SG-Ch 11 ANSWERS - Edmond Public Schools

Chapter 11: Motivation and Work
Study Guide ANSWERS
Introduction and Motivational Concepts
1. a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it
toward a goal
2. instinct; evolutionary; drive-reduction; arousal;
hierarchy; Abraham Maslow
3. instincts; did not; genes
4. need; drives
5. homeostasis
6. incentives
7. increase; do not
8. arousal; optimum levels
9. lower-level
10. physiological; self-actualization; self-transcendence
11. arbitrary; universally
12. financial; home-life; self-esteem
13. c. is the answer. Drive-reduction theory maintains that
behavior is motivated when a biological need creates an
aroused state, driving the individual to satisfy the need.
It is difficult to believe that Mary's hang-gliding is
satisfying a biological need.
a., b., & d. Mary may enjoy hang-gliding because it is a
challenge that "is there" (incentive), because it satisfies
a need to accomplish something challenging
(achievement), or because it increases her self-esteem
and sense of fulfillment in life (Maslow's hierarchy of
14. d. is the answer. According to Maslow's theory,
physiological needs, such as the need to satisfy hunger,
must be satisfied before a person pursues loftier needs,
such as making political statements.
a. & c. Masters and Johnson were concerned with
sexual behavior.
b. Murray was concerned with achievement
15. c. is the answer. This is an example of salivating in
response to an incentive rather than to maintain a
balanced internal state.
a. & b. Both examples are behaviors that maintain a
balanced internal state (homeostasis).
16. semistarvation
17. stomach contractions
18. did
19. insulin; glucose; increase
20. hypothalamus; arcuate nucleus
21. ghrelin
22. less; leptin; orexin; PYY
23. set point; less; more
24. basal metabolic; lowering
25. is not accepted; slow, sustained changes in body weight;
psychological factors; overeat; gain weight; settling
26. c. is the answer. Individual differences in metabolism
and set point explain why it is possible for two people
to have very different weights despite similar patterns
of eating and exercise.
27. b. is the answer. The body acts to defend its set point, or
the weight to which it is predisposed. If Lucille was
already near her set point, weight loss would prove
a. If the weight level to which her body is predisposed
is low, weight loss upon dieting should not be difficult.
c. An increase in basal metabolic rate would help her to
lose weight.
d. People influenced by external factors might have
greater problems losing weight because they tend to
respond to food stimuli, but this can't be the
explanation in Lucille's case because she has been
sticking to her diet.
28. memory
29. serotonin; calms
30. genetic; conditioning; culture
31. unfamiliar; neophobia
32. social; more; unit bias; variety
33. c. is the answer. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is
elevated by the consumption of carbohydrates and has
a calming effect.
a. & b. These answers do not explain the feelings of
relaxation that Randy associates with eating junk food.
d. The consumption of sugar tends to elevate insulin
level rather than lower it.
34. does not pose; 34; diabetes, high blood pressure, heart
disease, gallstones, arthritis, and certain types of cancer
35. Alzheimer's
36. slow; lazy; undisciplined
37. less; married
38. overweight
39. 3500
40. lower; less
Obese persons have higher set-point weights than nonobese persons. During a diet, metabolic rate drops to
defend the set-point (or settling-point) weight. The dieter
therefore finds it hard to progress beyond an initial weight
loss. When the diet is concluded, the lowered metabolic rate
continues, so that relatively small amounts of food may
prove fattening. Also, some people have lower metabolic
rates than others.
41. do; FTO
42. environmental; sleep loss; more; social
43. developed; food consumption; activity levels
Begin only if you are motivated and self-disciplined.
Minimize exposure to tempting food cues. Eat healthy
foods. Don't starve all day and eat one big meal at night.
Beware of binge eating. Be realistic and moderate. Boost
your metabolism through exercise. Connect to a support
44. rapid; more slowly; decreased
45. a. is the answer. Dieting, including fasting, lowers the
body's metabolic rate and reduces the amount of food
energy needed to maintain body weight.
b., c.,& d. Each of these strategies would be a good piece of
advice to a dieter.
Sexual Motivation
46. Masters; Johnson; excitement; plateau; orgasm;
47. refractory period
Chapter 11: Motivation and Work
Study Guide ANSWERS
48. sexual disorders; premature ejaculation; erectile
dysfunction; orgasmic dysfunction
49. estrogens; estradiol
50. testosterone; testes; testosterone
51. little; decreases; decline
52. are
53. amygdala; men
54. habituates
Erotic material may increase the viewer's acceptance of the
false idea that women enjoy rape, may increase men's
willingness to hurt women, may lead people to devalue their
partners and relationships, and may diminish people's
satisfaction with their own sexual partners.
55. have; frequent, physical, and less romantic; do not
56. culture; time; Western Europe; Latin America; Asian;
Arab; Asian
57. higher
Among the factors that contribute to unprotected sex
among adolescents are (1)minimal communication about
birth control, (2) guilt related to sexual activity, (3) alcohol
use that influences judgment, and (4) mass media norms of
unprotected promiscuity.
58. sexualization; self-image; sexual development; sexual
appeal; beauty standards; sexual beings for others' use
59. sexually transmitted infection (STI);antibodies
Teens with high intelligence test scores, those who are
actively religious, those whose father is present, and those
who participate in service learning programs more often
delay sex. Trends toward commitment show declining teen
birth rates.
60. b. is the answer.
61. c. is the answer.
a., b., & d. Teens with high rather than average
intelligence (therefore, not a.), and those who are
religiously active (therefore, not b.) are most likely to
delay sex.
62. sexual orientation
63. in their teens or twenties
64. 3; 1 or 2; high
65. is not
66. suicide
67. does not; women; erotic plasticity
68. are not; does not
69. do not
70. were not
71. poets; fiction writers; artists; musicians
72. more; fraternal birth-order effect; immune; male
73. their own; does not; conflicts with
74. does
75. hypothalamus; heterosexual; odors
76. do; mother's; father's
77. hormone; females; 2; 5
78. fingerprint ridge; left; cochlea; spatial abilities
79. biology; difficult; biology
80. b. is the answer.
81. cannot
82. should
The Need to Belong
83. Aristotle; social; survival; attachments; reproduce
84. close, satisfying relationships with family, friends, or
romantic partners; autonomy; competence
85. self-esteem
86. social; liking
87. isolated; chain migration
88. Throughout the world; ostracism; anterior cingulate
cortex; pain
89. self-defeating; aptitude tests; aggressive
90. cell phones
91. e-mail; texting
92. lonely
93. social networking
94. self-disclosure; eye-to-eye conversation
95. reveal
96. narcissistic; especially active
97. c. is the answer.
98. d. is the answer.
Motivation at Work
99. job; career; calling
100. flow; consciousness; self; self-esteem, competence,
101. farming; manufacturing; knowledge work
102. psychological contract
103. industrial-organizational; personnel; organizational;
management; human factors
104. d. is the answer.
105. strengths-based
106. correcting deficiencies; accentuating strengths
107. feel confident; error-prone
108. general mental ability; over; interviewer illusion
Four effects that fuel the interviewer illusion are
a. Interviews disclose the interviewee's good intentions,
which are less revealing than their typical behaviors.
b. Interviewers tend to follow the successful careers of
people they hired and lose track of those they did not
c. Interviewers mistakenly presume that how
interviewees present themselves reflects only their
enduring traits.
d. Interviewers' preconceptions and moods influence
their perceptions of job applicants.
109. structured interview; predictive; reliability
110. who to retain; reward and pay workers; strengths;
checklists; graphic rating; behavior rating
111. 360-degree
112. halo error; leniency; severity; recency
113. achievement motivation
114. self-discipline; intelligence scores; grit
115. creativity; persistence; helpfulness; engagement
116. d. is the answer.
117. d. is the answer. Because Darren appears to resonate
with the principle that people are intrinsically
motivated to work for reasons beyond money, giving
him feedback about his work and involving him in
decision making are probably all he needs to be very
satisfied with his situation.
a., b., & c. Creating competitions and using
controlling, rather than informing, rewards may have
Chapter 11: Motivation and Work
Study Guide ANSWERS
the opposite effect and actually undermine Darren's
118. identify and measure their talents; talent; reinforce
119. specific; challenging; subgoals; implementation
120. task leadership; social leadership
121. charisma; vision; communicate; inspire;
122. varies
123. often; voice
124. natural perceptions and inclinations; distractions;
fatigue; inattention
125. loop systems; assistive listening