Math 662 Spring 2014 Homework 2 Drew Armstrong

```Math 662
Homework 2
Spring 2014
Drew Armstrong
Problem 0. (Drawing Pictures) The equation y 2 = x3 − x defines a “curve” in the
complex “plane” C2 . What does it look like? Unfortunately we can only see real things, so
we substitute x = a + ib and y = c + id with a, b, c, d ∈ R. Equating real and imaginary parts
then gives us two simultaneous equations:
(1)
a3 − a − 3ab = c2 − d2 ,
(2)
b3 + b − 3a2 b = −2cd.
These equations define a real 2-dimensional surface in real 4-dimensional space R4 = C2 .
Unfortunately we can only see 3-dimensional space so we will interpret the b coordiante as
“time”. Sketch the curve in real (a, c, d)-space at time b = 0. [Hint: It will look 1-dimensional
to you.] Can you imagine what it looks like at other times b?
Problem 1. (Local Rings) Let R be a ring. We say R is local if it contains a unique
(nontrivial) maximal ideal.
(a) Prove that R is local if and only if its set of non-units is an ideal.
(b) Given a prime ideal P ≤ R, prove that the localization
na
o
: a, b ∈ R, b 6∈ P
RP :=
b
is a local ring. [Hint: The maximal ideal is called P RP .]
(c) Consider a prime ideal P ≤ R. By part (b) we can define the residue field RP /P RP .
Prove that we have an isomorphism of fields:
Frac(R/P ) ≈ RP /P RP .
[Hint: The most obvious map R/P → RP /P RP must factor through Frac(R/P ).]
Problem 2. (Formal Power Series) Let K be a field and consider the ring of formal power
series:
K[[x]] := a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + · · · : ai ∈ K for all i ∈ N .
The “degree” of a power series does not necessarily exist. However, for all nonzero f (x) =
P
k k
k a x we can define the “order” ord(f ) := the minimum k such that ak 6= 0.
(a) Prove that K[[x]] is a domain.
(b) Prove that K[[x]] is a Euclidean domain with norm function ord : K[[x]] − {0} → N.
(You can define ord(0) = −∞ if you want.) [Hint: Given f, g ∈ K[[x]] we have f |g if
and only if ord(f ) ≤ ord(g), so the remainder is always zero.]
(c) Prove that the units of K[[x]] are just the power series with nonzero constant term.
(d) Conclude that K[[x]] is a local ring.
(e) Prove that Frac (K[[x]]) is isomorphic to the ring of formal Laurent series:
K((x)) := a−n x−n + a−n+1 x−n+1 + a−n+2 x−n+2 + · · · : ai ∈ K for all i ≥ −n .
Problem 3. (Partial Fraction Expansion) To what extent can we “un-add” fractions?
Let R be a PID. Consider a, b ∈ R with b = pe11 pe22 · · · pekk where p1 , . . . , pk are distinct primes
and e1 , . . . , ek ≥ 1.
(a) Prove that there exist a1 , . . . , ak ∈ R such that
a
a2
ak
a1
= e1 + e2 + · · · + e1 .
b
p1
p2
pk
[Hint: First prove it when b = pq with p, q coprime. Use B´ezout.]
Now assume that R is a Euclidean domain with norm function N : R − {0} → N.
(b) Prove that there exist c, rij ∈ R such that
k
e
i
XX
rij
a
,
=c+
b
pji
i=1 j=1
where for all i, j we have either rij = 0 or N (rij ) < N (pi ). [Hint: If p is prime, prove
q
that we can write pae as pe−1
+ pre where either r = 0 or N (r) < N (p). Then use (a).]
Now suppose that the norm function satisfies N (a) ≤ N (ab) and N (a−b) ≤ max{N (a), N (b)}
for all a, b ∈ R − {0}.
(c) Prove that the partial fraction expansion from part (b) is unique. [Hint: Suppose we
have two expansions
c+
ei
k X
X
rij
i=1 j=1
pji
k
=
e
0
i
XX
rij
a
= c0 +
.
b
pji
i=1 j=1
Then we get a partial fraction expansion of zero:
ei
k X
0 )
X
(rij − rij
a−a
0
0
=
= (c − c ) +
.
b
b
pji
i=1 j=1
For all i, j define ˆbij :=
b/pji ,
0
so that
b(c − c) =
ei
k X
X
0 ˆ
(rij − rij
)bij .
i=1 j=1
0 and let j be maximal
Suppose for contradiction that there exist i, j such that rij 6= rij
0 ) and
with this property. Use the last equation above to show that pi divides (rij − rij
hence
0
0
N (pi ) ≤ N (rij − rij
) ≤ max{N (rij ), N (rij
)} < N (pi ).