by NPC and MERALCO and manifested
before the ERC through a Joint Compliance dated January 19, 2006. The implementation of the SA is
subject to the approval of ERC.
Subsequently, the Office of the Solicitor General or OSG filed a “Motion for Leave to Intervene with
Motion to Admit Attached Opposition to the Joint Application and Settlement Agreement between
NPC and MERALCO.” As a result, MERALCO sought judicial clarification with the
RTC-Pasig. Pre-trials were set which MERALCO complied with and attended. However, the OSG
refused to participate in the pre-trial and opted to seek a TRO from the CA.
*SGVFS007697*
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In a Resolution dated December 1, 2010, the CA issued a TRO against RTC-Pasig, MERALCO and
NPC restraining the respondents from further proceeding with the case. Subsequently, in a
Resolution dated February 3, 2011, the CA issued a writ of preliminary injunction enjoining the
RTC-Pasig from conducting further proceedings pending resolution of the Petition. In a Decision
dated October 14, 2011, the CA resolved to deny the Petition filed by the OSG and lifted the
injunction previously issued. The said Decision likewise held that the RTC-Pasig committed no error
in finding the OSG in default due to its failure to participate in the proceedings. The RTC-Pasig was
thus ordered to proceed to hear the case ex-parte, as against the OSG, and with dispatch. The OSG
filed a motion for reconsideration which was denied by the CA in its Resolution dated
April 25, 2012. The OSG filed a Petition for Review on Certiorari with the SC. In a Resolution
dated July 25, 2012, the SC required MERALCO to file a Comment. MERALCO's Comment was
filed on October 29, 2012. The SC then issued a Resolution dated November 26, 2012 requiring the
OSG to file a Reply. On February 19, 2013, the OSG filed a motion for extension to file a
consolidated reply.
With the dismissal of the petition filed by the OSG with the CA, MERALCO filed a motion for the
reception of its evidence ex-parte with the RTC-Pasig pursuant to the ruling of the CA. In a Decision
dated May 29, 2012, the RTC-Pasig declared the SA, independent of the pass-through for the
settlement amount which is reserved for the ERC, valid and binding. The OSG has filed a Notice of
Appeal with the RTC-Pasig on June 19, 2012. Both parties have filed their respective appeal briefs.
The case is deemed submitted for resolution by the CA.
On January 22, 2014, MERALCO received a Notice of Judgment from the SC stating that a Decision
dated December 11, 2013 was rendered by the First Division of the SC denying the Petition for
Review on Certiorari by the OSG and affirming the decision promulgated by the CA on
October 14, 2011.
Sucat-Araneta-Balintawak Transmission Line
The Sucat-Araneta-Balintawak transmission line is a two-part transmission line, which completed the
230kV-line loop within Metro Manila. The two main parts are the Araneta to Balintawak leg and the
Sucat to Araneta leg, which cuts through Dasmariñas Village, Makati City.
On March 10, 2000, certain residents along Tamarind Road, Dasmariñas Village, Makati City or
plaintiffs, filed a case against NPC with the RTC-Makati, enjoining NPC from further installing high
voltage cables near the plaintiffs’ homes and from energizing and transmitting high voltage electric
current through said cables because of the alleged health risks and danger posed by the same.
Following its initial status quo Order issued on March 13, 2000, RTC-Makati granted on
April 3, 2000 the preliminary injunction sought for by the plaintiffs. The decision was affirmed by
the SC on March 23, 2006, which effectively reversing a decision of the CA to the contrary. The
RTC-Makati subsequently issued a writ of execution based on the order of the SC. MERALCO, in its
capacity as an intervenor, was constrained to file an Omnibus Motion to maintain status quo because
of the significant effect of a de-energization of the Sucat-Araneta line to the public and economy.
Shutdown of the 230-kV line will result in widespread and rotating brownouts within MERALCO’s
franchise area with certain power plants unable to run at their full capacities.
On September 8, 2009, the RTC-Makati granted the motions for intervention filed by intervenors
MERALCO and NGCP and dissolved the Writ of Preliminary Injunction issued, upon the posting of
the respective counter bonds by defendant NPC, intervenors MERALCO and NGCP, subject to the
condition that NPC and intervenors pay all damages, which the plaintiffs may incur as a result of the
Writ of Preliminary Injunction.
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Thereafter, the plaintiffs questioned the RTC-Makati order before the CA. As at March 17, 2014, this
case remains pending for resolution in the CA.
Moreover, in its Order dated February 5, 2013, the RTC-Makati granted plaintiffs’ motion and
directed the re-raffle of the case to another court after the judicial dispute resolution failed.
Petition for Dispute Resolution against PEMC, TransCo, NPC and PSALM
On September 9, 2008, MERALCO filed a Petition for Dispute Resolution, against PEMC, TransCo,
NPC and PSALM with the ERC as a result of the congestion in the transmission system of TransCo
arising from the outages of the San Jose-Tayabas 500kV Line 2 on June 22, 2008, and the 500kV
600 Mega volt-ampere Transformer Bank No. 2 of TransCo’s San Jose, Bulacan substation on
July 11, 2008. The Petition seeks to, among others, direct PEMC to adopt the NPC-TOU rate or the
new price determined through the price substitution methodology of PEMC as approved by the ERC,
as basis for its billing during the period of the congestion and direct NPC and PSALM to refund the
transmission line loss components of the line rentals associated with NPC/PSALM bilateral
transactions from the start of WESM operation on June 26, 2006.
In a Decision dated March 10, 2010, the ERC granted MERALCO’s petition and ruled that there is
double charging of the Transmission Line Costs billed to MERALCO by NPC for the TSC quantities
to the extent of 2.98% loss factor, since the start of the TSC in November 2006. Thus, NPC was
directed to refund/collect line rental adjustment to/from MERALCO. In the meantime, the ERC
issued an Order on May 4, 2011 directing PEMC to submit an alternative methodology for the
segregation of line rental into congestion cost and line losses from the start of the WESM. PEMC has
filed its compliance submitting its alternative methodology.
On September 8, 2011, MERALCO received a copy of PEMC’s compliance to ERC’s directive and
on November 11, 2011, MERALCO filed a counter-proposal which effectively simplifies PEMC’s
proposal.
On November 11, 2011, MERALCO filed its Motion to Implement the Decision dated
March 10, 2010 by immediately effecting the refund/collection of line rental adjustments to
consumers. On December 21, 2011, PSALM filed its comment on MERALCO’s said Motion. Then,
in an Order dated January 24, 2012, the ERC directed PEMC, Transco and NPC to submit their
respective comments on MERALCO’s motion within five days from receipt.
In an Order of the ERC dated June 21, 2012, MERALCO was directed to submit its computation of
the amount of the double charging of line loss on a per month basis from June 26, 2006 up to June
2012. On July 4, 2012, MERALCO filed its Compliance to the said Order. Thereafter, the ERC
issued an Order directing the parties to comment on MERALCO’s submissions.
In an Order dated March 4, 2013, the ERC approved the methodology proposed by MERALCO and
PEMC in computing the double charged amount on line losses by deducting 2.98% from the NPCTOU amount. Accordingly, the ERC determined that the computed double charge amount to be
collected from NPC is =
P5.2 billion, covering the period November 2006 to August 2012 until actual
cessation of the collection of the 2.98% line loss charge in the NPC-TOU rates imposed on
MERALCO, while the amount to be collected from the SGCs is P
=4.7 billion. Additionally,
MERALCO was directed to file a petition against the following SGCs: MPPCL, Aboitiz Power
Renewables, Inc. or APRI, TLI, SMEC and SCPC, within thirty (30) days from receipt thereof, to
recover the line loss collected by them. MERALCO filed a motion for clarification with the ERC
regarding the directives contained in the March 4, 2013 Order. On April 30, 2013 and May 8, 2013,
PSALM and NPC, respectively, filed motions seeking reconsideration of the March 4, 2013 Order.
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In an Order dated July 1, 2013, the ERC issued the following clarifications/resolutions: 1) SPPC
should be included as one of the SGCs against whom a petition for dispute resolution should be filed
by MERALCO; 2) Amount to be refunded by NPC is not only =
P5.2 billion but also the subsequent
payments it received from MERALCO beyond August 2012 until the actual cessation of the
collection of the 2.98% line loss charge in its TOU rates and Petition to be filed by MERALCO
against the SGCs should not only be for the recovery of the amount of =
P4.7 billion but also the
subsequent payments beyond August 2012 until the actual cessation of the collection of the 2.98%
line loss charge in its TOU rates. ; 3) “SCPC Ilijan” pertains to SPPC instead. Thus, the refundable
amount of =
P706 million pertaining to “SCPC Ilijan” should be added to SPPC’s refundable amount
of =
P1.1 billion; 4) Grant the “Motion for Extension” filed by MERALCO which was directed to file a
petition against the following SGCs: MPPCL, APRI, TLI, SMEC, Sem-Calaca and SPPC, otherwise,
it shall be the one liable to refund the subject amount to its customers; and 5) deny the respective
“Motions for Reconsideration” filed by NPC and PSALM.
On September 12, 2013, MERALCO filed a Manifestation with Motion with the ERC seeking
approval of its proposal to offset the amount of =
P74 million against some of its monthly remittances
to PSALM. PSALM and NPC filed their comments ad cautelam on MERALCO’s Manifestation and
Motion. MERALCO is awaiting the resolution of the ERC on its Manifestation and Motion. On
November 4, 2013, MERALCO filed its Reply. MERALCO is awaiting the resolution of the ERC on
its Manifestation and Motion.
On October 24, 2013, MERALCO received PSALM’s Petition for Review on Certiorari with the CA
(With Urgent TRO and/or Writ of Preliminary Mandatory Injunction Applications) questioning the
March 4, 2013 and July 1, 2013 Orders of the ERC. In a Resolution dated December 29, 2013, the
CA gave MERALCO until December 26, 2013, within which to submit its Comment on the Petition
for Review on Certiorari and to show cause why the prayer for the Application for TRO and/or
Preliminary Injunction should not be granted (“Comment and Opposition”). On December 23, 2013,
January 5, 2014 and January 15, 2014, MERALCO requested for an additional period of ten (10) days
each, within which to submit its Comment and Opposition.
On February 2, 2014, MERALCO filed its Comment to said Petition. As at March 17, 2014, the CA
has yet to rule on the Petition.
Petition for Dispute Resolution Against SPPC, MPPCL, APRI, TLI, SMEC and Sem-Calaca
On August 29, 2013, MERALCO filed a Petition for Dispute Resolution against SPPC, MPPCL,
APRI, TLI, SMEC and Sem-Calaca. Said Petition seeks the following: a) Refund of the 2.98%
transmission line losses in the amount of =
P5.4 billion from said SGCs; and 2) approval of
MERALCO’s proposal to correspondingly refund to its customers the aforementioned line loss
amounts, as and when the same are received from the SGCs, until such time that the said overrecoveries are fully refunded, by way of automatic deduction of the amount of refund from the
computed monthly generation rate. On September 20, 2013, MERALCO received the SGCs’ Joint
Motion to Dismiss. On October 7, 2013, MERALCO filed its Comment on the said Joint Motion. On
October 8, 2013, MERALCO received the SGCs Manifestation and Motion. On October 14, 2013,
MERALCO filed its Opposition thereto. On October 24, 2013, MERALCO received the SGC’s Reply
to its Comment. On October 29, 2013, MERALCO filed its Rejoinder.
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PSALM versus PEMC and MERALCO
Due to the unusually large increases in WESM prices during the 3rd and 4th months of the WESM
operations, MERALCO raised concerns with the PEMC to investigate whether WESM rules were
breached or if anti-competitive behavior had occurred.
While resolutions were initially issued by the PEMC directing adjustments of WESM settlement
amounts, a series of exchanges and appeals with the ERC ensued. ERC’s decision directing the
WESM settlement price for the 3rd and 4th billing months to be NPC-TOU rates prompted PSALM to
file a Motion for Reconsideration with the CA, which was denied on November 6, 2009. In
December 2009, PSALM filed a Petition for Review on Certiorari with the SC.
As at March 17, 2014, PSALM’s Petition for Review is pending resolution by the SC.
Petition for Dispute Resolution with NPC on Premium Charges
On June 2, 2009, MERALCO filed a Petition for Dispute Resolution against NPC and PSALM with
respect to NPC’s imposition of premium charges for the alleged excess energy it supplied to
MERALCO covering the billing periods May 2005 to June 2006. The premium charges amounting to
=
P315 million during the May-June 2005 billing periods have been paid but are the subject of a
protest by MERALCO, and premium charges of =
P318 million during the November 2005,
February 2006 and April to June 2006 billing periods are being disputed and withheld by
MERALCO. MERALCO believes that there is no basis for the imposition of the premium charges.
The hearings on this case have been completed and MERALCO is now awaiting the resolution of the
ERC on the petition.
SC Temporary Restraining Order on MERALCO’s December 2013 Billing Rate Increase
On December 9, 2013, the ERC gave clearance to the request of MERALCO to implement a
staggered collection over three (3) months covering the December 2013 billing month for the
increase in generation charge and other bill components such as VAT, LFT, transmission charge, and
SL charge, which reflected a total increase of =
P4.15 per kWh for a 200-kWh residential consumer.
The generation costs for the November 2013 supply month increased significantly because of the use
of the more expensive liquid fuel by the natural gas-fired power plants that were affected by the
Malampaya Gas Field or Malampaya, shutdown from November 11 to December 10, 2013. This
was compounded by the aberrant spike in the WESM, charges on account of the scheduled and
extended shutdowns, and the forced outages, of several base load power plants, as well as the noncompliance with WESM Rules by certain plants resulting in significant power generation capacities
not being offered and dispatched.
The Department of Justice commenced an investigation while the House of Representatives and the
Senate conducted separate hearings to determine the underlying reasons for the price increase,
including any possible collusion among the power firms. In the meantime, MERALCO proceeded
with billing its captive customers with the ERC approval.
On December 19, 2013, several interest groups filed a Petition against MERALCO, ERC and the
DOE before the SC, questioning the ERC clearance granted to MERALCO to charge the =
P4.15 per
kWh price increase, alleging the lack of hearing and due process. It also sought for the declaration of
the unconstitutionality of the EPIRA, which essentially declared the generation and supply sectors
competitive and open, and not considered public utilities. A similar petition was filed by a consumer
group and several private homeowners associations challenging also the legality of the AGRA that
*SGVFS007697*
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the ERC had promulgated. Both petitions prayed for the issuance of TRO, and a Writ of Preliminary
Injunction.
On December 23, 2013, the SC consolidated the two (2) Petitions and granted the application for
TRO effective immediately and for a period of sixty (60) days, which effectively enjoined the ERC
and MERALCO from implementing the P
=4.15 per kWh price increase. The SC also ordered
MERALCO, ERC and DOE to file their respective comments to the Petitions and set the hearing for
Oral Arguments on January 21, 2014. The SC further set two more Oral Arguments on
February 4, 2014 and February 11, 2014. After the conclusion of the Oral Arguments, the SC
ordered all the Parties to the consolidated Petitions to file their respective Memorandum on or before
February 26, 2014 after which the Petitions will be deemed submitted for resolution of the SC.
MERALCO complied with said directive and filed its Memorandum on said date.
On February 18, 2014, acting on the motion filed by the Petitioners, the SC extended for another
period of 60 days or until April 22, 2014, the TRO that it originally issued against MERALCO and
ERC last December 23, 2013. The TRO was also similarly applied to the generating companies,
specifically MPPCL, SMEC, SPPC, FGPC, and the NGCP, and the PEMC (the administrator of
WESM and market operator) who were all enjoined from collecting from MERALCO the deferred
amounts representing the =
P4.15 per kWh price increase for the November 2013 supply month.
In the meantime, on January 30, 2014, MERALCO filed an Omnibus Motion with Manifestation with
the ERC for the latter to direct PEMC to conduct a re-run or re-calculation of the WESM prices for
the supply months of November to December 2013. Subsequently, on February 17, 2014,
MERALCO filed with the ERC an Application for the recovery of deferred generation costs for the
December 2013 supply month praying that it be allowed to recover the same over a six (6)-month
period.
On March 3, 2014, the ERC issued an Order voiding the Luzon WESM prices given that the prices in
WESM during the November and December 2013 supply months could not qualify as reasonable,
rational and competitive. PEMC was given seven (7) days upon receipt of the Order to calculate
these regulated prices and implement the same in the revised WESM bills of the concerned.
As at March 17, 2014, MERALCO is still awaiting decisions of the SC on the TRO.
Others
Management and its internal and external counsels believe that the probable resolution of these
issues will not materially affect the MERALCO Group’s financial position and results of operations.
31. Significant Contracts and Commitments
NPC
MERALCO and NPC entered into a Transition Supply Contract or TSC, effective the earlier of five
years from November 16, 2006 up to December 25, 2011 or one year after the introduction of Open
Access, should RCOA be in place within the five-year contract period. Two addenda for additional
contracted volumes were signed, the most recent being in 2010. The adjusted contracted volume was
for a total of more than 40,000 GWh up to 2011.
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On December 26, 2011, the TSC with NPC was extended until December 25, 2012 or three months
after the implementation of the RCOA, whichever comes first.
As a result of the extension of the TSC, the Customer Choice Program or CCP, which is a joint
program of NPC and MERALCO aimed at providing NPC time-of-use or TOU, benefits to qualified
customers, has also been extended to be co-terminus with the TSC. The CCP expired on
December 25, 2012.
With respect to the TSC, MERALCO, NPC and PSALM then executed a Memorandum of Agreement
or MOA which further extended the TSC until June 25, 2013.
On June 26, 2013, MERALCO's TSC with NPC was terminated.
Assignment of TSC Volume to SGCs
From 2008 to 2009, NPC privatized a number of its generating assets and Independent Power Plants
or IPP contracts in favor of the successful bidders. As a result, the contracted energy volume under
the original TSC between MERALCO and NPC was assigned by NPC to the respective new owners
and IPPAs. Following are the privatized plants and IPP contracts:
Year
2008
2009
2010
Power Plant
Masinloc coal-fired power plant – 600 MW
Tiwi-Makban geothermal power plants – 289 MW
Pagbilao power plant –735 MW
Sual coal-fired power plant – 1,000 MW
Coal-fired Calaca power plant – 600 MW
Combined cycle gas turbine, natural gas-fired
Ilijan power plant – 1,200 MW
Successor Owner/IPPAs
MPPCL
APRI
TLI
SMEC
Sem-Calaca
SPPC
% of Total
Volume
21.3
8.1
25.0
8.6
10.4
15.2
NPC/PSALM remained the contracting party of record for the supply of power to MERALCO.
Payments of the contracted volume are made based on the billing instructions from NPC/PSALM
received by MERALCO.
PSAs with Privatized Plants and IPPAs
MERALCO entered into separate PSAs with SPPC, Sem-Calaca and MPPCL on December 12, 20
and 21, 2011, respectively. Also, a PSA with TLI was executed on February 29, 2012. These PSAs
are for a period of seven years, extendable for three years upon agreement of the parties.
In March 2012, the application for approval of the PSAs was filed with the ERC. On June 26, 2012,
MERALCO BOD approved the grant of authority to MERALCO to enter into a PSA with SMEC for a
period of seven years, extendable for three years upon agreement of the parties.
On March 16, 2012, MPower signed a separate PSA with MPPCL for 30MW of contracted capacity
from the Masinloc coal-fired power plant in Zambales for seven years, extendable for three years
upon agreement of the parties.
On April 26, 2012, the BOD approved the PSA with Pangea Green Energy Philippines, Inc., or
PGEP, a biogas power plant located in Payatas, Quezon City using methane gas extracted from the
Payatas Landfill as its fuel. Its plant has a total nominal generating capacity of 1,236 kW.
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In separate Decisions dated December 17, 2012, the ERC approved with modifications the PSAs of
MERALCO with MPPCL, SPPC, Sem-Calaca, TLI and SMEC.
Motions for Reconsideration were filed regarding the ERC decisions on the PSAs with SPPC,
Sem-Calaca and SMEC. MERALCO is awaiting the decision of the ERC.
On December 27, 2012, MERALCO executed the PSAs with TLI and APRI to cover the volume
needed by MERALCO during the six-month transition period before the start of the commercial
operations of RCOA. Under the PSAs with TLI and APRI, MERALCO will procure power from TLI
and APRI from the expiration of the TSC until June 25, 2013 conditioned upon ERC approval. The
said PSAs had been submitted to the ERC for approval on January 2, 2013. However, on
September 26, 2013, MERALCO filed Motions to Withdraw the said PSAs, considering that the TSC
was extended up to June 25, 2013. The ERC granted said Motions in separate Orders dated
September 27, 2013.
Under the PSAs, fixed capacity fees and fixed operating maintenance fees are recognized monthly
based on their contracted capacities. The annual projection of these payments is shown in the table
below:
Year
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Contracted Capacity
Fixed Payment Amount
(In Megawatt)
(In million)
3,000
3,084
3,114
3,114
2,880
2,460
P
=35,419
37,775
39,865
39,574
39,198
33,864
FGPC and FGP
In compliance with the DOE’s program to create a market for Camago-Malampaya gas field and
enable its development, MERALCO was committed to contract 1,500-MW of the 2,700 MW output of
the Malampaya gas field.
Accordingly, MERALCO entered into separate 25-year PPAs with FGPC (March 14, 1995) and FGP
(July 22, 1999) for a minimum number of kWh of the net electrical output of the Sta. Rita and San
Lorenzo power plants, respectively, from the start of their commercial operations. The PPA with
FGPC terminates on August 17, 2025, while that of FGP ends on October 1, 2027.
On January 7, 2004, MERALCO, FGP and FGPC signed an Amendment to their respective PPAs.
The negotiations resulted in certain new conditions including the assumption of FGP and FGPC of
community taxes at current tax rate, and subject to certain conditions increasing the discounts on
excess generation, payment of higher penalties for non-performance up to a capped amount, recovery
of accumulated deemed delivered energy until 2011 resulting in the non-charging of MERALCO of
excess generation charge for such energy delivered beyond the contracted amount but within a 90%
capacity quota. The amended terms under the respective PPAs of FGP and FGPC were approved by
the ERC on May 31, 2006.
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Under the respective PPAs of FGP and FGPC, the fixed capacity fees and fixed operating and
maintenance fees are recognized monthly based on the actual Net Dependable Capacity tested and
proven, which is usually conducted on a semi-annual basis.
QPPL
MERALCO entered into a PPA with QPPL on August 12, 1994, which was subsequently amended
on December 1, 1996. Under the terms of the amended PPA, MERALCO is committed to purchase a
specified volume of electric power and energy from QPPL, subject to certain terms and conditions.
The PPA is for a period of 25 years from the start of commercial operations up to July 12, 2025.
In a Letter Agreement signed on February 21, 2008, the amount billable by QPPL included a
transmission line charge reduction in lieu of a previous rebate program. The Letter Agreement also
provides that MERALCO make advances to QPPL of US$2.85 million per annum for 10 years
beginning 2008 to assist QPPL in consideration of the difference between the transmission line
charge specified in the TLA and the ERC-approved transmission line charge in March 2003. QPPL
shall repay MERALCO the same amount at the end of the 10-year period in equal annual payments
without adjustment. However, if MERALCO is able to dispatch QPPL at a plant capacity factor of no
less than 86% in any particular year, MERALCO shall not be required to pay US$2.85 million in that
year. This arrangement did not have any impact on the rates to be charged to consumers and hence,
did not require any amendment in the PPA, as approved by ERC.
See Note 11 – Other Noncurrent Assets.
Committed Energy Volume to be Purchased
The following are forecasted purchases/payments to FGPC, FGP and QPPL corresponding to the
Minimum Energy Quantity or MEQ, provisions of the contracts. The forecasted fixed payments
include capacity charge and fixed operation and maintenance cost escalated using the US and
Philippine Consumer Price Index or CPI.
Year
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019-2025
Minimum Energy
Quantity (MEQ)
(In Million Kilowatt-Hours)
14,955
14,955
14,855
14,855
14,855
103,984
Equivalent Amount
(In millions)
=
P21,476
21,577
21,592
21,817
22,011
159,967
Montalban Methane Power Corporation or MMPC
MMPC operates an 8 MW (designed capacity of 11 MW) renewable energy generating facility, which
utilizes landfill gas.
On May 13, 2009, MERALCO filed an application for the approval of the CSE with MMPC with the
ERC. On June 9, 2009, ERC issued an order dated June 1, 2009 provisionally approving the CSE
subject to the following conditions: (i) any amendments to the CSE shall be filed with the ERC for
approval and the implementation shall be prospective; and (ii) in the event the rates approved are
higher than the final rates, the amount corresponding to the excess shall be refunded by MERALCO
to its customers by crediting the same in their electric bills.
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On June 11, 2009, MMPC began delivering energy to MERALCO under a two year CSE. The CSE is
a “take and pay” arrangement, without a minimum energy volume. Energy is billed to MERALCO on
an hourly basis at the ERC- approved NPC TOU rate plus certain pre-agreed cost components. Being
an embedded renewable energy generator, purchases from MMPC are VAT zero-rated and energy
deliveries from MMPC are exempt from power delivery service charge.
After a series of negotiations, on May 23, 2011, MERALCO and MMPC signed a Letter Agreement
extending the CSE. Said Agreement likewise contained minor amendments to the CSE that were
intended to benefit the consumers. On June 3, 2011, MERALCO filed a Manifestation with Motion
with the ERC seeking the approval of the Letter Agreement, pursuant to the condition contained in
the ERC Order dated June 1, 2009. On February 19, 2013, the ERC issued its Decision approving the
application.
BEI
MERALCO signed a CSE with BEI on November 12, 2010. BEI owns and operates a 4MW
renewable energy generation facility powered by landfill gas in San Pedro, Laguna.
The terms of the CSE with BEI are similar to that signed with MMPC. Purchases from BEI, an
embedded renewable energy generator, are VAT zero-rated and exempt from power delivery service
charge. MERALCO filed an application for the approval of the CSE with the ERC, for the provisional
implementation of the contract on December 15, 2010. In an order dated January 31, 2011, the ERC
provisionally approved the said application which extended the implementation indefinitely. The said
case is pending decision by the ERC.
Therma Mobile, Inc. or TMO
On March 4, 2013, MERALCO signed an Interconnection Agreement with Therma Mobile Inc. or
TMO for their 243 MW generating facility at the Navotas Fish Port Complex, Navotas City, which is
an interconnection at MERALCO’s Grace Park - Malabon 115kV line. TMO is thus an embedded
generator. TMO shall construct at its own cost, operate and maintain the 115kV line connecting its
generating facility to MERALCO’s system.
On September 27, 2013, MERALCO signed a PSA with TMO for the output of the barge-mounted,
bunker oil-fired diesel engines moored at the Fishport Complex in Navotas, Manila. On November 4,
2013, the application for approval of the MERALCO-TMO PSA was provisionally approved by the
ERC.
Interconnection Agreement with Alternergy Philippine Holdings Corporation or Alternergy
On March 1, 2012, MERALCO signed an Interconnection Agreement with Alternergy for their
90MW Wind Farm Renewable Energy plant in Pililla, Rizal, which is an interconnection at
MERALCO’s Malaya-Teresa 115kV line, Altenergy is thus an embedded generator. Alternergy shall
construct at its own cost, operate and maintain the 115kV line connecting its generating facility to
MERALCO’s system.
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Interconnection Agreement with Maibarara Geothermal, Inc. or MGI
On December 6, 2012, MERALCO signed an Interconnection Agreement with MGI for their 20MW
(with max capacity of 40 MW) Geothermal Facility plant in Sto. Tomas, Batangas, which is an
interconnection at MERALCO’s FPIP - Los Banos 115kV line. MGI is thus an embedded generator.
MGI shall construct at its own cost, operate and maintain the 115kV line connecting its generating
facility to MERALCO’s system.
32. Earnings Per Share Attributable to Equity Holders of the Parent
Basic and diluted earnings per share are calculated as follows:
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
2011
(As restated see Note 4)
(In millions, except per share data)
Net income attributable to equity holders
of the Parent (a)
P
=17,211
=
P17,117
=
P13,260
1,127
1,127
1,127
Per Share Amounts:
Basic and diluted earnings per share (a/b)
P
=15.27
P
=15.19
P
=11.76
Net income attributable to equity holders
of the Parent of continuing operations (a)
P
=17,211
=
P16,236
=
P12,748
1,127
1,127
1,127
P
=15.27
P
=14.40
P
=11.31
P
=–
=
P0.86
=
P0.86
Weighted average common shares
outstanding (b)
Weighted average common shares
outstanding (b)
Per Share Amounts:
Basic and diluted earnings per share of
continuing operations (a/b)
Basic and diluted earnings per share of
discontinued operations
Basic and diluted earnings per share amounts are calculated by dividing net income for the year
attributable to common shareholders of the parent by the weighted average number of common
shares outstanding during the year. There are no potential dilutive common shares in 2013, 2012 and
2011.
There are no other transactions involving common shares or potential common shares between the
reporting date and the date of completion of these consolidated financial statements.
To calculate earnings per share amounts for the discontinued operations, the weighted average
number of common shares for both basic and diluted amounts is as per the table above.
*SGVFS007697*
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33. Other Matters
Revised SL Caps
On December 8, 2008, the ERC promulgated a resolution providing for a lower maximum rate of SL
(technical and non-technical) that a utility can pass on to its customers. The revised SL cap is 8.5%
for private utilities, effective January 2010 billing. This is one percentage point lower than the SL cap
of 9.5% provided under RA No. 7832. The actual volume of electricity used by MERALCO
(administrative loss) is treated as part of the operation and maintenance expense beginning July
2011. The manner by which the utility is rewarded for its efforts in SL reduction is addressed by the
ERC in the PIS under PBR.
On December 8, 2009, MERALCO filed a Petition to amend the said Resolution with an urgent
prayer for the immediate suspension of the implementation of the new SL cap of 8.5% starting
January 2010. The proposed amendment is aimed at making the Resolution consistent with the
provisions of RA No. 9136 and RA No. 7832, by increasing the SL cap to not less than 9%. The
hearing on the Petition was conducted on November 18, 2010. Thereafter, MERALCO was directed
to submit its FOE. MERALCO has submitted is FOE and is awaiting ERC decision on this Petition.
Benefit Sharing Scheme to Lower System Loss
On January 26, 2011, MERALCO, together with Private Electric Power Operators Association, Inc.
or PEPOA and Philippine Rural Electric Cooperative Association or PHILRECA, filed a joint
petition to the ERC to initiate rule-making to adopt the Proposed Guidelines for the Implementation
of an Incentive Scheme to Lower the System Losses of Private Distribution Utilities and Electric
Cooperatives to Level Below the System Loss Cap, for the Benefit of End-Users. This was aimed to
encourage the DUs to reduce system loss levels below the cap set by the ERC and benefit the endusers through lower system loss charges. Public hearings were conducted and completed on
June 15, 2011.
On December 11, 2012, the ERC posted on its website the second draft of the Rules to Govern the
Implementation of a Benefit Sharing to Lower the System Losses of Electric Distribution Utilities.
The salient points of the second draft rules include calculation of System Loss Charge using the
prevailing system loss cap or the lowest consecutive five year average system loss, whichever is
lower, and an equitable sharing (50-50) of incentives between the customer and the DU on the
savings which is the difference between the lower of this system loss level and the DU’s actual
system loss. Any system loss reward from the PIS under the RDWR for private DUs shall be offset
from the rewards the DU will receive from this Benefit-Sharing scheme, except when the net benefit
from this scheme is less than the PIS rewards of the DU, in which case the DU will retain the
rewards under the PIS and forego its share under this Benefit-Sharing Scheme. The foregone share of
the DU shall be added to the End-user share correspondingly. As at March 17, 2014, MERALCO
and PEPOA are awaiting the action of the ERC on this matter.
Retail Competition
On February 24, 2012, the DOE issued a circular designating the PEMC as the Central Registration
Body, or CRB under the RCOA. The CRB is tasked to develop market infrastructure, systems and
processes capable of supporting RCOA registration, customer switching and information exchange
among industry participants.
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On May 9, 2012, the DOE issued another circular prescribing the general policies for the
implementation of RCOA. The circular provides the overall direction DOE intends to take in
developing the policy framework for RCOA implementation.
On September 27, 2012, the DOE and the ERC issued a joint statement setting the initial RCOA
implementation on December 26, 2012. The joint statement clarified that the RCOA commencement
is on a phase-in and partial implementation of the program, with the first six (6) months of RCOA
implementation (December 26, 2012 – June 25, 2013) allotted as the Transition Period to allow all
concerned parties to undertake their respective preparations to operationalize the mechanism for
RCOA. An initial RCOA Commercial Operation using an interim IT system was set to start on
June 26, 2013.
On December 17, 2012, the ERC issued Resolution No. 16 series of 2012 adopting the Transitory
Rules for the implementation of RCOA. The resolution provides the detailed responsibilities of
industry participants during the RCOA transition period.
On January 9, 2013, the DOE issued Department Circular, "Promulgating the Retail Rules for the
Integration of Retail Competition and Open Access in the Wholesale Electricity Spot Market", to
provide rules for the integration of retail competition in the operations and governance processes of
the WESM, the management of the transactions of Suppliers and Contestable Customers, and the
operations of the Central Registration Body.
On March 26, 2013, PEMC began the RCOA Trial Operations Program, a nine-week test period
participated in by the various entities and service providers of RCOA.
On May 6, 2013, the DOE issued Department Circular, "Enjoining all Generation Companies,
Distribution Utilities, Suppliers and Local Suppliers to Ensure an Effective and Successful Transition
towards the Implementation of Retail Competition and Open Access", which required generation
companies, suppliers and DUs to disclose their supply portfolio and capacity allocation to determine
the available energy supply for Contestable Customer in the market. MERALCO submitted its first
compliance to said Circular last June 7, 2013.
On June 19, 2013, the ERC issued a resolution adopting the Supplemental Rules to the Transitory
Rules for the implementation of RCOA . The resolution seeks to prevent contestable customers who
have yet to execute a Retail Supply Contract or RSC, with a RES from being disconnected or
transferred to SOLR service upon the commencement of initial commercial operations of RCOA.
Qualified contestable customers who fail to enter into a RSC with a RES shall be deemed to stay with
their current DU until December 26, 2013 or until such time that it is able to find a RES provided that
they inform the DU.
In accordance with the ERC’s “Transitory Rules for the Initial Implementation of Open Access and
Retail Competition”, commercial operations of RCOA began on June 26, 2013.
Nineteen RESs were licensed by the ERC to provide competitive retail supply service to eligible
contestable customers. As at December 31, 2013, 287 customers have opted for contestability and
are now being supplied by competitive retail electricity suppliers.
On September 4, 2013, the ERC conducted a public consultation on its proposed amendments to the
RES Licensing Rules, for which MERALCO submitted comments and participated in the public
consultation.
*SGVFS007697*
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As at December 31, 2013, there are about 782 contestable customers in MERALCO's franchise area
and 287 have already switched to their respective RESs.
Philippine Export Zone Authority or PEZA – ERC Jurisdiction
On September 13, 2007, PEZA issued “Guidelines in the Registration of Electric Power Generation
Facilities/Utilities/Entities Operating Inside the Ecozones” and “Guidelines for the Supply of Electric
Power in Ecozones.” Under these Guidelines, PEZA effectively bestowed upon itself franchising
and regulatory powers in Ecozones operating within the legislative franchise areas of DUs which are
under the legislatively-authorized regulatory jurisdiction of the ERC. The Guidelines are the subject
of an injunction case filed by the DUs at the RTC-Pasig.
In support of the government’s objective of providing lower cost to Ecozone locators, MERALCO
entered into a MOA with NPC on September 17, 2007 for the provision of special Ecozone rates to
high load factor PEZA-accredited industries. The ERC authorized the immediate implementation of
the Ecozone Rate Program or ERP. The program expired in December 2012.
The ERP was initially scheduled to expire by December 25, 2011 but was extended twice and was
terminated on December 25, 2012.
In January 2013, MERALCO entered into a tripartite agreement with PEZA and Trans-Asia Oil and
Energy Development Corporation for the sale of power to CEZ and its locators beginning
January 26, 2013.
As an alternative to the ERP, MERALCO filed an application for the implementation of Peak/OffPeak (POP) Program. On December 17, 2012, the ERC provisionally approved the application and
MERALCO started implementing the program on February 1, 2013.
Purchase of Subtransmission Assets or STAs
On November 25, 2009, MERALCO signed a Contract to Sell with TransCo for the sale and purchase
of certain subtransmission assets for =
P86 million. On February 25, 2010, the ERC approved this
Contract to Sell. On June 1, 2012, the ERC rendered a decision dated March 6, 2012, approving the
sale of the said STAs in favor of MERALCO for =
P85 million.
On April 17, 2012, MERALCO and TransCo filed a joint application for the approval of the Batch 4
contract to sell with the ERC. On April 22, 2013, the ERC issued a Decision on MERALCO's joint
application for the acquisition of the Batch 4 contract to sell. On June 21, 2013, MERALCO filed a
motion for partial reconsideration regarding the exclusion of certain facilities for acquisition, which
has yet to be resolved by the ERC.
On December 12, 2011, MERALCO signed various agreements for the acquisition of certain subtransmission assets of TransCo within the MERALCO franchise area for its sole account, as well as
with a consortium with Batangas II Electric Cooperative, Inc., or BATELEC II and First Bay Power
Corporation. On September 18, 2012, an amended consortium agreement was executed between
MERALCO and FBPC. On October 17, 2012, MERALCO signed two separate amended consortium
agreements with BATELEC II, and with FBPC and BATELEC II. These amended consortium
agreements superseded the ones signed on December 12, 2011. On December 27 and 28, 2012, the
Contract to Sell and Consortium Agreements, respectively, covering these sub-transmission assets
were filed with the ERC for approval.
*SGVFS007697*
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MERALCO’s POP Program
On November 15, 2012, MERALCO filed an application with the ERC for the approval of its revised
Time of Use or TOU rates program, also known as the POP Program. The POP is a rate program
being offered by MERALCO to customers whose load characteristics can benefit from TOU rates as
well as to those that can shift their loads from peak to off-peak hours. The proposed revised POP
Rate aims to provide better savings to availees by providing them with a TOU program that has a
wider pricing difference between peak and off-peak rates.
In an Order dated December 17, 2012, the ERC provisionally approved the POP Program.
Feed-in-Tariff (FIT)
Pursuant to Republic Act No. 9513, or the Renewable Energy Act of 2008 or RE Act, the ERC issued
Resolution No. 16, Series of 2010, Adopting the Feed-in-Tariff or FIT Rules, on July 23, 2010. As
defined under the FIT Rules, the FIT system is as a renewable energy policy that offers a guaranteed
payment on a fixed rate per kilowatt-hour for electricity from wind, solar, ocean, hydropower and
biomass energy sources.
On May 16, 2011, the National Renewable Energy Board or NREB filed its Petition to Initiate Rule
Making for the Adoption of FIT. The Petition proposed a specific FIT Rate for each emerging
renewable resource. On July 27, 2012, after undergoing several public consultations and public
hearings, the ERC approved FIT Rates that are significantly lower than the rates applied by the
NREB.
To fund the FIT payments to eligible RE developers, a FIT-Allowance charge will be imposed on all
end-users. The FIT-Allowance will be established by the ERC upon petition by the TransCo, which
had been designated as the FIT Fund Administrator. The FIT-Allowance Petition will go through the
process of public hearings and consultations.
To supplement the FIT Rules, the ERC is currently drafting FIT-Allowance Payment and Collection
Guidelines. This set of guidelines will govern how the FIT-Allowance will be calculated using the
formulae provided. It will also outline the process of billing and collecting the FIT-Allowance from
the electricity consumers, the remittance to a specified fund, the disbursement from the FITAllowance fund and the payment to eligible RE developers. The draft is currently undergoing public
consultations.
Net Metering Program
The RE Act mandates the DUs to provide the mechanism for the “physical connection and
commercial arrangements necessary to ensure the success of the RE programs”, specifically the Net
Metering Program. The RE Act defines Net Metering as “a system, appropriate for distributed
generation, in which a distribution grid user has a two-way connection to the grid and is only charged
for his net electricity consumption and is credited for any overall contribution to the electricity grid”.
By their nature, net metering installations will be small (less than 100 kW) and will likely be adopted
by the households and small business end-users of DUs.
*SGVFS007697*
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On September 4, 2012, the ERC released the first draft of the Proposed Net Metering Rules. The
proposed rules will govern the implementation of the Net Metering program for RE sources. It also
seeks to establish the standards for interconnecting these RE sources to the DUs’ systems. The
pricing methodology, however, will be addressed in another set of rules and will be endorsed to the
ERC in due course. Meantime, the distribution utilities’ blended generation cost equivalent to the
generation charge, shall be used as the preliminary reference price in the net metering agreement.
On September 21, 2012, the ERC conducted the first public consultation on the proposed rules.
After consultations with stakeholders, the ERC issued on July 3, 2013 its Resolution No. 09, Series
of 2013, entitled, “A Resolution Adopting the Rules enabling the Net Metering Program for
Renewable Energy”. The rules will govern the DUs’ implementation of the Net Metering program.
Included in Rules are the Interconnection Standards that shall provide technical guidance to address
engineering, electric system reliability, and safety concerns for net metering interconnections. The
final pricing methodology, however, will be addressed in another set of rules and will be endorsed to
the ERC in due course. In the meantime, the distribution utilities’ blended generation cost equivalent
to the generation charge, shall be used as the preliminary reference price in the net metering
agreement. The rules took effect on July 24, 2013. MERALCO started accepting net metering
applications on the same day. As at March 17, 2014, MERALCO has already energized five Net
Metering customers, the country’s first participants to the net metering program.
34. Subsequent Event
On March 17, 2014, the BOD declared a final cash dividend of =
P6.45 per share to all shareholders of
record as at April 15, 2014, payable on May 8, 2014.
*SGVFS007697*
SyCip Gorres Velayo & Co.
6760 Ayala Avenue
1226 Makati City
Philippines
Tel: (632) 891 0307
Fax: (632) 819 0872
ey.com/ph
BOA/PRC Reg. No. 0001,
December 28, 2012, valid until December 31, 2015
SEC Accreditation No. 0012-FR-3 (Group A),
November 15, 2012, valid until November 16, 2015
INDEPENDENT AUDITORS’ REPORT
ON SUPPLEMENTARY SCHEDULES
The Stockholders and the Board of Directors
Manila Electric Company
Lopez Building
Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City
We have audited in accordance with Philippine Standards on Auditing, the consolidated financial
statements of Manila Electric Company and Subsidiaries as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 and for
each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013, included in this Form 17-A, and have
issued our report thereon dated March 17, 2014. Our audits were made for the purpose of forming an
opinion on the basic financial statements taken as a whole. The schedules listed in the Index to the
Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Schedules are the responsibility of the
Company’s management. These schedules are presented for purposes of complying with Securities
Regulation Code Rule 68, As Amended (2011) and are not part of the basic financial statements.
These schedules have been subjected to the auditing procedures applied in the audit of the basic
financial statements and, in our opinion, fairly state in all material respects, the information required to
be set forth therein in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole.
SYCIP GORRES VELAYO & CO.
Martin C. Guantes
Partner
CPA Certificate No. 88494
SEC Accreditation No. 0325-AR-2 (Group A),
March 15, 2012, valid until March 14, 2015
Tax Identification No. 152-884-272
BIR Accreditation No. 08-001998-52-2012,
April 11, 2012, valid until April 10, 2015
PTR No. 4225178, January 2, 2014, Makati City
March 17, 2014
*SGVFS007697*
A member firm of Ernst & Young Global Limited
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY
Schedule C: Accounts Receivable from Related Parties which are Eliminated during the Consolidation of Financial Statements
As at December 31, 2013
( Amounts in Millions Pesos)
Name of Related Party
Meralco Financial Services Corporation
Miescor Builders, Inc.
Miescorrail, Inc.
Meralco Energy Inc.
Miescor Logistics, Inc.
Corporate Information Solutions, Inc.
CIS Bayad Center, Inc.
eMERALCO Ventures, Inc.
Meralco Industrial Engineering Services Corporation
January 1, 2013
31
45
5
103
4
1
189
Additions
61
7
6
21
12
3
110
Collections
(1)
(38)
(46)
(18)
(15)
(103)
(7)
(1)
(229)
Amount written
off
-
Current
30
23
7
5
3
2
70
Noncurrent
-
December 31, 2013
30
23
7
5
3
2
70
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY
Schedule D: The Movement of Intangible Assets (Included under Other Noncurrent Assets)
As at December 31, 2013
(Amounts In Millions Pesos)
Description
Software
Franchise
TOTALS
January 1, 2013
Additions at cost
Charged to cost and
expenses
Charged to other
accounts
Other changes additions
(deductions)
December 31, 2013
972
49
876
-
(169)
-
-
-
1,679
49
1,021
876
(169)
-
-
1,728
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
Schedule E: Interest Bearing Long-term Financial Liabilities
As at December 31, 2013
(Amounts In Millions)
Title of issue and type of obligation
BONDS:
7-YEAR, P11,500 MILLION
12-YEAR, P7,000 MILLION
FIXED RATE LOANS:
P3.0 BILLION NOTE FACILITY
7-YEAR FIXED RATE, P1,000 MILLION
10-YEAR FIXED RATE , P2,000 MILLION
P5.0 BILLION NOTE FACILITY
7-YR FIXED RATE, P500 MILLION
10-YR FIXED RATE, P4,500 MILLION
P4.8 BILLION NOTE FACILITY
7-YEAR FIXED RATE, P1,997 MILLION
10-YEAR FIXED RATE, P2,803 MILLION
FLOATING RATE LOANS:
P2,500 MILLION, 7-YEAR TERM LOAN FACILITY
P3,000 MILLION, 5-YEAR TERM LOAN FACILITY
REDEEMABLE PREFERRED STOCK:
TOTAL
LESS UNAMORTIZED DEBT ISSUE COST
BALANCE AT END OF THE YEAR
Amount authorized by
indenture
11,500
7,000
Amount shown under caption
"Current Portion of Interest
Bearing Long-term Financial
Liabilities" in the Consolidated
Statement of Financial Position
-
Amount shown under caption
"Interest Bearing Long-term
Financial Liabilities" in the
Consolidated Statement of
Financial Position
11,500
7,000
3,000
277
253
-
490
4,410
-
917
2,500
-
5,000
4,800
2,500
3,000
12
600
2,463
-
1,562
11,021
11,021
20,963
207
20,756
Manila Electric Company
Schedule H. Capital Stock
As at December 31, 2013
(Amounts in millions)
Title of Issue
Common Stock
Number of shares
authorized
1,250
Number of shares
issued and
Number of shares
outstanding as
reserved for options,
shown under related warrants, conversion
balance sheet
and other rights
caption
1,127
-
Number of shares
held by related
parties
913
Directors, officers
and employees
8
Others
206
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY
Schedule I. List of Effective Standards and Interpretations
As at December 31, 2013
PHILIPPINE FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND INTERPRETATIONS (issued as of December 31, 2013)
PFRS 1
First-time Adoption of Philippine Financial Reporting Standards
(Revised) Amendments to PFRS 1 and PAS 27: Cost of an Investment in a Subsidiary, Jointly Controlled Entity or
Associate
Amendments to PFRS 1: Additional Exemptions for First-time Adopters
Amendment to PFRS 1: Limited Exemption from Comparative PFRS 7 Disclosures for First-time Adopters
Amendments to PFRS 1: Severe Hyperinflation and Removal of Fixed Date for First-time Adopters
Amendments to PFRS 1: Government Loans
PFRS 2
Share-based Payment
Amendments to PFRS 2: Vesting Conditions and Cancellations
Amendments to PFRS 2: Group Cash-settled Share-based Payment Transactions
PFRS 3
Business Combinations
(Revised)
PFRS 4
Insurance Contracts
Amendments to PAS 39 and PFRS 4: Financial Guarantee Contracts
PFRS 5
Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations
PFRS 6
Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources
PFRS 7
Financial Instruments: Disclosures
Amendments to PFRS 7: Transition
Amendments to PAS 39 and PFRS 7: Reclassification of Financial Assets
Amendments to PAS 39 and PFRS 7: Reclassification of Financial Assets - Effective Date and Transition
Amendments to PFRS 7: Improving Disclosures about Financial Instruments
Amendments to PFRS 7: Disclosures - Transfers of Financial Assets
Amendments to PFRS 7: Disclosures – Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
Amendments to PFRS 7: Mandatory Effective Date of PFRS 9 and Transition Disclosures
PFRS 8
Operating Segments
PFRS 9
Financial Instruments
Amendments to PFRS 9: Mandatory Effective Date of PFRS 9 and Transition Disclosures
PFRS 10
Consolidated Financial Statements
PFRS 11
Joint Arrangements
PFRS 12
Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities
PFRS 13
Fair Value Measurement
Philippine Accounting Standards
PAS 1
Presentation of Financial Statements
(Revised) Amendment to PAS 1: Capital Disclosures
Amendments to PAS 32 and PAS 1: Puttable Financial Instruments and Obligations Arising on Liquidation
ADOPTED
X
NOT ADOPTED
NOT APPLICABLE
X
X
X
X
Not Early Adopted
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Not Early Adopted
X
Not Early Adopted
Not Early Adopted
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PAS 2
PAS 7
PAS 8
PAS 10
PAS 11
PAS 12
PAS 16
PAS 17
PAS 18
PAS 19
PAS 19
(Amended)
PAS 20
PAS 21
PAS 23
(Revised)
PAS 24
(Revised)
PAS 26
PAS 27
PAS 28
PAS 27
(Amended)
PAS 28
(Amended)
PAS 29
PAS 31
PAS 32
Amendments to PAS 1: Presentation of Items of Other Comprehensive Income
Inventories
Statement of Cash Flows
Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors
Events after the Balance Sheet Date
Construction Contracts
Income Taxes
Amendment to PAS 12 - Deferred Tax: Recovery of Underlying Assets
Property, Plant and Equipment
Leases
Revenue
Employee Benefits
Amendments to PAS 19: Actuarial Gains and Losses, Group Plans and Disclosures
Employee Benefits
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Amendments to PAS 19: Defined Benefit Plans : Employee Contributions
Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance
The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates
Amendment: Net Investment in a Foreign Operation
Borrowing Costs
Not Early Adopted
X
X
X
X
Related Party Disclosures
X
Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans
Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements
Investments in Associates
Separate Financial Statements
X
X
X
X
Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures
X
Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies
Interests in Joint Ventures
Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation
Amendments to PAS 32 and PAS 1: Puttable Financial Instruments and Obligations Arising on Liquidation
Amendment to PAS 32: Classification of Rights Issues
X
X
X
X
X
PHILIPPINE FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND INTERPRETATIONS (issued as of December 31, 2013)
Amendments to PAS 32: Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
PAS 33
Earnings per Share
PAS 34
Interim Financial Reporting
PAS 36
Impairment of Assets
Amendments to PAS 36: Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets
PAS 37
Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
PAS 38
Intangible Assets
PAS 39
Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement
Amendments to PAS 39: Transition and Initial Recognition of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
ADOPTED
NOT ADOPTED
Not Early Adopted
NOT APPLICABLE
X
X
X
Not Early Adopted
X
X
X
X
Amendments to PAS 39: Cash Flow Hedge Accounting of Forecast Intragroup Transactions
Amendments to PAS 39: The Fair Value Option
Amendments to PAS 39 and PFRS 4: Financial Guarantee Contracts
Amendments to PAS 39 and PFRS 7: Reclassification of Financial Assets
Amendments to PAS 39 and PFRS 7: Reclassification of Financial Assets – Effective Date and Transition
Amendments to Philippine Interpretation IFRIC–9 and PAS 39: Embedded Derivatives
Amendment to PAS 39: Eligible Hedged Items
Amendment to PAS 39: Recognition and Measurements - Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of
Hedge Accounting
PAS 40
Investment Property
PAS 41
Agriculture
Philippine Interpretations
IFRIC 1
Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities
IFRIC 2
Members' Share in Co-operative Entities and Similar Instruments
IFRIC 4
Determining Whether an Arrangement Contains a Lease
IFRIC 5
Rights to Interests arising from Decommissioning, Restoration and Environmental Rehabilitation Funds
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Not Early Adopted
X
X
X
X
X
X
IFRIC 6
Liabilities arising from Participating in a Specific Market - Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
IFRIC 7
Applying the Restatement Approach under PAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies
IFRIC 8
IFRIC 9
Scope of PFRS 2
Reassessment of Embedded Derivatives
Amendments to Philippine Interpretation IFRIC–9 and PAS 39: Embedded Derivatives
Interim Financial Reporting and Impairment
PFRS 2- Group and Treasury Share Transactions
Service Concession Arrangements
Customer Loyalty Programmes
The Limit on a Defined Benefit Asset, Minimum Funding Requirements and their Interaction
Amendments to Philippine Interpretations IFRIC- 14, Prepayments of a Minimum Funding Requirement
Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate
Hedges of a Net Investment in a Foreign Operation
Distributions of Non-cash Assets to Owners
Transfers of Assets from Customers
Extinguishing Financial Liabilities with Equity Instruments
Stripping Costs in the Production Phase of a Surface Mine
Levies
Introduction of the Euro
Government Assistance - No Specific Relation to Operating Activities
Consolidation - Special Purpose Entities
Amendment to SIC - 12: Scope of SIC 12
Jointly Controlled Entities - Non-Monetary Contributions by Venturers
Operating Leases - Incentives
Income Taxes - Recovery of Revalued Non-Depreciable Assets
Income Taxes - Changes in the Tax Status of an Entity or its Shareholders
Evaluating the Substance of Transactions Involving the Legal Form of a Lease
Service Concession Arrangements: Disclosures.
Revenue - Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services
Intangible Assets - Web Site Costs
X
X
IFRIC 10
IFRIC 11
IFRIC 12
IFRIC 13
IFRIC 14
IFRIC 15
IFRIC 16
IFRIC 17
IFRIC 18
IFRIC 19
IFRIC 20
IFRIC 21
SIC-7
SIC-10
SIC-12
SIC-13
SIC-15
SIC-21
SIC-25
SIC-27
SIC-29
SIC-31
SIC-32
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Not Early Adopted
X
X
X
X
X
Not Early Adopted
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY
Schedule J: Reconciliation of Retained Earnings Available for Dividend Declaration
As at December 31, 2013
( Amounts in millions )
Unappropriated retained earnings as at December 31, 2012, as restated
Adjustments in previous years' reconciliation:
Deferred tax assets, as restated
Revaluation increment on utility plant and others
Derivative assets
Retained earnings available for dividends declaration as at December 31, 2012, as restated
P
(13,430)
(17,839)
(17)
12,587
Net income based on the face of annual parent company financial statements
Reconciling items:
Dividends declared during the year
Appropriation during the year
Movement of deferred tax assets
Depreciation of revaluation increment on utility plant and others - net of tax
Movement of derivative assets - net of tax
Retained earnings available for dividend declaration as at December 31, 2013
43,873
17,487
(11,621)
(5,000)
(2,554)
597
17
(1,074)
P
11,513
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY
Schedule K: Map Showing the Relationships among the Companies within the Group
As at December 31, 2013
Beacon Electric Asset
Holdings, Inc.
(49.96%)
First Philippine
Holdings Corporation
and First Philippine
Utilities Corporation
(3.95%)
JG Summit Holdings, Inc.
(27.12%)
Manila Electric
Company
Corporate
Information
Solutions, Inc.
(100%)
CIS Bayad Center,
Inc.
(100%)
Meralco Energy,
Inc.
(100%)
Customer Frontline
Solutions, Inc.
(100%)
eMERALCO
Ventures, Inc.
(100%)
Paragon Vertical
Corporation
(100%)
Radius Telecoms,
Inc. (100%)
Meralco Financial
Services
Corporation
(100%)
Calamba Aero
Power Corporation
(100%)
Republic Surety and
Insurance Company,
Inc.
(100%)
Atimonan Land
Ventures
Development
Corporation
(100%)
Lighthouse Overseas
Insurance Limited
(100%)
Luzon Natural Gas
Energy Corporation
(100%)
MERALCO
PowerGen
Corporation
(100%)
MPG Asia Limited
(100%)
MPG Asia Holdings,
Inc. (100%)
FPM Power Holdings
Limited (40%)
PacificLight Power
Pte. Ltd. (70%)
Indra Philippines,
Inc.
(50%)
MPG Mauban LP
Corporation (100%,
Limited Partner)
Bauang Private
Power Corporation
(38%)
Kalilayan Power,
Inc. (51%, General
Partner)
San Buenaventura
Power Ltd. Co.
(51%)
General Electric
Philippines Meter
and Instrument
Company, Inc.
(35%)
Global Business
Power Corporation
(20%)
Rockwell Business
Center
(30%)
Redondo Peninsula
Energy, Inc.
(47%)
Clark Electric
Distribution
Corporation
(65%)
Miescor Builders
Inc.
(100%)
Meralco Industrial
Engineering
Services Corporation
(99%)
Miescorrail, Inc.
(100%)
Miescor Logistics,
Inc. (100%)
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY AND SUBSIDIARIES
Financial Soundness Indicators
December 31, 2013 and 2012
(1)
Current Ratio
(2)
Debt to Equity Ratio
(3)
Asset to Equity Ratio
(4)
Interest Coverage Ratio
(5)
Profit margin Ratio
(6)
Return on Assets
(7)
EBITDA Margin
2013
2012
1.14 : 1.00
1.55 : 1.00
0.45 : 1.00
0.36 : 1.00
3.51x
3.19x
16.66x
13.73x
0.06x
0.06x
.07x
.08x
10.27%
9.71%
(1)
Current ratio is measured as current assets divided by current liabilities.
(2)
Debt to equity ratio is measured as total debts divided to total equity attributable to equity holders of the parent.
(3)
Asset to equity ratio is measured as total assets divided by total equity attributable to equity holders of the parent.
(4)
Interest coverage ratio is measured as earnings before interest and taxes, divided by total interest and other financial charges.
(5)
Profit margin ratio is computed by dividing net income attributable to parent with total revenues.
(6)
Return on assets is measured as net income attributable to parent with total assets.
(7)
EBITDA margin is measured as EBITDA divided by total revenues.
EBITDA is measured as net income excluding depreciation and amortization, impairment of noncurrent assets, interest and
other financial charges, interest and other financial income, equity share in net earnings of associates and a joint venture,
foreign exchange gains or losses, mark-to-market gain or loss, provision for income tax and other non-recurring gain or loss, if any.
MANILA ELECTRIC COMPANY
NOTES TO PARENT COMPANY FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1. Corporate Information
Manila Electric Company or MERALCO, holds a congressional franchise under Republic Act or
RA No. 9209 effective June 28, 2003. RA No. 9209 grants MERALCO a 25-year franchise valid
through June 28, 2028 to construct, operate, and maintain the electric distribution system in the
cities and municipalities of Bulacan, Cavite, Metro Manila, and Rizal and certain cities,
municipalities, and barangays in the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Pampanga, and Quezon. On
October 20, 2008, the Energy Regulatory Commission or ERC, granted MERALCO a consolidated
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity for the operation of electric service within its
franchise coverage, effective until the expiration of MERALCO’s congressional franchise.
MERALCO has a unit for its participation in retail electricity supply or RES. MERALCO’s local
RES, otherwise known as MPower, is a business unit within MERALCO.
Under its latest amended Articles of Incorporation, MERALCO’s corporate life was extended for
another 50 years through 2019. MERALCO distributes and supplies electricity in its franchise
areas and is subject to the rate-making regulations and regulatory policies of the ERC.
The single largest shareholder of MERALCO as at December 31, 2013 is Beacon Electric Asset
Holdings, Inc. or Beacon Electric, which owns 49.96% of the common shares. Beacon Electric is
jointly owned by Metro Pacific Investments Corporation or Metro Pacific and PLDT
Communications and Energy Ventures, Inc., or PCEV, both of which are domestic corporations
and are affiliates of First Pacific Company Limited or First Pacific, a Hong Kong-based
investment and management company. In December 2013, JG Summit Holdings, Inc. or JG
Summit, completed the purchase of the remaining 27.12% equity interest of San Miguel
Corporation or SMC, San Miguel Pure Foods Company, Inc. and San Miguel Global Power
Holdings Corp. in MERALCO. In July 2013, SMC sold its 5.71%-interest in MERALCO through
the market. First Philippine Holdings Corporation or First Holdings, and First Philippine Utilities
Corporation, collectively own 3.95%. The balance of MERALCO’s common shares is held by the
public.
The common shares of MERALCO are listed on and traded in the Philippine Stock Exchange or
PSE, with security symbol MER.
The registered office address of MERALCO is Lopez Building, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City,
Philippines.
The accompanying parent company financial statements as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 and
January 1, 2012 and for years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, were reviewed and
recommended by the Audit and Risk Management Committee for approval to the Board of
Directors or BOD on March 17, 2014. On the same date, these parent company financial
statements were approved and authorized for issue by the BOD.
2. Rate Regulations
As a distribution utility or DU, MERALCO is subject to the rate-making regulations and regulatory
policies of the ERC. Billings to customers are itemized or “unbundled” into a number of bill
components that reflect the various activities and costs incurred in providing electric service. The
adjustment to each bill component is governed by mechanisms promulgated and enforced by the
ERC, mainly: [i] the “Rules Governing the Automatic Cost Adjustment and True-up Mechanisms
and Corresponding Confirmation Process for Distribution Utilities,” which govern the recovery of
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pass-through costs, including over- or under-recoveries of the bill components, namely,
(a) generation charge, (b) transmission charge, (c) system loss or SL, charge, (d) lifeline subsidy,
(e) local franchise tax or LFT, and (f) business tax; and [ii] the “Rules for the Setting of
Distribution Wheeling Rates” or RDWR, as modified by ERC Resolution No. 20, Series of 2008,
which govern the determination of MERALCO’s distribution, supply, and metering charges.
Rate Application
Performance Based Regulation or PBR
MERALCO was among the Group A entrants to the PBR, together with two other private DUs.
Rate-setting under PBR is governed by the RDWR. The PBR scheme sets tariffs based on the
regulated asset base of the DU, and the required operating and capital expenditures once every
regulatory period or RP, to meet operational performance and service level requirements
responsive to the needs for adequate, reliable, quality power, efficient service and growth of all
customer classes in the franchise area as approved by the ERC. The PBR also employs a
mechanism that penalizes or rewards a DU depending on its network and service performance.
Rate filings and settings are done on a RP basis. One (1) RP consists of four (4) Regulatory Years
or RYs. An RY for MERALCO begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 of the following year. As at
December 31, 2013, MERALCO is operating in the first half of the third RY of the third RP. The
third RP is from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015.
Maximum Average Price or MAP for RY 2008 and RY 2009
On January 11 and April 1, 2008, MERALCO filed separate applications for the approval of its
proposed translation of the MAP for RY 2008 and RY 2009, respectively, into different rate
schedules for its various customer segments. A portion of the distribution charge under-recoveries
as a result of the delayed implementation of the PBR was incorporated in the proposed MAP for
RY 2009.
In April 2009, the ERC approved the implementation of MERALCO’s average distribution rate of
=
P1.2227 per kilowatt hour or kWh effective billing period of May 2009. This rate is inclusive of
the under-recoveries for calendar year 2007 of P
=0.1285 per kWh.
On May 28, 2009, certain electricity consumer groups filed a Petition with the Court of Appeals,
or CA, questioning the decision and Order of the ERC on MERALCO’s rate translation application
for RY 2008 and RY 2009. In a decision dated January 27, 2010, the CA denied the Petition.
Consequently, the consumer groups brought the case to the Supreme Court of the Philippines or
SC. Comments and responses were filed by both parties with a Manifestation filed by MERALCO
on January 26, 2011. As at March 17, 2014, the SC has yet to render its decision on this case.
MAP for RY 2012
On June 21, 2011, MERALCO filed an application for the approval of its MAP for RY 2012 and its
translation into rate tariffs by customer category. On October 6, 2011, the ERC provisionally
approved the MAP for RY 2012 of =
P1.6012 per kWh and the rate translation per customer class
was reflected commencing with the October 2011 customer bills. Hearings for the final approval
of the application have been completed and all parties have submitted their respective memoranda.
As at March 17, 2014, the application is pending final approval by the ERC.
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MAP for RY 2013
On June 11, 2012, the ERC provisionally approved the MAP for RY 2013 of P
=1.6303 per kWh
which was reflected starting with the July 2012 customer bills. Hearings on this case have been
completed and MERALCO is awaiting the final decision of the ERC.
MAP for RY 2014
On April 1, 2013, MERALCO filed its application for the approval of its MAP for RY 2014 of
P
=1.6510 per kWh and the translation thereof into rate tariffs by customer category. Hearing was
completed on May 9, 2013. MERALCO filed its Formal Offer of Evidence or FOE on May 10,
2013. On June 10, 2013, the ERC provisionally approved the MAP for RY 2014 of =
P1.6474 per
kWh and the rate translation per customer class. As at March 17, 2014, the application is pending
final approval by the ERC.
SC Decision on Unbundling Rate Case
On May 30, 2003, the ERC issued an Order approving MERALCO’s unbundled tariffs that
resulted in a total increase of =
P0.17 per kWh over the May 2003 tariff levels. However, on
August 4, 2003, certain consumer and civil society groups filed a Petition for Review of the ERC’s
ruling with the CA. On July 22, 2004, the CA set aside the ERC’s ruling on MERALCO’s rate
unbundling and remanded the case to the ERC. Further, the CA opined that the ERC should have
asked the Commission on Audit or COA, to audit the books of MERALCO. The ERC and
MERALCO subsequently filed separate motions asking the CA to reconsider its decision. On
January 24, 2005, as a result of the denial by the CA of the motions, the ERC and MERALCO
elevated the case to the SC.
In an En Banc Decision promulgated on December 6, 2006, the SC set aside and reversed the CA
ruling saying that a COA audit was not a prerequisite in the determination of a utility’s rates.
However, while the SC affirmed the ERC’s authority in rate-fixing, the SC directed ERC to request
COA to undertake a complete audit of the books, records and accounts of MERALCO. On
January 15, 2007, in compliance with the directive of the SC, the ERC requested COA to conduct
an audit of the books, records and accounts of MERALCO using calendar years 2004 and 2007 as
test years.
The COA audit, which began in September 2008, was completed in August 2009.
On February 17, 2010, the ERC issued its Order directing MERALCO and all intervenors in the
case to submit within 15 days from receipt of the Order, their respective comments on the COA’s
“Report No. 2009-01 Rate Audit Unbundled Charges.”
On July 1, 2011, the ERC maintained and affirmed its findings and conclusions in its Order dated
March 20, 2003. The ERC stated that the COA recommendation to apply disallowances under PBR
to rate unbundling violates the principle against retroactive rate-making. An intervenor group filed
a motion for reconsideration of the said Order. On September 5, 2011, MERALCO filed its
comment to the intervenor’s motion for reconsideration. On February 4, 2013, the ERC denied the
intervenor’s motion for reconsideration. The intervenor filed a petition for review before the CA.
MERALCO is awaiting further action of the CA on this matter.
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Applications for the Recovery of Generation Costs and SL Charges
MERALCO filed separate applications for the full recovery of generation costs, including valueadded tax or VAT, incurred for the supply months of August 2006 to May 2007 or total underrecoveries of P
=12,679 million for generation charges and =
P1,295 million for SL charges.
The separate applications for the full recovery of generation charges have been approved by the
ERC in its decisions released on January 18, 2008, September 3, 2008 and August 16, 2010.
As at December 31, 2013, the remaining balance of =
P137 million of such unrecovered generation
costs will be billed subsequent to December 2013 at the rate of =
P0.0314 per kWh until fully
recovered. The amount is recoverable within 12 months and included in the “Trade and other
receivables” account.
With respect to the =
P1,295 million SL charge under-recoveries, the ERC ordered MERALCO to
file a separate application for the recovery of SL adjustments after the ERC confirms the
transmission rate to be used in the calculation of the SL rate in accordance with the SL rate
formula of the Automatic Generation Rate Adjustments Guidelines or AGRA. MERALCO has filed
the application for recovery of the P
=1,295 million SL charge under-recoveries with the ERC. This
was included in the Consolidated Application of over- or under-recoveries in generation,
transmission, SL charges and lifeline subsidies charges filed on March 31, 2011 with the ERC.
Hearings were completed on October 25, 2011. On December 12, 2011, MERALCO filed for the
admission of its Supplemental Application. An expository hearing was conducted on February 1,
2012. As at March 17, 2014, MERALCO has already filed its FOE and is awaiting the final
resolution by the ERC.
Inter-Class Cross Subsidies and Lifeline Subsidies
MERALCO filed separate applications to recover inter-class cross subsidies (on November 14,
2007) and lifeline subsidies (on February 19, 2008).
In a decision dated November 16, 2009, the ERC authorized MERALCO to recover the inter-class
cross subsidy under-recoveries covering the period June 2003 to October 2006 amounting to
=
P1,049 million and total lifeline subsidy under-recoveries covering the period June 2003 to
December 2007 amounting to =
P856 million.
In December 2009, MERALCO implemented the decisions of the ERC on the inter-class cross and
lifeline subsidies. The balances of inter-class cross subsidies and lifeline subsidies were fully
recovered in April 2013 and December 2013, respectively.
Consolidated Applications for the Confirmation of Over/Under-recoveries of Pass-through
Charges
On August 12, 2009, the ERC issued Resolution No. 16, Series of 2009, adopting the “Rules
Governing the Automatic Cost Adjustment and True-up Mechanisms and Corresponding
Confirmation Process for Distribution Utilities.” These rules govern the recovery of pass-through
costs, including over- or under-recoveries with respect to the following bill components:
generation charge, transmission charge, SL charge, lifeline and interclass rate subsidies, LFT and
business tax. On October 18, 2010, the ERC promulgated ERC Resolution No. 21, Series of 2010,
amending certain formula contained in ERC Resolution No. 16, Series of 2009, and setting
March 31, 2011 (covering adjustments implemented until the billing month of December 2010)
and March 31, 2014 (covering adjustments from January 2011 to December 2013) as the new
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deadlines for DUs in Luzon to file their respective applications. Subsequent filings shall be made
every three years thereafter.
On March 31, 2011, MERALCO filed a consolidated application with the ERC to confirm its
under- or over-recoveries accumulated from June 2003 to December 2010 in compliance with
Resolution No. 16, Series of 2009, as subsequently amended by Resolution No. 21, Series of 2010.
Hearings were completed on October 25, 2011. On December 8, 2011, MERALCO filed an
Omnibus Motion praying for, among other things, the admission of the Supplemental Application.
In an Order dated December 12, 2011, the ERC granted MERALCO’s Omnibus Motion and
admitted its Supplemental Application. Accordingly, hearings for the Supplemental Application
were conducted where MERALCO presented additional evidence. MERALCO filed its FOE on
September 13, 2012. The consolidated filing includes net generation charge under-recoveries of
=
P1,000 million, net transmission charge over-recoveries of =
P111 million, net lifeline subsidy
under-recoveries of =
P9 million and net SL over-recoveries of P
=425 million, excluding any
applicable carrying charges.
On July 6, 2012, MERALCO filed a consolidated application with the ERC to confirm its under- or
over-recoveries for the calendar year 2011. The consolidated filing includes net generation charge
under-recoveries of =
P1,826 million, transmission charge under-recoveries of P
=253 million, net
lifeline subsidy under-recoveries of =
P39 million and SL over-recoveries of =
P445 million, excluding
any applicable carrying charges. Hearings on the application have been completed and MERALCO
has submitted its FOE on January 25, 2013. As at March 17, 2014, the application is pending
approval by the ERC. As at March 17, 2014, the application is pending approval by the ERC.
Deferred PPA
On October 14, 2009, the ERC released its findings on MERALCO’s implementation of the
collection of the approved pass-through cost under-recoveries in 2004. ERC directed MERALCO
to refund =
P268 million of deferred PPA transmission line costs related to Quezon Power
(Philippines) Limited Company or QPPL and deferred accounting adjustments or DAA incurred to
customers, along with =
P184 million in carrying charges, or an equivalent of P
=0.0169 per kWh.
MERALCO implemented the refund beginning November 2009 until September 2010. However,
the ERC has yet to rule on MERALCO’s deferred PPA under-recoveries of =
P106 million, which
does not represent the transmission line fee. As at March 17, 2014, MERALCO has filed a Motion
for Reconsideration, which is pending decision by the ERC.
Application for Recovery of LFT
On March 25, 2011, MERALCO filed with the ERC an application for recovery of LFT paid but
not yet billed to customers for the period beginning first quarter of 1993 up to the second quarter
of 2004 for five (5) provinces, namely: Bulacan, Batangas, Cavite, Laguna and Rizal; and 14
cities, namely: San Jose Del Monte, Batangas, San Pablo, Tagaytay, Lucena, Mandaluyong,
Marikina, Quezon, Caloocan, Pasay, Las Piñas, Manila, Pasig and Calamba. The LFT is
recognized as a legitimate and reasonable DU expense in the ERC’s unbundling decision.
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In a Decision dated February 27, 2012, the ERC released its Order approving with modifications
MERALCO’s application. The ERC approved recovery of LFT amounting to =
P1,571 million plus
carrying charges of P
=730 million. As directed by the ERC, the recovery was reflected as a separate
item in the MERALCO billing statement to its customers beginning April 2012. As at
December 31, 2013, a total of =
P856 million LFT and carrying charges have been billed to affected
customers. The amount recoverable within 12 months is included in the “Trade and other
receivables” account while the long-term portion is included in the “Other noncurrent assets”
account.
SC Decision on the =
P 0.167 per kWh Refund
Following the SC’s final ruling that directed MERALCO to refund affected customers P
=0.167 per
kWh for billings made from February 1994 to April 2003, the ERC approved the release of the
refund in four phases. The refund is still ongoing.
See Note 19 – Customers’ Refund.
3. Basis of Preparation and Statement of Compliance
The accompanying parent company financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost
basis, except for utility plant and others and investment properties acquired before
January 1, 2004, which are carried at deemed cost and for derivative financial instruments and
available-for-sale, or AFS, financial assets, which are measured at fair value. Derivative financial
instruments are shown as part of “Other current assets” account in the parent company statement
of financial position. AFS financial assets are included as part of “Other noncurrent assets”
account in the parent company statement of financial position.
The accompanying parent company financial statements are presented in Philippine peso,
MERALCO’s functional and presentation currency, and all values are rounded to the nearest
million peso, except when otherwise indicated.
The parent company financial statements provide comparative information in respect of the
previous year. In addition, MERALCO presents an additional parent company statement of
financial position at the beginning of the earliest year presented when there is a retrospective
application of an accounting policy, a retrospective restatement, or a reclassification of items in
the parent company financial statements. An additional parent company statement of financial
position as at January 1, 2012 is presented in these parent company financial statements due to
retrospective application of certain accounting policies.
Statement of Compliance
The parent company financial statements have been prepared in compliance with Philippine
Financial Reporting Standards, or PFRS.
MERALCO also prepares and issues consolidated financial statements in compliance with PFRS.
These are available publicly and may be downloaded from www.meralco.com.ph.
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4. Significant Accounting Policies, Changes and Improvements
Changes in Accounting Policies and Disclosures
The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the parent company financial statements are
consistent with those of the previous financial year except for the adoption of the following
Philippine Interpretations and amendments and improvements to existing standards, which were
effective beginning January 1, 2013.
PAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements – Presentation of Items of Other
Comprehensive Income or OCI
The amendments to PAS 1 change the grouping of items presented in OCI. Items that can be
reclassified (or “recycled”) to profit or loss at a future point in time (for example, upon
derecognition or settlement) will be presented separately from items that will never be recycled.
The adoption did not have significant effect on the parent company financial statements. The
amendments affected the presentation in the parent company statement of comprehensive income
only and had no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
PAS 19, Employee Benefits (Amendments)
For defined benefit plans, the revised PAS 19 requires all actuarial gains and losses to be
recognized in other comprehensive income and unvested past service costs previously recognized
over the average vesting period to be recognized immediately in profit or loss when incurred.
Prior to adoption of the revised PAS 19, MERALCO recognized actuarial gains and losses as
income or expense when the net cumulative unrecognized gains and losses for each individual
plan at the end of the previous period exceeded 10% of the higher of the defined benefit obligation
and the fair value of the plan assets and recognized unvested past service costs as an expense on a
straight-line basis over the average vesting period until the benefits become vested. Upon adoption
of the revised PAS 19, MERALCO changed its accounting policy to recognize all actuarial gains
and losses in other comprehensive income and all past service costs in profit or loss in the period
they occur.
The revised PAS 19 replaced the interest cost and expected return on plan assets with the concept
of net interest on defined benefit liability or asset which is calculated by multiplying the net
balance sheet defined benefit liability or asset by the discount rate used to measure the employee
benefit obligation, each as at the beginning of the annual period.
The revised PAS 19 also amended the definition of short-term employee benefits and requires
employee benefits to be classified as short-term based on expected timing of settlement rather than
the employee’s entitlement to the benefits. In addition, the revised PAS 19 modifies the timing of
recognition for termination benefits. The modification requires the termination benefits to be
recognized at the earlier of when the offer cannot be withdrawn or when the related restructuring
costs are recognized.
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MERALCO reviewed its existing employee benefits and determined that the amended standard has
a significant impact on its accounting for retirement benefits. MERALCO obtained the services of
an external actuary to compute the impact in the parent company financial statements upon
adoption of the standard. The effects are detailed below:
As at
December 31,
2013
As at
December 31,
2012
As at
January 1,
2012
(In millions)
Parent company statements of
financial position
Increase (decrease) in:
Net defined benefit liability
Deferred tax assets
Other comprehensive income
Retained earnings
(P
=1,989)
(597)
1,446
(54)
(P
=600)
(180)
286
134
Years Ended December 31
2013
2012
P
=2,332
699
(1,662)
29
2011
(In millions)
Parent company statements of
income
Increase (decrease) in:
Net benefit cost
Provision for income tax
Profit for the year
Earnings per share
Parent company statements of
comprehensive income
Increase in other comprehensive
income
P
=269
(81)
(188)
(0.17)
P
=1,160
(P
=149)
44
105
0.09
P
=1,948
(P
=42)
13
29
0.03
P
=1,125
The adoption of the Revised PAS 19 had no impact on the parent company statements of cash
flows.
Philippine Interpretation IFRIC 20, Stripping Costs in the Production Phase of a
Surface Mine
This interpretation applies to waste removal (stripping) costs incurred in surface mining activity,
during the production phase of the mine. The interpretation addresses the accounting for the
benefit from the stripping activity. This new interpretation is not relevant to MERALCO.
PFRS 7, Financial Instruments: Disclosures - Offsetting Financial Assets
and Financial Liabilities
These amendments require an entity to disclose information about rights of set-off and related
arrangements (such as collateral agreements). The new disclosures are required for all recognized
financial instruments that are set off in accordance with PAS 32, Financial Instruments:
Presentation. These disclosures also apply to recognized financial instruments that are subject to
an enforceable master netting arrangement or ‘similar agreement’, irrespective of whether they are
set-off in accordance with PAS 32. The amendments require entities to disclose, in a tabular
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format unless another format is more appropriate, the following minimum quantitative
information. These are presented separately for financial assets and financial liabilities recognized
at the end of the reporting period:
a) The gross amounts of those recognized financial assets and recognized financial liabilities;
b) The amounts that are set off in accordance with the criteria in PAS 32 when determining the
net amounts presented in the statement of financial position;
c) The net amounts presented in the statement of financial position;
d) The amounts subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement that
are not otherwise included in (b) above, including:
i. Amounts related to recognized financial instruments that do not meet some or all of the
offsetting criteria in PAS 32; and
ii. Amounts related to financial collateral (including cash collateral); and
e) The net amount after deducting the amounts in (d) from the amounts in (c) above.
The amendments are applicable to MERALCO and based on the evaluation, the amendments have
no impact on its financial position or performance.
PFRS 10, Consolidated Financial Statements
PFRS 10 replaces the portion of PAS 27, Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements, that
addresses the accounting for consolidated financial statements. It also includes the issues raised in
Standing Interpretations Committee or SIC 12, Consolidation - Special Purpose Entities. PFRS 10
establishes a single control model that applies to all entities including special purpose entities. The
changes introduced by PFRS 10 require management to exercise significant judgment to
determine which entities are controlled, and therefore, are required to be consolidated by a parent,
compared with the requirements that were in PAS 27. A reassessment of control was performed by
MERALCO on all its subsidiaries and associates in accordance with the provisions of PFRS 10.
Based on the reassessment made, MERALCO has not determined any change in the control or
significant influence in any of its subsidiaries and associates.
PFRS 11, Joint Arrangements
PFRS 11 replaces PAS 31, Interests in Joint Ventures, and SIC 13, Jointly Controlled Entities Non-Monetary Contributions by Venturers. PFRS 11 removes the option to account for jointly
controlled entities using proportionate consolidation. Instead, jointly controlled entities that meet
the definition of a joint venture must be accounted for using the equity method. The standard is
applicable to MERALCO and based on MERALCO’s evaluation, the application of this new
standard will have no impact on the parent company financial statements.
PFRS 12, Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities
PFRS 12 includes all of the disclosures related to consolidated financial statements that were
previously in PAS 27, as well as all the disclosures that were previously included in PAS 31 and
PAS 28, Investments in Associates. These disclosures relate to an entity’s interests in subsidiaries,
joint arrangements, associates and structured entities. The standard is applicable to MERALCO
and based on the evaluation, the standard has no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or
performance but affects disclosures only.
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PFRS 13, Fair Value Measurement
PFRS 13 establishes a single source of guidance under PFRS for all fair value measurements.
PFRS 13 does not change when an entity is required to use fair value, but rather provides guidance
on how to measure fair value under PFRS when fair value is required or permitted. The standard is
applicable to MERALCO and based on MERALCO’s evaluation, the standard has no impact on the
parent company financial statements but affects disclosures only.
PAS 27, Separate Financial Statements (as revised in 2011)
As a consequence of the issuance of the new PFRS 10 and PFRS 12, what remains of PAS 27 is
limited to accounting for subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities, and associates in the separate
financial statements. The standard is applicable to MERALCO and based on its evaluation, the
application of this new standard has no impact on the parent company financial statements.
PAS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures (as revised in 2011)
As a consequence of the issuance of the new PFRS 11 and PFRS 12, PAS 28 has been renamed
PAS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures, and describes the application of the equity
method to investments in joint ventures in addition to associates. The standard is applicable to
MERALCO and based on MERALCO’s evaluation, the application of this new standard has no
impact on the parent company financial statements.
Annual Improvements to PFRS (2009-2011 cycle)
The Annual Improvements to PFRS (2009-2011 cycle) contain non-urgent but necessary
amendments to PFRS. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after
January 1, 2013 and to be applied retrospectively.
PFRS 1, First-time Adoption of PFRS - Borrowing Costs
The amendment clarifies that, upon adoption of PFRS, an entity that capitalized borrowing costs
in accordance with its previous generally accepted accounting principles, may carry forward,
without any adjustment, the amount previously capitalized in its opening statement of financial
position at the date of transition. Subsequent to the adoption of PFRS, borrowing costs are
recognized in accordance with PAS 23, Borrowing Costs. The amendment does not apply to
MERALCO as it is not a first-time adopter of PFRS.
PAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements - Clarification of the Requirements for
Comparative Information
The amendment clarifies the requirements for comparative information that are disclosed
voluntarily and those that are mandatory due to retrospective application of an accounting policy,
or retrospective restatement or reclassification of items in the financial statements. An entity must
include comparative information in the related notes to the financial statements when it voluntarily
provides comparative information beyond the minimum required comparative period. The
additional comparative period does not need to contain a complete set of financial statements. On
the other hand, supporting notes for the third balance sheet (mandatory when there is a
retrospective application of an accounting policy, or retrospective restatement or reclassification
of items in the financial statements) are not required. The amendments affect disclosures only and
have no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
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PAS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment - Classification of Servicing Equipment
The amendment clarifies that spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment should be
recognized as property, plant and equipment when they meet the definition of property, plant and
equipment and should be recognized as inventory if otherwise. The amendment has no impact on
MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
PAS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation - Tax Effect of Distribution to Holders of
Equity Instruments
The amendment clarifies that income taxes relating to distributions to equity holders and to
transaction costs of an equity transaction are accounted for in accordance with PAS 12, Income
Taxes. The amendment has no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
PAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting - Interim Financial Reporting and Segment
Information for Total Assets and Liabilities
The amendment clarifies that the total assets and liabilities for a particular reportable segment
need to be disclosed only when the amounts are regularly provided to the chief operating decision
maker and there has been a material change from the amount disclosed in the entity’s previous
annual financial statements for that reportable segment. The amendment has no impact on
MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
New Accounting Standards and Interpretations to Existing Standards Effective
Subsequent to December 31, 2013
MERALCO will adopt the following revised standards and interpretations enumerated below,
which are relevant when these become effective. Except as otherwise indicated, MERALCO does
not expect the adoption of these revised standards and amendments to PFRS to have a significant
impact on the parent company financial statements.
Effective 2014
PAS 36, Impairment of Assets - Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial
Assets (Amendments)
These amendments remove the unintended consequences of PFRS 13 on the disclosures required
under PAS 36. In addition, these amendments require disclosure of the recoverable amounts for
the assets or cash-generating units for which impairment loss has been recognized or reversed
during the period. These amendments are effective retrospectively for annual periods beginning on
or after January 1, 2014 with earlier application permitted, provided PFRS 13 is also applied. The
amendments affect disclosures only and have no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or
performance.
Investment Entities (Amendments to PFRS 10, PFRS 12 and PAS 27)
These amendments provide an exception to the consolidation requirement for entities that meet the
definition of an investment entity under PFRS 10. The exception to consolidation requires
investment entities to account for subsidiaries at fair value through profit or loss. It is not expected
that this amendment would be relevant to MERALCO since none of the entities in MERALCO
would qualify to be an investment entity under PFRS 10.
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Philippine Interpretation IFRIC 21, Levies (IFRIC 21)
IFRIC 21 clarifies that an entity recognizes a liability for a levy when the activity that triggers
payment, as identified by the relevant legislation, occurs. For a levy that is triggered upon
reaching a minimum threshold, the interpretation clarifies that no liability should be anticipated
before the specified minimum threshold is reached. MERALCO does not expect that IFRIC 21 will
have material financial impact in future financial statements.
PAS 39, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement - Novation of
Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting (Amendments)
These amendments provide relief from discontinuing hedge accounting when novation of a
derivative designated as a hedging instrument meets certain criteria. MERALCO has not novated
its derivatives during the current period. However, these amendments would be considered for
future novations.
PAS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation – Offsetting Financial Assets and
Financial Liabilities
The amendments clarify the meaning of “currently has a legally enforceable right to set-off” and
also clarify the application of the PAS 32 offsetting criteria to settlement systems (such as central
clearing house systems) which apply gross settlement mechanisms that are not simultaneous. The
amendments affect presentation only and have no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or
performance. The amendments to PAS 32 are to be applied retrospectively for annual periods
beginning on or after January 1, 2014.
Effective 2015
PAS 19, Employee Benefits – Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions
(Amendments)
The amendments apply to contributions from employees or third parties to defined benefit plans.
Contributions that are set out in the formal terms of the plan shall be accounted for as reductions
to current service costs if they are linked to service or as part of the remeasurements of the net
defined benefit asset or liability if they are not linked to service. Contributions that are
discretionary shall be accounted for as reductions of current service cost upon payment of these
contributions to the plans. The amendments to PAS 19 are to be retrospectively applied for annual
periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014.
Annual Improvements to PFRS (2010-2012 cycle)
The Annual Improvements to PFRS (2010-2012 cycle) contain non-urgent but necessary
amendments to the following standards:
PFRS 2, Share-based Payment – Definition of Vesting Condition
The amendment revised the definitions of vesting condition and market condition and added the
definitions of performance condition and service condition to clarify various issues. This
amendment shall be prospectively applied to share-based payment transactions for which the grant
date is on or after July 1, 2014. This amendment does not apply to MERALCO as it has no sharebased payments.
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PFRS 3, Business Combinations – Accounting for Contingent Consideration in a
Business Combination
The amendment clarifies that a contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial
instrument should be classified as a financial liability or as equity in accordance with PAS 32.
Contingent consideration that is not classified as equity is subsequently measured at fair value
through profit or loss whether or not it falls within the scope of PFRS 9 (or PAS 39, if PFRS 9 is
not yet adopted) The amendment shall be prospectively applied to business combinations for
which the acquisition date is on or after July 1, 2014. MERALCO shall consider this amendment
for future business combinations.
PFRS 8, Operating Segments – Aggregation of Operating Segments and
Reconciliation of the Total of the Reportable Segments’ Assets to the Entity’s
Assets
The amendments require entities to disclose the judgment made by management in aggregating
two or more operating segments. This disclosure should include a brief description of the
operating segments that have been aggregated in this way and the economic indicators that have
been assessed in determining that the aggregated operating segments share similar economic
characteristics. The amendments also clarify that an entity shall provide reconciliations of the total
of the reportable segments’ assets to the entity’s assets if such amounts are regularly provided to
the chief operating decision maker. These amendments are effective for annual periods beginning
on or after July 1, 2014 and are applied retrospectively. The amendments affect disclosures only
and have no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
PFRS 13, Fair Value Measurement – Short-term Receivables and Payables
The amendment clarifies that short-term receivables and payables with no stated interest rates can
be held at invoice amounts when the effect of discounting is immaterial.
PAS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment – Revaluation Method – Proportionate
Restatement of Accumulated Depreciation
The amendment clarifies that, upon revaluation of an item of property, plant and equipment, the
carrying amount of the asset shall be adjusted to the revalued amount, and the asset shall be
treated in one of the following ways:
a. The gross carrying amount is adjusted in a manner that is consistent with the revaluation of the
carrying amount of the asset. The accumulated depreciation at the date of revaluation is
adjusted to equal the difference between the gross carrying amount and the carrying amount of
the asset after taking into account any accumulated impairment losses.
b. The accumulated depreciation is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset.
The amendment is effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014. The amendment
shall apply to all revaluations recognized in annual periods beginning on or after the date of initial
application of this amendment and in the immediately preceding annual period. The amendment
has no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
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PAS 24, Related Party Disclosures – Key Management Personnel
The amendments clarify that an entity is a related party of the reporting entity if the said entity, or
any member of a group for which it is a part of, provides key management personnel services to
the reporting entity or to the parent company of the reporting entity. The amendments also clarify
that a reporting entity that obtains management personnel services from another entity (also
referred to as management entity) is not required to disclose the compensation paid or payable by
the management entity to its employees or directors. The reporting entity is required to disclose
the amounts incurred for the key management personnel services provided by a separate
management entity. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1,
2014 and are applied retrospectively. The amendments affect disclosures only and have no impact
on MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
PAS 38, Intangible Assets – Revaluation Method – Proportionate Restatement of
Accumulated Amortization
The amendments clarify that, upon revaluation of an intangible asset, the carrying amount of the
asset shall be adjusted to the revalued amount, and the asset shall be treated in one of the
following ways:
a. The gross carrying amount is adjusted in a manner that is consistent with the revaluation of the
carrying amount of the asset. The accumulated amortization at the date of revaluation is
adjusted to equal the difference between the gross carrying amount and the carrying amount of
the asset after taking into account any accumulated impairment losses.
b. The accumulated amortization is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset.
The amendments also clarify that the amount of the adjustment of the accumulated amortization
should form part of the increase or decrease in the carrying amount accounted for in accordance
with the standard.
The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014. The
amendments shall apply to all revaluations recognized in annual periods beginning on or after the
date of initial application of this amendment and in the immediately preceding annual period. The
amendments have no impact on MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
Annual Improvements to PFRS (2011-2013 cycle)
The Annual Improvements to PFRS (2011-2013 cycle) contain non-urgent but necessary
amendments to the following standards:
PFRS 1, First-time Adoption of Philippine Financial Reporting Standards – Meaning
of ‘Effective PFRS’
The amendment clarifies that an entity may choose to apply either a current standard or a new
standard that is not yet mandatory, but that permits early application, provided either standard is
applied consistently throughout the periods presented in the entity’s first PFRS financial
statements. This amendment is not applicable to MERALCO’s as it is not a first-time adopter of
PFRS.
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PFRS 3, Business Combinations – Scope Exceptions for Joint Arrangements
The amendment clarifies that PFRS 3 does not apply to the accounting for the formation of a joint
arrangement in the financial statements of the joint arrangement itself. The amendment is effective
for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014 and is applied prospectively.
PFRS 13, Fair Value Measurement – Portfolio Exception
The amendment clarifies that the portfolio exception in PFRS 13 can be applied to financial assets,
financial liabilities and other contracts. The amendment is effective for annual periods beginning
on or after July 1, 2014 and is applied prospectively. The amendment has no significant impact on
MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
PAS 40, Investment Property
The amendment clarifies the interrelationship between PFRS 3 and PAS 40 when classifying
property as investment property or owner-occupied property. The amendment states that judgment
is needed when determining whether the acquisition of investment property is the acquisition of an
asset or a group of assets or a business combination within the scope of PFRS 3. This judgment is
based on the guidance of PFRS 3. This amendment is effective for annual periods beginning on or
after July 1, 2014 and is applied prospectively. The amendment has no significant impact on
MERALCO’s financial position or performance.
Deferred Effectivity
Philippine Interpretation IFRIC 15, Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate
This interpretation covers accounting for revenue and associated expenses by entities that
undertake the construction of real estate directly or through subcontractors. The interpretation
requires that revenue on construction of real estate be recognized only upon completion, except
when such contract qualifies as construction contract to be accounted for under PAS 11 or involves
rendering of services in which case revenue is recognized based on stage of completion. Contracts
involving provision of services with the construction materials and where the risks and reward of
ownership are transferred to the buyer on a continuous basis will also be accounted for based on
stage of completion. The Philippine SEC and the PFRSC have deferred the effectivity of this
interpretation until the final Revenue standard is issued by the International Accounting Standards
Board and an evaluation of the requirements of the final Revenue standard against the practices of
the Philippine real estate industry is completed. Adoption of the interpretation when it becomes
effective will not have any impact on the financial statements of MERALCO.
PFRS 9, Financial Instruments: Classification and Measurement
PFRS 9, as issued, reflects the first and third phases of the project to replace PAS 39 and applies to
the classification and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities and hedge
accounting, respectively. Work on second phase, which relates impairment of financial
instruments, and the limited amendments to the classification and measurement model is still
ongoing, with a view to replace PAS 39 in its entirety. PFRS 9 requires all financial assets to be
measured at fair value at initial recognition. A debt financial asset may, if the fair value option or
FVO, is not invoked, be subsequently measured at amortized cost if it is held within a business
model that has the objective to hold the assets to collect the contractual cash flows and its
contractual terms give rise, on specified dates, to cash flows that are solely payments of principal
and interest on the principal outstanding. All other debt instruments are subsequently measured at
fair value through profit or loss. All equity financial assets are measured at fair value either
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through OCI or profit or loss. All equity financial assets held for trading must be measured at fair
value through profit or loss. For liabilities designated as at FVPL using the fair value option, the
amount of change in the fair value of a liability that is attributable to changes in credit risk must be
presented in OCI. The remainder of the change in fair value is presented in profit or loss, unless
presentation of the fair value change relating to the entity’s own credit risk in OCI would create or
enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss. All other PAS 39 classification and
measurement requirements for financial liabilities have been carried forward into PFRS 9,
including the embedded derivative separation rules and the criteria for using the FVO. MERALCO
conducted an evaluation of the early adoption of PFRS 9 and has assessed that the first phase of
PFRS 9 will have an effect on the classification and measurement of financial assets. MERALCO
will quantify the effect on the parent company financial statements in conjunction with the other
phases, when issued, to present a comprehensive picture.
On hedge accounting, PFRS 9 replaces the rules-based hedge accounting model of PAS 39 with a
more principles-based approach. Changes include replacing the rules-based hedge effectiveness
test with an objectives-based test that focuses on the economic relationship between the hedged
item and the hedging instrument, and the effect of credit risk on that economic relationship;
allowing risk components to be designated as the hedged item, not only for financial items, but
also for non-financial items, provided that the risk component is separately identifiable and
reliably measurable; and allowing the time value of an option, the forward element of a forward
contract and any foreign currency basis spread to be excluded from the designation of a financial
instrument as the hedging instrument and accounted for as costs of hedging. PFRS 9 also requires
more extensive disclosures for hedge accounting.
PFRS 9 currently has no mandatory effective date. PFRS 9 may be applied before the completion
of the limited amendments to the classification and measurement model and impairment
methodology. MERALCO will not adopt the standard before the completion of the limited
amendments and the second phase of the project.
Significant Accounting Policies
The principal accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the parent company financial
statements are as follows:
Utility Plant and Others
Utility plant and others, except land, are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and
amortization and accumulated impairment loss, if any. Costs include the cost of replacing part of
such utility plant and others when such cost is incurred, if the recognition criteria are met. All
other repair and maintenance costs are recognized as incurred in the parent company statement of
income. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of the asset after use is
included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision are met.
Land is stated at cost less any impairment in value.
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MERALCO’s utility plant and others are stated at deemed cost. The revalued amount recorded as at
January 1, 2004 was adopted as deemed cost as allowed by the transitional provisions of PFRS 1.
The balance of revaluation increment was closed to retained earnings. Depreciation and
amortization of utility plant and others are computed using the straight-line method (except for
certain sub-transmission and distribution assets, which use straight-line functional group method)
over the following estimated useful lives:
Asset Type
Sub-transmission and distribution
Others:
Buildings and improvements
Communication equipment
Office furniture, fixtures and other equipment
Transportation equipment
Others
Estimated Useful Lives
10-50 years, depending on the life
of the significant parts
15-40 years
10 years
5-15 years
5-10 years
5-20 years
An item of utility plant and others is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic
benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising as a result of the
derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the
carrying amount of the asset) is included in the parent company statement of income in the year
the asset is derecognized.
The assets’ residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation and amortization are
reviewed, and adjusted prospectively if appropriate, at each reporting date to ensure that the
residual values, periods and methods of depreciation and amortization are consistent with the
expected pattern of economic benefits from items of utility plant and others.
Construction in Progress
Construction in progress is stated at cost, which includes cost of construction, plant and
equipment, capitalized borrowing costs and other direct costs. Construction in progress is not
depreciated until such time that the relevant assets are substantially completed and available for
their intended use.
Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs are capitalized if they are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or
production of a qualifying asset. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial
period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. Capitalization of borrowing costs
commences when the activities necessary to prepare the qualifying asset for its intended use or
sale have been undertaken and expenditures and borrowing costs have been incurred. Borrowing
costs are capitalized until the asset is substantially available for its intended use.
Borrowing costs include interest charges and other costs incurred in connection with the
borrowing of funds, as well as any exchange differences arising from any foreign currencydenominated borrowings used to finance the projects, to the extent that they are regarded as an
adjustment to interest costs.
All other borrowing costs are expensed as incurred.
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Investment Properties
Investment properties, except land, are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and
accumulated impairment loss, if any. The carrying amount includes transaction costs and costs of
replacing part of an existing investment property at the time such costs are incurred if the
recognition criteria are met and excludes the costs of day-to-day servicing of an investment
property.
Investment properties include properties that are being constructed or developed for future use as
investment property.
Land classified as investment property is carried at cost less any impairment in value.
MERALCO’s investment properties acquired before January 1, 2004 are stated at deemed cost.
Investment properties, except land, are being depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful
lives of five (5) to 35 years.
Investment properties are derecognized either when they have been disposed of or when these are
permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from its disposal.
Any gain or loss from the derecognition of the investment properties are recognized in the parent
company statement of income in the year these are disposed or retired.
Transfers are made to investment property when and only when there is a change in use,
evidenced by ending of owner-occupation or commencement of an operating lease to another
party. If owner-occupied property becomes an investment property, MERALCO accounts for such
property in accordance with the policy stated under utility plant and others up to the date of the
change in use. Transfers are made from investment property when, and only when, there is a
change in use, evidenced by commencement of owner-occupation or commencement of
development with a view to sale. Transfers from investment property are recorded using the
carrying amount of the investment property at the date of change in use.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Under the terms of certain lease contracts, MERALCO is required to dismantle the installations
made in leased sites and restore such sites to their original condition at the end of the term of the
lease contracts. MERALCO recognizes a liability measured at the present value of the estimated
costs of these obligations and capitalizes such costs as part of the balance of the related item of
utility plant and others and investment properties. The amount of asset retirement obligations is
accreted and such accretion is recognized as interest expense.
Intangible Assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are initially measured at cost. Following initial recognition,
intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated
impairment loss. The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed at the individual asset level as
having either finite or indefinite useful lives.
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Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over the useful economic lives of five years using
the straight-line method and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the
intangible assets may be impaired. At a minimum, the amortization period and the amortization
method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at each reporting date.
Changes in the expected useful life or the expected consumption pattern of future economic
benefit embodied in the asset are accounted for by changing the amortization period or method, as
appropriate, and treated as change in accounting estimates. The amortization expense of intangible
assets with finite lives is recognized in the parent company statement of income.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are assessed for impairment
annually either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite
useful life is done annually at every reporting date to determine whether such indefinite useful life
continues to exist. Otherwise, the change in the useful life assessment from indefinite to finite is
made on a prospective basis.
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference
between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, and are recognized in the
parent company statement of income.
Intangible assets generated within the business are not capitalized and expenditures are charged to
profit or loss in the year these are incurred.
Investments in Subsidiaries and Associates and Interest in Joint Ventures
Investments in subsidiaries (entities over which MERALCO has control) and associates (entities
over which MERALCO has significant influence) and interests in joint ventures (entities over
which MERALCO has joint control) are accounted for under the cost method of accounting in the
parent company financial statements. Investments in subsidiaries and associates and interests in
joint ventures are carried in the parent company statement of financial position at cost less any
impairment in value. MERALCO recognizes income from the investments only to the extent that
MERALCO receives distributions from accumulated profits of the subsidiaries, associates and joint
venture arising after the date of acquisition. Distributions received in excess of such profits are
regarded as recovery of investment and are recognized as a reduction of the cost of the investment.
Impairment of Nonfinancial Assets
MERALCO assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that a nonfinancial asset
(utility plant and others, investment properties, investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests
in joint ventures, receivable from the BIR and intangible assets), other than intangible assets with
indefinite useful life, may be impaired. If any such indication exists, MERALCO makes an
estimate of the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an
individual asset’s or a cash-generating unit’s fair value less costs to sell and its value in use.
Where the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered
impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. The fair value is the amount obtainable
from the sale of the asset in an arm’s-length transaction. In determining fair value less costs to sell,
an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation
factors/parameters, quoted share prices for publicly traded securities or other available fair value
indicators. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present
value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of
money and the risks specific to the asset. Impairment losses are recognized in the parent company
statement of income.
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An assessment is also made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that
previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such
indication exists, MERALCO estimates the individual asset’s or cash generating unit’s recoverable
amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in
the estimates used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was
recognized. If a reversal of impairment loss is to be recognized, the carrying amount of the asset is
increased to its recoverable amount. The increased amount cannot exceed the carrying amount that
would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
Such reversal is recognized in the parent company statement of income. After such reversal, the
depreciation and amortization expense are adjusted in future periods to allocate the asset’s revised
carrying amount, less any residual value, on a systematic basis over its remaining useful life.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually at every reporting
date or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may
be impaired, either individually or at the cash generating unit level, as appropriate. The amount of
impairment is calculated as the difference between the recoverable amount of the intangible asset
and its carrying amount. The impairment loss is recognized in the parent company statement of
income. Impairment losses relating to intangible assets may be reversed in future periods.
Goodwill is reviewed for impairment annually at every reporting date or more frequently if events
or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired. Impairment is
determined for goodwill by assessing the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit or group
of cash-generating units, to which the goodwill relates. Where the recoverable amount of the cashgenerating unit or group of cash generating units is less than the carrying amount of the cash
generating unit or group of cash generating units to which goodwill has been allocated, an
impairment loss is recognized. Impairment losses relating to goodwill cannot be reversed in future
periods.
If there is incomplete allocation of goodwill acquired in a business combination to cash-generating
units or group of cash-generating units, an impairment testing of goodwill is only carried out when
impairment indicators exist. Where impairment indicators exist, impairment testing of goodwill is
performed at a level at which the acquirer can reliably test for impairment.
Fair Value Measurement
MERALCO measures financial instruments at fair value at each reporting date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an
orderly transactions between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value
measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the
liability takes place either (a) in the principal market for the asset or liability, or (b) in the absence
of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. The principal or
the most advantageous market must be accessible to MERALCO.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants
would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their
economic best interest. A fair value measurement of a nonfinancial asset takes into account a
market participant's ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best
use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best
use.
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MERALCO uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which
sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable
inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements
are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level
input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
i.
ii.
iii.
Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or
liabilities;
Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the
fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable; and
Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the
fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the parent company financial statements on a
recurring basis, MERALCO determines whether transfers have occurred between Levels in the
hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the
fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting year.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, MERALCO has determined classes of assets and
liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level
of the fair value hierarchy.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Costs of acquiring materials and
supplies including costs incurred in bringing each item to their present location and condition are
accounted using the moving average cost method. Net realizable value is the estimated selling
price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated cost to sell or the current replacement
cost of the asset.
Financial Assets
Initial Recognition
Financial assets are classified as at fair value through profit or loss or FVPL, loans and
receivables, held-to-maturity or HTM investments, AFS financial assets, or as derivatives
designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate. The classification of
financial assets is determined at initial recognition and, where allowed and appropriate, reevaluated at each reporting date.
Financial assets are recognized initially at fair value. Transaction costs are included in the initial
measurement of all financial assets, except for financial instruments measured at FVPL.
Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a timeframe established
by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way purchase) are recognized on the trade
date, which is the date MERALCO commits to purchase or sell the asset.
MERALCO’s financial assets include cash and cash equivalents, trade and non-trade receivables,
advance payments to a supplier, quoted and unquoted equity securities and embedded derivatives
that are not accounted for as effective accounting hedges.
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Subsequent Measurement
The subsequent measurement of financial assets depends on the classification as follows:
Financial Assets at FVPL
Financial assets at FVPL include financial assets held-for-trading and financial assets designated
upon initial recognition as at FVPL. Financial assets are classified as held-for-trading if they are
acquired for the purpose of selling in the near term. Derivative assets, including separated
embedded derivatives are also classified as held-for-trading unless they are designated as effective
hedging instruments.
Financial assets may be designated at initial recognition as at FVPL if any of the following criteria
are met: (i) the designation eliminates or significantly reduces the inconsistent treatment that
would otherwise arise from measuring the assets or recognizing gains or losses on them on a
different basis; (ii) the financial assets are part of a group, which are managed and their
performance are evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk
management strategy; or (iii) the financial assets contain one or more embedded derivatives that
would need to be recorded separately.
Financial assets at FVPL are carried in the parent company statement of financial position at fair
value with gains or losses on fair value changes recognized in the parent company statement of
income under “Interest and other financial income” or “Interest and other financial charges”
account, respectively. Interest earned and dividends received from investment at FVPL are also
recognized in the parent company statement of income under “Interest and other financial income”
account.
Derivatives embedded in host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives when their risks
and characteristics are not clearly and closely related to those of the host contracts and the host
contracts are not carried at fair value. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with
gains and losses arising from changes in fair value recognized in the parent company statement of
income. Reassessment only occurs if there is a change in the terms of the contract that
significantly modifies the cash flows that would otherwise be required under the contract.
Loans and Receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that
are not quoted in an active market. Such financial assets are carried at amortized cost using the
effective interest method. This method uses an effective interest rate that discounts estimated
future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the net carrying amount of
the financial asset. Gains or losses are recognized in the parent company statement of income
when the loans and receivables are derecognized or impaired, as well as when these are amortized.
Interest earned or incurred is recorded in “Interest and other financial income” or “Interest and
other financial charges” account, respectively, in the parent company statement of income. Assets
in this category are included under current assets except for assets with maturities beyond 12
months from the reporting date, which are classified as noncurrent assets.
HTM Investments
Non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturities are
classified as HTM when MERALCO has the positive intention and ability to hold these assets to
maturity. After initial measurement, HTM investments are measured at amortized cost using the
effective interest method. Gains or losses are recognized in the parent company statement of
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income. Assets in this category are included in the current assets except for maturities beyond 12
months from the reporting date, which are classified as noncurrent assets.
AFS Financial Assets
AFS financial assets are non-derivative financial assets that are designated as AFS or are not
classified in any of the three foregoing categories. They are purchased and held indefinitely and
may be sold in response to liquidity requirements or changes in market conditions. After initial
measurement, AFS financial assets are measured at fair value with unrealized gains or losses
recognized in other comprehensive income until the investment is derecognized, at which time the
cumulative gain or loss recorded in other comprehensive income is recognized in the parent
company statement of income, or determined to be impaired, at which time the cumulative loss
recorded in other comprehensive income is recognized in the parent company statement of
income. Interest earned on holding AFS debt securities are included under “Interest and other
financial income” account in the parent company statement of income. Dividends earned on
holding AFS equity are recognized in the parent company statement of income under “Interest and
other financial income” account when the right of the payment has been established. These are
included under noncurrent assets unless there is an intention to dispose of the investment within 12
months from the reporting date.
Financial Liabilities
Initial Recognition
Financial liabilities are classified as financial liabilities at FVPL, other financial liabilities, or as
derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate. The
classification of the financial liability is determined at initial recognition.
Financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value inclusive of directly attributable
transaction costs, except for financial liabilities at FVPL.
MERALCO’s financial liabilities include notes payable, interest-bearing long-term financial
liabilities, trade payables and other current liabilities (excluding output VAT, accrued taxes,
reinsurance liability and deferred lease income), customers’ deposits, refundable service extension
costs, customers’ refund and other noncurrent liabilities.
Subsequent Measurement
The subsequent measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification as follows:
Financial Liabilities at FVPL
Financial liabilities at FVPL include financial liabilities held-for-trading and financial liabilities
designated upon initial recognition as at FVPL. Financial liabilities are classified as held-fortrading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. Derivative liabilities,
including separated embedded liabilities are also classified as held-for-trading unless they are
designated as effective hedging instruments. Financial liabilities at FVPL are carried in the parent
company statement of financial position at fair value with gains or losses recognized in the parent
company statement of income under “Interest and other financial income” or “Interest and other
financial charges” account, respectively. Interest incurred on financial liabilities designated as at
FVPL is recognized in the parent company statement of income under “Interest and other financial
charges” account.
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Financial liabilities may be designated at initial recognition as at FVPL, if any of the following
criteria are met: (i) the designation eliminates or significantly reduces the inconsistent treatment
that would otherwise arise from measuring the liabilities or recognizing gains or losses on them on
a different bases; (ii) the financial liabilities are part of a group which are managed and their
performance are evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk
management strategy; or (iii) the financial liabilities contain one or more embedded derivatives
that would need to be recorded separately. MERALCO does not have financial liabilities
designated as at FVPL as at December 31, 2013 and 2012.
Other Financial Liabilities
After initial recognition, other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost
using the effective interest method.
Gains and losses are recognized in the parent company statement of income when the liabilities
are derecognized as when these are amortized. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account
any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are integral part of the effective
interest rate. The effective interest amortization is included under “Interest and other financial
charges” account in the parent company statement of income.
Derivative Financial Instruments
Initial Recognition and Subsequent Measurement
MERALCO has separated embedded foreign currency forwards which are derivative financial
instruments used to hedge risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations.
Derivative instruments, including separated embedded derivatives, are initially recognized at fair
value on the date at which a derivative transaction is entered into or separated, and are
subsequently re-measured at fair value. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments, other than
those accounted for as effective hedges, are recognized immediately in the parent company
statement of income. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments accounted as effective hedges
are recognized in other comprehensive income. Derivatives are carried as assets when the fair
value is positive and as liabilities when the fair value is negative. MERALCO does not have
derivatives accounted for under hedge accounting.
An embedded derivative is separated from the hybrid or combined contract if all the following
conditions are met: (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not
clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract; (b) a
separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would meet the definition of a
derivative; and (c) the hybrid instrument is not recognized as at FVPL.
Subsequent reassessment is prohibited unless there is a change in the terms of the contract that
significantly modifies the cash flows that otherwise would be required under the contract. An
entity determines whether a modification to cash flows is significant by considering the extent to
which the expected future cash flows associated with the embedded derivative, the host contract or
both have changed.
See Note 26 – Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.
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Offsetting of Financial Instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the parent
company statement of financial position if, and only if, there is currently enforceable legal right to
offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realize the
assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Amortized Cost of Financial Instruments
Amortized cost is computed using the effective interest method less any allowance for impairment
and principal repayment, plus or minus the cumulative amortization of premium or discount. The
calculation takes into account any premium or discount on acquisition and includes transaction
costs and fees that are an integral part of effective interest.
‘Day 1’ Profit or Loss
Where the transaction price in a non-active market is different from the fair value of other
observable current market transactions in the same instrument or based on a valuation technique
whose variables include only data from observable market, MERALCO recognizes the difference
between the transaction price and fair value (a ‘Day 1’ profit or loss) in the parent company
statement of income, unless it qualifies for recognition as some other type of asset or liability. In
cases where data used are not observable, the difference between the transaction price and model
value is only recognized in the parent company statement of income when the inputs become
observable or when the instrument is derecognized. For each transaction, MERALCO determines
the appropriate method of recognizing the ‘Day 1’ profit or loss amount.
Impairment of Financial Assets
MERALCO assesses at each reporting date whether a financial asset or group of financial assets is
impaired. A financial asset or a group of financial assets is deemed to be impaired if, and only if,
there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events that has occurred after
the initial recognition of the asset (an incurred “loss event”) and that loss event has an impact on
the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset or the group of financial assets that can be
reliably estimated. Evidence of impairment may include indications that the debtor or a group of
debtors is experiencing significant financial difficulty, default or delinquency in interest or
principal payments, the probability that they will enter bankruptcy or other financial
reorganization and where observable data indicate that there is a measurable decrease in the
estimated future cash flows, such as changes in arrears or economic conditions that correlate with
defaults.
Financial Assets Carried at Amortized Cost
For financial assets carried at amortized cost, MERALCO first assesses whether objective evidence
of impairment exists individually. If it is determined that no objective evidence of impairment
exists for an individually assessed financial asset, whether significant or not, the asset is included
in a group of financial assets with similar credit risk characteristics and that group of financial
assets is collectively assessed for impairment based on historical loss experience. Assets that are
individually assessed for impairment and for which an impairment loss is or continues to be
recognized are not included in a collective assessment of impairment. MERALCO consider
termination or disconnection of service and significant financial difficulties of debtors as objective
evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. For both specific and
collective assessments, any deposits, collateral and credit enhancement are considered in
determining the amount of impairment loss.
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If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred, the amount of the loss is
measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated
future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the
financial asset’s original effective interest rate (i.e., the effective interest rate computed at initial
recognition). If a loan is subject to variable interest rate, the discount rate for measuring any
impairment loss is the current effective interest rate. The carrying amount of the asset is reduced
either directly or through the use of an allowance account and the amount of the loss is recognized
in the parent company statement of income. Interest income continues to be accrued on the
reduced carrying amount based on the original effective interest rate of the asset. The financial
asset together with associated allowance is written off when there is no realistic prospect of future
recovery and all collateral or deposits has been realized or has been transferred to MERALCO.
If, in a subsequent period, the amount of the estimated impairment loss increases or decreases
because of an event occurring after the impairment was recognized, the previously recognized
impairment loss is increased or reduced by adjusting the allowance account. If an asset written off
is recovered, the recovery is recognized in the parent company statement of income. Any reversal
of an impairment loss is recognized in the parent company statement of income, to the extent that
the carrying value of the asset does not exceed its amortized cost at the reversal date.
AFS Financial Assets
In the case of equity instruments classified as AFS, objective evidence would include a significant
or prolonged decline in the fair value of the investment below its cost. When a decline in the fair
value of an AFS financial asset has been recognized in other comprehensive income and there is
objective evidence that the asset is impaired, the cumulative loss that had been recognized in other
comprehensive income is reclassified from equity to profit or loss even though the financial asset
has not been derecognized. The amount of the cumulative loss that is reclassified from equity to
profit or loss is the difference between the acquisition cost (net of any principal repayment and
amortization) and current fair value, less any impairment loss on the financial asset previously
recognized in profit or loss. Impairment losses recognized in profit or loss for investment in equity
instruments are not reversed in the parent company statement of income. Subsequent increases in
fair value after impairment are recognized directly in other comprehensive income.
In the case of debt instruments classified as AFS, impairment is assessed based on the same
criteria as financial assets carried at amortized cost. Future interest income is based on the reduced
carrying amount and is accrued based on the rate of interest used to discount future cash flows for
the purpose of measuring impairment loss. Such accrual is recorded as part of “Interest and other
financial charges” in the parent company statement of income. If, in a subsequent period, the fair
value of a debt instrument increases and the increase can be objectively related to an event
occurring after the impairment loss was recognized in the parent company statement of income,
the impairment loss is reversed in the parent company statement of income.
Assets Carried at Cost
If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred on an unquoted equity
instrument that is not carried at fair value because its fair value cannot be reliably measured, or on
a derivative asset that is linked to and must be settled by delivery of such an unquoted equity
instrument, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying
amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the current market rate
of return for a similar financial asset.
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Derecognition of Financial Instruments
Financial Assets
A financial asset (or where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar
financial assets) is derecognized when:
ƒ
the right to receive cash flows from the asset has expired;
ƒ
MERALCO has transferred its right to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an
obligation to receive cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a
“pass-through” arrangement; and
ƒ
either MERALCO (a) has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b)
has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has
transferred control of the asset.
Where MERALCO has transferred its right to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into
a “pass-through” arrangement, and has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks
and rewards of the asset nor transferred control of the asset, a new asset is recognized to the extent
of MERALCO’s continuing involvement in the asset.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured
at the lower of original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration
that MERALCO could be required to repay.
Financial Liabilities
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or
cancelled or has expired.
Where an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially
different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or
modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new
liability, and the difference in the carrying amount of a financial liability extinguished or
transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred
or liabilities assumed is recognized in the parent company statement of income.
Redeemable Preferred Stock
MERALCO’s peso-denominated redeemable preferred stock has characteristics of a liability and is
thus recognized as a liability in the parent company statement of financial position. The
corresponding dividends on those shares are recognized as part of “Interest and other financial
charges” account in the parent company statement of income. Dividends are no longer accrued
when such shares have been called for redemption.
Provisions
Provisions are recognized when MERALCO has a present obligation, legal or constructive, as a
result of a past event, and when it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic
benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount
of the obligation. Where MERALCO expects a provision, or a portion, to be reimbursed, for
example under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset but only
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when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to any provision is presented in
the parent company statement of income, net of any reimbursement. If the effect of the time value
of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, where
appropriate, the risks specific to the liabilities.
Retirement Benefits
MERALCO has distinct, funded, noncontributory defined benefit retirement plans covering all
permanent employees. MERALCO’s retirement plan provides for post-retirement benefits in
addition to a lump sum payment to employees hired up to December 31, 2003. Retirement benefits
for employees hired commencing January 1, 2004 were amended to provide for a defined lump
sum payment only. MERALCO also has a contributory Provident Plan introduced in January 2009
in which employees hired commencing January 1, 2004 may elect to participate.
The net defined benefit liability or asset is the aggregate of the present value of the defined benefit
obligation at the end of the reporting date reduced by the fair value of plan assets (if any), adjusted
for any effect of limiting a net defined benefit asset to the asset ceiling. The asset ceiling is the
present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plan or
reductions in future contributions to the plan.
The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plans is actuarially determined using the
projected unit credit method.
Defined benefit costs comprise the following:
- Service cost
- Net interest on the net defined benefit liability or asset
Service costs, which include current service costs, past service costs and gains or losses on nonroutine settlements are recognized as expense in profit or loss. Past service costs are recognized
when plan amendment or curtailment occurs. These amounts are calculated periodically by
independent qualified actuaries.
Net interest on the net defined benefit liability or asset is the change during the period in the net
defined benefit liability or asset that arises from the passage of time, which is determined by
applying the discount rate based on government bonds to the net defined benefit liability or asset.
Net interest on the net defined benefit liability or asset is recognized as expense or income in
profit or loss.
Remeasurements comprising actuarial gains and losses, return on plan assets excluding amounts
included in the net interest cost and any change in the effect of the asset ceiling (excluding net
interest on defined benefit liability) are recognized immediately in other comprehensive income in
the year in which they arise. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent
periods.
Plan assets are assets that are held by a long-term employee benefit fund or qualifying insurance
policies. Plan assets are not available to the creditors of MERALCO, nor can they be paid directly
to MERALCO. Fair value of plan assets is based on market price information. When no market
price is available, the fair value of plan assets is estimated by discounting expected future cash
flows using a discount rate that reflects both the risk associated with the plan assets and the
maturity or expected disposal date of those assets (or, if they have no maturity, the expected
period until the settlement of the related obligations). If the fair value of the plan assets is higher
than the present value of the defined benefit obligation, the measurement of the resulting defined
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benefit asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of refunds
from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.
MERALCO’s right to be reimbursed of some or all of the expenditure required to settle a defined
benefit obligation is recognized as a separate asset at fair value when and only when
reimbursement is virtually certain.
The retirement costs under the defined contribution plan are recorded based on MERALCO’s
contribution to the defined contribution plan as services are rendered by the employee.
Termination Benefits
Termination benefits are employee benefits provided in exchange for the termination of an
employee’s employment as a result of either an entity’s decision to terminate an employee’s
employment before the normal retirement date or an employee’s decision to accept an offer of
benefits in exchange for the termination of employment.
A liability and expense for a termination benefit is recognized at the earlier of when the entity can
no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the entity recognizes related restructuring
costs. Initial recognition and subsequent changes to termination benefits are measured in
accordance with the nature of the employee benefit, as either post-employment benefits, short-term
employee benefits, or other long-term employee benefits.
Employee Leave Entitlements
Employee entitlements to annual leave are recognized as a liability when they are accrued to the
employees. The undiscounted liability for leave expected to be settled wholly before 12 months
after the end of the annual reporting period is recognized for services rendered by employees up to
the end of the reporting period.
Long-term Incentive Plan
The liability relating to the long-term incentive plan comprises the present value of the defined
benefit obligation at the end of the reporting year.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan or ESPP
Up to 2009, MERALCO had an employee stock purchase plan, which covered active and retired
employees. Under the plan, the qualified participant may purchase fixed number of shares of
stock at a pre-agreed price. The plan features include vesting requirements and payment terms.
The cost of equity-settled transactions with employees is measured by reference to the difference
between the fair value of the shares on the grant date and the price at which the share may be
purchased under the award or offer. In valuing equity-settled transactions, no account is taken of
any performance conditions other than market conditions.
The cost of equity-settled transactions is recognized, together with a corresponding increase in
equity, over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled, ending on
the date at which the relevant employees become fully entitled to the award (‘the vesting date’).
The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the
vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and MERALCO’s best
estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The profit or loss charge or
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credit for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognized as at the beginning
and end of the reporting period.
No expense is recognized for awards that do not ultimately vest.
When the terms of the equity-settled awards are modified and the modification increases the fair
value of the equity instruments granted, as measured immediately before and after the
modification, the entity shall include the incremental fair value granted in the measurement of the
amount recognized for services received as consideration for the equity instrument granted. The
incremental fair value granted is the difference between the fair value of the modified equity
instrument and that of the original equity instrument, both estimated as at the date of the
modification. If the modification occurs during the vesting period, the incremental fair value
granted is included in the measurement of the amount recognized for services received over the
period from the modification date until the date when the modified equity instruments vest, in
addition to the amount based on the grant date fair value of the original equity instruments, which
is recognized over the remainder of the original vesting period. If the modification occurs after
vesting date, the incremental fair value granted is recognized immediately or over the vesting
period if the employee is required to complete an additional period of service before becoming
unconditionally entitled to those modified equity instruments.
Revenue Recognition
Revenues are stated at amounts invoiced to customers, inclusive of pass-through components, net
of discounts, rebates, VAT and other taxes, where applicable. Revenue is recognized to the extent
that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to MERALCO and the revenue can be
reliably measured. In addition, collectability is reasonably assured and the delivery of the goods or
rendering of the service has occurred. MERALCO assesses its revenue arrangements against
specific criteria in order to determine if it is acting as principal or agent. MERALCO concluded
that it is acting as principal in all of its revenue arrangements. The following specific recognition
criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:
Sale of Electricity
Revenues are recognized upon supply of power to the customers. The Uniform Filing
Requirements or UFR, on the rate unbundling released by the ERC on October 30, 2001 specified
the following bill components: (a) generation charge, (b) transmission charge, (c) SL charge,
(d) distribution charge, (e) supply charge, (f) metering charge, (g) Currency Exchange Rate
Adjustment or CERA I and II, where applicable and (h) interclass and lifeline subsidies. VAT, LFT,
the Power Act Reduction (for residential customers) adjustment and universal charges are also
separately presented in the customer’s billing statement. VAT, LFT and universal charges are
billed and collected on behalf of the national and local governments and do not form part of
MERALCO’s revenues.
Interest Income
Revenue is recognized as interest accrues, using the effective interest method. The effective
interest rate is the rate that discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the
financial instrument.
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Dividends
Revenue is recognized when MERALCO’s right to receive the payment is established.
Lease Income
Income arising from lease of investment properties and poles is accounted for on a straight-line
basis over the lease term.
Lease income is included under “Revenues – Lease Income” account in the parent company
statement of income.
Expense Recognition
Expenses are decreases in economic benefits during the financial reporting period in the form of
outflows or decrease of assets or incurrence of liabilities that result in decrease in equity, other
than those relating to distributions to equity participants. These are recognized when incurred.
Leases
The determination of whether an arrangement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of
the arrangement at the inception date of whether the fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent
on the use of a specific asset or the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset.
Company as Lessee
Operating lease payments are recognized as expense in the parent company statement of income
on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Company as Lessor
Leases where MERALCO does not transfer substantially all the risk and benefits of ownership of
the asset are classified as operating lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating an operating
lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the lease term on
the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the year in which
they are earned.
Foreign Currency-Denominated Transactions and Translations
The parent company financial statements are presented in Philippine peso, which is also
MERALCO’s functional and presentation currency. The Philippine peso is the currency of the
primary economic environment in which MERALCO operates. This is also the currency that
mainly influences the revenue from and cost of rendering services.
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the functional currency rate prevailing
at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are
re-translated using functional currency closing rate of exchange prevailing at the end of the
reporting date. All differences are recognized in the parent company statement of income except
for foreign exchange differences that relate to capitalizable borrowing costs on qualifying assets.
Nonmonetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in foreign currency are translated
using the exchange rate as at the date of the initial transactions.
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Income Taxes
Current Income Tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities for the current and prior years are measured at the amount
expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authority. The tax rate and tax laws used to
compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date.
Deferred Income Tax
Deferred income tax is provided using the balance sheet liability method on all temporary
differences at the reporting date between the income tax bases of assets and liabilities and their
carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes.
Deferred income tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except:
ƒ
where the deferred income tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or of an
asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the
transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss; and
ƒ
in respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in associates and joint
ventures, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it
is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Deferred income tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent
that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary
differences can be utilized except:
ƒ
when the deferred income tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from
the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination
and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or
loss; and
ƒ
in respect of deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and
associates and interests in joint ventures, deferred income tax assets are recognized only to the
extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future
and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized.
The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced
to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all
or part of the deferred income tax assets to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred income tax assets
are reassessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent these have become probable
that future taxable profit will allow the deferred income tax assets to be recovered.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply
in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates and tax laws that
are enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date.
Deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable
right exists to offset current income tax assets against current income tax liabilities and the
deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
*SGVFS007696*
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Deferred income tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in
profit or loss or directly in equity.
Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net income for the year by the weighted
average number of common shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net income for the year by the weighted
average number of shares outstanding, adjusted for the effects of any dilutive potential common
shares.
Contingencies
Contingent liabilities are not recognized in the parent company financial statements. These are
disclosed in the notes to parent company financial statements unless the possibility of an outflow
of resources embodying economic benefits is remote. Contingent assets are not recognized unless
the realization of the assets is virtually certain. These are disclosed in the notes to parent company
financial statements when an inflow of economic benefits is probable.
Events After the Reporting Date
Post reporting date events that provide additional information about MERALCO’s financial
position at the reporting date (adjusting events) are reflected in the parent company financial
statements. Post reporting date events that are not adjusting events are disclosed in the notes to
parent company financial statements, when material.
Equity
Common stock is measured at par value for all shares issued. Incremental costs incurred directly
attributable to the issuance of new shares are shown as a deduction from equity, net of any related
tax. The amount of proceeds and/or fair value of consideration received, net of incremental costs
incurred directly attributable to the issuance of new shares in excess of par value is recognized as
additional paid-in capital.
ESPP cost represents the cumulative compensation expense recognized based on the amount
determined using an option pricing model. The 14th and last ESPP, which was awarded in 2009
fully vested in October 2012. Since 2009, there have been no ESPPs implemented.
Other comprehensive income comprises items of income and expense, which are not recognized in
profit or loss as required or permitted by PFRS.
Retained earnings includes net income and is reduced by dividends declared on common stock.
Dividends are recognized as a liability and deducted from retained earnings when they are
declared. Dividend declarations approved after the financial reporting date are disclosed as events
after the financial reporting date.
*SGVFS007696*
- 34 -
5. Management’s Use of Judgments, Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of the parent company financial statements requires management to make
judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses,
assets and liabilities, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at the end of the
reporting period. However, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in
outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset or liability affected
in future periods.
Judgments
In the process of applying MERALCO’s accounting policies, management has made the following
judgments, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the parent
company financial statements.
Determination of Functional Currency
The functional currencies of MERALCO is the currency of the primary economic environment in
which MERALCO operates. It is the currency that mainly influences the revenue and cost of
rendering services.
Based on the economic substance of the underlying circumstances, the functional and presentation
currency of MERALCO is the Philippine peso.
Operating Lease Commitments
As Lessor
As a lessor, MERALCO has several lease arrangements. Based on the terms and conditions of the
arrangements, it has evaluated that the significant risks and rewards of ownership of such
properties are retained by MERALCO. The lease agreements do not transfer ownership of the
assets to the lessees at the end of the lease term and do not give the lessees a bargain purchase
option over the assets. Consequently, the lease agreements are accounted for as operating leases.
As Lessee
As a lessee, MERALCO has commercial lease arrangements covering certain office spaces,
payment offices and substation sites and towers. MERALCO has determined, based on the
evaluation of the terms and conditions of the arrangements, that it has not acquired any significant
risks and rewards of ownership of such properties because the lease arrangements do not transfer
to MERALCO the ownership over the assets at the end of the lease term and do not provide
MERALCO a bargain purchase option over the leased assets. Consequently, the lease agreements
are accounted for as operating leases.
Arrangement that Contains a Lease
MERALCO’s Purchased Power Agreements or PPAs and Purchase Supply Agreements or PSAs
with certain power generating companies qualify as leases on the basis that MERALCO and these
power generating companies have ‘take or pay’ or TOP arrangements where payments for
purchased power are made on the basis of the availability of the power plant and not based solely
on actual consumption. In determining the lease classification, it is judged that substantially all the
risks and rewards incident to the ownership of the power plants are with these power generating
companies. Thus, the PPAs and PSAs are classified as operating leases. Accordingly, capacity
*SGVFS007696*
- 35 -
fees, fixed operating and maintenance, and transmission line fees that form part of purchased
power expense are accounted for similar to a lease.
Components of purchased power expense, which have been accounted for similar to a lease,
amounted to P
=46,170 million and =
P18,946 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and
2012, respectively. These are recognized as “Purchased Power” in the parent company statements
of income.
See Note 23 – Revenues and Purchased Power.
Contingencies
MERALCO has possible claims from or obligation to other parties from past events and whose
existence may only be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain
future events not wholly within its control. Management has determined that the present
obligations with respect to contingent liabilities and claims with respect to contingent assets do not
meet the recognition criteria, and therefore has not recorded any such amounts.
See Note 28 – Contingencies and Legal Proceedings.
Estimates and Assumptions
The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty as at
the reporting date that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying
amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are discussed in the following:
Estimating Useful Lives of Utility Plant and Others, Intangible Assets with Finite
Lives and Investment Properties
MERALCO estimates the useful lives of utility plant and others, intangible assets with finite lives
and, investment properties based on the periods over which such assets are expected to be
available for use. The estimate of the useful lives of the utility plant and others, intangible assets
with finite lives and investment properties is based on management’s collective assessment of
industry practice, internal technical evaluation and experience with similar assets. The estimated
useful lives are reviewed at least at each financial year-end and are updated if expectations differ
from previous estimates due to physical wear and tear, technical or commercial obsolescence and
legal or other limitations on the use of such assets. It is possible, however, that future results of
operations could be materially affected by changes in estimates brought about by changes in the
factors mentioned in the foregoing. The amounts and timing of recorded expenses for any period
would be affected by changes in these factors and circumstances. A reduction in the estimated
useful lives of utility plant and others, intangible assets with finite lives and investment properties
would increase recorded operating expenses and decrease noncurrent assets.
The total depreciation and amortization expense of utility plant and others amounted to
P
=5,684 million and =
P5,251 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Total carrying values of utility plant and others, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization,
amounted to P
=111,012 million and =
P107,880 million as at December 31, 2013 and 2012,
respectively.
Total depreciation of investment properties amounted to =
P5 million and =
P4 million for the years
ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Total carrying value of investment properties,
net of accumulated depreciation, amounted to =
P1,503 million and =
P1,608 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
*SGVFS007696*
- 36 -
Total amortization of intangible assets with finite lives amounted to =
P169 million and =
P94 million
for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Total carrying value of intangible
assets with finite lives, net of accumulated amortization, amounted to =
P1,720 million and
=
P1,014 million as at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 6 – Utility Plant and Others, Note 8 – Investment Properties and Note 9 – Other
Noncurrent Assets.
Impairment of Nonfinancial Assets
PFRS requires that an impairment review be performed when certain impairment indicators are
present. These conditions include obsolescence, physical damage, significant changes in the
manner by which an asset is used, worse than expected economic performance, drop in revenues
or other external indicators, among others. In the case of goodwill, at a minimum, such asset is
subject to an annual impairment test and more frequently whenever there is an indication that such
asset may be impaired. This requires an estimation of the value in use of the cash generating unit
to which the goodwill is allocated. Estimating the value in use requires preparation of an estimate
of the expected future cash flows from the cash generating unit and choosing an appropriate
discount rate in order to calculate the present value of those cash flows.
Determining the recoverable amount of utility plant and others, investment properties, investments
in subsidiaries and interest in joint ventures, goodwill and other noncurrent assets, requires (i) the
determination of future cash flows expected to be generated from the continued use as well as
ultimate disposition of such assets and (ii) making estimates and assumptions that can materially
affect the parent company financial statements. Future events may cause management to conclude
that utility plant and others, construction in progress, investment properties, investments in
subsidiaries and interest in joint ventures, and other noncurrent assets are impaired. Any resulting
impairment loss could have a material adverse impact on MERALCO’s parent company financial
position and results of operations.
The preparation of estimated future cash flows involves significant estimations and assumptions.
While management believes that the assumptions are appropriate and reasonable, significant
changes in the assumptions may materially affect the assessment of recoverable values and may
lead to future impairment charges under PFRS.
The carrying values of nonfinancial assets as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 subject to
impairment review are as follows:
Account
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Utility plant and others
Investments in subsidiaries and associates and interests in
joint ventures
Investment properties
Intangible assets
Receivable from the BIR
P
=111,012
P
=107,880
20,514
1,503
1,720
577
3,514
1,608
1,014
577
See Note 6 – Utility Plant and Others, Note 7 – Investments in Subsidiaries, Associates and
Interest in Joint Ventures, Note 8 – Investment Properties and Note 9 – Other Noncurrent Assets.
*SGVFS007696*
- 37 -
Realizability of Deferred Tax Assets
MERALCO reviews the carrying amounts of deferred tax assets at the end of each reporting period
and reduces these to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable income will be
available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax assets to be utilized. Assessment on the
recognition of deferred tax assets on deductible temporary differences is based on the level and
timing of forecasted taxable income for the subsequent reporting periods. This forecast is based on
past results and future expectations on revenues and expenses as well as future tax planning
strategies. Management believes that sufficient taxable profit will be generated to allow all or part
of the deferred tax assets to be utilized. The amounts of the deferred tax assets considered
realizable could be adjusted in the future if estimates of taxable income are revised. The
recognized deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 amounted to =
P15,364 million
and =
P13,307 million, respectively.
See Note 27 – Income Taxes and Local Franchise Taxes.
Determination of Fair Values of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
Where fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the parent company
statement of financial position cannot be derived from active markets, they are determined using
valuation techniques including the discounted cash flows model. The inputs to these models are
taken from observable markets where possible, but when this is not feasible, a degree of judgment
is required in establishing fair values. The judgments include considerations of inputs such as
liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect
the reported fair value of financial instruments.
See Note 26 – Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.
Estimating Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss has been incurred in the trade and other
receivables balance of MERALCO, an estimate of the allowance for doubtful accounts related to
trade and other receivables that are specifically identified as doubtful of collection is made. The
amount of allowance is evaluated by management on the basis of factors that affect the
collectability of the accounts. In such case, use of judgment based on the best available facts and
circumstances, including but not limited to, the length of MERALCO’s relationship with the
customer and the customer’s credit status based on third party credit reports and known market
factors, to record specific reserves for customers against amounts due in order to reduce
MERALCO’s receivables to amounts that management expects to collect is applied. These specific
reserves are reevaluated and adjusted as additional information received affect the amounts
estimated.
In addition to specific allowance against individually significant receivables, an assessment for
collective impairment allowance against credit exposures of the customers, which were grouped
based on common credit characteristics, although not specifically identified as requiring a specific
allowance, have a greater risk of default than when the receivables were originally granted to
customers is done. This collective allowance is based on historical loss experience using various
factors, such as historical performance of the customers within the collective group, deterioration
in the markets in which the customers operate, and identified structural weaknesses or
deterioration in the cash flows of customers.
*SGVFS007696*
- 38 -
Total asset impairment provision for trade and other receivables and other current assets
recognized in the parent company statements of income amounted to =
P481 million and
=
P819 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Trade and other
receivables, net of asset impairment, amounted to =
P29,547 million and =
P26,046 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 11 – Trade and Other Receivables and Note 13 – Other Current Assets.
Estimating Net Realizable Value of Inventories
Inventories consist of materials and supplies used in the power distribution and services segments.
The excess of cost over net realizable value relating to inventories consists of collective and
specific provisions. The cost of inventories is written down whenever the net realizable value of
inventories becomes lower than the cost due to damage, physical deterioration, obsolescence, and
change in price levels or other causes. The lower of cost or net realizable value of inventories is
reviewed on a periodic basis. Inventory items identified to be obsolete and unusable are writtenoff and charged as expense in the parent company statement of income.
The carrying values of inventories amounted to =
P2,651 million and =
P1,280 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 12 – Inventories.
Estimation of Retirement Benefit Costs
The cost of defined benefit pension plans and other post-employment benefits as well as the
present value of the pension obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. The actuarial
valuation involves making various assumptions. These include the determination of the discount
rates, future salary increases, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the complexity
of the valuation, the underlying assumptions and its long-term nature, defined benefit obligations
are highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each
reporting date. The pension benefit liability and other post-employment benefit as at December 31,
2013 and 2012 amounted to =
P2,905 million and =
P6,148 million, respectively.
In determining the appropriate discount rate, management considers the interest rates of
government bonds in the respective currencies, with extrapolated maturities corresponding to the
expected duration of the defined benefit obligation. The underlying bonds are further reviewed for
quality, and those having excessive credit spreads are removed from the population of bonds on
which the discount rate is based, on the basis that they do not represent high quality bonds.
The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables for the specific country and is
modified accordingly with estimates of mortality improvements. Future salary increases and
pension increases are based on expected future inflation rates for the specific country.
See Note 24 – Expenses and Income and Note 25 – Long-term Employee Benefits.
Provision for Asset Retirement Obligations
Provision for asset retirement obligations is recognized in the period in which they are incurred if
a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. This requires an estimation of the cost to restore
or dismantle, on a per area basis, depending on the location, and is based on the best estimate of
the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the future restoration/dismantlement date,
*SGVFS007696*
- 39 -
discounted using a pre-tax rate that reflects the current market assessment of the time value of
money and, where appropriate, the risk specific to the liability.
No asset retirement obligation was recognized since the amount is immaterial.
Provisions
MERALCO is involved in various legal proceedings as discussed in Note 28 – Contingencies and
Legal Proceedings. MERALCO’s estimate for probable costs for the resolution of these claims,
assessments and cases has been developed in consultation with external counsels handling the
defense in these claims, assessments and cases and is based upon thorough analysis of potential
outcome.
MERALCO, in consultation with its external legal counsels, does not believe that these
proceedings will have a material adverse effect in the parent company financial statements. It is
possible, however, that future financial performance could be materially affected by changes in the
estimates or the effectiveness of management’s strategies and actions relating to these
proceedings.
MERALCO recognized provisions amounting to =
P10,749 million and =
P9,225 million for the years
ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 18 – Provisions.
Revenue Recognition
MERALCO’s revenue recognition policies require the use of estimates and assumptions that may
affect the reported amounts of its revenues and receivables.
Revenues from sale of electricity by MERALCO are billed based on customer-specific billing
cycle cut-off date for each customer, while recording of related purchased power cost in the
accounts is based on calendar month as provided in the terms of the PSAs. The recognition of
unbilled revenues for billing cycles with earlier than month-end cut-off dates requires the use of
estimates.
The difference between the amounts initially recognized based on provisional invoices and the
settlement of the actual billings by the generators is taken up in the subsequent period.
Management believes that such use of estimates will not result in material adjustments in future
periods.
*SGVFS007696*
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Transfers from construction in progress
Disposals/retirements
Reclassification and others
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization:
Balance at beginning of year
Depreciation and amortization
Disposals/retirements
Reclassification and others
Balance at end of year
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Transfers from construction in progress
Disposals/retirements
Reclassification and others
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization:
Balance at beginning of year
Depreciation and amortization
Disposals/retirements
Reclassification and others
Balance at end of year
9
9
Note
Note
–
–
–
–
–
=
P15,181
45,825
4,203
(1,030)
32
49,030
=
P82,651
Land
Subtransmission
and Distribution
=
P14,847
334
–
–
–
15,181
–
–
–
–
–
P
= 15,185
49,030
4,688
(1,161)
(164)
52,393
P
= 85,073
=
P125,666
1,527
5,620
(1,173)
41
131,681
P
= 15,181
4
–
–
–
15,185
Land
P
= 131,681
1,772
5,427
(1,161)
(253)
137,466
Subtransmission
and Distribution
The movements in utility plant and others are as follows:
6. Utility Plant and Others
1,812
114
(1)
24
1,949
=
P3,074
=
P4,758
–
222
(1)
44
5,023
Buildings and
Improvements
1,949
118
–
18
2,085
P
= 2,993
P
=5,023
–
54
–
1
5,078
Buildings and
Improvements
- 40 -
2,656
220
(897)
–
1,979
P
= 945
P
= 3,340
511
1
(897)
(31)
2,924
4,159
358
(7)
(54)
4,456
=
P1,719
=
P5,889
59
240
(7)
(6)
6,175
2,768
268
(13)
(367)
2,656
=
P684
=
P3,545
367
–
(13)
(559)
3,340
2012
Office Furniture,
Communication
Fixtures and
Equipment
Other Equipment
(Amounts in millions)
4,456
360
(592)
14
4,238
P
= 1,818
P
=6,175
112
281
(592)
80
6,056
Communication
Equipment
1,342
164
(23)
–
1,483
=
P936
=
P2,188
226
–
(23)
28
2,419
Transportation
Equipment
1,483
179
(79)
–
1,583
P
= 910
P
= 2,419
157
–
(79)
(4)
2,493
2013
Office Furniture,
Fixtures and Transportation
Equipment
Other Equipment
(Amounts in millions)
971
144
–
–
1,115
=
P996
=
P1,996
139
–
–
(24)
2,111
Others
1,115
119
(50)
2
1,186
P
= 1,020
P
=2,111
138
–
(50)
7
2,206
Others
56,877
5,251
(1,074)
(365)
60,689
=
P107,880
=
P161,172
9,090
–
(1,217)
(476)
168,569
Total
60,689
5,684
(2,779)
(130)
63,464
P
= 111,012
P
= 168,569
8,886
–
(2,779)
(200)
174,476
Total
*SGVFS007696*
–
–
–
–
–
=
P2,639
=
P2,283
6,438
(6,082)
–
–
2,639
Construction in
Progress
–
–
–
–
–
P
= 3,068
P
= 2,639
6,192
(5,763)
–
–
3,068
Construction in
Progress
- 41 Construction in progress pertains to on-going electric capital projects or ECPs and non-electric
capital projects or NEPs. ECPs are capital projects involving construction of new electric
distribution-related facilities and the upgrade and major rehabilitation of existing electrical
facilities.
Total interest capitalized amounted to =
P122 million and =
P127 million for the years ended
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The average annual interest rates used for
capitalization in 2013 and 2012 ranged from 4.6% to 5.9% and 5.5% to 6.2%, respectively.
7. Investments in Subsidiaries and Associates and Interests in Joint Ventures
This account consists of the following as at December 31, 2013 and 2012:
Place of
Incorporation
Principal Business Activities
Philippines
e-Transactions
Subsidiaries
Corporate Information Solutions, Inc.,
or CIS
CIS Bayad Center, Inc., or Bayad
Center
Customer Frontline Solutions, Inc. or
CFSI
Meralco Energy, Inc., or MEI
eMERALCO Ventures, Inc., or e-MVI
Paragon Vertical Corporation
Philippines
Bills payment collection
Philippines
Philippines
Philippines
Philippines
MGen
Philippines
Philippines
Tellering services
Energy systems management
e-Business development
Information technology and
multi-media services
Development of power
generation plants
Power generation
Philippines
Calamba Aero Power Corporation1
Atimonan Land Ventures
Development Corporation
Luzon Natural Gas Energy
Corporation 2
MPG Asia.Limited
2012
2013
Percentage of Ownership
Direct Indirect
Direct Indirect
100
–
100
–
–
100
–
100
–
100
100
100
–
–
–
100
100
100
–
–
–
100
–
100
100
–
–
100
100
–
–
100
Real estate
–
100
–
100
Philippines
British Virgin
Islands
Power generation
–
100
–
–
Holding company
–
100
–
–
Philippines
Financial services provider
100
–
100
–
Meralco Financial Services Corporation
or Finserve
Republic Surety and Insurance
Company, Inc. or RSIC
Lighthouse Overseas Insurance Limited
or LOIL
Miescorrail, Inc. or Miescorrail3
Philippines
Insurance
100
–
100
–
Bermuda
Philippines
100
–
100
–
100
–
–
100
MIESCOR
Philippines
99
–
99
–
–
100
–
100
–
65
100
–
–
65
100
–
38
–
38
–
35
–
35
–
CEDC
Philippines
Insurance
Engineering, construction and
maintenance of mass transit
system
Engineering, construction and
consulting services
Electric transmission and
distribution operation and
maintenance services
General services,
manpower/maintenance
Power distribution
Associates
Bauang Private Power Corporation or
BPPC
Philippines
Power generation
General Electric Philippines Meter and
Instrument Company, Inc. or GEPMICI
Philippines
Sale of metering products
and services
MIESCOR Builders Inc. or MBI
Philippines
MIESCOR Logistics Inc. or MLI
Philippines
(Forward)
*SGVFS007696*
- 42 -
Place of
Incorporation
Joint Ventures
Indra Philippines
Philippines
Rockwell Business Center
Philippines
1
2
3
Principal Business Activities
Management and information
technology, or IT,
consultancy
Real estate
2012
2013
Percentage of Ownership
Direct Indirect
Direct Indirect
50
30
–
–
50
30
–
–
Incorporated February 15, 2011 and has not started commercial operations as at December 31, 2013.
Incorporated January 11, 2013 and has not started commercial operations as at December 31, 2013.
On December 26, 2013, MIESCOR assigned its entire shareholdings in Miescorrail to MERALCO.
The movements of investments in subsidiaries and associates and interest in joint ventures are as
follows:
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Return of capital from an associate
Balance at end of year
P
=3,514
17,000
–
P
=20,514
P
=3,071
473
(30)
P
=3,514
CIS
CIS was incorporated in 1974 to provide information technology services and integrated business
solutions to enterprise clients. In 1997, CIS engaged in the business of bills payment collection,
which was spun off as CIS Bayad Center, Inc. or Bayad Center. Bayad Center offers a network of
bills payment collection services in the Philippines operating nationwide with brand name “Bayad
Center”.
MEI
MEI was established as a wholly-owned subsidiary of MERALCO in June 2000 to provide
demand-side energy services to MERALCO’s key accounts. It offers integrated energy efficiency
solutions including marketing, engineering design capability, turnkey installation management,
project financing development, monitoring and performance assurance of energy management
projects.
e-MVI
e-MVI is a telecommunications infrastructure anchored on a 2,000-km fiber optic network within
the MERALCO franchise area. It offers data connectivity solutions to local and international
carriers, internet service providers, data centers and other businesses.
MGen
MERALCO’s re-entry into power generation through MGen is through its investment in operating
companies or participation in the development of power generation projects.
*SGVFS007696*
- 43 -
On July 22, 2011, MGen signed a Shareholders’ Agreement with Therma Power, Inc. or TPI, and
Taiwan Cogeneration International Corporation – Philippine Branch or TCIC, for the construction
and operation of a 2 x 300 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed or CFB independent, coal-fired power
plant to be located in the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. Redondo Peninsula Energy, Inc. or RP Energy,
is a partnership among TPI, MGen and TCIC.
As at March 17, 2014, site preparation work is almost complete and RP Energy has commissioned
its contractor to conduct preliminary engineering works on the power plant in order to reduce the
overall construction year. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources or DENR, has
issued the Environmental Compliance Certificate or ECC for the 2 x 300 MW coal-fired power
plant following a rigorous review and public consultation process.
A Writ of Kalikasan was filed with the SC by certain parties opposing the RP Energy project. The
case was remanded by the SC to the CA for hearing on the merits thereof. A decision has been
issued by the CA denying the Writ of Kalikasan, but noting certain deficiencies in the process of
the DENR in its issuance of the original ECC for the 2 x 300 MW coal-fired power plant and in the
process of the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority or SBMA in the conclusion of the original Lease
and Development Agreement or LDA with RP Energy, and declaring these invalid. DENR, SBMA
and RP Energy have filed their respective Motions to the SC to review the CA decision. On
December 19, 2013, RP Energy filed a manifestation and Motion requesting that the SC deem the
petitioners to have waived their rights to file their comments and requested that RP Energy’s
Petition for Review of Certiorari which was filed with the SC on July 17, 2013, be submitted for
resolution without the need for further submissions. As at March 17, 2014, no resolution has been
issued by the SC. Meanwhile, RP Energy is proceeding with certain development activities that
are not hampered by the SC proceedings.
While the original LDA was declared invalid by the CA, the SMBA is also set to ratify an Amended
and Restated LDA to reflect additional terms.
FPM Power is 40%-owned by MERALCO through MPG Asia Limited, a subsidiary of MGen, and
60% owned by First Pacific. On March 28, 2013, FPM Power acquired a 70% interest in
PacificLight Power, which owns and operates a 2 x 400 MW liquefied natural gas or LNG-fired
power plant in Jurong Island, Singapore. PacificLight Power’s wholly owned subsidiary,
PacificLight Energy Pte. Ltd., is engaged in energy trading.
On August 29, 2013, MGen signed a Joint Development Agreement with New Growth B.V., a
100% subsidiary of Electricity Generating Public Company Limited of Thailand or EGCO, for the
development of a new 460 MW (net) supercritical coal-fired power plant in Mauban, Quezon.
MGen’s equity in the joint venture company, San Buenaventura Power Ltd. Co. or SBPL, is 51%,
with the option to assign or transfer 2% thereof to a party or investor of its preference. SBPL,
together with their consultants are evaluating the Engineering, Procurement and Construction or
EPC, tenders and is expected to award the same by the second quarter of 2014. Simultaneously
with its financial advisors, SBPL is in discussions with several banks for the financing of the
project. A PSA is currently being negotiated between the representatives of EGCO and
MERALCO, with the intent of submitting the same to the ERC for approval.
*SGVFS007696*
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On October 7, 2013, MGen executed a Share Sale and Purchase Agreement with First Metro
Investment Corporation or FMIC, and signed a Shareholders Agreement on October 22, 2013, for
the sale by FMIC of a 20% equity interest in Global Business Power Corporation or GBPC, to
MGen. GBPC owns an aggregate of 627 MW (gross) capacity of combined coal and diesel power
plants in operation in the Visayas region. An 82 MW (gross) coal power plant and a 150 MW
(gross) coal power plant in Panay are under construction and are expected to be in commercial
operation by late 2014.
Finserve
Finserve has embarked on investing and managing commercial center operations with The Strip
along Ortigas Avenue as its flagship project. Finserve also has in its portfolio the Integrated
Direct Marketing business, which offers targeted advertising and marketing services utilizing
nontraditional channels.
RSIC
RSIC is a professional non-life insurance company acquired in 2007 to align with MERALCO’s
recognition of the imperative for a disciplined approach in managing its risk exposures.
LOIL
LOIL, a captive reinsurer, is registered as a Class 1 insurer under The Bermuda Insurance Act
1978 and Related Regulations. LOIL was incorporated in Bermuda in 2007 and received its license
to operate in the territory in 2008.
MIESCOR
MIESCOR is a contractor - specialist engaged in engineering, construction and maintenance
activities related to power generation, transmission and distribution, as well as industrial plants,
water resources and telecommunications.
CEDC
CEDC is registered with Clark Development Corporation or CDC, under RA No. 9400, Bases
Conversion Development Act of 1992, as a Clark Special Economic Zone or CSEZ, enterprise,
primarily engaged in owning, operating, and maintaining a power distribution system within
CSEZ.
BPPC
BPPC was organized in October 1992 to engage in the power generation business.
In accordance with the Build-Operate-Transfer, or BOT Agreement signed in 1993, First Private
Power Corporation or FPPC, then parent company, constructed the 215MW Bauang Power Plant
or Bauang Plant, and operated the same under a 15-year Cooperation Period up to July 25, 2010.
On July 26, 2010, FPPC turned over the Bauang Plant to National Power Corporation, or NPC
without any compensation and free of any liens. Thereafter, FPPC and BPPC were legally
merged, with BPPC as the surviving entity. Subsequent thereto, BPPC began winding down
operations.
*SGVFS007696*
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GEPMICI
GEPMICI was established in 1979 together with General Electric Company of U.S.A., to serve the
Philippine market for ANSI-type Watt-hour meters.
Indra Philippines
Indra Philippines is an Information Technology or IT service provider in the country and in the
Asia Pacific region, with a wide range of services across various industries. Indra Philippines
supports MERALCO’s information technology requirements in the area of system development,
outsourcing of IS and IT operations and management consulting.
Rockwell Business Center
The Rockwell Business Center is a joint venture between Rockwell Land and MERALCO, where
Rockwell Land shall construct three (3) Business Process Outsourcing or BPO, enabled buildings
in a non-regulatory asset base property of MERALCO over a pre-agreed cooperation period.
Investment in Rockwell Business Center represents MERALCO’s 30% interest in the joint venture.
Rockwell Land owns 70% interest in Rockwell Business Center.
MERALCO and Rockwell Land share in earnings before depreciation and amortization at 80% and
20%, respectively until 2014 or until certain operational indicators are reached, whichever comes
first. Sharing of depreciation and amortization is proportionate to their contribution.
8. Investment Properties
The movements in investment properties are as follows:
Land
2013
Buildings and
Improvements
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Disposals
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated depreciation:
Balance at beginning of year
Depreciation
Disposals
Balance at end of year
P
=1,535
(89)
1,446
P
=176
(25)
151
P
=1,711
(114)
1,597
–
–
–
–
P
=1,446
103
5
(14)
94
P
=57
103
5
(14)
94
P
=1,503
*SGVFS007696*
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Land
2012
Buildings and
Improvements
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cost
Less accumulated depreciation:
Balance at beginning of year
Depreciation
Balance at end of year
=
P1,535
=
P176
=
P1,711
–
–
–
=
P1,535
99
4
103
=
P73
99
4
103
=
P1,608
Investment properties are stated at cost. These consist of real properties held for capital
appreciation, former substation sites and other non-regulatory asset base real properties, some of
which are being leased out.
The aggregate fair values of the investment properties as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 are as
follows:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Land
Buildings and improvements
P
=1,863
131
P
=1,853
173
Land pertains primary to properties where the BPO building and “Strip” mall are located and other
non-regulated asset base properties.
The fair values of investment properties were determined by independent, professionally qualified
appraisers. The fair value represents the price that would be received to sell an investment
property in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
The fair value disclosures of the investment properties are categorized as Level 3 as there is no
active market for identical or similar properties. The inputs include price per square meter ranging
from =
P500 to P
=94,000. There have been no changes in the valuation techniques used.
In conducting the appraisal, the independent professional appraisers used any of the following
approaches:
a. Market Data or Comparative Approach
Under this approach, the value of the property is based on sales and listings of comparable
property registered within the vicinity. This approach requires the establishment of a
comparable property by reducing comparative sales and listings to a common denominator
with the subject. This is done by adjusting the differences between the subject property and
those actual sales and listings regarded as comparables. The properties used are either situated
within the immediate vicinity or at different floor levels of the same building, whichever is
most appropriate to the property being valued. Comparison was premised on the factors of
location, size and physical attributes, selling terms, facilities offered and time element.
*SGVFS007696*
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b. Depreciated Replacement Cost Approach
This method of valuation considers the cost to reproduce or replace in new condition the
assets appraised in accordance with current market prices for similar assets, with allowance
for accrued depreciation based on physical wear and tear and obsolescence.
9. Other Noncurrent Assets
This account consists of:
Note
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Unbilled receivables
Intangible assets
Deferred input VAT
Receivable from the BIR
Advance payments to a supplier
AFS investments
Others
11
6
26
P
=18,394
1,720
1,646
577
474
124
2
P
=22,937
P
=4,954
1,014
1,094
577
325
299
63
P
=8,326
Unbilled Receivables
This account represents unbilled generation and other pass-through costs incurred by MERALCO
as a DU, which are still to be billed and which are covered by an approved recovery mechanism of
the ERC. This also includes other unbilled generation and pass-through charges of current and
prior periods, which are the subject of various applications for recovery and approval by the ERC.
Deferred Input VAT
The amount includes portion of input VAT incurred and paid in connection with purchase of
capital assets in excess of =
P1 million per month. As provided for in RA No. 9337 or “EVAT Law”,
said portion of input VAT shall be deferred and credited evenly over the estimated useful lives of
the related capital assets or 60 months, whichever is shorter, against the output VAT due.
Intangible Assets
The movements of intangible assets are as follows:
Software
2013
Franchise
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated amortization:
Balance at beginning of year
Amortization
Balance at end of year
P
=1,517
875
2,392
P
=49
–
49
P
=1,566
875
2,441
552
169
721
P
=1,671
–
–
–
P
=49
552
169
721
P
=1,720
*SGVFS007696*
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Software
2012
Franchise
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cost:
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Reclassification
Balance at end of year
Less accumulated amortization:
Balance at beginning of year
Amortization
Reclassification
Balance at end of year
=
P734
307
476
1,517
=
P49
–
–
49
=
P783
307
476
1,566
93
94
365
552
=
P965
–
–
–
–
=
P49
93
94
365
552
P
=1,014
2013
2012
10. Cash and Cash Equivalents
This account consists of:
(Amounts in millions)
Cash on hand and in banks
Cash equivalents
P
=3,871
53,736
P
=57,607
P
=2,266
56,326
P
=58,592
Cash in banks earns interest at prevailing bank deposit rates. Cash equivalents are temporary cash
investments, which are made for varying periods of up to three months depending on MERALCO’s
immediate cash requirements, and earn interest at the prevailing short-term investment rates.
11. Trade and Other Receivables
This account consists of:
Note
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Trade receivables:
Billed
Unbilled
Nontrade receivables
Less allowance for doubtful
accounts
22
2 and 9
22
P
=26,830
4,175
1,505
32,510
P
=23,124
4,630
848
28,602
2,963
P
=29,547
2,556
P
=26,046
*SGVFS007696*
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Billed receivables from sale of electricity consist of the following:
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Commercial
Residential
Industrial
Flat streetlights
=
P11,781
6,177
4,796
370
23,124
2,556
=
P20,568
P
=11,870
9,443
4,989
528
26,830
2,963
P
=23,867
Less allowance for doubtful accounts
Movements of allowance for doubtful accounts are as follows:
2013
Balance at
Beginning
of Year
Provisions
(Reversals)
Write-offs
Balance at
End of Year
(Amounts in millions)
Billed trade receivables:
Commercial
Residential
Industrial
Flat streetlights
P
=1,028
555
772
201
P
=2,556
P
=175
742
(204)
5
P
=718
(P
=38)
(230)
(38)
(5)
(P
=311)
P
=1,165
1,067
530
201
P
=2,963
2013
Commercial
Residential
Industrial
Flat
Streetlights
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Individually impaired
Collectively impaired
Total
P
=123
1,042
P
=1,165
P
=762
305
P
=1,067
P
=294
236
P
=530
P
=30
171
P
=201
P
=1,209
1,754
P
=2,963
Write-offs
Balance at
End of Year
2012
Balance at
Beginning
of Year
Provisions
(Reversals)
(Amounts in millions)
Billed trade receivables:
Commercial
Residential
Industrial
Flat streetlights
=
P911
528
73
438
=
P1,950
=
P140
162
700
(9)
=
P993
(P
=23)
(135)
(1)
(228)
(P
=387)
=
P1,028
555
772
201
=
P2,556
2012
Commercial
Residential
Industrial
Flat
Streetlights
Total
=
P64
137
=
P201
=
P757
1,799
=
P2,556
(Amounts in millions)
Individually impaired
Collectively impaired
Total
=
P142
886
=
P1,028
=
P345
210
=
P555
=
P206
566
=
P772
*SGVFS007696*
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Trade Receivables
Trade receivables include charges for pass-through costs. Pass-through costs consist largely of
generation and transmission charges, which represent 57% and 9%, respectively, of the total billed
amount in 2013 and 58% and 10%, respectively, of the total billed amount in 2012. Billed
receivables are generally due 10 days after bill date.
Unbilled receivables represent electricity consumed after the meter reading cut-off dates, which
will be billed to customers in the immediately following billing period. This also includes the
current portion of pass-through cost under-recoveries, net of over-recoveries, which are billed to
customers over the allowed recovery period approved by the ERC. Trade receivables are
noninterest-bearing and are substantially secured by bill deposits.
See Note 17 – Customers’ Deposits and Note 26 – Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities.
12. Inventories
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Materials and supplies:
At net realizable value
At cost
Total inventories at the lower of cost or
net realizable value
P
=2,651
2,854
P
=1,280
1,487
P
=2,651
P
=1,280
2013
2012
13. Other Current Assets
This account consists of:
Note
(Amounts in millions)
Short-term investments
Pass-through VAT - net
Prepaid tax
Prepaid expenses
Prepayments to suppliers
Derivative assets
17 and 26
26
P
=4,841
1,116
734
263
113
–
P
=7,067
P
=–
1,389
475
46
79
24
P
=2,013
Pass-through VAT pertains to VAT on generation and transmission costs, as a DU. Remittance of
such deferred VAT to the generation companies is based on collection of billed receivables from
the customers.
Short-term investments are temporary cash placements which are made for varying years beyond
three (3) months but not exceeding 12 months, and earn interest at the prevailing short-term
placement investment rates.
*SGVFS007696*
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14. Equity
Common Stock
The movement in the number of shares (in millions) of MERALCO’s common stock is as follows:
2012
2013
(In millions, except par value)
Authorized - =
P10 par value a share
1,250
1,250
Issued and outstanding:
Balance at beginning and end of year
1,127
1,127
The common shares of MERALCO were listed in the PSE on January 8, 1992. There are 46,409
and 47,892 shareholders of MERALCO’s common shares as at December 31, 2013 and 2012,
respectively.
Unappropriated Retained Earnings
The unappropriated retained earnings as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 include the balance of
revaluation increment in utility plant and others and investment properties carried at deemed cost,
deferred tax assets and derivative assets amounting to =
P32,226 million and =
P31,286 million as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. These amounts are restricted for dividend declaration
purposes as of the close of the respective reporting periods.
The following are cash dividends declared on common shares in 2013 and 2012:
Declaration Date
Record Date
Payment Date
Dividend
Per Share
Amount
(In millions)
July 29, 2013
February 25, 2013
July 30, 2012
February 27, 2012
August 27, 2013
March 26, 2013
August 29, 2012
March 23, 2012
September 20, 2013
April 24, 2013
September 24, 2012
April 23, 2012
P
=4.10
6.10
4.00
4.10
=
P4,621
6,875
4,508
4,621
MERALCO pays regular cash dividends equivalent to 50% of consolidated core net income for the
year, which may be supplemented by a special dividend determined on a “look-back” basis.
Declaration and payment of a special dividend is dependent on the availability of unrestricted
retained earnings and availability of free cash. The declaration, record and payment dates shall be
consistent with the guidelines and regulations of the SEC.
Appropriated Retained Earnings
On February 22, 2010, retained earnings of P
=6,000 million have been appropriated specifically for
MERALCO’s business expansion into power generation. The amount appropriated was increased
by =
P5,000 million to cover the new development projects and investments in power generation
initiatives. The additional appropriation was approved on March 22, 2013 by the BOD. As at
March 17, 2014, the development of the first project, a 2 x 300 MW CFB coal-fired plant through
RP Energy is ongoing. MERALCO signed a Joint Development Agreement and Shareholders
Agreement to develop a supercritical coal-fired power plant, which has target completion by the
end of 2017.
*SGVFS007696*
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The commercial operations date of the 600 MW power plant of RP Energy is dependent on the SC
decision on the appeal filed by RP Energy and other parties in connection with the decision
reached by the CA on the Writ of Kalikasan case filed against the RP Energy project. On the other
hand, the 2 x 400 MW LNG plant of PacificLight Power was fully synchronized to the Singapore
power grid in January 2014.
See Note 7 – Investments in Subsidiaries and Associates and Interest in Joint Ventures.
Treasury Shares
Treasury shares represent subscribed shares and the related rights of employees who have opted to
withdraw from the ESPP in accordance with the provisions of the ESPP and which MERALCO
purchased. For the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, a total of 559 shares and 25,830
shares, respectively, were acquired from employees who have opted to cancel their participation in
the ESPP.
15. Employee Stock Purchase Plan
MERALCO has an ESPP, which entitles participants to purchase its common shares subject to
certain terms and conditions, during a nominated offer period. There were no other ESPP awards
since October 2009. Movements in the number of common shares subscribed by employees under
the ESPP are as follows:
Balance at beginning of year
Fully paid
Cancelled
Balance at end of year
13th
3,309
(3,309)
–
–
2013
13th A
135,703
(67,370)
–
68,333
14th
7,753,272
(2,045,911)
(559)
5,706,802
Total
7,892,284
(2,116,590)
(559)
5,775,135
Balance at beginning of year
Fully paid
Cancelled
Balance at end of year
13th
1,189,306
(1,185,997)
–
3,309
2012
13th A
389,355
(251,747)
(1,905)
135,703
14th
12,284,290
(4,507,093)
(23,925)
7,753,272
Total
13,862,951
(5,944,837)
(25,830)
7,892,284
MERALCO allotted a total of 55 million common shares for ESPP awards. As at
December 31, 2013, 12 million common shares are available for any future offerings.
The fair value of the offerings was estimated at the dates of the grant using the Black-Scholes
Option Pricing Model.
Total expense arising from the employee stock purchase plan is nil and =
P134 million for the years
ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 24 – Expenses and Income.
*SGVFS007696*
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16. Interest-bearing Long-term Financial Liabilities
This account consists of the following:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Long-term portion of interest-bearing long-term
financial liabilities Long-term debt
Current portion of interest-bearing long-term
financial liabilities:
Long-term debt
Redeemable preferred stock
P
=20,756
P
=20,466
9,459
1,562
11,021
P
=31,777
766
1,594
2,360
P
=22,826
All of the redeemable preferred shares have been called for redemption as at June 30, 2011,
consistent with the terms of the Preferred Shares Subscription Agreement. The accrued interests
amounted to =
P250 million and P
=256 million as at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Interest is no longer accrued when the preferred shares have been called for redemption.
The details of interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities are as follows:
Description
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Bonds
P
=11.5 Billion 7-year Bonds
P
=7.0 Billion 12-year Bonds
Fixed Rate Loans
=
P5.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
=
P4.8 Billion Note Facility Agreement
=
P3.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
=
P5.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
Floating Rate Loans
P
=2.5 Billion Term Loan Facility
P
=3.0 Billion Term Loan Facility
Total long-term debt
Less unamortized debt issuance costs
Redeemable Preferred Stock
Less current portion
Long-term portion of interest-bearing financial
liabilities
P
=11,500
7,000
=
P–
–
4,900
3,417
530
–
4,950
4,776
3,000
4,900
2,475
600
30,422
207
30,215
1,562
31,777
11,021
2,488
1,200
21,314
82
21,232
1,594
22,826
2,360
P
=20,756
P
=20,466
*SGVFS007696*
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All of MERALCO’s interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities as at December 31, 2013 and
2012 are denominated in Philippine pesos. The scheduled maturities of MERALCO’s outstanding
long-term debt at nominal values as at December 31, 2013 are as follows:
Amount
(In millions)
December 31, 2014
December 31, 2015
December 31, 2016
December 31, 2017
After December 31, 2017
P
=9,459
13
12
12
20,926
P
=30,422
Bonds
=
P 18.5 Billion Fixed Rate Putable Bonds
On September 23, 2013, the BOD of MERALCO authorized the offer, sale and issuance by way of
public offering in the Philippines, 7-year and 12-year corporate bonds, putable in 5 and 10 years,
respectively, with an aggregate principal amount of up to P
=15 billion with an overallotment option
of up to =
P5.0 billion. The 12-year corporate bonds also include a call option, where MERALCO
may redeem (in whole but not in part only) the outstanding bonds on the 7th year from issue date
at the early redemption price of 101.0%. The put and call options are clearly and closely related to
the host instruments, thus, were not recognized separately.
On December 12, 2013, the P
=11.5 Billion Fixed Rate Putable Bonds due in 2020 and P
=7.0 Billion
Fixed Rate Putable Bonds due in 2025, were listed on the Philippine Dealing and Exchange
Corporation.
The net proceeds of the bonds will be utilized for refinancing certain loans including principal
payments, accrued interest, prepayment penalties and other financing costs.
Fixed Rate Loans
=
P 5.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
In June 2011, MERALCO entered into a Fixed Rate Note Facility Agreement for its =
P500 million,
7-year Notes and =
P4,500 million, 10-year Notes due in 2018 and 2021, respectively. The principal
is payable in nominal annual amortizations with a balloon payment on each of the two maturity
dates.
=
P 4.8 Billion Note Facility Agreement
In November 2010, MERALCO signed a Fixed Rate Note Facility Agreement for its
P
=1,997 million, 7-year fixed rate notes and P
=2,803 million, 10-year fixed rate notes. The notes
were issued on December 2, 2010 and are payable in nominal annual amortizations with a balloon
payment on each of the two maturity dates in December 2018 and December 2020.
In December 2013, MERALCO pre-terminated and settled the principal amount of =
P1,334 million.
In January 2014, MERALCO pre-terminated and settled the remaining principal of =
P3,417 million.
*SGVFS007696*
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=
P 3.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
On January 5, 2012, MERALCO signed a =
P3,000 million Fixed Rate Note Facility Agreement for
its P
=1,000 million, 7-year notes and =
P2,000 million, 10-year notes due in 2019 and 2022,
respectively. The notes were priced off the relevant 7-year and 10-year benchmarks plus a spread
and were issued on January 9, 2012. Principal repayments are through annual nominal
amortizations and a balloon payment on maturity date. In December 2013, MERALCO preterminated and settled the principal amount of P
=2,440 million. In March 2014, MERALCO preterminated and settled the remaining principal of =
P530 million.
=
P 5.0 Billion Note Facility Agreement
In December 2010, MERALCO entered into a Fixed Rate Note Facility Agreement for the issuance
of =
P23 million, 5-year fixed rate notes maturing in December 2015 and P
=4,977 million, 5.5-year
fixed rate notes due in June 2016. The 5-year fixed rate notes are payable in full at maturity date
while the 5.5-year fixed rate notes are payable in nominal annual amortizations with a balloon
payment on maturity date. In December 2013, MERALCO pre-terminated and settled the entire
principal amount of P
=4,900 million.
Floating Rate Loans
=
P 2.5 Billion Term Loan Facility
The =
P2,500 million, 7-year Floating Rate Term Loan Facility, was drawn in January 2011 from a
local bank. Interest rate is repriced every six months based on 6-month PDST-F plus a spread. The
principal is payable in nominal annual amortizations with a balloon payment on final maturity in
January 2018.
=
P 3.0 Billion Term Loan Facility
The =
P3,000 million, 5-year bilateral Floating Rate Term Loan Facility, was drawn in October
2009. The principal is payable over five years with final maturity in October 2014.
Long-term debt totaling =
P3,947 million, pre-terminated between January to March 17, 2014 and
P
=4,850 million to be pre-terminated in June 2014, were classified as part of the current portion of
the long-term interest-bearing financial liabilities as at December 31, 2013.
The average annual interest rates for the interest-bearing financial liabilities are as follows:
Bonds
Fixed Rate Loans
Floating Rate Loans
2013
4.38%-4.88%
5.23%-6.89%
0.80%-1.74%
2012
–
5.23%-7.47%
2.63%-2.99%
Debt Covenants
MERALCO’s loan agreements require compliance with debt service coverage of 1.2 times
calculated at specific measurement dates. The agreements also contain restrictions with respect to
the creation of liens or encumbrances on assets, issuance of guarantees, mergers or consolidations,
disposition of a significant portion of its assets and related party transactions.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, MERALCO is in compliance with all covenants of the loan
agreements.
*SGVFS007696*
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Unamortized Debt Issuance Costs
Unamortized debt issuance costs amounted to P
=207 million and =
P82 million as at December 31,
2013 and 2012, respectively.
The following presents the changes to the unamortized debt issuance costs:
Note
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Amortization charged to interest
and other financial charges
Balance at the end of year
24
P
=82
186
=
P97
22
(61)
P
=207
(37)
=
P82
Redeemable Preferred Stock
The movements in the number of shares of the redeemable preferred stock, which have all been
called, are as follows:
2012
165,129,647
(5,772,708)
159,356,939
2013
159,356,939
(3,167,771)
156,189,168
Balance at beginning of year
Redemptions
Balance at end of year
The original “Terms and Conditions” of MERALCO’s Special Stock Subscription Agreement,
which required an applicant to subscribe to preferred stock with 10% dividend to cover the cost of
extension of new distribution facilities, has been amended by the Magna Carta and the
Distribution Services and Open Access Rule, or DSOAR effective June 17, 2004 and January 18,
2006, respectively. The amendment sets forth the guidelines for the issuance of preferred stock,
only if such instrument is available.
17. Customers’ Deposits
This account consists of:
2012
2013
Current
Portion
Bill deposits
Meter deposits
Current
Portion
(see Note 21)
Noncurrent
Portion
Total
P
=6,125
2,118
P
=8,243
P
=21,330
–
P
=21,330
P
=27,455
2,118
P
=29,573
(see Note 21)
(Amounts in millions)
=
P4,057
2,187
=
P6,244
Noncurrent
Portion
Total
=
P23,144
–
=
P23,144
=
P27,201
2,187
=
P29,388
Bill Deposits
Bill deposits serve to guarantee payment of bills by a customer in accordance with existing
regulations.
As provided for under the Magna Carta and DSOAR, all captive customers are required to deposit
with the DU an amount equivalent to the estimated monthly bill calculated based on applied load,
*SGVFS007696*
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which shall be recognized as bill deposit of the customer. Such deposit shall be adjusted after one
year based on the historical 12-month average bill. A customer who has paid his electric bills on
or before due date for three consecutive years may now apply for the full refund of the bill deposit,
together with the accrued interests, prior to the termination of his service; otherwise bill deposits
and accrued interests shall be refunded within one month from the termination of service, provided
all bills have been paid.
On February 22, 2010, the amended DSOAR, which became effective on April 1, 2010, was
promulgated by the ERC. Under the amended DSOAR, interest on bill deposits for both residential
and non-residential customers shall be computed using the equivalent peso savings account
interest rate of the Land Bank of the Philippines or Land Bank, or other government banks, on the
first working day of the year, subject to the confirmation of the ERC. Interest rate for bill deposits
is 0.5% per annum from January 1, 2011 until December 31, 2012 and 0.375% per annum starting
January 1, 2013.
As provided for under ERC Resolution No. 1, A Resolution Adopting the Revised Rules for the
Issuance of Licenses to Retail Electricity Suppliers, a local RES may secure security deposits from
its customers, which shall earn interest equivalent to the actual interest earnings of the total
amount of deposits received from the customers.
The following are the movements of the bill deposits:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Additions
Refunds
Balance at end of year
Less portion maturing within one year
Long-term portion of bill deposits and interests
P
=27,201
4,731
(4,477)
27,455
6,125
P
=21,330
P
=26,271
3,188
(2,258)
27,201
4,057
P
=23,144
Meter Deposits
Meter deposits were intended to guarantee the cost of meters installed.
The Magna Carta for residential customers (effective June 17, 2004) and DSOAR (effective
January 18, 2006) for non-residential customers exempt all customer groups from payment of
meter deposits beginning July 2004 for residential customers and April 2006 for non-residential
customers.
The ERC released Resolution No. 8, Series of 2008, otherwise known as “Rules to Govern the
Refund of Meter Deposits to Residential and Non-Residential Customers,” or Rules, which
required the refund of meter deposits from the effectivity of the said Rules on July 5, 2008. Under
the Rules, a customer has the option of receiving his refund in cash, credit to future monthly
billings, or as an offset to other due and demandable claims of the DU against him.
The total amount of refund shall be equivalent to the meter deposit paid by the customer plus the
total accrued interest earned from the time the customer paid the meter deposit until the day prior
to the start of refund.
*SGVFS007696*
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On August 8, 2008, in compliance with the Rules, MERALCO submitted to the ERC an accounting
of the total meter deposit principal amount for refund. The actual refund of meter deposits
commenced on November 3, 2008.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, total meter deposits refunded by MERALCO amounted to
P
=977 million (inclusive of =
P503 million interest) and P
=908 million (inclusive of =
P466 million
interest), respectively.
18. Provisions
Provisions consist of amounts recognized for probable costs, charges and expenses relating to
claims against MERALCO, among others. The movements of provisions follow:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Provisions
Settlements
Balance at end of year
P
=19,411
5,331
(13)
P
=24,729
=
P16,919
2,770
(278)
P
=19,411
The balance of provisions substantially represents the amount of claims related to a commercial
contact, which remains unresolved and local taxes being contested as discussed in Note 28 to the
parent company financial statements, consistent with the limited disclosure allowed in PFRS.
See Note 28 – Contingencies and Legal Proceedings.
19. Customers’ Refund
This account represents the balance of the refund related to the SC decision promulgated on
April 30, 2003, which has not yet been claimed by the customers.
In June 2003, the ERC, in the implementation of the SC decision, ordered MERALCO to refund to
its customers an equivalent =
P0.167 per kWh for billings made from February 1994 to April 2003.
On February 7, 2011, the ERC approved MERALCO’s proposal for the extension of the SC refund
process for five years up to December 31, 2015, in view of difficulties encountered by the
customers in meeting the necessary documentation requirements to claim a refund and by
MERALCO in contacting or locating customers entitled to the refund.
20. Notes Payable
Notes payable represent unsecured interest-bearing working capital peso loans obtained from
various local banks Annual interest rates ranged from 1.5% to 3.9% in 2013 and 3.9% to 6.5% in
2012 on peso-denominated loans.
*SGVFS007696*
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Interest expense on notes payable amounted to =
P71 million and =
P3 million for the year ended
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
See Note 24 – Expenses and Income.
21. Trade Payables and Other Current Liabilities
This account consists of the following:
Note
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Trade accounts payable
Output VAT - net
Accrued expenses:
Employee benefits
Taxes
Interest
Others
Current portions of:
Bill deposits and related
interests
Meter deposits and related
interests
Other liabilities
Refundable service extension costs
Dividends payable on:
Redeemable preferred stock
Common stock
Universal charges payable
Refundable transmission charges
Regulatory fees payable
Other current liabilities
P
=42,824
5,393
=
P22,913
4,472
3,621
1,779
265
876
2,595
2,574
284
741
17
6,125
4,057
17
2,118
778
1,615
2,187
819
1,512
15
14
250
77
1,523
779
204
2,844
P
=71,071
256
1,023
313
180
203
1,509
=
P45,638
22 and 23
Trade Accounts Payable
Trade accounts payable mainly represent obligations to power suppliers, namely, NPC/ Power
Sector Assets and Liabilities Management Corporation or PSALM, power generating companies,
National Grid Corporation of the Philippines or NGCP, and Philippine Electricity Market
Corporation or PEMC, for costs of power purchased. In addition, this account includes liabilities
due to local and foreign suppliers for purchase of goods and services, which consist of
transformers, poles, materials and supplies, and contracted services.
Trade payables are noninterest-bearing and are generally settled within the 15 to 30-day trade
term. Other payables are noninterest-bearing and are due in no more than six months from
incurrence.
See Note 22 –Related Party Transactions and Note 29 – Significant Contracts and Commitments.
*SGVFS007696*
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Refundable Service Extension Costs
Article 14 of the Magna Carta, specifically, “Right to Extension of Lines and Facilities,” requires
a customer requesting for an extension of lines and facilities beyond 30-meter service distance
from the nearest voltage facilities of the DU to advance the cost of the project. The amended
DSOAR, which became effective April 1, 2010, requires such advances from customers to be
refunded at the rate of 75% of the distribution revenue generated from the extension lines and
facilities until such amounts are fully refunded. The related asset forms part of the rate base only
at the time a refund has been paid out. Customer advances are noninterest-bearing.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, the noncurrent portion of refundable service extension costs
of =
P5,782 million and =
P4,357 million, respectively, is presented as “Refundable Service Extension
Costs - net of current portion” account in the parent company statements of financial position.
22. Related Party Transactions
The following summarizes the total amount of transactions, which have been provided and/or
contracted by MERALCO to/with related parties for the relevant financial year. The outstanding
balances are unsecured, non-interest bearing and are to be settled in cash.
Pole Attachment Contract with Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company or PLDT
MERALCO has a Pole Attachment Contract with PLDT similar to third party pole attachment
contracts of MERALCO with other telecommunication companies. Under the Pole Attachment
Contract, PLDT shall use the contacted cable position exclusively for its telecommunication cable
network facilities.
Sale of Electricity under Various Service Contracts
MERALCO sells electricity to related party shareholder groups such as PLDT, Metro Pacific, JG
Summit, and SMC and their respective subsidiaries, and affiliates for the latters’ facilities within
MERALCO’s franchise area. The rates charged to related parties are the same ERC-mandated rates
applicable to customers within the franchise area.
Purchase of Telecommunication Services from PLDT and Subsidiaries
MERALCO’s primary telecommunications carriers are PLDT for its wireline and SMART for its
wireless services. MERALCO also purchases its wireline services from Digitel Mobile
Philippines, Inc., a subsidiary of PLDT. Such services are covered by standard service contracts
between the telecommunications carriers and MERALCO.
Purchase of Goods and Services
In the ordinary course of business, MERALCO purchases goods and services from its affiliates and
sells power to such affiliates.
*SGVFS007696*
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Following is the summary of related party transactions for the years ended December 31, 2013 and
2012 and the outstanding balances as at December 31, 2013 and 2012:
Category
Relationship
Sale of electricity
PLDT Group
Stockholder
Outstanding Receivable
(Liability)
as at December 31
Amount of Transactions
2012
2012
2013
2013
(Amounts in millions)
P
= 2,599
=
P2,936
P
= 160
=
P268
–
293
–
Terms
Conditions
10-day;
noninterest-bearing
10-day;
noninterest-bearing
10-day;
noninterest-bearing
10-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
Unsecured
JG Summit
Stockholder
348*
SMC Group
Stockholder
851
1,040
59
83
Metro Pacific Group
Stockholder
352
1,172
15
54
292
85
–
–
349
269
–
(3)
486
426
(10)
(13)
504
277
(3)
(9)
484
423
(2)
(20)
290
248
–
–
215
50
206
47
–
–
–
–
Advance payment
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
30-day;
noninterest-bearing
Subsidiary
RSIC
Purchase of contracted services:
Miescor
MBI
MLI
Subsidiary
Subsidiary
Subsidiary
Purchases of IT services - Indra
Philippines
Joint Venture
Purchases of meters and devices GEPMICI
Associate
Revenue from pole attachment PLDT
Stockholder
Purchases of wireline and wireless Stockholder
services - PLDT Group
Purchases of power
Affiliate
South Premiere Power
Corporation or SPPC
San Miguel Energy
Affiliate
Corporation or SMEC
34,885
–
(2,893)
–
13,648
–
(951)
–
Unsecured
Unsecured
Unsecured
Unsecured
Unsecured,
no impairment
Unsecured
Unsecured
Unsecured
* Represents sale of electricity for the month of December 2013.
Transaction with MERALCO Pension Fund
MERALCO Pension Fund holds 6,000 common shares of RP Energy at =
P100 par value per share,
with total carrying amount of =
P600,000 or an equivalent 3% equity interest in RP Energy. The fair
value of RP Energy’s common shares cannot be reliably measured as these are not traded in the
financial market. As at December 31, 2013, the fair value of the total assets being managed by
MERALCO Pension Fund amounted to =
P34.0 billion.
See Note 25 – Long-Term Employee Benefits.
Compensation of Key Management Personnel
The compensation of key management personnel of MERALCO by benefit type is as follows:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Short-term employee benefits
Long-term employee and retirement benefits
Share-based payments
P
=517
283
–
P
=800
P
=432
256
31
P
=719
*SGVFS007696*
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Each of the directors is entitled to a per diem of P
=120,000 for every BOD meeting attended. Each
member or advisor of the Audit and Risk Management, Remuneration and Leadership
Development, Finance, Governance and Nomination Committees is entitled to a fee of P
=20,000
for every committee meeting attended.
On March 22, 2013, the BOD approved the amendment of MERALCO's By-Laws which entitles
all directors to a reasonable per diems for their attendance in meetings of the BOD and Board
Committees plus an additional compensation, provided, that the total value of such additional
compensation, in whatever form so given, shall not exceed one percent of the net income before
tax of MERALCO during the preceding year.
Consistent with the foregoing, the BOD approved the increase in the compensation of all members
of the BOD up to a maximum of pre-agreed amount per annum. The increase in compensation
shall be through a stock grant based on a pre-approved number of shares for each director. The
implementation of the foregoing was approved by the stockholders in the annual general meeting
on May 28, 2013.
There are no agreements between MERALCO and any of its key management personnel providing
for benefits upon termination of employment or retirement, except with respect to benefits
provided under the retirement and pension plans. The Pension Plan covers employees hired up to
December 31, 2003 only. The Provident Plan, which is implemented on a voluntary basis, covers
employees hired beginning January 1, 2004.
23. Revenues and Purchased Power
Sale of Electricity
Following is the breakdown of electricity revenues:
2012
2013
(Amount in millions)
Generation charge
Transmission charge
System loss charge
Power Act Reduction adjustment
Interclass, lifeline subsidies and others
Distribution service charges
P
=190,700
28,865
17,026
(8)
(128)
55,796
P
=292,251
P
=182,313
31,679
16,353
(24)
23
50,633
P
=280,977
Distribution revenue accounted for 19% and 18% of total electricity revenues in 2013 and 2012,
respectively. VAT, LFT and universal charges, which are also pass-through charges are billed and
collected on behalf of the national and local governments and do not form part of total electricity
revenues.
*SGVFS007696*
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Purchased Power
The details of purchased power are as follows:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
Generation charge
Transmission charge
P
=204,620
31,300
P
=235,920
P
=197,202
33,120
P
=230,322
Purchased power costs are pass-through costs and revenue-neutral to MERALCO, as a DU.
Generation charge is inclusive of line rentals, market fees and must-run unit charges billed by
PEMC.
Purchased power includes capacity fees, fixed operating fees and transmission line fees that are
accounted for similar to a lease under Philippine Interpretation IFRIC 4, “Determining whether an
arrangement contains a lease”. The total amounts billed by the suppliers presented as part of
“Purchased power” account in the parent company statements of income are =
P46,170 million and
P
=18,496 million for year ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. This also includes the
actual SL incurred but no more than 8.5%. MERALCO’s actual SL rates are 6.92% and 7.04% in
2013 and 2012, respectively.
The details of purchased power are as follows:
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions)
First Gas Power Corporation or FGPC and
FGP Corp. or FGP
PEMC/Wholesale Electricity Spot Market or WESM
SPPC
TransCo/NGCP
QPPL
Masinloc Power Partners Co. Ltd. or MPPCL
NPC/PSALM (including NPC Successor Generating
Companies or SGCs/IPPAs)
SMEC
Sem-Calaca Power Corporation or Sem-Calaca
Therma Luzon, Inc. or TLI
Others
P
=55,360
40,559
34,885
31,274
14,251
12,905
P
=58,592
28,401
–
33,120
15,147
–
12,075
11,749
10,673
9,538
2,651
P
=235,920
94,930
–
–
–
132
P
=230,322
Generation and transmission cost over/under-recoveries occur as a result of the lag in the billing
and recovery of generation and transmission costs from consumers. As at December 31, 2013 and
2012, the total transmission cost over-recoveries included in “Other noncurrent liabilities” account
in the parent company statements of financial position amounted to =
P6,358 million and
=
P5,288 million, respectively.
*SGVFS007696*
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24. Expenses and Income
Salaries, Wages and Employee Benefits
Note
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Salaries, wages and related employee
benefits
Pension expense
Other long-term post-employment
benefits expense
ESPP
P
=7,844
1,147
P
=8,471
1,349
25
15
258
–
P
=9,249
261
134
=
P10,215
Note
2013
2012
25
Other Expenses
(Amounts in millions)
Rent and utilities
Advertising expense
Insurance
Inventories
Transportation and travel
Corporate expenses
Communication expense
Others
22
P
=472
291
290
288
241
131
60
521
P
=2,294
=
P446
170
227
239
249
1,158
51
366
P
=2,906
2013
2012
Interest and Other Financial Charges
Note
(Amounts in millions)
Interest expense on interest-bearing
long-term financial liabilities, net
of interest capitalized
Carrying charge on ERC-approved
over-recoveries
Interest expense on bill deposits
Interest expense on notes payable
Amortization of debt issuance costs
Interest expense on meter deposits
Others
6 and 16
P
=966
P
=1,197
2
17
20
16
17
112
81
71
61
2
181
P
=1,474
79
90
3
37
1
111
P
=1,518
*SGVFS007696*
- 65 -
Interest and Other Financial Income
Note
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Interest income on cash and cash
equivalents
Dividend income
Carrying costs on ERC-approved
under-recoveries
Others
2
P
=1,047
491
P
=1,728
58
–
35
P
=1,573
755
6
P
=2,547
25. Long-term Employee Benefits
Liabilities for long-term employee benefits consist of the following:
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Long-term incentives
Pension liability
Other long-term post-employment
benefits
P
=1,205
1,113
P
=2,640
3,186
P
=1,680
5,870
1,792
P
=4,110
2,962
P
=8,788
2,966
=
P10,516
Retirement Plan
Actuarial valuation is prepared annually by an independent actuary engaged by MERALCO.
Net Pension Costs (included in “Salaries, wages and employee benefits” account)
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
2011
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Current service costs
Net interest costs
Net pension costs
P
=1,039
103
P
=1,142
P
=1,037
309
P
=1,346
P
=1,090
453
P
=1,543
Pension Liability
December 31,
2013
December 31, 2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Defined benefit obligation
Fair value of plan assets
Pension liability
P
=35,098
(33,985)
P
=1,113
=
P33,713
(30,527)
P
=3,186
=
P33,148
(27,278)
P
=5,870
*SGVFS007696*
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Changes in the net pension liability are as follows:
December 31,
2013
December 31, 2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Pension liability at beginning of year
Net pension costs
Total amounts recognized in OCI
Contributions by employer
Pension liability
P
=3,186
1,142
(282)
(2,933)
P
=1,113
P
=5,870
1,346
(2,591)
(1,439)
P
=3,186
=
P9,709
1,543
(1,053)
(4,329)
P
=5,870
Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation are as follows:
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Defined benefit obligation at
beginning of year
Interest costs
Benefits paid
Current service costs
Actuarial losses (gains) due to
changes in assumptions
Defined benefit obligation at end of
year
P
=33,713
1,971
(1,693)
1,039
68
P
=35,098
=
P33,148
1,942
(1,567)
1,037
=
P32,483
1,899
(1,689)
1,090
(847)
(635)
=
P33,713
=
P33,148
Changes in the fair value of plan assets are as follows:
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Fair value of plan assets at beginning
of year
Return on plan assets, excluding
amount included in net interest
on the net defined obligation
Interest income
Benefits paid
Contributions by employer
Fair value of plan assets at end of
year
P
=30,527
350
1,868
(1,693)
2,933
P
=33,985
=
P27,278
1,744
1,633
(1,567)
1,439
=
P30,527
=
P22,774
418
1,446
(1,689)
4,329
=
P27,278
*SGVFS007696*
- 67 -
The Board of Trustees or BOT, which manages the retirement benefit fund, is chaired by the
chairman of MERALCO, who is neither an executive nor a beneficiary. The other members of the
BOT are (i) an executive member of the BOD; (ii) two (2) senior executives; (iii) an independent
member of the BOD; (iv) a member of the BOD who represents the largest shareholder group and
(v) a non-executive, non-BOD member who represents another shareholder group, all of whom are
non-beneficiaries of the Plan.
The Fund follows a generally conservative investment approach where investments are diversified
to minimize risks but ensures an increase in value of the Fund assets. Substantially all of the funds
of the Plan are managed by four (4) trustee banks whose common objective is to maximize the
long-term expected return of plan assets. As approved by the BOT, the funds are invested in a
guided proportion of fixed income instruments, cash investments and equities.
The major categories of plan assets of the MERALCO Pension Fund as a percentage of the fair
value of total plan are as follows:
2013
2012
(Amount in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents
Investments quoted in active markets
Quoted equity investments:
Holding firms
Electricity, energy, power and water
Food, beverages and tobacco
Banks
Property
Telecommunication
Transportation services
Construction, infrastructure and allied services
Financial institution
Gaming
Mining
Retail
Media
Hotel and leisure
Others
Quoted debt instruments:
Government securities
“AAA” rated securities
Unquoted investments:
Receivables
Property
Fair value of plan assets
P
=5,637
P
=3,100
1,950
1,155
908
713
608
607
283
82
81
75
66
44
31
15
325
2,247
1,480
884
839
660
295
230
158
102
130
245
92
43
–
385
11,385
7,399
10,587
6,256
1,667
954
P
=33,985
1,962
832
P
=30,527
*SGVFS007696*
- 68 -
Marketable equity securities, government securities, bonds and commercial notes are investments
held by the trustee banks. The Fund does not have any direct equity interests in MERALCO.
Other Long-term Post-employment Benefits Expense (included in “Salaries, wages and
employee benefits” account)
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
December 31,
2013
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Interest costs
Current service costs
=
P176
85
=
P261
P
=178
80
P
=258
=
P54
156
=
P210
Changes in the present value of other long-term post-employment benefits liability are as follows:
December 31,
2013
December 31,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
January 1,
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Balance at beginning of year
Interest costs
Current service costs
Benefits paid
Actuarial losses (gains) due to change in
assumptions
Balance at end of year
P
=2,962
178
80
(53)
P
=2,966
176
85
(73)
P
=2,471
54
156
(75)
(1,375)
P
=1,792
(192)
P
=2,962
360
P
=2,966
Actuarial Assumptions
The principal assumptions used as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 in determining pension and
other long-term post-employment benefits obligations are shown below:
Annual discount rate
Future range of annual salary increases
2013
4.5%
6%-10%
2012
6%
6%-8%
*SGVFS007696*
- 69 -
Sensitivity Analysis
The calculation of the defined benefit obligation is sensitive to the assumptions set above. The
following table summarizes how the impact on the defined benefit obligation at the end of the
reporting year would have increased (decreased) as a result of a change in the respective
assumptions by:
% Change
Effect on Present Value of
Defined Benefit Obligation
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Annual discount rate
Future range of annual salary
increases
+1.0%
-1.0%
(P
=2,144)
4,445
+1.0%
(P
=1,107)
1,107
1,072
1,161
Funding
MERALCO shall contribute to the Fund from time to time such amounts of money under accepted
actuarial principles to maintain the Fund in a sound condition, subject to the provisions of the
Plan.
The amount of the annual contributions to the Fund is determined through an annual valuation
report performed by the actuary.
MERALCO expects to contribute =
P1,690 million to its defined benefit pension plan in 2014.
The following is the maturity profile of the undiscounted benefit payments:
(Amounts in
millions)
Less than one year
More than one year to five years
More than five years to 10 years
More than 10 years to 15 years
More than 15 years to 20 years
More than 20 years
P
=1,400
6,838
7,091
7,714
7,632
19,312
Risk
The Fund is exposed to the following risks:
Credit Risk
The Fund’s exposure to credit risk arises from its financial assets which comprise cash and cash
equivalents, investments and rental receivable. The credit risk results from the possible default of
the issuer of the financial instrument, with a maximum exposure equivalent to the carrying amount
of the instruments.
The credit risk is minimized by ensuring that the exposure to the various chosen financial
investment structures is limited primarily to government securities and bonds or notes duly
recommended by the Trust Committees of the Fund of the appointed fund managers.
*SGVFS007696*
- 70 -
Share Price Risk
The Fund’s exposure to share price risk arises from shares of stock it holds and being traded at the
PSE. The price risk emanates from the volatility of the stock market. The policy is to limit
investment in shares of stock to blue chip issues or issues with good fair values or those trading at
a discount to its net asset value so that in the event that market falls drastically, the Fund may still
consider hold on to such investments until the market recovers.
By having a balanced composition of holdings in the equities portfolio, exposure to industry or
sector-related risks is reduced. The mix of various equities in the portfolio reduces volatility and
contributes to a more stable return over time. Equity investments are made within the parameters
of the investment guidelines approved by the BOT. The BOT of the Fund meets periodically to
review the investment portfolio based on financial market conditions. Share prices are also
monitored regularly.
Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk is the risk that the Pension Fund is unable to meet its payment obligations associated
with its financial liabilities when they fall due and to replace funds when they are withdrawn.
Liquidity risk is being managed to ensure that adequate fixed income and cash deposits are
available to service the financial obligations of the Fund. The schedule of the maturities of fixed
income investment assets are staggered by tenure or term. Policies are established to ensure that
all financial obligations are met, wherein the timing of the maturities of fixed income investments
are planned and matched to the due date of various obligations. Thus, for this investment class,
maturities are classified into short-term, medium-term and long-term. A certain percentage of the
portfolio is left in cash to manage liquidity and settle all currently maturing financial obligations.
MERALCO Defined Contribution Provident Plan
MERALCO has a contributory Provident Plan effective January 1, 2009, intended to be a
Supplemental Retirement Benefit for employees hired after 2004, on a voluntary basis. Each
qualified employee-member who opts to participate in the plan shall have the option to contribute
up to a maximum of 25% of his base salary. MERALCO shall match the member’s contribution up
to the first 10% of the member’s base salary. Upon resignation, the member shall be entitled to the
total amount credited to his personal retirement account immediately preceding his actual
retirement date, subject to provisions of the Provident Plan. MERALCO’s contribution to the
Provident Plan amounted to =
P5 million and P
=3 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 and
2012, respectively.
Pension Expense (included in “Salaries, wages and employee
benefits” account)
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Expense recognized for defined benefit plans
Expense recognized for defined contribution plan
Pension expense
P
=1,142
5
P
=1,147
P
=1,346
3
P
=1,349
*SGVFS007696*
- 71 -
Long-term Incentive Plan or LTIP
MERALCO’s LTIP covers qualified executives and based on MERALCO’s achievement of
specified level of consolidated core net income approved by the BOD and determined on an
aggregate basis for a three year period as well as executives’ attainment of a minimum level of
performance rating. Executives invited to the plan must serve a minimum uninterrupted period to
be entitled to any pay-out.
26. Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities
Financial assets consist of cash and cash equivalents and trade and nontrade receivables, which are
generated directly from operations. The principal financial liabilities, other than derivatives,
consist of bank loans, redeemable preferred shares, trade and non-trade payables, which are
incurred to finance operations in the normal course of business.
The following table sets forth the financial assets and financial liabilities as at December 31, 2013
and 2012:
Loans and Held-to-Maturity
Receivables
Investments
Assets as at December 31, 2013
Noncurrent
Other noncurrent assets
Current
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables
Short-term investments
Total assets
Liabilities as at December 31, 2013
Noncurrent
Interest-bearing long-term financial
liabilities - net of current portion
Customers’ deposits - net of current portion
Refundable service extension costs –net of
current portion
Current
Notes payable
Trade payables and other current liabilities
Customers’ refund
Interest-bearing long-term financial
liabilities - current portion
Total liabilities
Net Assets (Liabilities)
Assets as at December 31, 2012
Noncurrent
Other noncurrent assets
Current
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables
Derivative assets
Total assets
Liabilities as at December 31, 2012
Noncurrent
Interest-bearing long-term financial
liabilities - net of current portion
Customers’ deposits - net of current portion
Refundable service extension costs – net of
current portion
Current
Notes payable
Trade payables and other current liabilities
Customers’ refund
Interest-bearing long-term financial
liabilities - current portion
Total liabilities
Net Assets (Liabilities)
Availablefor-sale
Fair Value
Financial
through
Assets
Profit or Loss
(Amounts in millions)
Liabilities
Carried at
Amortized
Cost
Total
Financial
Assets and
Liabilities
P
=474
P
=–
P
=–
P
=124
P
=–
P
=598
57,607
25,372
4,841
88,294
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
124
–
–
–
–
57,607
25,372
4,841
88,418
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
20,756
21,330
20,756
21,330
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
5,782
5,782
1,700
55,814
6,013
1,700
55,814
6,013
–
–
P
=88,294
–
–
P
=–
–
–
P
=–
–
–
P
=124
=
P325
=
P–
P
=–
=
P299
=
P–
P
=624
58,592
21,416
–
80,333
–
–
–
–
–
–
24
24
–
–
–
299
–
–
–
–
58,592
21,416
24
80,656
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
20,466
23,144
20,466
23,144
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4,357
4,357
1,700
32,928
6,127
1,700
32,928
6,127
–
–
=
P80,333
–
–
=
P–
–
–
P
=24
–
–
=
P299
2,360
91,082
=
P91,082
2,360
91,082
(P
=10,426)
11,021
122,416
(P
=122,416)
11,021
122,416
(P
=33,998)
*SGVFS007696*
- 72 -
Fair Values
The fair values of the financial assets and financial liabilities are prices that would be received to
sell the financial assets or paid to transfer the financial liabilities in orderly transactions between
market participants at the measurement date. Set out below is a comparison of carrying amounts
and fair values of MERALCO Group’s financial instruments as at December 31, 2013 and 2012.
2013
Carrying Value
Fair Value
2012
Carrying Value
Fair Value
(Amounts in millions)
Financial assets
Loans and receivables Advances to a supplier
Fair value through profit or loss Derivative asset
Available-for-sale financial assets
Financial liabilities
Financial liabilities carried at amortized cost Interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities
P
=474
P
=552
=
P325
=
P409
–
161
P
=635
–
161
P
=713
24
331
=
P680
24
331
=
P764
P
=31,777
P
=32,176
=
P22,826
=
P24,787
The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each class of
financial instrument for which it is practicable to estimate such value:
Cash and Cash Equivalents, Trade and Other Receivables, Short-term Investments, Trade
Payables and Other Current Liabilities and Note Payable
Due to the short-term nature of transactions, the fair values of these instruments approximate their
carrying amounts as at reporting date.
Advances to a Supplier
The fair values of advances to a supplier and held-to-maturity investments were computed by
discounting the instruments’ expected future cash flows using the rates of 3.76% as at
December 31, 2013 and 4.16% as of December 31, 2012.
Bifurcated Foreign Currency Forward and Foreign Currency Forward
The fair values of embedded currency forwards and freestanding currency forwards were
calculated by reference to forward exchange market rates.
AFS Investments
The fair values were determined by reference to market bid quotes as at reporting date. The
unquoted equity securities were carried at cost.
Meter Deposits and Customers’ Refund
Meter deposits and customers’ refund are due and demandable. Thus, the fair values of these
instruments approximate their carrying amounts.
*SGVFS007696*
- 73 -
Bill Deposits
The carrying amount of bill deposits approximates their fair values as bill deposits are interestbearing.
Interest-bearing Long-term Financial Liabilities
The fair values of interest-bearing long-term debt (except for redeemable preferred stock) were
computed by discounting the instruments’ expected future cash flows using the rates ranging from
0.52% to 4.29% as at December 31, 2013 and 1.65% to 4.49% as at December 31, 2012.
Redeemable Preferred Stock
The carrying amount of the preferred stock represents the fair value. Such preferred shares have
been called and are payable anytime upon presentation by such shareholder of their certification.
This is included under “Interest-bearing long-term financial liabilities” account.
Refundable Service Extension Costs
The fair values of refundable service extension costs cannot be reliably measured since the timing
of related cash flows cannot be reasonably estimated and are accordingly measured at cost.
Fair Value Hierarchy
MERALCO uses the following hierarchy in determining and disclosing the fair value of financial
instruments by inputs to the valuation technique:
ƒ
Level 1: quoted (unadjusted) prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
ƒ
Level 2: other techniques where all inputs have significant effect on the recorded fair value
are observable, either directly or indirectly
ƒ
Level 3: techniques where inputs have significant effect on the recorded fair value that are not
based on observable market data
Below is the list of financial assets and financial liabilities that are classified using the fair value
hierarchy:
Level 1
Financial assets
Advances to a supplier
AFS investments
Derivative assets
Financial liabilities
Interest-bearing long-term
financial liabilities
2013
Level 2 Level 3
Level 1
Total
(Amounts in millions)
2012
Level 3
Level 2
P
=–
124
–
P
=124
P
=–
–
–
P
=–
P
=552
37
–
P
=589
P
=552
161
–
P
=713
=
P–
128
–
=
P128
=
P–
–
24
=
P24
P
=–
P
=–
P
=32,176
P
=32,176
=
P–
=
P–
=
P409
203
–
=
P612
=
P24,787
Total
=
P409
331
24
=
P764
=
P24,787
*SGVFS007696*
- 74 -
For the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, there were no transfers between Level 1 and
Level 2 fair value measurements, and no transfers into and out of Level 3 fair value
measurements.
Financial Risk Management Objectives and Policies
The main risks arising from MERALCO’s financial instruments are cash flow interest rate risk,
foreign currency risk, commodity price risk, credit risk and liquidity risk. The importance of
managing those risks has significantly increased in light of the considerable change and volatility
in the Philippine and international financial markets. The BOD reviews and approves policies for
managing each of these risks. Management monitors the market price risk arising from all
financial instruments. The policies for managing these risks are as follows:
Interest Rate Risk
MERALCO’s exposure to the changes in market interest rates relate primarily to the long-term
interest-bearing financial liabilities.
MERALCO’s policy is to manage its interest rate risk exposure using a mix of fixed and variable
rate debts. The strategy, which yields a reasonably lower effective cost based on market
conditions, is adopted. Refinancing of fixed rate loans may also be undertaken to manage interest
cost. Approximately 90% and 83% of the borrowings bear fixed rate of interest as at
December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
The following table sets out the maturity profile of the financial instruments that are exposed to
interest rate risk (exclusive of debt issuance costs):
Within Over 1–2 Over 2–3 Over 3–4 Over 4–5
1 Year
Years
Years
Years
Years
More
than 5
Years
Total
P
=–
2,425
P
=3,075
3,688
(Amounts in millions)
2013
2012
P
=612
613
P
=13
612
P
=13
13
P
=12
13
=
P2,425
12
Floating interest rate of bank loans is re-priced at intervals of less than one year. The other
financial liabilities of MERALCO that are not included in the foregoing have fixed interest rate, or
are noninterest-bearing or have no fixed or determinable maturity and are, therefore, not subject to
interest rate risk. Short-term investments are not exposed to significant changes in market rates
because they mature within 90 days to coincide with MERALCO’s monthly payment obligations.
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity to a reasonably possible change in interest rates,
with all other variables held constant, of MERALCO’s profit before tax as at December 31, 2013
and 2012 through the impact on floating rate borrowings. There is no other impact on
MERALCO’s equity other than those already affecting the parent company statement of income.
Increase
(Decrease) in
Basis Points
2013
Effect on
Profit
before Tax
Increase
(Decrease) in
Basis Points
2012
Effect on
Profit
before Tax
(Amounts in millions)
Floating rate loans from various banks
+100
(100)
(P
=31)
31
+100
(100)
(P
=37)
37
*SGVFS007696*
- 75 -
Interest expense on floating rate loans is computed for the year, taking into account actual
principal movements during the year, based on management’s best estimate of a +/-100 basis
points change in interest rates. There has been no change in the methods and assumptions used by
management in the above analysis.
Foreign Currency Risk
The revaluation of MERALCO’s foreign currency-denominated financial assets and financial
liabilities as a result of the appreciation or depreciation of the Philippine peso is recognized as
foreign exchange gains or losses as at the end of each reporting period. The extent of foreign
exchange gains or losses is largely dependent on the amount of foreign currency-denominated
liabilities. While an insignificant percentage of MERALCO’s revenues and liabilities is
denominated in U.S. dollars, a substantial portion of MERALCO’s capital expenditures for
electricity capital project and a portion of the operating expenses are denominated in foreign
currencies, mostly in U.S. dollars. As such, a strengthening or weakening of the Philippine peso
against the U.S. dollar will decrease or increase in Philippine peso terms, the principal amount of
MERALCO’s foreign currency-denominated liabilities and the related interest expense, foreign
currency-denominated capital expenditures and operating expenses as well as U.S. dollardenominated revenues.
The following table shows MERALCO’s foreign currency-denominated financial assets and
financial liabilities as at December 31, 2013 and 2012, translated to Philippine peso using P
=44.395
and =
P41.050 to $1, respectively.
2012
2013
U.S.Dollar
Peso Equivalent
U.S.Dollar
Peso Equivalent
(Amounts in millions)
Financial assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables
Advance payments to a supplier
Financial liabilities Trade payables and other liabilities
$65
3
11
79
P
=2,864
148
474
3,486
$47
1
8
56
=
P1,913
53
325
2,291
(46)
$33
(2,043)
P
=1,443
(139)
($83)
(5,724)
(P
=3,433)
All of MERALCO’s long-term financial liabilities are denominated in Philippine peso. However,
an insignificant portion of its trade payables is denominated in U.S. dollar. Thus, the impact of
=
P1 movement of the Philippine Peso against the U.S. dollar will not have a significant impact on
MERALCO’s principal and interest payments. Further, PBR assumes a forecast level of foreign
currency movements in its calculation of the regulatory asset base and expenditures. PBR also
allows for adjustment of the rates MERALCO charges should there be significant deviations in the
foreign exchange forecast from what is actually realized.
*SGVFS007696*
- 76 -
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity to a reasonably possible change in the U.S. dollar
exchange rate vis-a-vis the peso, with all other variables held constant, of MERALCO’s profit
before tax as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 (due to changes in the fair value of financial assets
and financial liabilities). There is no other impact on MERALCO’s equity other than those already
affecting the profit and loss.
2012
2013
U.S. dollar-denominated financial assets
and financial liabilities
Effect on
Income
before Income
Tax
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
of U.S. Dollar
Effect on
Income
before Income
Tax
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
of U.S. Dollar
(In %)
(In millions)
(In %)
(In millions)
+5
–5
(P
=170)
170
+5
–5
P
=73
(P
=73)
Foreign exchange gain or loss is computed for the year based on management’s best estimate of a
+/–5 percent change in the closing Philippine peso to U.S. dollar conversion rate using the yearend balances of U.S. dollar-denominated cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, liabilities
and forward contracts. There has been no change in the methods and assumptions used by
management in the above analysis.
Commodity Price Risk
Commodity price risk is the risk that the fair value or cash flows of a financial instrument will
fluctuate because of changes in commodity prices. MERALCO’s exposure to price risk is minimal.
The cost of fuel is part of MERALCO’s generation costs that are recoverable from the customers
through the generation charge in the billings to the customers.
Credit Risk
Credit risk is the risk that MERALCO is exposed to as a result of its customers, clients or
counterparties failing to discharge their contracted obligations. MERALCO manages and controls
credit risk by setting limits on the amount of risk that it is willing to accept for individual
counterparties and by monitoring exposures in relation to such limits.
MERALCO as a franchise holder serving public interest cannot refuse customer connection. To
mitigate risk, the DSOAR allows MERALCO to collect bill deposit equivalent to one month’s
consumption to secure credit. Also, as a policy, disconnection notices are sent three days after the
bill due date and disconnections are carried out beginning on the third day after receipt of
disconnection notice.
With respect to placements of cash with financial institutions, these institutions are subject to
MERALCO’s accreditation evaluation based on liquidity and solvency ratios and on the bank’s
credit rating. MERALCO shall transact only derivatives with similarly accredited financial
institutions. In addition, MERALCO’s deposit accounts in banks are insured by the Philippine
Deposit Insurance Corporation up to =
P500,000 per bank.
Credit risk on other financial assets, which include cash and cash equivalents, trade and other
receivables and certain derivative instruments, arises from default of the counterparty.
Finally, credit quality review procedures are in place to provide regular identification of changes
in the creditworthiness of counterparties. Counterparty limits are established and reviewed
*SGVFS007696*
- 77 -
periodically based on latest available financial information of counterparties, credit ratings and
liquidity. MERALCO’s credit quality review process allows it to assess any potential loss as a
result of the risks to which it may be exposed and to take corrective actions.
There are no significant concentrations of credit risk in MERALCO.
The table below shows the maximum exposure to credit risk for the components of the parent
company statements of financial position, including derivatives as at December 31, 2013 and
2012. The maximum exposure is equivalent to the nominal amount of the accounts.
Gross Maximum Exposure
2012
2013
(Amounts in millions)
Cash and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables
Billed electricity
Nontrade receivables
Short-term investments
Advance payment to a supplier
Derivative assets
P
=57,472
P
=58,585
23,867
1,355
4,841
474
–
P
=88,009
20,568
848
–
325
24
P
=80,350
The credit quality of financial assets is managed by MERALCO using “High Grade,” “Standard
Grade” and “Sub-standard Grade” as internal credit ratings. The following tables show the credit
quality by asset class:
2013
Neither Past Due nor
Impaired
SubPast Due
Impaired
Standard
standard
but not
High
Financial
Grade
Grade
Grade
Impaired
Assets
(Amounts in millions)
Cash in banks and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables:
Billed electricity
Nontrade receivables
Short-term investments
Advance payment to a supplier
Total
P
=57,472
=
P–
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
P
=57,472
5,793
1,374
4,841
–
P
=69,480
3,583
8
–
–
P
= 3,591
9,046
20
–
474
P
=9,540
5,445
103
–
–
P
=5,548
2,963
–
–
–
P
=2,963
26,830
1,505
4,841
474
P
=91,122
Sub- Past Due but
standard
not
Grade
Impaired
(Amounts in millions)
Impaired
Financial
Assets
Total
2012
Neither Past Due nor Impaired
Cash in banks and cash equivalents
Trade and other receivables:
Billed electricity
Nontrade receivables
Derivative assets
Advance payment to a supplier
High
Grade
Standard
Grade
=
P58,585
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
=
P58,585
5,747
573
24
–
=
P64,929
3,313
31
–
–
=
P3,344
8,513
3
–
325
=
P8,841
2,995
241
–
–
=
P3,236
2,556
–
–
–
=
P2,556
23,124
848
24
325
=
P82,906
*SGVFS007696*
- 78 -
Credit ratings were determined as follows:
ƒ
“High Grade”
‘High’ grade financial assets include cash and cash equivalents and derivative assets to
counterparties with good credit rating or bank standing. Consequently, credit risk is minimal.
These counterparties include large prime financial institutions, large industrial companies and
commercial establishments, and government agencies. For trade receivables, these consist of
current month’s billings (less than 30 days) that are expected to be collected within 10 days
from the time bills are delivered.
ƒ
“Standard Grade”
‘Standard’ grade financial assets include trade receivables consisting of current month’s
billings (less than 30 days) that are expected to be collected before due date (10 to 14 days
after bill date).
“Sub-standard Grade”
‘Sub-standard’ grade financial assets include trade receivables that consist of current month’s
billing, which are not expected to be collected within 60 days.
The following table shows the aging analysis of financial assets as at December 31, 2013 and
2012:
Neither Past
Due nor
Impaired
2013
Past Due but not Impaired
31-60 Days
61-90 Days
Over
90 Days
Impaired
Financial
Assets
Total
(Amounts in millions)
Cash and cash
equivalents
Trade and other
receivables:
Billed electricity
Nontrade receivables
Short-term investments
Advance payment to a
supplier
P
=57,472
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
P
=–
P
=57,472
18,422
1,422
4,841
2,066
23
–
–
504
5
–
–
2,875
75
–
–
2,963
–
–
–
26,830
1,525
4,841
P
=2,089
P
=509
P
=2,950
P
=2,963
474
P
=91,142
Over
90 Days
Impaired
Financial
Assets
Total
474
P
=82,631
Neither Past
Due nor
Impaired
2012
Past Due but not Impaired
31-60 Days
61-90 Days
(Amounts in millions)
Cash and cash
equivalents
Trade and other
receivables:
Billed electricity
Nontrade receivables
Derivative assets
Advance payment to a
supplier
=
P58,585
=
P–
=
P–
=
P–
=
P–
=
P58,585
17,573
607
24
1,889
8
–
–
623
4
–
–
483
229
–
–
2,556
–
–
–
23,124
848
24
=
P1,897
=
P627
=
P712
=
P2,556
325
=
P77,114
325
=
P82,906
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Liquidity Risk
Liquidity risk is the risk that MERALCO will be unable to meet its payment obligations when they
fall due. MERALCO manages this risk through monitoring of cash flows in consideration of future
payment of obligation and collection of its trade receivables. MERALCO also ensures that there
are sufficient, available and approved working capital lines that it can draw from at any time.
MERALCO maintains an adequate amount of cash and cash placements, which may be readily
converted to cash in any unforeseen interruption of its cash collections. MERALCO also maintains
accounts with several relationship banks to avoid significant concentration of cash with one
institution.
The maturity profile of bill deposits is not determinable since the timing of each refund is linked to
the cessation of service, which is not reasonably predictable. However, MERALCO estimates that
a portion of bill deposits (including related interest), amounting to =
P6,125 million, will be
refunded within the year. This is shown as part of “Trade payables and other current liabilities”
account in the parent company statement of financial position as at December 31, 2013.
Capital Management
The primary objective of MERALCO’s capital management is to enhance shareholder value. The
capital structure is reviewed with the end view of achieving a competitive cost of capital and at the
same time ensuring that returns on, and of, capital are consistent with the levels approved by its
regulators for its core distribution business.
The capital structure optimization plan is complemented by efforts to improve capital efficiency to
increase yields on invested capital. This entails efforts to improve the efficiency of capital assets,
working capital and non-core assets.
MERALCO monitors capital using debt to equity ratio, which is consolidated gross debt divided by
consolidated equity attributable equity holders of the parent. MERALCO considers long-term debt,
redeemable preferred stock and note payable as debt.
2013
2012
(Amounts in millions, except debt to equity ratio)
Long-term debt
Redeemable preferred stock
Notes payable
Debt (a)
Equity attributable to the holders of the parent (b)
Debt to equity ratio (a)/(b)
P
=30,215
1,562
1,814
33,591
75,162
0.45
P
=21,232
1,594
1,787
24,613
67,902
0.36
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27. Income Taxes and Local Franchise Taxes
Income Taxes
The components of net deferred tax assets as at December 31, 2013 and 2012 are as follows:
Note
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4 )
(Amounts in millions)
Deferred tax assets:
Provisions for various claims
Accrued employee benefits
Allowance for doubtful accounts
Unfunded pension cost and
unamortized past service cost
Allowance for excess of cost over net
realizable value of inventories
Others
Deferred tax liabilities:
Revaluation increment in utility plant
and others
Depreciation method differential
Capitalized interest
Capitalized duties and taxes deducted
in advance
Net book value of capitalized/
realized foreign exchange losses
Others
P
=12,681
899
889
=
P9,502
1,007
767
478
1,577
12
61
356
15,364
62
392
13,307
14
7,389
1,082
744
7,645
1,124
751
651
655
22
123
10,011
P
=5,353
37
76
10,288
=
P3,019
18
11
Provision for income tax consists of:
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
2013
Current
Deferred
P
=9,690
(2,828)
P
=6,862
P
=9,346
(3,747)
P
=5,599
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A reconciliation between the provision for (benefit from) income tax computed at statutory
income tax rate of 30% for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, and provision for
(benefit from) income tax as shown in the parent company statements of income is as follows:
2013
2012
(As restated see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions)
Income tax computed at statutory tax rate
Income tax effects of:
Interest income subjected to lower final tax rate
Nondeductible interest expense
Nontaxable income
Nondeductible expenses
Others
P
=7,305
P
=7,738
(314)
130
(97)
30
(192)
P
=6,862
(519)
213
(1,872)
39
–
P
=5,599
On December 18, 2009, the BIR issued Revenue Regulation or RR No. 16-2008, which
implemented the provisions of RA No. 9504 on Optional Standard Deductions, or OSD. Such
regulation allows both individual and corporate taxpayers to use OSD in computing their taxable
income. For corporations, they may elect to adopt standard deduction in an amount not exceeding
40% of gross income in lieu of the allowed itemized deductions. MERALCO has not availed of the
OSD in computing its taxable income for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012.
LFT
Consistent with the decisions of the ERC, LFT is a recoverable charge of the DU in the particular
province or city imposing and collecting the LFT. It is presented as a separate line item in the
customers’ bill and computed as a percentage of the sum of generation, transmission, distribution
services and related system loss charges.
Furthermore, the Implementing Rules and Regulations issued by the ERC provide that local
franchise taxes shall be paid only on its distribution wheeling and captive market supply revenues.
At present, pending the promulgation of guidelines from the relevant government agencies,
MERALCO is paying LFT based on the sum of the charges in the customers’ bill.
28. Contingencies and Legal Proceedings
Overpayment of Income Tax related to SC Refund
With the decision of the SC for MERALCO to refund =
P0.167 per kWh to cover customers during
the billing period February 1994 to May 2003, MERALCO overpaid income tax in the amount of
=
P7,107 million for taxable years 1994 to 1998 and 2000 to 2001. Accordingly, MERALCO filed a
claim on November 27, 2003 for the recovery of such excess income taxes paid. After
examination of the books of MERALCO for the covered periods, the BIR determined that
MERALCO had in fact overpaid income taxes in the amount of =
P6,690 million. However, the BIR
also maintained that MERALCO is entitled to a refund amount of only P
=894 million, which
pertains to taxable year 2001, claiming that the period for filing a claim had prescribed in respect
of the difference between MERALCO’s overpayment and the refund amount MERALCO is entitled
to.
*SGVFS007696*
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The BIR then approved the refund of =
P894 million for issuance of tax credit certificates or TCCs,
proportionate to the actual refund of claims to utility customers. The BIR initially issued TCCs
amounting to =
P317 million corresponding to actual refund to customers as at August 31, 2005.
As at December 31, 2013 and 2012, the amount of unissued TCCs amounting to =
P577 million
refund entitlement is presented as part of “Other noncurrent assets” account in the parent company
statements of financial position.
See Note 9 – Other Noncurrent Assets.
MERALCO filed a Petition with the Court of Tax Appeals or CTA assailing the denial by the
BIR of its income tax refund claim of P
=5,796 million for the years 1994 - 1998 and 2000, arising
from the SC decision (net of =
P894 million as approved by the BIR for taxable year 2001). In a
decision dated December 6, 2010, the CTA’s Second Division granted MERALCO’s claim and
ordered the BIR to refund or to issue tax credit certificate in favor of MERALCO in the amount of
=
P5,796 million in proportion to the tax withheld on the total amount that has been actually given
or credited to its customers.
On appeal by the BIR to the CTA En Banc, MERALCO’s petition was dismissed on the ground of
prescription in the Decision of the CTA En Banc dated May 8, 2012. On Motion for
Reconsideration by MERALCO of the said dismissal, the CTA En Banc partly granted
MERALCO’s motion and issued an Amended Decision dated November 13, 2012, ruling that
MERALCO’s claim was not yet barred by prescription and remanding the case back to the CTA
Second Division for further reception of evidence.
The BIR filed a Motion for Reconsideration of the above Amended Decision, while MERALCO
filed its Motion for Partial Reconsideration or Clarification of Amended Decision. Both parties
filed their respective Comments to the said motions, and these were submitted for resolution at the
CTA En Banc.
In a Resolution promulgated on May 22, 2013, the CTA denied the said motions of the BIR and
MERALCO, and the CTA Second Division was ordered to receive evidence and rebuttal evidence
relating to MERALCO's level of refund to customers, pertaining to the excess charges it made in
taxable years 1994-1998 and 2000, but corresponding to the amount of P
=5,796 million, as already
determined by the said court.
On July 12, 2013, the BIR appealed the CTA En Banc's Amended Decision dated November 13,
2012 and Resolution dated May 22, 2013 via Petition for Review with the SC.
Overpayment of Income Tax Related to Change in Tax Basis
On February 4, 2008, the SC denied with finality a motion for reconsideration filed by the
Commissioner of Internal Revenue or CIR, against MERALCO, with respect to the issue on excess
income tax paid by the latter. The SC affirmed a CA decision and ordered the CIR to refund or
issue a TCC in favor of MERALCO for P
=107 million representing overpaid income taxes for
taxable years 1987 and 1988. The overpayment is in accordance with the effectivity of Executive
Order No. 72, which subjected MERALCO to regular corporate income tax instead of 2%
franchise tax based on gross receipts it was previously liable for. On February 5, 2013, MERALCO
filed a Motion for Issuance of a Writ of Execution with the CTA to enforce the judgment of the
SC. On February 14, 2013, the CTA promulgated a Resolution ordering the CIR and the OSG to
comment on the Motion filed by MERALCO. On March 14, 2013, the CTA promulgated a
*SGVFS007696*
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Resolution granting the Motion of MERALCO and directed the issuance of corresponding Writ of
Execution.
LFT Assessments of Municipalities
Certain municipalities have served assessment notices on MERALCO for LFT. As provided in the
Local Government Code or LGC, only cities and provincial governments may impose taxes on
establishments doing business in their localities. On the basis of the foregoing, MERALCO and its
legal counsel believe that MERALCO is not subject or liable for such assessments.
Real Property Tax or RPT Assessments
Several Local Government Units or LGUs, assessed MERALCO for deficiency RPTs on certain
assets of MERALCO. The assets include electric poles, wires, insulators, and transformers,
collectively referred to as TWIP. Of these LGUs, one has secured a favorable decision from the
CA. Such decision was appealed by MERALCO to the SC for the benefit of MERALCO customers,
where it is now submitted for resolution. The cases of the other LGUs are pending with their
respective administrative bodies or government offices.
MERALCO also filed a case against the City of Manila before Regional Trial Court – Pasig branch
or RTC-Pasig, to enjoin the collection of RPT on MERALCO’s TWIP and nullify RPT assessments
made thereon based on the argument that these are not within the ambit of the definition of real
property under the LGC. The case is set for mediation after the City of Manila filed its comments
on MERALCO’s petition.
In the event that the assessment is sustained by the SC and payment is warranted or appropriate,
MERALCO will file for the recovery of any resulting RPT payments from customers in the
relevant LGU through a separate application with the ERC.
Mediation with NPC
The NPC embarked on a Power Development Program or PDP, which consisted of contracting
generating capacities and the construction of its own, as well as private sector, generating plants,
following a crippling power supply crisis. To address the concerns of the creditors of NPC,
namely, Asian Development Bank and the World Bank, the Department of Energy or DOE
required that MERALCO enter into a long-term supply contract with the NPC.
Accordingly, on November 21, 1994, MERALCO entered into a 10-year Contract for Sale of
Electricity or CSE, with NPC to commence on January 1, 1995. The CSE and the rates and
amounts charged to MERALCO therein were approved by the BOD of NPC and the then Energy
Regulatory Board, respectively.
Separately, the DOE further asked MERALCO to provide a market for half of the output of the
Camago-Malampaya gas field to enable its development and production of natural gas, which was
to generate significant revenues for the Philippine Government and equally significant foreign
exchange savings for the country to the extent of the fuel imports, which the domestic volume of
natural gas will displace.
MERALCO’s actual purchases from NPC exceeded the contract level in the first seven years of the
CSE. However, the 1997 Asian crisis resulted in a significant curtailment of energy demand.
*SGVFS007696*
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While the events were beyond the control of MERALCO, NPC did not honor MERALCO’s good
faith notification of its off-take volumes. A dispute ensued and both parties agreed to enter into
mediation.
The mediation resulted in the signing of a Settlement Agreement or SA, between the parties on
July 15, 2003. The SA was approved by the respective BODs of NPC and MERALCO. The net
settlement amount of =
P14,320 million was agreed upon by NPC and MERALCO and manifested
before the ERC through a Joint Compliance dated January 19, 2006. The implementation of the SA
is subject to the approval of ERC.
Subsequently, the Office of the Solicitor General or OSG filed a “Motion for Leave to Intervene
with Motion to Admit Attached Opposition to the Joint Application and Settlement Agreement
between NPC and MERALCO.” As a result, MERALCO sought judicial clarification with the
RTC-Pasig. Pre-trials were set which MERALCO complied with and attended. However, the OSG
refused to participate in the pre-trial and opted to seek a TRO from the CA.
In a Resolution dated December 1, 2010, the CA issued a TRO against RTC-Pasig, MERALCO and
NPC restraining the respondents from further proceeding with the case. Subsequently, in a
Resolution dated February 3, 2011, the CA issued a writ of preliminary injunction enjoining the
RTC-Pasig from conducting further proceedings pending resolution of the Petition. In a Decision
dated October 14, 2011, the CA resolved to deny the Petition filed by the OSG and lifted the
injunction previously issued. The said Decision likewise held that the RTC-Pasig committed no
error in finding the OSG in default due to its failure to participate in the proceedings. The RTCPasig was thus ordered to proceed to hear the case ex-parte, as against the OSG, and with
dispatch. The OSG has filed a motion for reconsideration which was denied by the CA in its
Resolution dated April 25, 2012. The OSG filed a Petition for Review of the Certiorari with the
SC. In a Resolution dated July 25, 2012, the SC required MERALCO to file a Comment.
MERALCO's Comment was filed on October 29, 2012. The SC then issued a Resolution dated
November 26, 2012 requiring the OSG to file a Reply. On February 19, 2013, the OSG filed a
motion for extension to file a consolidated reply.
With the dismissal of the petition filed by the OSG with the CA, MERALCO filed a motion for the
reception of its evidence ex-parte with the RTC-Pasig pursuant to the ruling of the CA. In a
Decision dated May 29, 2012, the RTC-Pasig declared the SA, independent of the pass-through for
the settlement amount which is reserved for the ERC, valid and binding. The OSG has filed a
Notice of Appeal with the RTC-Pasig on June 19, 2012. Both parties have filed their respective
appeal briefs. The case is deemed submitted for resolution by the CA.
On January 22, 2014, MERALCO received a Notice of Judgment from the SC stating that a
Decision dated December 11, 2013 was rendered by the First Division of the SC denying the
Petition for Review on Certiorari by the OSG and affirming the decision promulgated by the CA
on October 14, 2011.
Sucat-Araneta-Balintawak Transmission Line
The Sucat-Araneta-Balintawak transmission line is a two-part transmission line, which completed
the 230kV-line loop within Metro Manila. The two main parts are the Araneta to Balintawak leg
and the Sucat to Araneta leg, which cuts through Dasmariñas Village, Makati City.
On March 10, 2000, certain residents along Tamarind Road, Dasmariñas Village, Makati City or
plaintiffs, filed a case against NPC with the RTC-Makati, enjoining NPC from further installing
high voltage cables near the plaintiffs’ homes and from energizing and transmitting high voltage
electric current through said cables because of the alleged health risks and danger posed by the
*SGVFS007696*
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same. Following its initial status quo Order issued on March 13, 2000, RTC-Makati granted on
April 3, 2000 the preliminary injunction sought for by the plaintiffs. The decision was affirmed by
the SC on March 23, 2006, which effectively reversed a decision of the CA to the contrary. The
RTC-Makati subsequently issued a writ of execution based on the order of the SC. MERALCO, in
its capacity as an intervenor, was constrained to file an Omnibus Motion to maintain status quo
because of the significant effect of a de-energization of the Sucat-Araneta line to the public and
economy. Shutdown of the 230-kV line will result in widespread and rotating brownouts within
MERALCO’s franchise area with certain power plants unable to run at their full capacities.
On September 8, 2009, the RTC-Makati granted the motions for intervention filed by intervenors,
MERALCO and NGCP and dissolved the Writ of Preliminary Injunction issued, upon the posting
of the respective counter bonds by defendant NPC, intervenors, MERALCO and NGCP, subject to
the condition that NPC and intervenors pay all damages, which the plaintiffs may incur as a result
of the Writ of Preliminary Injunction.
Thereafter, the plaintiffs questioned the RTC-Makati order before the CA. As at March 17, 2014,
this case remains pending for resolution in the CA.
Moreover, in its Order dated February 5, 2013, the RTC-Makati granted plaintiffs’ motion and
directed the re-raffle of the case to another court after the judicial dispute resolution failed.
Petition for Dispute Resolution against PEMC, TransCo, NPC and PSALM
On September 9, 2008, MERALCO filed a Petition for Dispute Resolution, against PEMC,
TransCo, NPC and PSALM with the ERC as a result of the congestion in the transmission system
of TransCo arising from the outages of the San Jose-Tayabas 500kV Line 2 on June 22, 2008, and
the 500kV 600 Mega volt-ampere Transformer Bank No. 2 of TransCo’s San Jose, Bulacan
substation on July 11, 2008. The Petition seeks to, among others, direct PEMC to adopt the NPCTOU rate or the new price determined through the price substitution methodology of PEMC as
approved by the ERC, as basis for its billing during the period of the congestion and direct NPC
and PSALM to refund the transmission line loss components of the line rentals associated with
NPC/PSALM bilateral transactions from the start of WESM operation on June 26, 2006.
In a Decision dated March 10, 2010, the ERC granted MERALCO’s petition and ruled that there is
double charging of the Transmission Line Costs billed to MERALCO by NPC for the TSC
quantities to the extent of 2.98% loss factor, since the start of the TSC in November 2006. Thus,
NPC was directed to refund/collect line rental adjustment to/from MERALCO. In the meantime,
the ERC issued an Order on May 4, 2011 directing PEMC to submit an alternative methodology
for the segregation of line rental into congestion cost and line losses from the start of the WESM.
PEMC has filed its compliance submitting its alternative methodology.
On September 8, 2011, MERALCO received a copy of PEMC’s compliance to ERC’s directive
and on November 11, 2011, MERALCO filed a counter-proposal which effectively simplifies
PEMC’s proposal.
On November 11, 2011, MERALCO filed its Motion to Implement the Decision dated March 10,
2010 by immediately effecting the refund/collection of line rental adjustments to consumers. On
December 21, 2011, PSALM filed its comment on MERALCO’s said Motion. Then, in an Order
dated January 24, 2012, the ERC directed PEMC, Transco and NPC to submit their respective
comments on MERALCO’s motion within five days from receipt.
*SGVFS007696*
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In an Order of the ERC dated June 21, 2012, MERALCO was directed to submit its computation of
the amount of the double charging of line loss on a per month basis from June 26, 2006 up to June
2012. On July 4, 2012, MERALCO filed its Compliance to the said Order. Thereafter, the ERC
issued an Order directing the parties to comment on MERALCO’s submissions.
In an Order dated March 4, 2013, the ERC approved the methodology proposed by MERALCO
and PEMC in computing the double charged amount on line losses by deducting 2.98% from the
NPC-TOU amount. Accordingly, the ERC determined that the computed double charge amount to
be collected from NPC is P
=5.2 billion, covering the period November 2006 to August 2012 until
actual cessation of the collection of the 2.98% line loss charge in the NPC-TOU rates imposed on
MERALCO, while the amount to be collected from the SGCs is P
=4.7 billion. Additionally,
MERALCO was directed to file a petition against the following SGCs: MPPCL, Aboitiz Power
Renewables, Inc. or APRI, TLI, SMEC and Sem-Calaca, within thirty (30) days from receipt
thereof, to recover the line loss collected by them. MERALCO filed a motion for clarification with
the ERC regarding the directives contained in the March 4, 2013 Order. On April 30, 2013 and
May 8, 2013, PSALM and NPC, respectively, filed motions seeking reconsideration of the March
4, 2013 Order.
In an Order dated July 1, 2013, the ERC issued the following clarifications/resolutions: 1) SPPC
should be included as one of the SGCs against whom a petition for dispute resolution should be
filed by MERALCO; 2) Amount to be refunded by NPC is not only =
P5.2 billion but also the
subsequent payments it received from MERALCO beyond August 2012 until the actual cessation
of the collection of the 2.98% line loss charge in its TOU rates; and Petition to be filed by
MERALCO against the SGCs should not only be for the recovery of the amount of =
P4.7 billion but
also the subsequent payments beyond August 2012 until the actual cessation of the collection of
the 2.98% line loss charge in its TOU rates. ; 3) “SCPC Ilijan” pertains to SPPC instead. Thus, the
refundable amount of =
P706 million pertaining to “SCPC Ilijan” should be added to SPPC’s
refundable amount of =
P1.1 billion; 4) Grant the “Motion for Extension” filed by MERALCO which
was directed to file a petition against the following SGCs: MPPCL, APRI, TLI, SMEC,
Sem-Calaca and SPPC, otherwise, it shall be the one liable to refund the subject amount to its
customers; and 5) deny the respective “Motions for Reconsideration” filed by NPC and PSALM.
On September 12, 2013, MERALCO filed a Manifestation with Motion with the ERC seeking
approval of its proposal to offset the amount of =
P74 million against some of its monthly
remittances to PSALM. PSALM and NPC filed their comments ad cautelam on MERALCO’s
Manifestation and Motion. MERALCO is awaiting the resolution of the ERC on its Manifestation
and Motion. On November 4, 2013, MERALCO filed its Reply. MERALCO is awaiting the
resolution of the ERC on its Manifestation and Motion.
On October 24, 2013, MERALCO received PSALM’s Petition for Certiorari with the CA (With
Urgent TRO and/or Writ of Preliminary Mandatory Injunction Applications) to question the March
4, 2013 and July 1, 2013 Orders of the ERC. In a Resolution dated December 29, 2013, the CA
gave MERALCO until December 26, 2013, within which to submit its Comment on the Petition for
Certiorari and to show cause why the prayer for the Application for TRO and/or Preliminary
Injunction should not be granted (“Comment and Opposition”). On December 23, 2013, January 5,
2014 and January 15, 2014, MERALCO requested for an additional period of ten (10) days each,
within which to submit its Comment and Opposition.
On February 2, 2014, MERALCO filed its Comment to said Petition. As at March 17, 2014, the
CA has yet to rule on the Petition.
*SGVFS007696*
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Petition for Dispute Resolution Against SPPC, MPPCL, APRI, TLI, SMEC and Sem-Calaca
On August 29, 2013, MERALCO filed a Petition for Dispute Resolution against SPPC, MPPCL,
APRI, TLI, SMEC and Sem-Calaca. Said Petition seeks the following: a) Refund of the 2.98%
transmission line losses in the amount of =
P5.4 billion from said SGCs; and 2) approval of
MERALCO’s proposal to correspondingly refund to its customers the aforementioned line loss
amounts, as and when the same are received from the SGCs, until such time that the said overrecoveries are fully refunded, by way of automatic deduction of the amount of refund to the
computed monthly generation rate. On September 20, 2013, MERALCO received the SGCs’ Joint
Motion to Dismiss. On October 7, 2013, MERALCO filed its Comment on the said Joint Motion.
On October 8, 2013, MERALCO received the SGCs Manifestation and Motion. On October 14,
2013, MERALCO filed its Opposition thereto. On October 24, 2013, MERALCO received the
SGC’s Reply to its Comment. On October 29, 2013, MERALCO filed its Rejoinder.
PSALM versus PEMC and MERALCO
Due to the unusually large increases in WESM prices during the 3rd and 4th months of the WESM
operations, MERALCO raised concerns with the PEMC to investigate whether WESM rules were
breached or if anti-competitive behavior had occurred.
While resolutions were initially issued by the PEMC directing adjustments of WESM settlement
amounts, a series of exchanges and appeals with the ERC ensued. ERC’s decision directing the
WESM settlement price for the 3rd and 4th billing months to be NPC-TOU rates prompted PSALM
to file a Motion for Reconsideration with the CA, which was denied on November 6, 2009. In
December 2009, PSALM filed a Petition for Review on Certiorari with the SC.
As at March 17, 2014, PSALM’s petition for review is pending resolution by the SC.
Petition for Dispute Resolution with NPC on Premium Charges
On June 2, 2009, MERALCO filed a Petition for Dispute Resolution against NPC and PSALM with
respect to NPC’s imposition of premium charges for the alleged excess energy it supplied to
MERALCO covering the billing periods May 2005 to June 2006. The premium charges amounting
to =
P315 million during the May-June 2005 billing periods have been paid but are the subject of a
protest by MERALCO, and premium charges of =
P318 million during the November 2005,
February 2006 and April to June 2006 billing periods are being disputed and withheld by
MERALCO. MERALCO believes that there is no basis for the imposition of the premium charges.
The hearings on this case have been completed and MERALCO is now awaiting the resolution of
the ERC on the petition.
SC Temporary Restraining Order on MERALCO’s December 2013 Billing Rate Increase
On December 9, 2013, the ERC gave clearance to the request of MERALCO to implement a
staggered collection over three (3) months covering the December 2013 billing month for the
increase in generation charge and other bill components such as VAT, LFT, transmission charge,
and SL charge, which reflected a total increase of =
P4.15 per kWh for a 200-kWh residential
consumer. The generation costs for the November 2013 supply month increased significantly
because of the use of the more expensive liquid fuel by the natural gas-fired power plants that
were affected by the Malampaya Gas Field or Malampaya, shutdown from November 11 to
December 10, 2013. This was compounded by the aberrant spike in the WESM, charges on
account of the scheduled and extended shutdowns, and the forced outages of several base load
*SGVFS007696*
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power plants, as well as the non-compliance with WESM Rules by certain plants resulting in
significant power generation capacities not being offered and dispatched.
The Department of Justice commenced an investigation while the House of Representatives and
the Senate conducted separate hearings to determine the underlying reasons for the price increase,
including any possible collusion among the power firms. In the meantime, MERALCO proceeded
with billing its captive customers with the ERC approval.
On December 19, 2013, several interest groups filed a Petition against MERALCO, ERC and the
DOE before the SC, questioning the ERC clearance granted to MERALCO to charge the =
P4.15 per
kWh price increase, alleging the lack of hearing and due process. It also sought for the declaration
of the unconstitutionality of the EPIRA, which essentially declared the generation and supply
sectors competitive and open, and not considered public utilities. A similar petition was filed by a
consumer group and several private homeowners associations challenging also the legality of the
AGRA that the ERC had promulgated. Both petitions prayed for the issuance of a TRO, and a Writ
of Preliminary Injunction.
On December 23, 2013, the SC consolidated the two (2) Petitions and granted the application for
TRO effective immediately and for a period of sixty (60) days, which effectively enjoined the ERC
and MERALCO from implementing the P
=4.15 per kWh price increase. The SC also ordered
MERALCO, ERC and DOE to file their respective comments to the Petitions and set the hearing
for Oral Arguments on January 21, 2014. The SC further set two more Oral Arguments on
February 4, 2014 and February 11, 2014. After the conclusion of the Oral Arguments, the SC
gave all the Parties to the consolidated Petitions to file their respective Memorandum on or before
February 26, 2014 after which the Petitions will be deemed submitted for resolution of the SC.
MERALCO complied with said directive and filed its Memorandum on said date.
On February 18, 2013, acting on the motion filed by the Petitioners, the SC extended for another
period of 60 days or until April 22, 2014, the TRO that it originally issued against MERALCO and
ERC last December 23, 2013. The TRO was also similarly applied to the generating companies,
specifically MPPCL, SMEC, SPPC, FGPC, and the or NGCP, and the PEMC (the administrator of
WESM and market operator) who were all enjoined from collecting from MERALCO the deferred
amounts representing the =
P4.15 per kWh price increase for the November 2013 supply month.
In the meantime, on January 30, 2014, MERALCO filed an Omnibus Motion with Manifestation
with the ERC for the latter to direct PEMC to conduct a re-run or re-calculation of the WESM
prices for the supply months of November to December 2013. Subsequently, on February 17,
2014, MERALCO filed with the ERC an Application for the recovery of deferred generation costs
for the December 2013 supply month praying that it be allowed to recover the same over a six (6)month period.
On March 3, 2014, the ERC issued an Order voiding the Luzon WESM prices given that the prices
in WESM during the November and December 2013 supply months could not qualify as
reasonable, rational and competitive. PEMC was given seven (7) days upon receipt of the Order
to calculate these regulated prices and implement the same in the revised WESM bills of the
concerned.
As at March 17, 2014, MERALCO is still awaiting decisions of the SC on the TRO.
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Others
Management and its internal and external counsels believe that the probable resolution of these
issues will not materially affect MERALCO’s financial position and results of operations.
29. Significant Contracts and Commitments
NPC
MERALCO and NPC entered into a Transition Supply Contract or TSC, effective the earlier of five
years from November 16, 2006 up to December 25, 2011 or one year after the introduction of
Open Access, should RCOA be in place within the five-year contract period. Two addenda for
additional contracted volumes were signed, the most recent being in 2010. The adjusted contracted
volume was for a total of more than 40,000 GWh up to 2011.
On December 26, 2011, the TSC with NPC was extended until December 25, 2012 or three
months after the implementation of the RCOA, whichever comes first.
As a result of the extension of the TSC, the Customer Choice Program or CCP, which is a joint
program of NPC and MERALCO aimed at providing NPC time-of-use or TOU, benefits to
qualified customers, has also been extended to be co-terminus with the TSC. The CCP program
expired on December 25, 2012.
With respect to the TSC, MERALCO, NPC and PSALM then executed a Memorandum of
Agreement or MOA which further extended the TSC until June 25, 2013.
On June 26, 2013, MERALCO's TSC with NPC was terminated.
Assignment of TSC Volume to SGCs
From 2008 to 2009, NPC privatized a number of its generating assets and IPP contracts in favor of
the successful bidders. As a result, the contracted energy volume under the original TSC between
MERALCO and NPC was assigned by NPC to the respective new owners and IPPAs. Following
are the privatized plants and IPP contracts:
Year
2008
2009
2010
Power Plant
Masinloc coal-fired power plant – 600 MW
Tiwi-Makban geothermal power plants – 289 MW
Pagbilao power plant –735 MW
Sual coal-fired power plant – 1,000 MW
Coal-fired Calaca power plant – 600 MW
Combined cycle gas turbine, natural gas-fired
Ilijan power plant – 1,200 MW
Successor Owner/IPPAs
MPPCL
APRI
TLI
SMEC
Sem-Calaca
SPPC
% of Total
Volume
21.3
8.1
25.0
8.6
10.4
15.2
NPC/PSALM remains the contracting party of record for the supply of power to MERALCO.
Payments of the contracted volume are made based on the billing instructions from NPC/PSALM
received by MERALCO.
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PSAs with Privatized Plants and IPPAs
MERALCO entered into separate PSAs with SPPC, Sem-Calaca and MPPCL on December 12, 20
and 21, 2011, respectively. Also, a PSA with TLI was executed on February 29, 2012. These PSAs
are for a period of seven years, extendable for three years upon agreement of the parties.
In March 2012, the application for approval of the PSAs was filed with the ERC. On June 26,
2012, MERALCO BOD approved the grant of authority to MERALCO to enter into a PSA with
SMEC for a period of seven years, extendable for three years upon agreement of the parties.
On March 16, 2012, MPower signed a new PSA with MPPCL for 30MW of contracted capacity
from the Masinloc coal-fired power plant in Zambales for seven years, extendable for three years
upon agreement of the parties.
On April 26, 2012, the BOD approved the PSA with Pangea Green Energy Philippines, Inc., or
PGEP, a biogas power plant located in Payatas, Quezon City using methane gas extracted from
the Payatas Landfill as its fuel. Its plant has a total nominal generating capacity of 1,236 kW.
In separate Decisions dated December 17, 2012, the ERC approved with modifications the PSAs
of MERALCO with MPPCL, SPPC, Sem-Calaca, TLI and SMEC.
Motions for Reconsideration were filed regarding the ERC decisions on the PSAs with SPPC,
Sem-Calaca and SMEC. MERALCO is awaiting the decision of the ERC.
On December 27, 2012, MERALCO executed the PSAs with TLI and APRI to cover the volume
needed by MERALCO during the six-month transition period before the start of the commercial
operations of RCOA. Under the PSAs with TLI and APRI, MERALCO will procure power from
TLI and APRI from the expiration of the TSC until June 25, 2013 conditioned upon ERC approval.
The said PSAs had been submitted to the ERC for approval on January 2, 2013. However, on
September 26, 2013, MERALCO filed Motions to withdraw the said PSAs, considering that the
TSC was extended up to June 25, 2013. The ERC granted said Motions in separate Orders dated
September 27, 2013.
Under the PSAs, fixed capacity fees and fixed operating maintenance fees are recognized monthly
based on their contracted capacities. The annual projection of these payments is shown in the table
below:
Year
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Contracted Capacity
Fixed Payment Amount
(In Megawatt)
(In million)
3,000
3,084
3,114
3,114
2,880
2,460
P
=35,419
37,775
39,865
39,574
39,198
33,864
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FGPC and FGP
In compliance with the DOE’s program to create a market for Camago-Malampaya gas field and
enable its development, MERALCO was committed to contract 1,500-MW of the 2,700 MW output
of the Malampaya gas field.
Accordingly, MERALCO entered into separate 25-year PPAs with FGPC (March 14, 1995) and
FGP (July 22, 1999) for a minimum number of kWh of the net electrical output of the Sta. Rita
and San Lorenzo power plants, respectively, from the start of their commercial operations. The
PPA with FGPC terminates on August 17, 2025, while that of FGP ends on October 1, 2027.
On January 7, 2004, MERALCO, FGP and FGPC signed an Amendment to their respective PPAs.
The negotiations resulted in certain new conditions including the assumption of FGP and FGPC of
community taxes at current tax rate, and subject to certain conditions increasing the discounts on
excess generation, payment of higher penalties for non-performance up to a capped amount,
recovery of accumulated deemed delivered energy until 2011 resulting in the non-charging of
MERALCO of excess generation charge for such energy delivered beyond the contracted amount
but within a 90% capacity quota. The amended terms under the respective PPAs of FGP and
FGPC were approved by the ERC on May 31, 2006.
Under the respective PPAs of FGP and FGPC, the fixed capacity fees and fixed operating and
maintenance fees are recognized monthly based on the actual Net Dependable Capacity tested and
proven, which is usually conducted on a semi-annual basis.
QPPL
MERALCO entered into a PPA with QPPL on August 12, 1994, which was subsequently amended
on December 1, 1996. Under the terms of the amended PPA, MERALCO is committed to purchase
a specified volume of electric power and energy from QPPL, subject to certain terms and
conditions. The PPA is for a period of 25 years from the start of commercial operations up to
July 12, 2025.
In a Letter Agreement signed on February 21, 2008, the amount billable by QPPL included a
transmission line charge reduction in lieu of a previous rebate program. The Letter Agreement also
provides that MERALCO make advances to QPPL of US$2.85 million per annum for 10 years
beginning 2008 to assist QPPL in consideration of the difference between the transmission line
charge specified in the TLA and the ERC-approved transmission line charge in March 2003. QPPL
shall repay MERALCO the same amount at the end of the 10-year period in equal annual payments
without adjustment. However, if MERALCO is able to dispatch QPPL at a plant capacity factor of
no less than 86% in any particular year, MERALCO shall not be required to pay US$2.85 million
in that year. This arrangement did not have any impact on the rates to be charged to consumers
and hence, did not require any amendment in the PPA, as approved by ERC.
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See Note 9 – Other Noncurrent Assets.
Committed Energy Volume to be Purchased
The following are forecasted purchases/payments to FGPC, FGP and QPPL corresponding to the
Minimum Energy Quantity or MEQ, provisions of the contracts. The forecasted fixed payments
include capacity charge and fixed operation and maintenance cost escalated using the US and
Philippine Consumer Price Index or CPI.
Year
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019-2025
Minimum Energy
Quantity (MEQ)
(In Million Kilowatt-Hours)
14,955
14,955
14,855
14,855
14,855
103,984
Equivalent Amount
(In millions)
=
P21,476
21,577
21,592
21,817
22,011
159,967
Montalban Methan Power Corporation or MMPC
MMPC operates an 8 MW (designed capacity of 11 MW) renewable energy generating facility,
which utilizes landfill gas.
On May 13, 2009, MERALCO filed an application for the approval of the CSE with MMPC with
the ERC. On June 9, 2009, ERC issued an order dated June 1, 2009 provisionally approving the
CSE subject to the following conditions: (i) any amendments to the CSE shall be filed with the
ERC for approval and the implementation shall be prospective; and (ii) in the event the rates
approved are higher than the final rates, the amount corresponding to the excess shall be refunded
by MERALCO to its customers by crediting the same in their electric bills.
On June 11, 2009, MMPC began delivering energy to MERALCO under a two year CSE. The CSE
is a “take and pay” arrangement, without a minimum energy volume. Energy is billed to
MERALCO on an hourly basis at the ERC- approved NPC TOU rate plus certain pre-agreed cost
components. Being an embedded renewable energy generator, purchases from MMPC are VAT
zero-rated. Energy deliveries from MMPC are exempt from power delivery service charge.
After a series of negotiations, on May 23, 2011, MERALCO and MMPC signed a Letter
Agreement extending the CSE. Said Agreement likewise contained minor amendments to the CSE
that were intended to benefit the consumers. On June 3, 2011, MERALCO filed a Manifestation
with Motion with the ERC seeking the approval of the Letter Agreement, pursuant to the condition
contained in the ERC Order dated June 1, 2009. On February 19, 2013, the ERC issued its
Decision approving the application.
BEI
MERALCO signed a CSE with BEI on November 12, 2010. BEI owns and operates a 4MW
renewable energy generation facility powered by landfill gas in San Pedro, Laguna.
The terms of the CSE with BEI are similar to that signed with MMPC. Purchases from BEI, an
embedded renewable energy generator, are VAT zero-rated and exempt from power delivery
service charge. MERALCO filed an application for the approval of the CSE with the ERC, for the
provisional implementation of the contract on December 15, 2010. In an order dated
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January 31, 2011, the ERC provisionally approved the said application which extended the
implementation indefinitely. The said case is pending decision by the ERC.
Therma Mobile, Inc. or TMO
On March 4, 2013, MERALCO signed an Interconnection Agreement with Therma Mobile Inc. or
TMO for their 242 MW generating facility at the Navotas Fish Port Complex, Navotas City, which
is an interconnection at MERALCO’s Grace Park - Malabon 115kV line. TMO is thus an
embedded generator. TMO shall construct at its own cost, operate and maintain the 115kV line
connecting its generating facility to MERALCO’s system.
On September 27, 2013, MERALCO signed a PSA with TMO for the output of the barge-mounted,
bunker oil-fired diesel engines moored at the Fishport Complex in Navotas, Manila. On
November 4, 2013, the application for approval of the MERALCO-TMO PSA was provisionally
approved by the ERC.
Interconnection Agreement with Alternergy Philippine Holdings Corporation or Alternergy
On March 1, 2012, MERALCO signed an Interconnection Agreement with Alternergy for their
90MW Wind Farm Renewable Energy plant in Pililla, Rizal, which is an interconnection at
MERALCO’s Malaya-Teresa 115kV line, Altenergy is thus an embedded generator. Alternergy
shall construct at its own cost, operate and maintain the 115kV line connecting its generating
facility to MERALCO’s system.
Interconnection Agreement with Maibarara Geothermal, Inc. or MGI
On December 6, 2012, MERALCO signed an Interconnection Agreement with MGI for their
20MW (with max capacity of 40 MW) Geothermal Facility plant in Sto. Tomas, Batangas, which is
an interconnection at MERALCO’s FPIP - Los Banos 115kV line. MGI is thus an embedded
generator. MGI shall construct at its own cost, operate and maintain the 115kV line connecting its
generating facility to MERALCO’s system.
30. Earnings Per Share
Basic and diluted earnings per share or EPS are calculated as follows:
2013
2012
(As restated
- see Note 4)
(Amounts in millions, except per share data)
Net income (a)
Weighted average number of common
shares outstanding (b)
Basic/diluted EPS (a/b)
14
P
=17,487
P
=20,193
1,127
1,127
P
=15.52
P
=17.92
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Basic and diluted earnings per share amounts are calculated by dividing net income for the year by
the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. There are no
potential dilutive common shares in 2013 and 2012. There are no other transactions involving
common shares or potential common shares between the reporting date and the date of completion
of these parent company financial statements.
31. Other Matters
Revised SL Caps
On December 8, 2008, the ERC promulgated a resolution providing for a lower maximum rate of
SL (technical and non-technical) that a utility can pass on to its customers. The revised SL cap is
8.5% for private utilities, effective January 2010 billing. This is one percentage point lower than
the SL cap of 9.5% provided under RA No. 7832. The actual volume of electricity used by
MERALCO (administrative loss) is treated as part of the operation and maintenance expense
beginning July 2011. The manner by which the utility is rewarded for its efforts in SL reduction is
addressed by the ERC in the PIS under PBR.
On December 8, 2009, MERALCO filed a Petition to amend the said Resolution with an urgent
prayer for the immediate suspension of the implementation of the new SL cap of 8.5% starting
January 2010. The proposed amendment is aimed at making the Resolution consistent with the
provisions of RA No. 9136 and RA No. 7832, by increasing the SL cap to not less than 9%. The
hearing on the Petition was conducted on November 18, 2010. Thereafter, MERALCO was
directed to submit its FOE. MERALCO has submitted its FOE and is awaiting ERC decision on
the Petition.
Benefit Sharing Scheme to Lower System Loss
On January 26, 2011, MERALCO, together with Private Electric Power Operators Association,
Inc. or PEPOA and Philippine Rural Electric Cooperative Association or PHILRECA, filed a joint
petition to the ERC to initiate rule-making to adopt the Proposed Guidelines for the
Implementation of an Incentive Scheme to Lower the System Losses of Private Distribution
Utilities and Electric Cooperatives to Level Below the System Loss Cap, for the Benefit of EndUsers. This was aimed to encourage the DUs to reduce system loss levels below the cap set by the
ERC and benefit the end-users through lower system loss charges. Public hearings were conducted
and completed on June 15, 2011.
On December 11, 2012, the ERC posted on its website second draft of the Rules to Govern the
Implementation of a Benefit Sharing to Lower the System Losses of Electric Distribution Utilities.
The salient points of the second draft rules include calculation of System Loss Charge using the
prevailing system loss cap or the lowest consecutive five year average system loss, whichever is
lower, and an equitable sharing (50-50) of incentives between the customer and the DU on the
savings which is the difference between the lower of this system loss level and the DU’s actual
system loss. Any system loss reward from the PIS under the RDWR for private DUs shall be
offset from the rewards the DU will receive from this Benefit-Sharing scheme, except when the
net benefit from this scheme is less than the PIS rewards of the DU, in which case the DU will
retain the rewards under the PIS and forego its share under this Benefit-Sharing Scheme. The
foregone share of the DU shall be added to the End-user share correspondingly. As at March 17,
2014, MERALCO and PEPOA are awaiting the action of the ERC on this matter.
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Retail Competition
On February 24, 2012, the DOE issued a circular designating the PEMC as the Central
Registration Body, or CRB under the RCOA. The CRB is tasked to develop market infrastructure,
systems and processes capable of supporting RCOA registration, customer switching and
information exchange among industry participants.
On May 9, 2012, the DOE issued another circular prescribing the general policies for the
implementation of RCOA. The circular provides the overall direction DOE intends to take in
developing the policy framework for RCOA implementation.
On September 27, 2012, the DOE and the ERC issued a joint statement setting the initial RCOA
implementation on December 26, 2012. The joint statement clarified that the RCOA
commencement is on a phase-in and partial implementation of the program, with the first six (6)
months of RCOA implementation (December 26, 2012 – June 25, 2013) allotted as the Transition
Period to allow all concerned parties to undertake their respective preparations to operationalize
the mechanism for RCOA. An initial RCOA Commercial Operation using an interim IT system
started on June 26, 2013.
On December 17, 2012, the ERC issued Resolution No. 16 series of 2012 adopting the Transitory
Rules for the implementation of RCOA. The resolution provides the detailed responsibilities of
industry participants during the RCOA transition period.
On January 9, 2013, the DOE issued Department Circular No. DC2013-01-0002, "Promulgating
the Retail Rules for the Integration of Retail Competition and Open Access in the Wholesale
Electricity Spot Market", to provide rules for the integration of retail competition in the operations
and governance processes of the WESM, the management of the transactions of Suppliers and
Contestable Customers, and the operations of the Central Registration Body.
On March 22, 2013, the ERC released a resolution that directed all DUs and licensed RES in
Luzon and Visayas to disclose to the ERC their capacity and energy allocations for the customers
they intend to serve. MERALCO complied with the directive.
On March 26, 2013, PEMC began the RCOA Trial Operations Program, a nine-week test period
participated in by the various entities and service providers of RCOA.
On May 6, 2013, the DOE issued Department Circular No. DC2013-05-0006, "Enjoining all
Generation Companies, Distribution Utilities, Suppliers and Local Suppliers to Ensure an
Effective and Successful Transition towards the Implementation of Retail Competition and Open
Access", which required generation companies, suppliers and DUs to disclose their supply
portfolio and capacity allocation to determine the available energy supply for Contestable
Customer in the market. MERALCO submitted its first compliance to said Circular last June 7,
2013.
On June 19, 2013, the ERC issued a resolution adopting the Supplemental Rules to the Transitory
Rules for the implementation of RCOA. The resolution seeks to prevent contestable customers
who have yet to execute a Retail Supply Contract or RSC, with a RES from being disconnected or
transferred to SOLR service upon the commencement of initial commercial operations of RCOA.
Qualified contestable customers who fail to enter into a RSC with a RES shall be deemed to stay
with their current DU until December 26, 2013 or until such time that it is able to find a RES
provided that they inform the DU.
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In accordance with the ERC’s “Transitory Rules for the Initial Implementation of Open Access
and Retail Competition”, commercial operations of RCOA began on June 26, 2013.
Nineteen RESs were licensed by the ERC to provide competitive retail supply service to eligible
contestable customers. As at December 31, 2013, 287 customers have opted for contestability and
are now being supplied by competitive retail electricity suppliers.
On July 22, 2013, the DOE issued a circular promulgating the Retail Market Manuals for the
following: Registration Criteria and Procedures, Market Transactions Procedures, Disclosure and
Confidentiality of Contestable Customer Information, and Metering Standards and Procedures.
On September 4, 2013, the ERC conducted a public consultation on its proposed amendments to
the RES Licensing Rules, for which MERALCO submitted comments and participated in the public
consultation.
As at December 31, 2013, there are about 782 contestable customers in MERALCO's franchise
area and 287 have already switched to their respective RESs.
Philippine Export Zone Authority or PEZA – ERC Jurisdiction
On September 13, 2007, PEZA issued “Guidelines in the Registration of Electric Power
Generation Facilities/Utilities/Entities Operating Inside the Ecozones” and “Guidelines for the
Supply of Electric Power in Ecozones.” Under these Guidelines, PEZA effectively bestowed upon
itself franchising and regulatory powers in Ecozones operating within the legislative franchise
areas of DUs which are under the legislatively-authorized regulatory jurisdiction of the ERC. The
Guidelines are the subject of an injunction case filed by the DUs at the RTC-Pasig.
In support of the government’s objective of providing lower cost to Ecozone locators, MERALCO
entered into a MOA with NPC on September 17, 2007 for the provision of special Ecozone rates to
high load factor PEZA-accredited industries. The ERC authorized the immediate implementation
of the Ecozone Rate Program or ERP. The program expired in December 2012.
The ERP was initially scheduled to expire by December 25, 2011 but has been extended twice and
was terminated on December 25, 2012.
In January 2013, MERALCO entered into a tripartite agreement with PEZA and Trans-Asia Oil
and Energy Development Corporation for the sale of power to CEZ and its locators beginning
January 26, 2013.
Purchase of Subtransmission Assets or STAs
On November 25, 2009, MERALCO signed a Contract to Sell with TransCo for the sale and
purchase of certain subtransmission assets for =
P86 million. On February 25, 2010, the ERC
approved this Contract to Sell. On June 1, 2012, the ERC rendered a decision dated March 6,
2012, approving the sale of the said STAs in favor of MERALCO for =
P85 million.
On April 17, 2012, MERALCO and TransCo filed a joint application for the approval of the
Batch 4 contract to sell with the ERC. On April 22, 2013, the ERC issued a Decision on
MERALCO's joint application for the acquisition of the Batch 4 contract to sell. On June 21, 2013,
MERALCO filed a motion for partial reconsideration regarding the exclusion of certain facilities
for acquisition, which has yet to be resolved by the ERC.
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On December 12, 2011, MERALCO signed various agreements for the acquisition of certain subtransmission assets of TransCo within the MERALCO franchise area for its sole account, as well
as with a consortium with Batangas II Electric Cooperative, Inc., or BATELEC II and First Bay
Power Corporation. On September 18, 2012, an amended consortium agreement was executed
between MERALCO and FBPC. On October 17, 2012, MERALCO signed two separate amended
consortium agreements with BATELEC II, and with FBPC and BATELEC II. These amended
consortium agreements superseded the ones signed on December 12, 2011. On December 27
and 28, 2012, the Contract to Sell and Consortium Agreements, respectively, covering these subtransmission assets were filed with the ERC for approval.
MERALCO’s Peak/Off-Peak or POP Program
On November 15, 2012, MERALCO filed an application with the ERC for the approval of its
revised Time of Use or TOU rates program, also known as the POP Program. The POP is a rate
program being offered by MERALCO to customers whose load characteristics can benefit from
TOU rates as well as to those that can shift their loads from peak to off-peak hours. The proposed
revised POP Rate aims to provide better savings to availees by providing them with a TOU
program that has a wider pricing difference between peak and off-peak rates.
In an Order dated December 17, 2012, the ERC provisionally approved the POP Program.
Feed-in-Tariff (FIT)
Pursuant to Republic Act No. 9513, or the Renewable Energy Act of 2008 or RE Act, the ERC
issued Resolution No. 16, Series of 2010, Adopting the Feed-in-Tariff or FIT Rules, on July 23,
2010. As defined under the FIT Rules, the FIT system is as a renewable energy policy that offers
a guaranteed payment on a fixed rate per kilowatt-hour for electricity from wind, solar, ocean,
hydropower and biomass energy sources.
On May 16, 2011, the National Renewable Energy Board or NREB filed its Petition to Initiate
Rule Making for the Adoption of FIT. The Petition proposed a specific FIT Rate for each
emerging renewable resource. On July 27, 2012, after undergoing several public consultations and
public hearings, the ERC approved FIT Rates that are significantly lower than the rates applied by
the NREB.
To fund the FIT payments to eligible RE developers, a FIT-Allowance charge will be imposed on
all end-users. The FIT-Allowance will be established by the ERC upon petition by the TransCo,
which had been designated as the FIT Fund Administrator. The FIT-Allowance Petition will go
through the process of public hearings and consultations.
To supplement the FIT Rules, the ERC is currently drafting FIT-Allowance Payment and
Collection Guidelines. This set of guidelines will govern how the FIT-Allowance will be
calculated using the formulae provided. It will also outline the process of billing and collecting the
FIT-Allowance from the electricity consumers, the remittance to a specified fund, the
disbursement from the FIT-Allowance fund and the payment to eligible RE developers. The draft
is currently undergoing public consultations.
Net Metering Program
The RE Act mandates the DUs to provide the mechanism for the “physical connection and
commercial arrangements necessary to ensure the success of the RE programs”, specifically the
Net Metering Program. The RE Act defines Net Metering as “a system, appropriate for distributed
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generation, in which a distribution grid user has a two-way connection to the grid and is only
charged for his net electricity consumption and is credited for any overall contribution to the
electricity grid”. By their nature, net metering installations will be small (less than 100 kW) and
will likely be adopted by the households and small business end-users of DUs.
On September 4, 2012, the ERC released the first draft of the Proposed Net Metering Rules. The
proposed rules will govern the implementation of the Net Metering program for RE sources. It
also seeks to establish the standards for interconnecting these RE sources to the DUs’ systems.
The pricing methodology, however, will be addressed in another set of rules and will be endorsed
to the ERC in due course. Meantime, the distribution utilities’ blended generation cost equivalent
to the generation charge, shall be used as the preliminary reference price in the net metering
agreement. On September 21, 2012, the ERC conducted the first public consultation on the
proposed rules.
After consultations with stakeholders, the ERC issued on July 3, 2013 its Resolution No. 09,
Series of 2013, entitled, “A Resolution Adopting the Rules enabling the Net Metering Program for
Renewable Energy”. The rules will govern the DUs’ implementation of the Net Metering
program. Included in Rules are the Interconnection Standards that shall provide technical
guidance to address engineering, electric system reliability, and safety concerns for net metering
interconnections. The final pricing methodology, however, will be addressed in another set of
rules and will be endorsed to the ERC in due course. In the meantime, the distribution utilities’
blended generation cost equivalent to the generation charge, shall be used as the preliminary
reference price in the net metering agreement. The rules shall took effect on July 24, 2013.
MERALCO started accepting net metering applications on the same day. As at March 17, 2014,
MERALCO has already energized five Net Metering customers, the country’s first participants to
the Net Metering Program.
32. Supplementary Information Required Under Revenue Regulations No. 15-2010
In compliance with the requirements set forth by RR No. 15-2010, hereunder are the information
on taxes, duties and license fees paid and accrued during the taxable year.
Output VAT
MERALCO is a VAT-registered company with total VAT output tax declared of =
P6,315 million in
2013 based on the following revenue streams:
Revenue Item
Amount
(In Millions)
Distribution revenues
Leases and others
P
=57,339
563
P
=57,902
MERALCO has zero-rated distribution revenues of P
=2,025 million pursuant to the provisions of
RA No. 7916 as amended by RA No. 8748, RA 9337 Section 108B, RR No. 16-2005
Section 4.108-5 and Section 4.108-6.
Generation, transmission, and system loss charges, which are part of MERALCO’s revenues are
pass-through items. VAT on such revenues are remitted mainly to IPPs, PSALM and its successor
generator companies, PEMC and NGCP, who are responsible for ultimate remittance to the BIR.
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Input VAT
The amount of VAT input taxes claimed are broken down as follows:
Amount
(In Millions)
Balance at beginning of the year
Add input VAT on 2012 purchases from:
Goods for resale/ manufacture or further processing
Capital goods subject to amortization
Services lodged under other accounts
Less input VAT claimed:
From goods other than capital goods and services
Amortization of VAT input tax on capital goods
Balance at end of year
P
=832
P
=463
430
1,438
1,901
342
2,331
3,163
2,243
P
=920
MERALCO also applied against it Output VAT the amount of VAT withheld on payments to nonresidents for services rendered in the Philippines of P
=5.4 million which are duly supported by BIR
Form 1600.
Documentary Stamp Tax or DST
In 2013, MERALCO issued bonds totaling to =
P18.5 billion and entered into other transactions
subject to DST. DST paid in 2013 amounted to =
P14 million. The related DST of the bonds issued
amounting to =
P92.5 million was paid in January 2014.
Withholding Taxes
The amount of withholding taxes in 2013 amounted to the following:
Amount
(In Millions)
Creditable withholding taxes
Tax on compensation and benefits
Expanded withholding taxes
Final withholding taxes
P
=8,063
1,952
2,348
178
Tax Assessments
MERALCO does not have any pending assessments for deficiency taxes as at December 31, 2013.
Tax Cases
MERALCO’s tax cases as at December 31, 2013 are discussed in Note 28 – Contingencies and
Legal Proceedings.
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33. Supplementary Information Required Under Revenue Regulations No. 19-2011
In compliance with the requirements set forth by RR No. 19-2011, following are the information
on taxable income and deductions during the taxable year 2012 (Amounts in millions):
Taxable Revenues
Sale of electricity
Lease income
P
=292,251
550
P
=292,801
Cost of Services
Purchased power
Depreciation and amortization
Salaries, wages and employee benefits
Contracted services
Inventories
Utilities
Transportation
P
=235,920
3,632
2,130
1,375
178
173
84
P
=243,492
Taxable Other Income
Gain on sale of scrap
Rental income
Others
P
=147
82
290
P
=519
Itemized Deductions
Salaries, wages and employee benefits
Contracted services
Interest
Depreciation and amortization
Taxes, fees and permits
Rent and utilities
Insurance
Inventories
Transportation and travel
Corporate expenses
Bad debts
Others
P
=10,139
2,591
1,360
906
507
300
291
115
157
131
74
957
P
=17,528
Taxes, Fees and Permits
ERC supervision and permits fees
Customs duties
Real property taxes
Fees, permits and licenses
Documentary stamp taxes
Fringe benefits taxes
P
=260
120
91
19
14
3
P
=507
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34. Event After the Reporting Date
On March 17, 2014, the BOD declared a final cash dividend of =
P6.45 per share to all shareholders
of record as at April 15, 2014, payable on May 8, 2014.
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