Cómo Diseñar un Currículo Basado en Resultados de Aprendizaje

Cómo Diseñar un Currículo Basado en
Resultados de Aprendizaje
(Designing an Outcomes-Based Curriculum)
Día 2: Diseño del Currículo
(Day 2: Curriculum Design)
Universidad Católica de la Santisima Concepción
Doris R. Brodeur, Ph.D.
dbrodeur@mit.edu
Agosto 2009
Objetivos
„
Diseñar un currículo que integre los resultados de
aprendizaje personales, interpersonales y profesionales
con los resultados técnicos disciplinarios
„
Mapear en una estructura curricular existente los
resultados de aprendizaje desados
„
Ingegrar los resutados de aprendizaje deseados a nivel
del curso
Review:
Learning Outcomes Derived From
Mission, Vision, Objectives, and Values
Misión
Visión
Objetivos
Valores
Resultados
de
Aprendizaje
A Curriculum Development Model
C
D
GOALS
I
O
STAKEHOLDER
INPUT
BENCHMARK
EXISTING
CONDITIONS
STRUCTURE,
SEQUENCE,
MAPPING
CDIO
SKILLS
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
COURSES
TEACHING
METHODS
LEARNING
ACTIVITIES
(CDIO
SYLLABUS)
FACILITIES
EXTERNAL
EVALUATION
CRITERIA
CONSTRAINTS
COCURRICULAR
EXPERIENCES
CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL
SUPPORT
WORKSPACES
CURRICULUM IMPROVEMENT
FACULTY
DEVELOPMENT
CURRICULUM
EVALUATION
Curriculum Design Components
ƒ
Program learning outcomes aligned with mission,
vision, objectives and values, and validated by program
stakeholders
ƒ
Curriculum structure organized around the
disciplines, with skills and projects interwoven
ƒ
Sequences of learning experiences
ƒ
Mapping of personal, interpersonal and professional
competencies onto the curriculum structure
ƒ
Integration of personal, interpersonal and professional
competencies into courses
Sample Curriculum Structures
(Disciplines run vertically; projects and skills run horizontally.)
A strict
disciplinary
curriculum
Organized around
disciplines, with no explicit
introduction of skills
An integrated
curriculum
Organized around
disciplines, but with
skills and projects
interwoven
A problem-based
curriculum
An apprenticeship
model
Organized around
problems, but with
disciplines interwoven
Based on projects, with no
organized introductions of
disciplines
Sample Course Linkages
Conventional
Sequential
Block
Bus or
Backbone
Linked/merged
Simultaneous
Time
Sequencing The Curriculum
THE BLACK-BOX
EXERCISE
INPUT:
Previous
knowledge
and skills
Course
(black box)
OUTPUT:
”Final” learning
outcomes, competence
for the professional
Input to following
courses
All courses or modules in the program are presented
through their input and output only
• Enables efficient discussions
• Makes connections visible (as well as lack thereof)
• Serves as a basis for improving coordination between
courses
Methods to Integrate Learning Outcomes
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
For each outcome, identify specific tasks.
Decide the best sequence to teach each task, from simplest to most
complex activities
Interview course instructors to determine which learning outcomes are
already included in their courses
Assign each task or learning outcome to specific courses in the
curriculum. More than one course can include a specific task; some
courses will not have any tasks for a specific learning outcome
To get buy-in from all faculty, it may be useful to schedule a retreat or
discussion day in which the main focus is to get agreement on which
courses will address which learning outcome. (It is important to look at
the curriculum as a whole to see if you are introducing and teaching a
learning outcome before you expect students to use the skills.)
Create a matrix to summarize the integration of the learning outcomes
into the courses in the curriculum for each program, including common
courses.
Sample Sequence: Pensiamento crítico
„
„
„
„
Articulate the critical thinking
process
Identify assumptions, criteria,
and evidence to make informed
decisions
Evaluate alternative
perspectives, contexts, and the
quality of evidence in making
informed judgments
Examine and cultivate a
personal value system to make
informed decisions
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sample Sequence:
Communicación efectiva
„
„
„
„
„
Write short, individual structured reports; create sketches, charts, and
simple graphics; practice simple interpersonal communications
Write and present individual or small-group short reports, e.g., lab
reports
Create discipline-specific graphics
Write large individual or collaborative reports of conference quality;
present collaborative oral reports or conference quality; use appropriate
research resources; implement appropriate communication strategies
based on the requirements of diverse audiences
Write large collaborative reports for technical briefings; present
collaborative oral technical briefings; use appropriate research
resources; implement appropriate communication strategies based on
the requirements of diverse audiences
Sample Sequence:
Liderar y trabajar en grupos
„
„
„
„
Duke University
Organize small short-term to
semester-long teams for learning;
teach simple planning, scheduling,
and facilitation; introduce team
evaluation and problem-solving
Organize small short-term to
semester-long teams for learning;
teach team evaluation and problemsolving
Organize medium-sized project teams
for half to a full semester; require
deliverables from teams
Organize larger project teams for a
full, or multiple semesters, focused on
deliverables; teach leadership skills,
complex negotiations, evaluation and
problem solving
Integrated Curriculum Design
Universidad Tecnológica Centroamericana (UNITEC), Honduras
Habilidades y Atributos Personales
Asignatura
Algebra
Administracion 1
Español
Ofimatica 1
Geomet. Trigonom.
Intro. Ing. Industrial
Historia de Honduras
Ofimatica 2
Calculo 1 Diferencial
Quimica General
Sociologia
Ofimatica 3
Calculo 1 Integral
Analisis Contable 1
Elect. Arte/Deporte
Idioma 1
Calculo 2 Geom. Analit.
Algebra Lineal
Mercadotecnia 1
Idioma 2
Ecuac. Diferenciales
Analisis Contable 2
Fisica 1
Idioma 3
Estad. Matematica 1
Dibujo Tecnico
Fisica 2
Idioma 4
2.1
I E A
x x x
2.2
I E A
2.3
I E A
I
2.4
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2.5
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I
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2.6
E A
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x
2.7
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x
2.8
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I
x
2.9
E A
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2.10
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I
2.11
E A
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
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x
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Integrated Curriculum Design
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Unified
T1
2.1.1 (4.4) Problem Identification and Formulation
2.1.2 (4.3) Modeling
2.1.3 (4.0) Estimation and Qualitative Analysis
2.1.4 (3.7) Analysis with Uncertainty
2.1.5 (3.8) Solution and Recommendation
2.2 Experimentation and Knowledge Discovery
2.2.1 (3.4) Hypothesis Formulation
2.2.2 (3.0) Survey of Print and ElectronicLiterature
2.2.3 (3.6) Experimental Inquiry
2.2.4 (3.3) Hypothesis Test, and Defense
2.3 System Thinking
2.3.1 (2.9) Thinking Holistically
2.3.2 (2.6) Emergence and Interactions in Systems
2.3.3 (2.7) Prioritization and Focus
2.3.4 (2.9) Trade-offs, Judgment and Balance in
Resolution
2.4 Personal Skills and Attitudes
2.4.1 (3.4) Initiative and willingness to take risks
2.4.2 (3.4) Perseverance and flexibility
2.4.3 (3.6) Creative Thinking
2.4.4 (3.8) Critical Thinking
2.4.5 (3.4) Awareness of one's personal
knowledge, skills and attitudes
2.4.6 (3.1) Curiosity and lifelong learning
2.4.7 (3.4) Time and resource management
2.5 Professional Skills and Attitudes
2.5.1 (3.7) Professional ethics, integrity,
responsibility & accountability
2.5.2 (2.7) Professional behavior
2.5.3 (2.7) Proactively planning for one's career
2.5.4 (2.9) Staying current on World of Engineer
T1
T2
T2
Core
I
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PAS
T2
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Capstone Courses
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T2
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T2
Utilize if desired
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Utilize if desired
Utilize if desired
Utilize if desired
Utilize if desired
Utilize if desired
Utilize if desired
Utilize if desired
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Resources for Curriculum Design
Faculty Planning Time
„ 2 to 4 daylong retreats per year
„ 1/4 release from workload per
semester
Leader Time
„ 1/2 workload at least for the first
two years
Financial Resources
„ Instructional support staff
(curriculum, instruction,
assessment)
„ Graduate and undergraduate
teaching assistants
„ External consultants
Exercise: Curriculum Mapping
„
„
„
„
Work in groups of 3 or 4 from
different program areas
Assign each group a part of the list
of learning outcomes for the
Computer Science program
Each group will allocate its
respective outcomes to the courses
in the program
When that task is complete, the
whole group will collect the groups’
allocations and map them onto the
courses in the Computer Science
curriculum
Summary: Agree Or Disagree?
SD = Strongly Disagree; D = Disagree; N = Neither disagree nor agree;
A = Agree; SA = Strongly Agree
SD
An integrated curriculum design process can be
carried out in many different ways.
Program leader support and resources are
desirable, but not required.
Support and commitment for the change process
are needed form all stakeholder groups.
Active student participation in all phases fosters
creative ideas and facilitates implementation.
Monitoring of programs and achievements needs
to be regular and consistent.
D
N
A
SA