EFFECTS OF BOTH WHOLE VENOM AND VENOM FRACTIONS OF

EFFECTS OF BOTH WHOLE VENOM AND VENOM FRACTIONS OF
Scolopendra viridis Say, 1821 ON MUSCULAR AND NERVOUS TISSUE IN
MOUSE
Judith Tabullo De Robles, Abraham Rivera Ramírez, Carmen Rodríguez Alejandro, Lucero
Valladares Cisneros, Juana Villeda Hernández, Francisca Fernández Valverde, Carolina Abarca
Camacho, Ma. Del Carmen Gutiérrez Villafuerte; Centro de Investigación en Biotecnología,
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos; Cuernavaca, Morelos. C.P. 62209; Instituto
Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, México, D.F. [email protected]
Key words: centipede, pain, venom
Introduction. Scolopendra viridis Say,1821 is
a poisonous arthropod widely distributed in
Mexico; its bite produces burning pain,
paresthesia and edema, among other
symptoms (1). Venom of centipedes (genus
Scolopendra) has been used in traditional
medicine in countries such as China, Korea,
India and Mexico to treat arthritis, epilepsy,
headaches and infections (2-4).
The main goal of this investigation is the
evaluation of the effects of S.viridis venom on
muscular and nervous tissue.
Fig.1 Muscle sections (5µm). A: 3 days of whole venom
injection (75µg). B: 5 day injection (125µg; H&E staining,
40x optical zoom). TN= nerve; n=nuclei; F=muscle fiber.
Methods. Whole venom was obtained by
mechanical or electrical stimulation (16 V) of
the centipede, lyophilized and quantified
(Lowry method). Then, it was injected to CD1
female mice intramuscularly (a dose per day,
1, 3 or 5 days) prior to the hot plate test. Paw
withdrawal latencies (PWL; 45°C) were
recorded and compared to control (NaCl,
0.9%). Skeletal muscle and nervous tissue
samples were analyzed for morphological
modifications. Alternatively venom fractions
were obtained by high-performance liquid
chromatography and by anionic exchange
chromatography, to be administered in mice.
A statistical analysis was applied (ANOVA) to
find
significant
differences
between
treatments.
Results. Whole venom evoked a PWL
decrease in all cases, 45 min after injection
(left hindpaw). Furthermore, histological
modifications
were
detected
at
the
administration area; i.e. edema, skeletal
muscle breakdown and nerve compression
not evidenced in the control groups (Figure
1). Chromatographic profiles are shown in
Figure 2.
Conclusions. Intramuscular administration of
whole venom of S.viridis produces alterations
in thermal tolerance in mice. Furthermore, it
produced histological changes in the area of
injection.
Fig. 2.A: HPLC separation of whole venom (C-18
column; linear gradient from 0-60% 0.10% TFA in
acetonitrile; flow rate of 1ml/min; 300 µg sample). B.
Anionic exchange whole venom separation (DEAEsepharose column; 800 µg venom; gradient: 0.02-1 M
CH3CO2NH4; pH=4.7).
Acknowledgements.
This
project
is
sponsored by the National Council for
Science and Technology (CONACyT),
through grants 237726 and 267392.
References.
1. Tay-Zavala, J. et al. (1998). Rev Fac Med UNAM
41(6):241-246.
2. Abarca, C, Balbás, P. y Gutiérrez-Villafuerte, M.C.
(2001). Hojas de la comunidad 2000. UAEM 367-371.
3. Bhagirat, T. et al. (2006). Indian J Pharmacol 38 (4):
291-292.
4. Cupul-Magaña, F. (2007). Dugesiana 14(2): 53-57.