On extracting Rules for: enriching ontological

On extracting Rules for:
enriching ontological knowledge bases,
complementing heterogeneous sources of
information,
empowering the reasoning process
Claudia d’Amato
Department of Computer Science
University of Bari, Italy
September 18, 2014 - Dagstuhl Schloss
Neural-Symbolic Learning and Reasoning Seminar
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Contents
1
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
2
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Starting Observations
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
LOD represents a tremendous source of assertional knowledge
whose intentional formalization is coded in OWL ontologies
Ontological knowledge bases are often not complete
i.e. missing concept and role assertions, disjointness axioms,
relationships that instead occur in the reference domain
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Research Idea
Idea: exploiting the evidence coming from the data for discovering
hidden knowledge patterns to be used for
1
(semi-)automatize the completion of the assertional knowledge
2
extends existing ontologies with formal rules (while ensuring
and maintaining the decidability of the reasoning operators)
3
suggesting knew knowledge axioms
Research Direction: discovering hidden knowledge patterns in the
form of relational association rules
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Related Works in the Semantic Web Context
Gal´arraga et al. @ WWW’13
discovering of association rules for predicting new role
assertions from an RDF data source (no reaoning capabilities
and no TBox information exploited)
Lisi @ IJSWIS 7(3), 2011
discovering of frequent patterns in the form of DATALOG
clauses from an AL − Log KB at different granularity level
w.r.t. the taxonomic ontology
V¨olker & Niepert @ ESWC’11
association rules are learnt from RDF data (without any
reasoning features) for inducing a schema ontology for them
J´ozefowska, Lawrynowicz et al. @ TPLP 10(3), 2010
discovery of frequent patterns, in the form of conjunctive
queries, from a combined DL KB plus rules
Joshi, Hitzler et al. @ ESWC 2013
association rules are exploited for performing RDF data
compression
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Definition (Problem Definition)
Given:
a populated ontological knowledge base K= (T , A)
a minimum ”frequency threshold” (fr thr)
a minimum ”head coverage threshold” (cov thr)
Discover:
all frequent hidden patterns, with respect to fr thr, in the
form of relational association rules that may induce new
assertions for K.
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Definition (Relational Association Rule)
Given
a populated ontological knowledge base K= (T , A),
a relational association rule r for K is a horn-like clause of kind
body → head
where:
body represents an abstraction of a set of assertions in K
co-occurring with respect to fr thr
head represents a possibly new assertion induced from K and
body
SWRL [Horrocks et [email protected] WWW’04] is adopted as representation
language.
allows to extends the OWL axioms of an ontology with
Horn-like rules
The result is a KB with an enriched expressive power.
More complex relationships can be expressed.
d’Amato semantics
Rules for Knowledge
and reasoning
provided with a well C.defined
thatcompletion
is formalized
asempowerment
an
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Discovering SWRL rules of the form:
C1 (x) ∧ R1 (x, y ) ∧ · · · ∧ Cn (z) ∧ Rl (z, a) → Rk (y , z)
C1 (x) ∧ R1 (x, y ) ∧ . . . Cn (z) ∧ Rl (z, a) → Ch (y )
Ci and Ri are concept and role names of the ontological KB
Examples:
Woman(x) ∧ hasWellPayedJob(x, y ) ⇒ Single(x)
Employ (x) ∧ worksAt(x, z) ∧ workForPrject(x, y ) ∧
projectSupervisor (y , x) ⇒ CompanyManager (z, x)
Language Bias (ensuring decidability)
safety condition : all variables in the head must appear in the body
connection : atoms share at least a variable or a constant
interpretation under DL − Safety condition: all variables in the rule
bind only to known individuals in the ontology
Non Redundancy : there are no atoms that can be derived by other
atoms
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
The General Approach
Inspired to the general framework for discovering frequent
Datalog patterns [Dehaspe et al.0 99; Goethals et al.0 02]
where patterns are conjunctive Datalog queries
Grounded on a level-wise generate-and-test approach
Start: initial general pattern i.e. a concept name (jointly with
a variable name) or a role name (jointly with variable names)
Proceed: at each level with
specializing the pattern by the use of suitable operators
evaluate the generated specializations for possible pruning
Stop: stopping criterion met
A rule is a list of atoms (interpreted as a conjunction) where
the first one represent the head [Galarraga et [email protected] 0 13]
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Pattern Specializations
For a given pattern all possible specializations are generated
by applying the operators:
[Add a concept atom :] adds an atom with a concept name
as a predicate symbol and an already appearing variable as
argument
[Add a role atom :] adds an atom with a role name as a
predicate symbol; at least one variable already appears in
the pattern
The Operators are applied so that always connected and
non-redundant rules are obtained
Heuristics are applied for not generating redundant rules
Additional operators for tanking into account constants could
be similarly considered
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Pattern Specializations: Examples
Pattern to be Specialized C (x) ∧ R(x, y )
Non Redundant Concept D
Refined Patterns
1
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ D(x)
2
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ D(y )
Non Redundant Role S
Fresh Variable z
Refined Patterns
1
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ S(x, z)
2
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ S(z, x)
3
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ S(y , z)
4
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ S(z, y )
C. d’Amato
Non Redundant Role S
All Variables Binded
Refined Patterns
1
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ S(x, x)
2
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ S(x, y )
3
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ S(y , x)
4
C (x) ∧ R(x, y ) ∧ S(y , y )
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Pruning Conditions
(K ∪ extractedRule) is unsatisfiable
headCoverage(extractedRule) < headCov-thr
confidence(extractedRule) - confidence(parentExtractedRule)
< improvedConf-thr
extractedRule ∈ setOfAlreadyExtractedRules
approximated check on rules with the same Support
(extension)
extractedRule ∈ setOfInfrequentPattern
approximated check on Support (extension) of extractedRule
contained in the Support (extension) of some infrequent
pattern
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Exploitation of the Association Rules and Utility
Examples:
(Semi-)automatic ABox completion
rules may fire new assertions
alternatively extracted rules may be used by a rule-based
classifier
Ontology Enrichment
A rule may suggest an inclusion axiom that is missing in the
ontology e.g. Car (x) ⇒ Vehicle(x)
A rule may suggest a disjointness axiom axiom that is missing
in the ontology Man(x) ⇒ ¬Woman(x)
Creating Ontology with Enriched expressive power
discovered rules can be straightforwardly integrated with the
existing ontology
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Issues to be Solved
Experimental evaluation for accessing the effectiveness of the
method: how to set up it?
Develop a scalable algorithms for the purpose
Improvement of the expressive power of the discovered rules
Manage role hierarchy, complex descriptions
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Focus for Scalability
investigate on additional heuristics for reducing the
exploration of the search space and/or possible optimizations
(New) metrics for the evaluation of the interestingness of the
discovered rules (potential inner and post pruning)
Set up/exploit suitable data structures i.e. Hash Table, RDB
with indexes for minimizing the usage of the reasoner ⇒
bottleneck
Alternative method for generating the rules by considering
subsets of frequent patterns
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Starting Obervations
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Available domain ontologies are increasing over the time
Large amount of data stored and managed with RDBMS
Ontologies and RDB may be used for
complementing the knowledge for a given domain
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Research Idea
Idea: exploiting the evidence coming from the data for
discoverying hidden KB patterns across heterogeneous sources
to be used for
1
possibly completing/complementing both sources of
knowledge
2
empowering the reasoning process
Intended Directions: [d’Amato et [email protected] III Ch.]
learning Association Rules from both sources of knowledge in
an integrated way
set up an effective data-driven Tableaux algorithm exploiting
the evidence coming from the data for assessing the
”most plausible model” for a given concept description
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Simple Motivating Example...
Let K= hT , Ai be a kingship ontology
T =
Person ≡ Man t Woman Man v ¬Woman
> v ∀hasChild.Person
∃hasChild.> v Person Parent ≡ ∃hasChild.Person
Mother ≡ Woman u Parent
Father ≡ Man u Parent Grandparent ≡ ∃HasChild.Parent Child ≡ ∃HasChild− .>
A=
Woman(alice)
Man(bob)
Woman(claude)
Man(daniel)
Man(xavier)
Woman(yoana)
Woman(zurina)
Woman(maria)
hasChild(alice, claude)
hasChild(bob, claude)
hasChild(xavier, zurina)
hasChild(daniel, maria)
hasChild(alice, daniel)
hasChild(bob, daniel)
hasChild(yoana, zurina)
hasChild(zurina, maria)
Let D be a job information database
ID
Name
Surname
Qualification
Salary
Age
City
Address
p001
p002
p003
p004
p005
p006
p007
p008
Alice
Robert
Xavier
Claude
Daniel
Yoana
Zurina
Maria
Lopez
Lorusso
Garcia
Lorusso
Lorusso
Lopez
Garcia-Lopez
Lorusso
Housewife
Bank-employee
Policeman
Researcher
Post Doc
Teacher
Ph.D student
Pupil
0
30.000
35.000
30.000
25.000
34.000
20.000
0
60
55
58
35
28
49
25
8
Bari
Bari
Barcelona
Bari
Madrid
Barcelona
Madrid
Madrid
Apulia Avenue 10
Apulia Avenue 10
Carrer de Manso 20
Apulia Avenue 13
calle de Andalucia 12
Carrer de Manso 20
calle de Andalucia
calle de Andalucia
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
...Simple Motivating Example
By jointly analyzing the available knowledge sources new additional
information could be induced e.g.
Women earning the highest amount of money are not mothers
where:
information on being Woman and Mother comes from the
ontology
information concerning the salary comes from the DB D.
Learning Semantically Enriched Association Rules for the
purpose
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Building an Integrated Data Source: Main Idea
Construction of a unique table from D and K
State of the art implemented algorithms for learning
Association Rules can be directly applied.
No export of existing RDB has to be performed
Precondition/Assumption:
dataset D and an ontological knowledge base K share (a
subset of) common individuals
a relation g that connects (some of) the individuals in K with
(some of) the objects of D is available
Main Idea (inspired by the multi-relational setting)
1 the entity, i.e. the attribute/set of attributes, of primary
interest for extracting association rules is determined
2 a view containing the attributes of interest w.r.t. the primary
entity is built.
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Building an Integrated Data Source: Formal Method
Choose:
1
the primary entity of interest in D or K; set it as the first attribute A1 (and
primary key) in the table T to be built;
2
a (subset of) the attributes in D of interest for A1 ; set them as additional
attributes in T;
the corresponding values can be obtained as a result of a SQL query
3
a (subset of) concept names {C1 , . . . , Cm } in K of interest for A1 ; set their
names as additional attribute names in T
∀ Ck ∈ {C1 , . . . , Cm } and ∀ai in A1 , if K |= Ck (ai ) then Ck := true in T,
else if K |= ¬Ck (ai ) then Ck := false in T, Ck := unknown otherwise
4
a (subset of) role names {R1 , . . . , Rt } in K of interest for A1 ; set their names as
additional attribute names in T
∀ Rl ∈ {R1 , . . . , Rt } and ∀ai of A1 , if ∃y ∈ K s.t. K |= Rl (ai , y ) then
Rl := true in T, else if ∀y ∈ K : K |= ¬Rl (ai , y ) then Rl := false,
Rl = unknown otherwise
5
a (subset of) the datatype property names {T1 , . . . , Tv } in K of interest for A1 ;
set their names as additional attribute names in T
∀ Tj ∈ {T1 , . . . , Tv } and ∀ai of A1 , if K |= Tj (ai , dataValuej ) then
Tj := dataValuej in Tj in T, Tj := false otherwise.
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Building an Integrated Data Source: Example
1
Object primary entity
2
Job, Age selected attributes from D.
3
Person, Parent, Male, Female selected concept names from K
Numeric attributes discretised
Object
x1
x2
x3
x4
x5
x6
x7
x8
x9
...
Job
Engineer
Policeman
Student
Student
Housewife
Clerk
Primary school teacher
Policeman
Student
...
Age
[36,45]
[26,35]
[16,25]
[16,25]
[26,35]
[26,35]
[46,55]
[16,25]
[16,25]
...
C. d’Amato
Person
true
true
true
true
true
true
true
true
true
...
Parent
true
false
false
false
true
false
unknown
true
unknown
...
Male
true
true
true
false
false
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
...
Female
false
unknown
false
true
true
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
...
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Learning Semantically Enriched ARs
Given the integrated data source
an Apriori-like algorithm can be used to discover the set of
frequent items
the association rules are extracted
Example of extracted rules
#
r1
r2
r3
r4
r5
RULE
(Age=[16, 25]) ∧ (Job = Student) ⇒ (Parent = false)
(Job=Policeman) ⇒ (Male = true)
(Age=[16, 25]) ∧ (Parent = true) ⇒ (Female = true)
(Job=Primary school teacher ) ⇒ (Female = true)
(Job=Housewife) ∧ (Age = [26, 35]) ⇒
(Parent = true) ∧ (Female = true)
C. d’Amato
Confidence
0.98
0.75
0.75
0.78
0.85
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Exploitation of the Association Rules
Performing Data Analysis
rule suggests the average age of being a parent in Madrid that
could be different in other geographical areas, e.g.
(Age=[25, 34]) ∧ (City =Madrid) ⇒ (HasChild = true)
Data completion (both in K and D)
rule may allow some individuals to be asserted as instance of
the concept Child in K(when not known) e.g.
Salary=[15000, 24999] ⇒ (HasChild = true) ∧ (Child = true)
Ontology Enrichment
Rule may suggest a disjointness axiom (if absent in Kbut
extensionally provided) e.g.
(Woman = true) ⇒ (Man = false)
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Open Issues
Concepts (and roles) are managed without considering
inclusion relationships among them ⇒ saving of
computational costs by explicitly treating this information
Treatment of the individuals that are fillers of the considered
roles explicitly
Application of the (Apriori) learning algorithm to a
multi-relational representation (without building an
intermediate propositional representation)
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Exploiting Rules for Reasoning
Semantically enriched ARs can be exploited when performing
reasoning on ontological KBs (Tableaux generally used)
Goals:
reduce the computational effort for finding a model for a given
(satisfiable) concept
suppling the most the plausible model (that best fits the
available data)
Idea:
set up an heuristic exploiting the evidence coming from the
data
codified by the semantically enriched ARs
to be used when random choices occur
e.g. when processing a concepts disjunction
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Motivating Example
Example
Given an individual x, which is known to be a Person, a high
school student, and has the property of being 15 years old.
Decide on whether x is instance of the concept Parent or not,
while no information allows to infer neither x is a Parent nor x is
¬Parent.
Given the semantically enriched association rule (with high degree
of confidence)
IF Age = [0, 16] THEN ¬Parent
0.99
it can be exploited to conclude (with high confidence) that x is not
a Parent.
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Definition (Inference Problem)
Given: the following
D, K, the set R of semantically enriched ARs,
a (possibly complex) concept E of K,
the individuals x1 , . . . , xk ∈ K that are instances
of E ,
the grounding g of Σ on D
Determine: the model Ir for E representing the most plausible
model given the K, D, g and R.
Intuition:
the most plausible model Ir for E is the one on top of the
ranking of the possible models Ii for E
Such a ranking is built according to the degree up to which
the models are compliant with the set R of ARs and K.
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Basics on Tableaux Algorithm ALC
To test the satisfiability of a concept E , the algorithm
starts with ABox A = {E (x0 )} (with x0 a new individual)
applies to A the consistency preserving transformation rules
(one for each operator) until no more rules apply
The result could be:
all clashes ⇒ the concept is unsatisfiable
A contains a model for E ⇒ the concept is satisfiable
Transformation rule for the disjunction (t-rule)
if a disjunctive concept has to be processed, two different
ABoxes have to be considered, each one containing the
assertion concerning one of the two disjoint concepts.
The original ABox is consistent if and only if one of the new
ABoxes is consistent
the choice on one of the two to be processed is
non-deterministic
ideal solution for saving computation (case of satisfiable
concept) ⇒ directly choose the ABox containing a model
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Data Driven Tableaux Algorithm: Differences
1
the starting model for the inference process is given by the set
of all attributes (and corresponding values) of the unified
tabular representation that are related to the individuals
x1 , . . . , xk that are instances of E ,
2
a heuristic is adopted for performing the t-rule
3
the most plausible model for the concept E and the
individuals x1 , . . . , xk is built w.r.t. K, D and R
4
The obtained model is a mixed model, namely a model
containing both information from R and K
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Data Driven Tableaux Algorithm
For each individual xi ∈ {x1 , . . . , xk } that is instance of E , all
attribute names Ai in the unified tabular representation T
that related to xi are selected jointly with the corresponding
values ai
The assertions Ai (ai ) are added to Ir
For simplicity and without loss of generality, a single individual
x will be considered
Once the initial model Ir is built, all deterministic expansion
rules, namely all but t-rule, are applied to Ir following the
standard Tableaux algorithm.
For the case of the t-rule, a heuristic is adopted.
Let C t D be the disjunctive concept to be processed by t-rule.
The choice on C rather than D (or vice versa) is driven by:
1 Select the ARs in R containing C (resp. D) or its negation in
the knowledge items of the right hand side
2 Consider the left hand side of each selected rule
3 Compute the degreeC.of
d’Amato
for Knowledge
and reasoning
match Rules
between
the completion
left hand
sides empowerment
and
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Data Driven Tableaux Algorithm: Example
Assume the enriched ARs discovered in a demographic domain
#
r1
r2
r3
r4
r5
RULE
(Age=[16, 25]) ∧ (Job = Student) ⇒ (Parent = false)
(Job=Policeman) ⇒ (Male = true)
(Age=[16, 25]) ∧ (Parent = true) ⇒ (Female = true)
(Job=Primary school teacher ) ⇒ (Female = true)
(Job=Housewife) ∧ (Age = [26, 35]) ⇒
(Parent = true) ∧ (Female = true)
Confidence
0.98
0.75
0.75
0.78
0.85
and the model Ir under construction for the inference procedure
Object
x7
x8
x9
Job
Primary school teacher
Policeman
Student
Age
[46,55]
[16,25]
[16,25]
Parent
unknown
true
unknown
Male
unknown
unknown
unknown
Female
unknown
unknown
unknown
The reasoning process has to evaluate the expansion of
(Male t Female)(x) w.r.t. Ir Application of the heuristic
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Applying the Heuristic: Example I
Selection of the rules having Male (resp. Female) in the right
hand side ⇒ r2 , r3 , r4 and r5 .
Computation of the degree of match
r2 : matchFound = 1 (because of Job = Policemen (for x8 ))
⇒ degreeOfMatch = 1 (note that lengthLeft = 1)
r3 : matchFound = 2 (because of Age = [16, 25] and
Parent = True (for x8 )) ⇒ degreeOfMatch = 2 (note that
lengthLeft = 2)
r4 : matchFound = 1 (because of Job = PrimarySchoolTeacher
(for x7 )) ⇒ degreeOfMatch = 1 (note lengthLeft = 1)
r5 : matchFound = 0 (because no item matches the left hand
side of r5 ) ⇒ degreeOfMatch = 0 (note lengthLeft = 2 since
the left hand side of r5 is made by two items)
r5 is discarded because of null degree of match
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Applying the Heuristic: Example II
For each of the remaining rules, compute the
weighted confidence value
r2 :
weightedConf = ruleConfidence ∗ degreeOfMatch = 0, 75 ∗ 1
r3 : weightedConf = 0.75 ∗ 1 = 0.75
r4 : weightedConf = 0.78 ∗ 1 = 0.78
Filter out rules with weightedConf < thr (here 0.5) ⇒ none
of the above rules is discarded
Select the rule with the highest weightedConf ⇒ r4 is selected
the right hand side of r4 contains Female ⇒ the model under
construction Ir is enriched with Female(x) (where x is the
individual under consideration)
this enriched model is considered for the application of the
successive expansion rules, until the stopping criterion is met.
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Issues to be Solved
assessing the validity of the proposed data-driven Tablaeux
algorithm when compared to the standard Tableaux algorithm
assessing the validity of the data-driven ontology population
procedure that is grounded on a rule-based classifier
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Comparing the Tableaux Algorithms
Compare/count the number of ABox expansions that are
performed by the data-driven Tableaux algorithm when
compared to the standard Tableaux algorithm
since the adopted heuristic aims to reduce the number of ABox
expansions, the experimental evaluation should empirically
show that the heuristic is able to significantly decreases the
number of ABox expansion when the consistency of a (possibly
complex) disjoint concept, that is already known to be
consistent, is performed.
Compare the execution time
since the data-driven Tableaux algorithm requires some
additional computations (for instance of computing the degree
of match) with respect to the standard Tableaux algorithm
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
Focussing on Ontological Knowledge Bases
Focussing on Heterogenous Sources of Information
Evaluating the Data Driven Ontology Population
Procedure
Evaluate the ability of the classifier to classify instances with
respect to one or more concepts
the performances are compared with those of a standard
deductive reasoner
mistakes, correct predicted class-memberships and the new
induced class-memberships are measured.
Evaluate the ability of the data-driven ontology population
procedure to induce new knowledge, when compared with
other inductive classifiers at the state of the art
final goal: to show that exploiting a hybrid source of
information actually help to induce a larger (and/or more
accurate) amount of new knowledge.
C. d’Amato
Rules for Knowledge completion and reasoning empowerment
The End
That’s all!
Questions ?