salsalate (sal-sa-late) - DavisPlus

Name /bks_53161_deglins_md_disk/salsalate
02/17/2014 10:04AM
salsalate (sal-sa-late)
Amigesic, Anaflex, Disalcid, Marthritic, Mono-Gesic, Salflex, Salgesic, Salsitab
Therapeutic: antipyretics, nonopioid analgesics
Pharmacologic: salicylates
Pregnancy Category C
Inflammatory disorders including: Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis. Mild to moderate pain. Fever.
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pain from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery ; Pedi: May increase the risk
of Reye’s syndrome in children or adolescents with viral infections.
Use Cautiously in: Cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease (mayqrisk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction,
and stroke, especially with prolonged use); History of GI bleeding or ulcer disease;
Chronic alcohol use/abuse; Severe hepatic disease; OB: Salicylates may have adverse
effects on fetus and mother and should be avoided during pregnancy, especially during the 3rd trimester; Lactation: Safety not established; Geri:qrisk of adverse reactions especially GI bleeding; more sensitive to toxic levels).
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
EENT: tinnitus. GI: GI BLEEDING, dyspepsia, epigastric distress, nausea, abdominal
pain, anorexia, hepatotoxicity, vomiting. Derm: EXFOLIATIVE DERMATITIS, STEVENSJOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS. Misc: allergic reactions including
Produce analgesia and reduce inflammation and fever by inhibiting the production of
prostaglandins. Therapeutic Effects: Analgesia. Reduction of inflammation. Reduction of fever.
Absorption: Splits into 2 molecules of salicylic acid after oral administration; absorbed in the small intestine.
Distribution: rapidly and widely distributed; cross the placenta and enter breast
Metabolism and Excretion: Extensively metabolized by the liver; inactive metabolites excreted by the kidneys. Amount excreted unchanged by the kidneys depends on urine pH; as pH increases, amount excreted unchanged increases from 2–
3% up to 80%.
Half-life: 2– 3 hr for low doses; up to 15– 30 hr with larger doses because of saturation of liver metabolism.
5–30 min
1–3 hr
3–6 hr
Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity to aspirin or other salicylates; Cross-sensitivity with other NSAIDs may exist (less with nonaspirin salicylates); Peri-operative
⫽ Canadian drug name.
⫽ Genetic Implication.
Drug-Drug: Mayqactivity of penicillins, phenytoin, methotrexate, valproic
acid, oral hypoglycemic agents, and sulfonamides. Maypbeneficial effects of
probenecid. Urinary acidificationqreabsorption and mayqserum salicylate levels. Alkalinization of the urine or the ingestion of large amounts of antacidsq
excretion andpserum salicylate levels. May blunt the therapeutic response to diuretics or other antihypertensives.qrisk of GI irritation with NSAIDs.
Drug-Food: Foods capable of acidifying the urine mayqserum salicylate levels.
PO (Adults): 1 g 3 times daily initially; further titration may be required.
● Patients who have asthma, allergies, and nasal polyps or who are aller-
gic to tartrazine are at an increased risk for developing hypersensitivity
● Pain: Assess pain and limitation of movement; note type, location, and intensity
before and at the peak (see Time/Action Profile) after administration.
● Fever: Assess fever and note associated signs (diaphoresis, tachycardia, malaise,
CAPITALS indicate life-threatening, underlines indicate most frequent.
Strikethrough ⫽ Discontinued.
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Name /bks_53161_deglins_md_disk/salsalate
02/17/2014 10:04AM
● Lab Test Considerations: Monitor hepatic function before antirheumatic ther-
apy and if symptoms of hepatotoxicity occur; more likely in patients, especially
children, with rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile arthritis, or
pre-existing hepatic disease. May causeqserum AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase, especially when plasma concentrations exceed 25 mg/100 mL. May return to
normal despite continued use or dose reduction. If severe abnormalities or active
liver disease occurs, discontinue and use with caution in future.
● Monitor serum salicylate levels periodically with prolonged high-dose therapy to
determine dose, safety, and efficacy, especially in children with Kawasaki disease.
● May alter results of serum uric acid, urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), protirelin-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), urine hydroxyindoleacetic acid
(5-HIAA) determinations, and radionuclide thyroid imaging.
● Toxicity and Overdose: Monitor patient for the onset of tinnitus, headache, hyperventilation, agitation, mental confusion, lethargy, diarrhea, and sweating. If
these symptoms appear, withhold medication and notify physician or other health
care professional immediately.
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● Tablets with an acetic (vinegar-like) odor should be discarded.
● Advise patients on long-term therapy to inform health care professional of medica-
tion regimen before surgery. Salicylates may need to be withheld for 1 wk before
Evaluation/Desired Outcomes
● Relief of mild to moderate discomfort.
● Increased ease of joint movement. May take 2– 3 wk for maximum effectiveness.
● Reduction of fever.
Why was this drug prescribed for your patient?
Potential Nursing Diagnoses
Acute pain (Indications)
Impaired physical mobility (Indications)
● Use lowest effective dose for shortest period of time.
● PO: Administer after meals or with food or an antacid to minimize gastric irrita-
tion. Food slows but does not alter the total amount absorbed.
Patient/Family Teaching
● Instruct patient to take salicylates with a full glass of water and to remain in an up-
right position for 15– 30 min after administration.
● Advise patient to report tinnitus; unusual bleeding of gums; bruising; black, tarry
stools; or fever lasting longer than 3 days.
● Caution patient to avoid concurrent use of alcohol with this medication
to minimize possible gastric irritation; 3 or more glasses of alcohol per
day may increase the risk of GI bleeding. Caution patient to avoid taking
concurrently with acetaminophen or NSAIDs for more than a few days,
unless directed by health care professional to prevent analgesic nephropathy.
䉷 2015 F.A. Davis Company
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