Draft Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Entomopathogenic

Draft Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Entomopathogenic
Bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens LN2, Which Shows Nematicidal
Activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 Nematodes
Xuehong Qiu, Zu-Bing Zhan, Xun Yan, Richou Han
Guangdong Entomological Institute, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal
Conservation and Utilization, Guangzhou, China
X.Q. and Z.-B.Z. contributed equally to this work.
We present here the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens strain LN2, a Gram-negative bacterium that is a
symbiont of Heterorhabditis indica LN2 and shows nematicidal activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 nematodes.
Received 25 October 2014 Accepted 31 October 2014 Published 11 December 2014
Citation Qiu X, Zhan Z-B, Yan X, Han R. 2014. Draft genome sequence and annotation of the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens LN2, which shows
nematicidal activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 nematodes. Genome Announc. 2(6):e01268-14. doi:10.1128/genomeA.01268-14.
Copyright © 2014 Qiu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
Address correspondence to Richou Han, [email protected]
hotorhabdus luminescens is a species of Gram-negative bacteria
that is pathogenic to insects and mutualistic with Heterorhabditis nematodes, providing us a model for the study of hostpathogen interactions and symbiosis (1–3). P. luminescens subsp.
akhurstii LN2 is a symbiont of Heterorhabditis indica LN2 and
shows nematicidal activity against Heterorhabditis bacteriophora
H06 nematodes (4–6). Here, we present a draft genome sequence
for P. luminescens strain LN2.
High-throughput Illumina sequencing technology was used to
perform paired-end sequencing of a genomic DNA sample of
P. luminescens LN2. After filtering the low-quality bases, we assembled the short reads into a genome sequence using SOAPdenovo version 1.05 (http://soap.genomics.org.cn/soapdenovo
.html). The final draft assembly contained 122 contigs and 85
scaffolds, with N50s of 186,732 bp and 297,028 bp, respectively.
These contigs and scaffolds were obtained with 5,586,746 and
5,596,724 bp, respectively. Both have a G⫹C content of 42.8%.
GLIMMER (7) was used for gene prediction, with default settings,
and the open reading frames (ORFs) at the boundaries of the
scaffolds and those covering two or more scaffolds were excluded.
We discovered 5,306 ORFs, of which the average length is 879 bp.
The total length of the gene regions is 4,659,057 bp, accounting for
83.2% of the genome. The G⫹C content of the gene regions is
44.3%. Two rRNA genes, 78 tRNA genes, and 13 small RNA
(sRNA) genes were predicted by RNAmmer, tRNAscan-SE1.21,
and Rfam, respectively (8–10).
Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST) (11)
results showed that LN2 contains the genes for all the essential
pathways for carbohydrate, DNA, RNA, and protein metabolism.
There are also genes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids,
lipids, and isoprenoids, of which some lipases, one class of secreted proteins, may be involved with insect pathogens. Genes
involved in iron acquisition and metabolism are also present in
the genome annotation of LN2 and may contribute to the adaptation of low-iron conditions in insects.
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Since the genome sequence of P. luminescens TT01 was obtained (12), more and more genomes of strains of Photorhabdus
and Xenorhabdus have been sequenced (13–18). Together with the
sequences of these genomes, the genome sequence of LN2 may
provide us with new insights into the mechanisms underlying
pathogenicity and mutualism. Because the mutualism between
nematodes and bacteria is safe, effective and commercial bioinsecticides for many economically important pests (5), studying them
will help us develop new and better bioinsecticides.
Nucleotide sequence accession numbers. This whole-genome
shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. JQOC00000000. The version described in
this paper is version JQOC01000000.
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of
China (grants 31010103912, 31101494, and 31000879), the Guangdong
Provincial Science & Technology Project (grant 2012B050700008), the
Guangzhou Science & Technology Project (grants 2011J2200032 and
2013J2200090), the Guangdong Academy of Sciences for Excellent Young
Scientists (grant rcjj201201), and the Nonprofit Sector Project (grant
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Genome Announcements
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