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Zootaxa 3914 (5): 541–557 /zootaxa /
Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Integrated taxonomy of a new species of black fly in the subgenus Trichodagmia
(Diptera: Simuliidae) from the Páramo Region of Colombia
Department of Public Health, Medicine Faculty, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.
School of Agricultural, Forest & Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0310 USA.
E-mail: [email protected]
Corresponding author
A new species of simuliid from the Andean Mountains of Colombia is described on the basis of females, males, pupae,
larvae, polytene chromosomes, and COI and ITS2 DNA sequences. Simulium (Trichodagmia) chimguazaense new species is structurally, chromosomally, and molecularly distinct from its nearest relatives, S. muiscorum Bueno, Moncada &
Muñoz de Hoyos and S. sumapazense Coscarón & Py-Daniel.
Key words: Andes Mountains, new species, páramo, polytene chromosomes, Simulium
The discovery of biodiversity in the family Simuliidae has been facilitated over the past 50 years by the opportunity
to use both structural and chromosomal characters (Adler 2009). The past 15 years have seen increased use of
molecular characters as a means of revealing species, especially cryptic species, of black flies (e.g., Hamada et al.
2010, Hernández-Triana 2011, Pramual et al. 2011, Hernández-Triana et al. 2012). Contemporary taxonomy of the
Simuliidae now has the nearly unprecedented opportunity to combine characters from morphology, polytene
chromosomes, and DNA sequences (Post et al. 2003, Ilmonen et al. 2009, Pramual & Kuvangkadilok 2012). The
routine integration of all three character sources in the discovery and formal description of new species of
simuliids, however, has been slow to develop, although a combination of two character sources has been used (e.g.,
Adler & Kim 1985, Krüger et al. 1998, Hamada et al. 2010).
We use anatomical structure, polytene chromosomes, and DNA sequences to test the hypothesis of a new
species in the Simulium orbitale species group of the subgenus Trichodagmia from Chingaza Natural National Park
in the páramo (alpine tundra) region of Colombia’s Andes Mountains. The subgenus Trichodagmia includes five
species groups, of which the S. orbitale group consists of 17 nominal species, all found in South America
(Hernández-Triana 2011, Adler & Crosskey 2014).
The high Andes Mountains are considered “water factories”; they are strewn with lakes and streams, including
the headwaters of some of northern South America’s major rivers. The páramo region lies in northwestern South
America at elevations of 3000–4800 m above sea level (Van der Hammen & Otero 2007). The páramo is
considered an evolutionary hot spot—an archipelago surrounded by Andean forests (Sklenář & Ramsay 2001). The
region is home to a wealth of simuliid biodiversity (Mantilla et al. 2013) and includes the new species described
Accepted by L. Hernandez-Triana: 24 Dec. 2014; published: 30 Jan. 2015
Colciencias. We thank the staff of Chingaza Natural National Park, especially Carlos Lora, Paulina Castro Lalinde,
Andrés Patiño, and Unidad de Parques Nacionales. We thank C. E. Beard for excellent technical assistance and M.
Y. P. Lesmes for assistance with illustrations. The chromosomal work and electron microscopy was conducted
while SD was a visiting student in the laboratory of PHA in 2012.
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