Tomato grafting

Tomato grafting
Young Plant Business Trends
Presentations
January 28-29
Almería 2015
Syngenta solutions
in production technology
Massimo Enzo
Syngenta | Tomato Grafting – Young Plant Business Trends
Almería, 28 January, 2015
Demand for food is driven by population growth
and rising calorie consumption
World population
> 80% of growth is in emerging
markets
Developed
Emerging
People fed per hectare
2050
>6 people
2050
9 billion
2011
>4 people
2011
7 billion
1960
2 people
1950
2.5 billion
Source: FAO, Syngenta analysis
2
Different needs in the value chain require specific servicing
A variety of needs, addressed by our expertise
Technology push
Young
Plant
Raiser
Grower
Insights and
feedback
Re-packager
/Trader
Retailer
Consumer
Insights and
feedback
Insights and
feedback
Insights and
feedback
Market pull
Needs
Syngenta’s
expertise
Seed quality
Usable Plants
Seed batch
management
Return on
investment
Yield, quality
Uniformity
Pest/disease
control
Risk, return on
investment
Shelf life
Genetics
Seed Care
Crop
protection
Rootstock
GSPP
Genetics
Crop protection
Seed care
Bio controls
Agronomic
solutions
Genetics
State-of-the-art
technology
3
Waste
Residue levels
Post harvest
control
Residue
management
Constant
quality and
year round
supply
Waste
Residue levels
Flavour
Colour, shape,
appeal
Convenience
Waste
Peace of mind
Retailer
relationships
Genetics
Residue
management
Consumer
insights
Marker Assisted Breeding
Analytical Chemistry
Genetics
Analytics
Vegetables: diverse growing systems and challenges
Large farms, intensive open field
Highly intensive, protected production
Examples: USA, Australia, Brazil
Examples: Spain, Israel, Mexico, Netherlands, Canada,
China protected
Developed
value chain
Characteristics
● Organized retail
● Moderate to high input, output
● Moving to protected production
Smallholder, extensive open field
Examples: India, China, ASEAN, Africa
Emerging
value chain
Characteristics
● Non-organized retail
● Low input, output
● Intensification
Open field
4
Characteristics
● Organized retail, high demands
● High input, output
● Fast growth, esp. passive protected
Passive protected
Active protected
Integrated solutions can address
the multiple challenges faced by vegetable growers
Crop establishment
 Leading seed treatment portfolio
 Biotic and Abiotic stress
management through rootstock
Integrated crop management
 Integrated solutions for sustainable
pest and disease management
Value added produce
 Molecular breeding platform for
produce with food chain benefits
Smallholder intensification
5
 Supporting smallholders in
emerging markets to intensify
vegetable production
Grafting: fast-growing innovation in high value vegetables
meeting value chain needs
Benefits driving fast adoption
●Higher tolerance to Abiotic Stresses
●Higher resistance to soil-borne diseases
●Extension of crop cycle
●Higher marketable yield
●Faster than traditional breeding
Syngenta’s focus in R&D strategy
1
Adopt design / trialing of
varieties for scion use
Scion plant
Global Grafted market (seeds value) $m*
CAGR
12%
Tomato
Protected
650
2
370
Graft
Other Fruit
Protected
Fruit
Open Field
Grafting penetration
16%
fruit crops
≈
Rootstock plant
4
6
Systematically match
scion to rootstock: Center
of Excellence in Israel
21%
3
Selective breeding for
added-value rootstock
New business models to share value
with growers appropriately
Source:
estimates
* ValueSyngenta
of seed (scions
plus rootstocks), excluding value of grafting
TOMATO ROOTSTOCK GRAFTING
Abiotic stress management for long-cycle crops,
in unheated greenhouses.
Syngenta | Tomato Grafting – Young Plant Business Trends
Almería, 28 January, 2015
Structure of the presentation
•
Vocabulary
•
Optimized crop techniques towards 2020
•
Managing abiotic stress with grafted
plants
•
The adapted kind of grafting
Vocabulary
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Epicotyl:
stem above cotyledons
Hypocotyl:
stem under cotyledons
Cotyledons: reserve tissue
Rootstock:
root bearing variety
Scion:
fruit bearing variety
Passive greenhouse: unheated
Xylem:
tube in the plant transporting
•
Phloem:
•
•
Vigour:
Vegetative:
•
Generative:
minerals and water upwards
tube in the plant transporting
sugar and water downwards
large stem diameter with blue
little flowering on head, upright
truss stem
abundant flowering on
head, curved truss stem
Vocabulary
Which plant brings your client money?
•Big leaves or thick leaves?
•Short plants or slim plants?
•2 or 6 week old plant?
•Leaves under first truss: 6 or 9?
•Stone wool block or peat plug?
•Plant weight: 12 or 30 grams?
•Grafted or not?
•Topped on cotyledons, on 2nd leaf or on 3rd leaf?
•2 stems or 3 stems/rootstock?
Structure of the presentation
•
Vocabulary
•
Optimizing crop techniques towards
2020
•
Managing abiotic stress with grafted
plants
•
The adapted kind of grafting
Optimizing crop techniques towards 2020.
What does the customer want from the producer?
–Adapt production to commercial agreements;
a more reliable production flow in winter.
–Maintain quality during periods of stress;
low temperatures, high relative humidity…
–Reduce cost price;
through increased production/m² and a longer production period.
What winning options does the producer want?
=> to be the preferred supplier; offer reliability, even in difficult conditions; ensure profitability;
Optimizing crop techniques towards 2020 - 1
•More sensors in the greenhouse => greater demand for homogeneous plants
Selecting plants: 30% more homogeneity results in 10% more production
•Higher substrate, less volume => faster steering,
better root in winter due to higher oxygen level
Wider leaves at first: larger block; extra 100g substrate gives 1kg/m² more production
More leaves at first: 6-9 leaves under first truss (darker and warmer)
•Leaf juice analysis => nutrients available in the plant
30 to 50% less nitrogen concentration at first
in grafted plants, less calcium in fruit/leaves
Optimizing crop techniques towards 2020
- 2
•Soil tensiometer and suction pump => less irrigation problems,
irrigation when required by plant
From general rootstock to soil/greenhouse adapted rootstock
•Weight of a young plant indicates production
1 gram heavier (50 days, NG) = 8% more production (Klapwijk,1987 and Welles, 1989)
peso planta
con
3 densidades
Tomato
planttomate
weight(21
(21dias)
days)
with
3 densities
peso (gram)
Weight
(g)
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
20
468 pl/m²
40
332 pl/m²
60
196 pl/m²
80
Optimizing crop techniques towards 2020
- 3
•Crop registration is objective management information
Measurement shows plant response 1 week earlier than grower’s eyes.
Logarithmic volume growth between 14 and 40 days (InnoGreen 2009)
1000
pl 1 b
pl 2 b
pl 3 sm
100
sampling dates
38
31
10
pl 4 sm
25
LOG volume (cm³)
increase of volume of tomato plants (25-38 days old)
small plants with art.light; big plants without art. light
10000
Optimizing crop techniques towards 2020
Tomato grafting
Grafting-> no longer needed to overcome root problems
(fusarium, verticillium, corky root… nematodes)
Grafting leads to more vigour for:
More numerous, bifurcated roots => better uptake => higher fruit quality
More growth => more resistance to diseases/stress
More vigour => more flowers => easier pruning => better quality
Grafting gives a better plant balance:
Better, faster setting: larger fruits
Faster recovery after loaded plants
Faster setting in winter climate
Structure of the presentation
•
Vocabulary
•
Optimizing crop techniques towards
2020
•
Managing abiotic stress with grafted
plants
•
The adapted kind of grafting
Managing abiotic stress with grafted plants
Recognising a well grafted
young plant
•
Diameter of graft and scion identical
•
Equal shoots
•
Power: anthocyanin on stem and
large stem diameter
•
Generative Balance: abundant
flowering on the head and curved
truss
•
Bifurcated roots, completely rooted
Managing abiotic stress with grafted plants
Combine graft and scion according to:
Scion behaviour :
–
–
–
–
–
Rootstock behaviour :
open/closed growth
easy/difficult setting
strong/weak growth
low/high light reaction
resistances
–
–
–
–
Greenhouse type:
–
–
–
–
low/high greenhouse
low/high heating capacity
low/high ventilation capacity
good/poor irrigation water
bigger/smaller leaves
more/less root tips
more/less generative stress
resistances
Managing abiotic stress with grafted plants
strong
End:
graft
generative
Beginning:
Strong &
vegetative
General management of grafted
cropping
•Grafting results in more vigour but
also more vegetative growth
vegetative
•This is compensated by
End:
nongrafted
weak
–
–
–
More DIF (T°CD / T°CN)
Higher EC
Boost at midday
–
Stable and balanced growth leads
to increased production
Managing abiotic stress with grafted plants
From client wish to objective propagation product
•FROM CLIENT WISH:
–
–
–
–
–
big & short,
fast, flowering within 1 week,
good roots,
homogeneous,
X flowers/truss …
•TO PROPAGATOR PRODUCT:
–
–
–
–
–
weight & volume,
speed,
balance & vigour,
leaf colour,
blue stem …
•HOW TO MAKE THE PRODUCT:
–
–
–
measuring,
analysing,
planning
Structure of the presentation
•
Vocabulary
•
Optimizing crop techniques towards
2020
•
Managing abiotic stress with grafted
plants
•
The adapted kind of grafting
The adapted kind of grafting - Type of young plant
pinch leaf 1 and 2
1 rootstock on 1 scion
pinch on cotyledons
Advantages
- Very strong growth / vigour
- Good, uniform first truss
- 1 or 2 leaves extra under 1st truss
- Vigour from 3rd truss
- Secured to help shoots
- Good quality 1st truss
- Equal shoots on plant
Risks
-
High vegetation, needs strong light
Considerable need for nutrients
-
1st truss: ribbed fruit
Irregular shoots on plant
-
1 shoot / rootstock
Split ripping
Less uniformity between plants
YPL raising less successful in low light
The adapted kind of grafting to a young plant
pinch leaf 1 and 2
1 rootstock on 1 scion
pinch on cotyledons
Impact
-
Delivery: very good
Labour: intensive
Result: strong, homogeneous plants
.
Delivery: medium size plants
Labour: grower - average
Result: uniform homogeneous plants
General risks
-
Delay in earliness
Headless
Uniformity of graft/scion
Increased hygiene/risk management
More generative actions needed in the crop
.
Delivery: medium size plants
Labour: grower - average
Result: uniform homogeneous plants
Conclusions
• Grafting combines the advantages of two varieties.
• Intuition in propagation and growing will be enhanced by objective
measurements, resulting in better planning.
• Grafting techniques and rootstock will depend on the type of greenhouse
and the available infrastructure.
• Grafting has already led to a steady flow of products during winter, to meet
demand from supermarkets.
• New grafting applications will further improve sub-optimal growing
conditions.
Thank you!
What are the prospects for Young
tomato plant raising in 2020?
Ewald de Koning
Plantenkwekerij Van der Lugt
Content
1. History to 2015 - “Plantenkwekerij Van der Lugt” young plant raising.
2.
Customer and market needs in Northern Europe.
Young plant innovations during the last 10 years at Van der Lugt.
3.
Trends in young plant raising towards 2020.
History to 2015 - “Plantenkwekerij Van der Lugt” young plant raising.
Founded in 1904 as a vegetable producer.
1904
1920
1950
1970
1975
1980
1990
2005
2015
Production vegetables
Raising young plants vegetables
Production ornamentals / potplants
Raising young plants ornamentals
Grafting climate
rooms
first concrete
floors
1.115.000 m² greenhouse
artifical lights
1000 m²
first greenhouse
start grafting
•
History to 2015 - “Plantenkwekerij Van der Lugt” young plant raising.
Founded in 1904 as a vegetable producer.
In 1920 it began to raise young plants for vegetable growers.
1904
1920
1950
1970
1975
1980
1990
2005
2015
Production of vegetables
Raising young vegetable plants
Production of ornamentals / pot plants
Grafting climate
rooms
first concrete
floors
artificial lights
Raising young ornamental plants
first greenhouse
begins grafting
•
•
History to 2015 - “Plantenkwekerij Van der Lugt” young plant raising.
Founded in 1904 as a vegetable producer.
In 1920 it began to raise young plants for vegetable growers.
1904
1920
1950
1970
1975
1980
1990
2005
2015
Production of vegetables
Raising young vegetable plants
Production of ornamentals / pot plants
Raising young plants ornamentals
Grafting climate
rooms
first concrete
floors
1.115.000 m² greenhouse
artificial lights
1000 m²
first greenhouse
begins grafting
•
•
History to 2015 - “Plantenkwekerij Van der Lugt” young plant raising.
1.
Core business:
12 million young vegetable plants.
•
•
•
•
•
Grafted tomatoes
Grafted eggplant
Cucumber
Grafted cucumber
Sweet pepper
2. Out of season products:
Pot plants / Fruit carrying vegetable plants
“Snacker Funfoods” consumer market
Young ornamental plants
•
•
Border plants
Pansy / Primrose
Content
1. History to 2015 - “Plantenkwekerij Van der Lugt” young plant raising.
2.
Customer and market needs in Northern Europe.
Young plant innovations during the last 10 years at Van der Lugt.
3.
Trends in young plant raising towards 2020.
Customer and market needs in Northern Europe / grower needs over last 10 years.
Market: Supermarkets drive the trends,
tomato is driver for innovation:
•
•
•
Year round delivery
Constant quality
Planned demand
Reaction of growers
• -> Planned production
•
•
•
•
Consistent and reliable delivery.
Increase in scale, consolidation.
Diversification in crop model, cultivars
and plant model.
International produce collaboration
(outside the Netherlands).
Reaction of Van der Lugt
1. Improve reliability of young plants.
2. Achieve customization, flexibility,
diversity in young plants.
3. Improve hygiene and plant grafting
techniques.
Young plant innovations in the last 10 years at Van der Lugt.
1.
Improve reliability of
young plants.
•
Knowledge of growers, growers’ needs.
•
Controlled growth conditions: climate
and crop protection.
•
Germination tests = reliable supply.
•
Climate rooms after grafting
= reliability.
•
Mechanical seedling grading
= uniformity.
•
Track & Trace system.
Young plant innovations in the last 10 years at Van der Lugt.
2. Achieve customization, flexibility,
diversity in young plants.
•
Communication
(Customized flexible production)
- Order system / all order details agreed by customer
/ all details available in the produce department.
- Customer portal internet connection.
- Product - plant evolution via pictures available on
portal.
•
Stepless pot spreading machines 4 to 50
plants/m2.
•
Open costs calculation requires registration
of system labour.
•
Cooperation with another plant raiser WPK
for consolidated customers / orders.
Young plant innovations in the last 10 years at Van der Lugt.
2. Achieve customization, flexibility,
diversity in young plants.
•
Communication
(Customized flexible production)
- Order system / all order details agreed by customer
/ all details available in the produce department.
- Customer portal internet connection.
- Product - plant evolution via pictures available on
portal.
•
Stepless pot spreading machines 4 to 50
plants/m2.
•
Open costs calculation requires registration
of system labour.
•
Cooperation with another plant raiser WPK
for consolidated customers / orders.
Young plant innovations last 10 years Van der Lught
3. Improve hygiene
and plant grafting techniques.
•
Hygiene protocol based on GSPP and risk
management.
• Water
• People
• Seeds
• Materials
•
GSPP certified seed.
•
Recycling, cleaning and disinfection of water.
•
Seedling trays used just once.
•
Cleaning/disinfection equipment
for crates and trays.
•
Scrubber-Sweepers for disinfection
of floors.
Hygiene ports at entrances / clothes.
•
Every season! Every crop!
Young plant innovations last 10 years Van der Lught
3. Improve hygiene
and plant grafting techniques.
•
Hygiene protocol based on GSPP and risk
management.
• Water
• People
• Seeds
• Materials
•
GSPP certified seed.
•
Recycling, cleaning and disinfection of water.
•
Seedling trays used just once.
•
Cleaning/disinfection equipment
for crates and trays.
•
Scrubber-Sweepers for disinfection
of floors.
Hygiene ports at entrances / clothes.
•
Every season! Every crop!
Content
1.
History to 2015 - “Plantenkwekerij Van der Lugt” young plant raising.
2.
Customer and market needs in Northern Europe.
Young plant innovations during the last 10 years at Van der Lugt.
3.
Trends in young plant raising towards 2020.
Trends for young plant raising towards 2020.
1. Technology.
2. Crop techniques.
3. Market development.
Trends for young plant raising towards 2020.
1. Technology.
• Measurement of plant quality at delivery.


Weight
Flowering
•
Machine sorting seedlings with
optical technology,
more effective than grower’s eye.
•
Grafting robot.
•
LED light.
2.Crop techniques.
•
Innovative pinching and
grafting techniques for double heads.
•
Diversification of rootstock.
Trends for young plant raising towards 2020.
3.
Market development.
• Restriction on use of chemicals and discharging.
• Increase in substrate and longer cycle
in Southern Europe.
Increase in long cycle leads to more yield/ha
= reduction of ha = reduction in total no. of tomato plants.
• Increase in grafted young plants =
increase in plant value.
• Cooperation - consolidation between
plantraisers
 Consolidation to specialize.
 Specialize and deal with large volumes inside country.
 Northern-Southern Europe: entry
into growing markets.
Conclusions
•
Supermarkets drive the trends.
•
Growers’ demands = improve stability and reliability in young plants.
•
Growers’ needs require specialization in the YPR business.
•
Outcome is grafted plants of high quality.
•
For good grafting results:



Good hygiene
Stable growth conditions and knowledge for reliable planning
Uniform plants thanks to mechanized sorting of seedlings
A winning scion/rootstock
combination:
An example from Spain
FRANCISCO JOSÉ RODRÍGUEZ NOGUERÓN
Syngenta | Tomato Grafting – Young Plant Business Trends
Almería, 28 January, 2015
SPAIN
IN TECHNOLOGY
FOR
PASSIVE
SpainLEADER
is Europe’s
orchard and the
tomato
is theGREENHOUSES
most
important vegetable crop, leveraging cutting edge PGH
technology
Spain provides Europe with key vegetables
Vegetable Exports
Tomatoes represent over 20% of
vegetable production & export value
% Tomato value in €K / total
vegetables
2
Production
Exports
22.3%
(352,800)
25,8%
(500,832)
Tomato production in Spain is innovative and
leverages cutting edge technology
• Rapid adoption of innovative solutions that ensure
profitability and differentiation
•
10% of total acreage is for innovative tomatoes
•
80% IPM
•
70% production is grafted
Producers face strong challenges: they must meet the
market’s demands for break-through solutions
while assuring their profitability
Producers: Key challenges
Market
 Year round supply
 Consistent quality
Profitability
 Sustainability
 Innovation
Complexity
3
3

Legal regulation

Labour
regulation

MRL

IPM

Profitability

Market access

Cash flow management

Differentiation

Sustainability
100%
YPRs play a key role in the rapid adoption of this technology
75%
> 90%
Sustainability
• Water
• Nutrients
75%
50%
• ……
30%
SOS:
Soilborne diseases:
SDS in Murcia
2000
4
Quality
enhancement:
• Fruit quality
• Taste
• Commercial Yield
50%
25%
0%
% Grafting
Grafting is a vital technology for the tomato industry
2002
2004
Yield and land
availability increase:
• Extend cycles
• Abiotic Stress
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
2020
Seasons
Influence of grafting on grower profitability
Producers: Key Benefits
Soilborne
diseases
Nematodes
Verticilium
Fusarium
SDS




Production of More for
Less
Crop cycles

Extend the crop
cycle
Abiotic stress
Fruit Size
 Salinity
 Cold & Hot cond.
 Soil exhaustion
 Maintain fruit size
Commercial
yield
Fruit Quality
 Colour
 Firmness
 Taste
5
5


Yield increase
Quality
enhancement
Infuence of grafting on plant balance
LEAVES
STEM
VIGOUR
ROOTS
VEGETATIVITY
6
Classification: INTERNAL USE ONLY
FLOWERING
How do plants
use PHOTO –
ASSIMILATES
?
Balance is Key
CLUSTERS
FRUITS
GENERATIVITY
Influence on Crop Performance
Influence of Rootstock on Crop performance
Variety to graft
Soil
Environment &
crop management
•
•
•
•
Relative Humidity
Air Temperature
Fertirrigation
Crop cycle
• Diseases (Fusarium,
nematodes)
• Physical properties
(compaction,
temperature)
• Salinity
•
•
•
•
•
Vigour
Leaf volume
Flowering & setting
Fruit size and yield
Fruit quality (colour,
taste, waste)
Ability to modify
7
Scion & Rootstock interaction needs to be understood
SCION
GENERATIVITY
VEGETATIVITY
RST
GERMINATION
• Energy
• Useful plant
RESISTANCES
• Verticillium
• Fusarium
• Corky roots
• Nematodes
ROOT SYSTEM
• Density
• Volume
• Strength
• Renovation
VIGOUR
• High
• Medium
• Low
GROWER PROFITABILITY & SUSTAINABILITY
will be heavily influenced by right combination
8
Not all characteristics interact in the same way
6
Yield
5
Vigour
Flowering
IMPORTANCE
4
Leaves
3
Size
2
Waste
Taste
1
0
Colour
0
1
2
3
PRIORITY TO UNDERSTAND
9
4
5
6
SYNGENTA STRATEGY
NOT EVERY VARIETY CAN
BE GRAFTED WITH ANY
ROOTSTOCK
WINNING COMBINATIONS
BY TYPOLOGY
WINNING COMBINATIONS
BY VARIETY
10
Generativity
1
Our Rootstock portfolio. Matrix tool to classify RST and scion
depending on Vegetative and Generative behaviour
2
KARDIA
502249
3
ARNOLD
5
4
ARMSTRONG
ARBIORE
502017
9
8
7
6
DOHKKO
502103
9
11
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Vegetativity
SYNGENTA Rootstocks improving YPR profitability
Germination > 95%
12
Thickness & height
Uniformity
Speed of germination
100
90
80
%%Germinación
Germination
70
60
50
Arnold
Arnold
40
Reference
Maxifort
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Days
Díasafter
tras sowing
la siembra
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Hypocotyl Height
3,0
2,5
Height(cm)
(cm)
Altura
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0,0
Arnold
Arnold
Reference
Maxifort
14
10 días tras la siembra
10
days after sowing
2,6
2.6
2,1
2.1
Mayor facilidad para hacer los injertos / Mayor eficiencia
días after
tras la sowing
siembra
18 18
days
2,9
2.9
2,5
2.5
15
16
17
Varieties are classified according to plant behaviour.
The matrix enables us to achieve the right combination.
B
A
Scion A with RST C
•Moderates the high plant
vigour and leaf volume
•Increases flowering and
setting
•Controls the crop
Scion C with RST A
•Increases the leaf volume
•Maintains flowering and
setting
•Extends the crop cycle
D
C
Leaf volume
18
At SYNGENTA we believe that Rootstocks represent
a key strategic technology for the tomato industry.
We are working to provide the best solutions
for YPRs and growers, with the aim of ensuring
more sustainable agriculture.
19
GSPP
Good Seed and Plant Practices
An international hygiene and
management system in the chain of
seed production and plant raising to
protect tomato seed and plant lots
from infection with Cmm
Presentation for Syngenta
Almería, Spain, 28th January 2015
Claire Peusens
1
Content of the presentation
• What is GSPP?
• Why GSPP?
• GSPP vision and strategy 2015-2018
• Applying GSPP
• Some figures
• GSPP: organization
• Challenges of GSPP Standard & requirements
• GSPP’s added value
2
What is GSPP?
Good Seed and Plant Practices (GSPP) is an international
transparent business chain system.
The purpose of Good Seed and Plant Practices
(GSPP) is to prevent tomato seed and plant lots
from being infected by Clavibacter michiganensis
subsp. michiganensis (Cmm)
3
Distribution of Cmm
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis
4
Why GSPP?
• Increasing risks (due to more crop techniques for grafting
and topping, growing scale of production).
• The (financial) consequences and damage caused by an outbreak
are serious (destruction of a full production cycle, crop failure).
• Joint responsibility of seed companies, plant raisers and growers
for managing and preventing the risk of Cmm (confidence
in the chain, transparency).
• Technical Investigation Procedure (TIP): independent expert,
finding the root cause of the problem and improving the system.
• Chain approach – the whole propagation chain is involved.
It is open to all partners.
5
GSPP vision 2015-2018
•Cmm is and will be seen as an industry problem;
GSPP is the best solution for this and it requires preventive
measures from all participants (also growers) in the chain.
•Increased number of GSPP accredited plant raisers;
involvement of the chain.
•GSPP recognizes and takes stock of the differences
between the participants.
•The GSPP Foundation is an international multi-disciplinary
platform and network.
6
GSPP strategy 2015-2018
• Create an open system and foster the participation of all actors in
the tomato production chain.
• Improve the Cmm reporting system; make the TIP Procedure
more accessible to growers and non-GSPP plant raisers.
• Study the possibility of creating a starting programme for plant
raisers.
• Increase the number of plant raisers.
• Develop a communication strategy to emphasize the importance
of prevention of Cmm all the way along the chain.
• Spread information about Cmm: expertise centre for partners
involved in GSPP.
7
Applying GSPP
Companies use the system for several reasons:
•Risk reduction - the costs of an Cmm outbreak are high.
•Not only seeds pose a risk. There are other risks!
•All parties in the chain have the responsibility
to prevent the spread of Cmm contamination in facilities.
•Grafting, topping and cutting create a high risk
of spreading Cmm.
•The disease can be latent for a very long time
and can appear quite unexpectedly.
8
Applying GSPP
• A path to the continuous improvement of business processes.
• This is a system that is developed and improved through
the experiences of the companies themselves.
• Mutual commitment and knowledge development
of all parties involved in the system.
• In the long term, the sector as a whole is upgraded.
• Technical Investigation Procedure.
9
GSPP: some figures
•34 companies are GSPP accredited.
•83 production sites (22-12-2014):
Europe
N. & S.
America
Asia
Africa
Middle
East
40
14
12
6
11
10
GSPP: organization
Plantum Seed division
Independent
seed
producers
UFS Seed company
Technical
WG
SF3P Plant raiser
GSPP Participants
Plantum Plant raiser division
ITC
GSPP Board
LWG
Audit
Organizations
SOC - France
GSPP
secretariat
Naktuinbouw - Netherlands
11
GSPP: scope
Besides the general parts of the GSPP Standard, a specific part
refers to the production of plants for fruit production:
Technical requirements (water, disinfection, materials and
equipment, facilities, plant production for growers, etc.) – annex
14.5
Technical Investigation Procedure – annex 14.6
GSPP Diagnostic protocol for Cmm in symptomatic tomato plants
– annex 14.2
12
GSPP standard
GSPP standard requirements consist of:
1. Quality Management system
2. Technical requirements
Water
3. Risk analysis of the defined risks
People
4 main risk factors:
Propagation
material
Materials
13
GSPP challenges
A continuous and systematic approach related to:
1. Quality Management system
•Clear organizational structure and supporting quality
management system.
•Defined procedures (crop monitoring, crisis management, etc.)
and working instructions.
•Staff qualifications and training.
•Systematic risk analysis in order to identify risks
and associated control measures.
•Internal audits, corrective action procedures
and management review.
14
GSPP challenges
2. Technical requirements
•Implement the requirements relating to the use of water.
•Implement the requirements relating to disinfection.
•Materials and equipment passing the red or green locks
(logical routing of materials, clothing, etc.).
•Requirements concerning facilities
as explained in the scheme.
15
GSPP challenges
The principle of a GSPP site:
Always a physical
separation
Potential sources of contamination from the means of production
such as propagation materials, people, material, water = 4 threats
16
GSPP challenges
3. Risk analysis of the defined risks
•Risk identification (four risks)
•Risk analysis and control measures
Some examples of control measures:
•Hygiene sluices, disinfection of water,
special clothing, disinfection of
materials, adjusting internal transport routes.
•Restricted access to visitors.
17
GSPP accreditation cycle
• The accreditation cycle of GSPP is 3 years.
• The initial audit is performed by 2 independent auditors.
• The 1st cycle has 2 periodical audits.
• In theory, the renewal audit is performed by 1 auditor.
• The 2nd cycle has 1 periodical audit.
18
GSPP: how to become accredited
• Fill in the application form and pay a deposit.
• The GSPP secretariat informs the audit organizations (AO).
• Naktuinbouw/SOC performs the initial audit.
• The AO sends the audit report to the applicant.
- Non-conformities may require correction and
re-audit.
- Possibility of appeal if applicant disagrees.
• The AO sends the recommendation to the Board and the Board
makes a decision and informs the applicant.
• Accreditation is published on Foundation website www.gspp.eu
19
GSPP’s added value
• Multi-disciplinary information exchange and international
cooperation in the chain.
• Effective Cmm risk management and prevention.
• Increased customer confidence.
• Responsibility taken in the chain.
• Transparent and open system.
• Technical Investigation Procedure.
• Up to date on new international developments.
• Continuous improvement of the GSPP system
and processes within the company.
20
GSPP
Good Seed and Plant Practices
Thank you for your attention!
GSPP Good Seed and Plant Practices
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: www.gspp.eu
21
Syngenta rootstock event,
Almería, 28 January 2015
Hygiene protocols at Centro Seia,
a young plant raiser in Southern Europe
Giovanna Causarano, R&D Manager,
Centro Seia Group
1
1. Introduction to Centro Seia group
2. Tomato grafting – Cmm risk.
3. Centro Seia Cmm prevention year 2015.
4. What is going on in our market.
5. Next Cmm risk management steps.
Centro Seia – Sicily, Italy
Vivaio del Lago – Marche, Italy
Printemps du Lot – France
Adria-Hishtil – Bosnia-Herzegovina
3
Tri-hishtil – North Carolina
The Centro Seia group
produces young
vegetable plants for
protected crops.
In 2014 the group
produced 80 million
young plants, of which
40 million were
grafted.
Grafted plants Centro Seia, Adria, Vivaio del lago
40.000.000
35.000.000
30.000.000
25.000.000
20.000.000
15.000.000
10.000.000
5.000.000
0
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis
It is well known and has been clearly demonstrated that:
•seeds are the main long distance spread vector
•the use of healthy seeds is the first step towards
controlling the disease
•the bacterium is able to infect plants through
stomata and other natural openings (hydathodes),
wounds (grafting) and roots
•infected tools (blades, ...) and operators (hands, …)
can carry and spread Cmm inoculum
8
The bacterium survives for a long time in plant
debris (months), soil (months) and on tools and
structures (weeks)
Nurseries may pose the highest risk
from an epidemiological point of view
Collection of risks from several sources:
1. uncontrolled introduction of non certified/safe seeds
in propagating areas;
2. repeated growing cycles in potentially infected areas;
3. continuous/repeated plant manipulation (grafted plants);
4. (sometimes) limited/low technical awareness of workers;
5. frequent and unregulated access to growing areas
of technicians/workers/visitors;
6. frequent internal transport of seedlings and plants;
7. incomplete efficacy of chemical control methods.
What we have done
12
Risk analysis
Growers
Seed company
Growers
Seed company
Seed company
Nursery
Growers
Growers
Growers
Seeds uncertified
(local varieties, trial varieties…)
15
EPPO, the European
and Mediterranean
Plant Protection
Organization,
has declared that the
Laser grafting technique
is eliminating the risks
of spreading Cmm.
16
I Title of Invention A CUTTING TOOL AND A METHOD FOR PLANT
GRAFTING
II Applicant
II-1 This person is Applicant only
II-2 Applicant for All designated States
II-4 Name CENTRO SEIA S.R.L. SOCIETA' AGRICOLA
III-1-1 This person is Inventor only
III-1-3 Inventor for
III-1-4 Name (LAST, First) MARCELLINO, Filippo
Specific diagnostic
for phytopathological
analysis during the
grafting process
developed together
with Cersaa and
Dr. Andrea Minuto
Certified
seeds
company
The chain, the phytosanitary risk
and the Centro Seia strategy
Internal tests
Innovative tools
Growers
Nursery
Official tests on plants ready
to be delivered
Plant delivery
19
Trade mark: ELITE
Commessa IT MI.11.p13
Nr e titolo
STP 005/207
CERTIFICATO DI CONFORMITA’
N° 11/058P
“production of young tomato plants grafted
by sterile cutting techniques”
What’s going on
in our market
21
Tomato growing methods are evolving rapidly in Italy,
with an increasing shift towards soilless cultivation.
23
24
Tomato rootstocks 2004
Tomato rootstocks 2008
Tomato rootstocks 2013
Increasing number of
rootstocks for young tomato
plants at Centro Seia.
What we are thinking
of doing
26
Our aims and GSPP protocol
•To deliver healthy product, with a strong,
shared hygiene protocol to be adapted
to all young tomato plants
•In the case of Cmm, to understand the origins
of the problem, and with the cooperation
of the seed companies and the growers,
to face the problem together (TIP)
•To involve all young plant raisers and to train
growers in how to manage the problem
27
Next steps and GSPP protocol
•We have to understand how to manage
tomato seeds which are not GSPP
•We have to see how the protocol can be adapted
to different types of nurseries (Mediterranean type,
old nurseries, etc.)
•If one of the players, be they a Seed company,
a Young plant raiser or a grower, starts a court case,
the TIP cannot begin. But we need to share
responsibility and find solutions together.
28
Next steps and GSPP protocol
• We need to work together, in the case of court
action as well
• Consideration must be given to how the protocol can
be better adapted to young plant raisers’ needs
• As part of the GSPP organization, the key players in
the vegetable market can share ideas and raise
the level of phytosanitary quality of tomato
production, giving the production chain added
value
30
Acknowledgments
Dr. Andrea Minuto
Centro di Saggio e Laboratorio
Fitopatologico Centro di Sperimentazione
e Assistenza Agricola Albenga (SV)
Thank you
for your attention!
32